Of words and women: Southern Baptist publications and the progress of women in the 1970s.
He began his speech by noting the abundance of material on the roles of women in church, home, and society appearing in the pages of Southern Baptist publications. Deweese pointed to examples in state Baptist papers, denominational periodicals, and academic journals. A year later, at the 1978 Consultation on Women in Church-Related Vocations, Kay Shurden presented a gender analysis of curriculum materials and periodicals published by the Baptist Sunday School Board from 1973 to 1978. (2) Not surprisingly, she found mostly stereotypical representations of females and males, with the occasional challenge to gender norms. She also found that as the age for the target group for the materials increased, so did the likelihood that the author of the materials would be male. She recommended increasing the numbers of women writing adult materials and men writing children's materials and depicting women and men in less stereotypical ways in both content and graphics.
The emphasis by both Deweese and Shurden suggests that in the 1970s the women's movement was having a profound impact on the writings of Southern Baptists. By that time, the women's movement had brought to light issues of inequality in the workplace and family, and many denominational writers and agencies began to address these issues in Southern Baptist publications. In surveying these publications, writings about women on the whole strongly supported equality. While still affirming the value of women as homemakers, they encouraged careers for women and supported equal pay for equal work. They also advocated more active ministry roles for women, particularly as deacons and ordained ministers. In order to persuade typically conservative Southern Baptists to consider more egalitarian principles, writers and editors employed a variety of strategies, from providing the biblical basis for equality to renouncing feminist "extremes."
Taken as a whole, Southern Baptist publications of the 1970s provide a striking picture of a denomination poised to move forward toward full equality for women. While not departing radically from conservative Southern Baptist values about the Bible, the family, and missions, these publications often courageously addressed controversial issues and sometimes suffered the wrath of traditionalists and biblical literalists. This became particularly true in the following decade as the fundamentalist leadership in the denomination targeted the progress of women during their movement to gain control of the convention. In the following pages, a summary of the issues are offered as they were presented in Southern Baptist publications, and an examination is provided of the various strategies the publications employed to encourage Southern Baptists to embrace the equality of women.
To conduct this research, the holdings of the Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives, the LifeWay Christian Resources library and archives, and the Woman's Missionary Union (WMU) library and archives were used. (3) Materials examined included Baptist papers; periodicals published by the Baptist Sunday School Board, Home Mission and Foreign Mission Boards, and Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; curriculum materials published by WMU and the Sunday School Board; academic journals published by the seminaries and the Historical Commission; Seminary Extension's course on Women in the Church; and the Findings of the Consultation on Women in Church-Related Vocations. (4)
From each of these sources, articles were collected about women published in the late 1960s and 1970s. After reading the articles, significant themes were noted. Once these themes were identified, the articles were coded for these themes, and common strategies utilized by the publications were also coded. The remainder of this article focuses on these themes and strategies.
Equality for Women?
By the early 1970s, the impact of the women's movement on American culture was being felt even in the Bible Belt. Feminists had raised issues of equality in relationships, the home, and the workplace that caused many women and men to rethink the roles of women in society. Like many other Christian denominations, Southern Baptists faced the task of responding to the questions of women's equality in society and the church.
Confronting "Women's Lib"
Even a brief perusal of Southern Baptist publications in the 1970s indicates the degree to which writers and editors perceived a need for the denomination to address what was going on in the larger culture. Certainly, other denominational activities affirmed this need--in addition to the Consultation on Women in Church-Related Vocations, Ridgecrest and Glorieta Conference Centers addressed women's roles in their conference themes, and the Christian Life Commission sponsored a conference on freedom for women. Again and again, Southern Baptist publications reiterated the importance of the "changing role" of women. Walker Knight wrote in a 1972 article on women in Home Missions, "'I wondered when you would do an issue on 'fern lib'," more than one person responded when we were preparing this issue.... This issue is a thorough look at woman's changing role within Southern Baptist churches, to see if what is taking place within the larger society has any parallels within churches and the denomination." (5) The Student also addressed the women's movement directly. In February 1973, Pamela Owens wrote an article, "Women's Liberation is Your Liberation," which she followed in March with "New Life-Styles through Women's Liberation." In May 1974, Sarah Frances Anders, also writing for The Student, confronted "The State of the Second Sex: Emancipation or Explosion." Each of these articles recognized the significance of the women's movement and its positive potential for Southern Baptist women. A 1975 WMU Round Table lesson plan suggested, "Working mothers, women in male-dominated professions, single parents, are all signs of a changing way of life. Every Christian woman should seek to understand these trends and prepare herself to play an active role in seeing that such trends have a positive effect on herself, her family, her church, and her society." (6) The lesson plan went on to suggest three books for the group meeting--Marilyn Brown Oden's Beyond Feminism: The Woman of Faith in Action, Georgia Harkness's Women in Church and Society, and Harry N. Hollis, Jr.'s Christian Freedom for Women and Other Human Beings. A 1977 Round Table lesson plan included Letha Scanzoni and Nancy Hardesty's All We're Meant to Be and Gladys Hunt's Ms. Means Myself as the month's reading selections.
The Ontological Status of Women
The basic confrontation with the women's movement raised for Southern Baptists the question of women's status--were women inherently subordinate or equal? The publications in the 1970s decidedly came clown on the side of equality.
In 1969, Training Young People addressed "The Feminine Crisis in the Church" and argued that women and men are equal but not identical. (7) In the May 1972 issue of Home Missions, Jan Hullum-Edwards contended that the thrust of women's liberation was "that women must come to believe in themselves, to like themselves and to like each other. [Women's liberation] questions, continually calling for reexamination, the traditional roles that enslave both sexes." (8) She argued that women should be free to become whatever they can become. In a 1976 Royal Service article on "A Woman's Place," Lawrence Webb likewise suggested that the guiding principle for determining women's status was freedom or liberty. (9) Many publications asserted that the Bible itself taught the equality of women and encouraged churches to change structures that maintained inequality. (10)
Several publications directly addressed the issue of women's equality through language. In its 1972 issue on women, Home Missions decided to use Ms. rather than Mrs. and Miss. The editorial staff explained, "Because the women in this issue command respect, and have such dignity and worth in their own right--without reliance on the condition of their ring-finger--we chose to recognize them by accepting the feminists' abbreviation, 'Ms.'" (11) In 1973, Contempo ran an excerpt from Ms. Mean Myself that suggested that the new designation for women also meant personhood and self-acceptance. (12)
Women in the Workforce
The place of women in the workforce was a primary issue of the women's movement, and concern about career women abounds in Southern Baptist publications in the 1970s. In 1972, Contempo ran a story forecasting occupations for women in that decade. (13) The writer noted that many women were not ready for careers because they had assumed they would marry and become homemakers; therefore, they had not prepared educationally or emotionally for work outside the home. The article encouraged women to take advantage of educational opportunities that would prepare them for the workplace and to consider careers in traditionally male-dominated fields, such as medicine, law, architecture, and higher education.
Equality in the workplace and working wives/mothers were workforce issues that appeared frequently as areas of particular concern in the publications. Over and over, the publications advocated for nondiscrimination in hiring and remuneration. Most interestingly, several Southern Baptist groups pled for such policies in the denomination itself. In 1974, the Theological Educator reported the text of a resolution by members of the Association of Southern Baptist Colleges and Schools that resolved to encourage
the legitimate aspirations of women for full professional recognition in our institutions; That we work to develop greater sensitivity to both overt and covert discrimination against women in our governing boards, administrative staffs, and teaching and research faculties; That we reassure our alumnae and the educated women of our fellowship that their talents are needed in educational leadership, and that we value the degrees we confer on women equally with those conferred on men. (14)
The Christian Life Commission, in its report "Freedom for Women," recommended that "we work to develop greater sensitivity to both overt and covert discrimination against women and that we endeavor through religious, political, social, business and educational structures to eliminate such discrimination," and that "our churches and our denominational agencies bear witness to the rest of society by rejecting discrimination against women in job placement by providing equal pay for equal work and by electing women to positions of leadership for which God's gifts and the Holy Spirit's calling equip them." (15) Unfortunately, the resolutions (which also called for requiring that one-fifth of the members of all Southern Baptist committees, boards, and commissions be women) were defeated.
For a denomination with a deep commitment to the nuclear family, the issue of women's working outside the home inevitably raised the question of the propriety of careers for wives and mothers. Overwhelmingly, Southern Baptist publications supported working wives/mothers, while at the same time maintaining the value of full-time homemakers. Home Life in particular addressed this issue on a regular basis. Mostly through testimonials, these articles made the argument that working outside the home should be a choice for women, as should homemaking. They contended that working women could still be good wives and mothers and, in some instances, suggested that working outside the home could prove beneficial for women and the family. (16) In a 1976 issue of Contempo, Catherine Allen argued that working outside the home for wives and mothers was a "survival necessity." "When women say they want 'fulfillment' or 'meaningful work,'" she explained, "they are not talking about a selfish whim. They are talking about a basic human need." (17) Essentially, the arguments for women in the workforce in Southern Baptist publications echoed the concerns of the women's movement--choice, equality, and fulfillment. The publications also moved beyond these issues to include those of special concern to Southern Baptists, and they added that women could and sometimes should be working women and good Christian wives and mothers.
Women as Homemakers
While encouraging equality for women in the workplace, Southern Baptist publications also continued to affirm the value of homemaking. Again, the publications argued that it was a matter of choice for women. (18) They contended that God just as readily called women to stay at home as to enter the workforce and that staying at home offered its own set of challenges and rewards. In particular, the writers of these articles stated adamantly that their choice to be homemakers in no way devalued them or made them into doormats. In many ways, these women seemed to feel besieged by the women's movement's emphasis on career, and making the case that their work in the home was equally valuable was key. One insightful writer recognized the peril of the "double shift" long before the term itself was coined. She wrote, "I think that after a few years, a lot of mothers will find that they don't feel so liberated after all, that their work has been doubled because realistically they are still in charge of how the house is run." (19)
The publications did recognize that the question of women's work inside and outside the home was directly linked to financial status. Consistently, the writers noted that the question was not about women whose families' economic survival depended on their working in the labor force. Missing, however, was any racial analysis of the situation and the recognition that the financial necessity to work was directly related to the intersection of gender and social class with race. Women's ability to choose between staying at home and working was largely a privilege accorded white middle-and-upper-class women. For most women of color, particularly at that time in American history, staying at home to raise children was not an option. Additionally, the jobs they occupied were generally low-wage jobs that did not provide them with the means to move out of poverty.
The Ordination of Women
Probably the most contentious issue to arise from the movement for women's equality for Southern Baptists was the ordination of women--both as deacons and ministers. On the whole, Southern Baptist publications supported women's ordination. Published opposition usually came in the form of letters to the editor or response articles. One of the best examples came from the Baptist Program's "Open Meeting" pages. (20) In 1974, Baptist Sunday School Board employee Nell Magee wrote "One Woman Speaks," outlining her support of women in ministry. The periodical then asked its readers, "Do you think Southern Baptist Convention agencies and churches are sometimes unfair in their treatment of women? Why? What changes, if any, do you think should be made?" and then it encouraged respondents to read Magee's article before responding. The magazine received so many responses that it ran the letters in two subsequent issues. Most opposed women's leadership in the church--based on their reading of the Bible--although some also offered full support.
At the risk of such opposition, the publications addressed issues of women in ministry throughout the decade. As early as 1970, William Pinson addressed the question of opportunities for ministry for women in The Window. Pinson noted the myriad ways women could already serve in church-related vocations. Then he pointed out that most Southern Baptist churches had not allowed women to preach, but, he concluded, in the face of changing cultural norms, "someday the ordained ministry may be open to women." (21) In 1972, Home Missions lauded the three women who had been ordained to ministry by that time, and in 1976 warned against declining opportunities for women in the denomination in the face of need for missionaries. (22) In 1974, The Commission devoted an issue to women. In the introductory article, Jesse Fletcher concluded, "The current emphasis on women's potential will, it is hoped, result in a new wave of women, both married and single, flowing into the missionary task throughout the world. Since in Christ there is neither male nor female (Gal. 3:28), it follows that the Holy Spirit would not discriminate in the distribution of gifts for service. Surely God not only calls, but also equips, all saints, male and female, for the task of missions." (23)
The publications also supported women as deacons. In a 1970 issue of Royal Service, Huber Drumwright made a biblical case for women deacons. Ray Summers made a similar argument in the Baptist Standard, as did Bob Cate in Word and Way. (24) In 1972, Western Recorder reported that Southern Seminary's student senate had passed a resolution affirming both women as deacons and ministers. (25)
The Deacon ran an issue on women in 1973. While the magazine tried to achieve balance by presenting both sides of the argument about women deacons, the articles on the whole were more supportive than not. An article by Glenn Hinson argued forcefully for women deacons. A companion article composed of nine letters to the editor from Western Recorder and the Baptist Standard, opposed women deacons. A third article by Carlton Myers was more ambivalent, but he concluded by stating his openness to women deacons should his church decide to move in that direction. The fourth article profiled seven churches that had elected women deacons, although the article pointed out that by no means was this a common practice in Southern Baptist churches. (26)
The academic journals were much more unequivocal in their support of women's ordination, particularly Southern Seminary's Review and Expositor. In the winter of 1975, R & E devoted the issue to a study of "Women and the Church." The editorial introduction explained, "The awakening of conscience with respect to the personhood of woman, with increasingly active concern for her identity, dignity, freedom, and rights, may well be an indication of the moving of the Spirit in the Church and in the world today." (27) Articles by Bill Hull, Glenn Hinson, Sarah Frances Anders, Beverly Wildung Harrison, Billie Pate, Elaine Dickson, and Anne Davis addressed issues ranging from biblical and historical foundations for women's equality to sociological reflections on women's standing in society and the SBC. In 1977, Baptist History and Heritage published an issue on "The Role of Women in Baptist History." Articles examined women in missions, the historical status of women in the SBC, women's suffrage, and "deaconesses" in Baptist history. Also in 1977, Ralph Langley made a biblical, historical, and experiential case for the ordination of women in the Southwestern Journal of Theology, and Terry Young made an appeal in The Theological Educator for Southern Baptist churches to rethink their opposition to women's ordination. (28)
Strategies for Equality
Southern Baptist writers adopted a variety of strategies for persuading their readers to support women's equality. These strategies were grounded in the realities of who Southern Baptists were on the whole--conservative, biblicist, traditionalist Southerners--who might only be persuaded if a strong case was made from scripture, Baptist history, and an appeal to their sense of fairness and justice. While women's liberation was in the air around them, Southern Baptists needed to hear from other Southern Baptists what the feminist agenda might mean for them.
Like the women's movement itself, Southern Baptist leaders devoted a substantial amount of attention to consciousness-raising. Through publications, curriculum materials, convention resolutions and motions, and conferences, denominational leaders encouraged Southern Baptists to notice the ways women had been disadvantaged in church and society and to work to change the situation. Through attention to biblical interpretation, Baptist history, and stories of contemporary Baptist women, writers interpreted issues of women's equality in terms that made sense to Southern Baptists.
Renouncing Feminist "Extremes"
Appealing to Southern Baptists' conservative tendencies, writers often distanced themselves from what they, and even more likely their readers, saw as feminist extremes. While these extremes were generally exaggerated and stereotypical, the rhetorical use of them by Southern Baptist writers allowed a connection with their readers who perceived the feminist movement as a real threat to the social order. In Dimension, Helen Fling wrote, "Classify me as a feminist if you are talking about impartial opportunity, employment, and salary. However, I am not a 'women's libber.'" (29) Walker Knight wrote in response to Home Missions magazine's investigation of the issue of women's changing role within Southern Baptist churches, "We discovered no militant feminists among Southern Baptist church-women, but we did discover a strong undercurrent of discontent." (30) Lawrence Webb, in an issue of Royal Service, referred to these "militant feminists" as "Radic-libbers." (31) By referring to radical feminists as women's libbers, militant feminists, and radic-libbers, Southern Baptist writers created a rhetorical space in which they could, by contrast, position themselves as moderates, advocating for women's equality without disrupting the existing social order.
Using Male Writers
Many of the writers who addressed women's issues were male. While this may be more related to the predominance of men in positions of leadership and power in the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) and their access to publishing, as a rhetorical strategy, men as writers in defense of women's equality provided a weight of authority to the arguments that women alone would likely not have had. Additionally, men would likely have been perceived by readers as being more objective in approaching the topic than women because of women's vested interest in the topic. Male seminary professors, Baptist state paper editors, and denominational employees provided powerful voices in offering justifications for women's equality.
Providing Biblical Interpretation
Because of the centrality of the Bible in Baptist life, proponents of women's rights recognized the need to provide a biblical basis for women's equality. By far, the majority of articles about women's issues in some way addressed biblical passages about women. Typical of this approach was Pamela Jean Owens's "New Life-Styles through Women's Liberation," in which she appealed to the first creation account to support her contention that women and men are not divinely ordained to separate roles. (32) In "Liberation, Not Separation," Anne Davis used the notion of biblical relationship to argue for equality between women and men. (33) Frequently, however, entire articles were devoted to biblical exegesis in support of women's equality and women's ordination. Huber Drumwright's Bible study for Royal Service in 1970 focused on the many women in the biblical narratives. (34) Bob Dean's Bible study for The Student suggested the Bible actually supports the goals of women's liberation, (35) and articles by Glenn Hinson and Ray Summers in The Deacon and the Baptist Standard respectively laid out a biblical basis for the ordination of women as deacons. (36) While opponents of women's liberation cited biblical proof texts as justification for their opposition in letters to the editor, rarely did any of these writings rise to the level of scholarly exegesis presented by women's supporters.
Offering Historical and Contemporary Examples
Writers also appealed to historical and contemporary examples of women's service to suggest that in Baptist life women had always served in a variety of ministerial capacities. In particular, articles pointed to women's role in missions, which generally was acceptable to almost all Southern Baptists. Articles in the missions magazines often highlighted the roles Southern Baptist women had played on the mission fields and in supporting missions in churches in the United States. (37) Often these articles introduced women challenging gender roles in their tasks as superintendent of missions, professor, chaplain, pastor, and convention president. (38) In an article in Review and Expositor, Hinson reviewed the role of women in church history and concluded, "Women have exercised leadership in the Christian mission despite the Church's failure to recognize their actual roles." (39) Likewise, in an overview of women in Southern Baptist history in Baptist History and Heritage, Leon McBeth claimed, "To ignore the contributions of Southern Baptist women would be to read history with one eye shut." McBeth concluded that "the current focus upon ordination of women must not mislead Southern Baptists to believe that leadership of women in church is a recent issue." Prophetically, McBeth went on to add, "Fundamentalist reinterpretations of Scripture passages presage far-reaching changes in the possibilities for ministry by Southern Baptist women." (40)
Appealing to the Autonomy of the Local Church
Over and over in writing about women's ordination, Southern Baptist writers noted the controversial nature of the issue and affirmed that decisions about ordination ultimately belonged to the local church. A good example came from the news reporting and editorial writing of C. R. Daley of the Western Recorder. In writing about the ouster of Beech Fork Baptist Church from the South District Association for ordaining a woman, Daly noted about the debate, "The Baptist way of doing things makes inevitable such confrontations. We would have it no other way. It's painful to debate and decide controversial issues but it is better this way than to leave such decision to a denominational hierarchy. Baptist history vindicates the practice of letting the people instead of the priests make decisions." (41) In particular, Daly worried about the implications of the numbers of women attending seminary. He noted that local churches had to endorse women to attend seminary but were often reluctant to call these same women when they completed their seminary education. In 1976, noting that ordination is a local-church matter, he wondered what these churches would do when these women returned from seminary asking for ordination. (42) A year later, he castigated churches for their hypocrisy in sending women to seminary and then not hiring them on church staffs, all the while defending the churches' right to do just that. (43)
Utilizing Social Science Research
Southern Baptist publications also employed social science research to provide evidence for the changing roles of women in society and in Southern Baptist life. The proceedings of the Consultation on Women in Church-Related Vocations featured Kay Shurden's analysis of images of women in Southern Baptist literature and an analysis of the results of a survey of women denominational employees. In particular, the work of sociologist Sarah Frances Anders informed Southern Baptist social scientific thinking about women. In the 1975 edition of Review & Expositor that focused on women, Anders wrote about the role of women in the SBC and Southern Baptist churches in comparison with other denominations. Anders examined the place of Southern Baptist women in education, the local church, and the denomination and found that the SBC lagged behind American culture in providing equality for women. She concluded that sexism was prevalent in the SBC, that women were a minority in church and denomination decision-making, that women were not equally represented in Southern Baptist higher education, that women were faring poorly on church staffs, that women did not share equally in denominational opportunities for employment and advancement, and that other denominations were offering stronger endorsements of equal treatment and opportunity for women than the SBC. (44)
Social science research provided the data to support the anecdotal evidence and biblical/theological contentions that undergirded notions of women's equality for Southern Baptists. Because "hard data" sometimes carries more weight than narratives or philosophical ideas in American culture, the information provided by social scientists strengthened the arguments that were being made by others within the denomination. For example, in 1972 George Knight and Patsey Winfrey conducted a survey of seven churches that ordained women as deacons. While they found no uniformity in the churches' practice of having women serve in the diaconate, all the examples showed successful programs of inclusion. (45) In particular, Southern Baptist writers seemed to draw on social science research when arguing for equality in the workplace. In a 1974 article for The Student, Anders pointed out disparities in pay and inclusion in the professions; (46) and, as early as 1972, William Clemmons had pointed to changes in workforce opportunities to encourage young women to prepare for careers. (47)
The tone of most Southern Baptist publications about women suggested that Southern Baptists would do well to keep up with the changing times that were reflected in the research about women in the 1970s. Coupled with biblical, theological, and anecdotal material, social science research provided publications with mutually reinforcing arguments to support women's equality in society and in the church and denomination.
Recognizing, however, that despite societal changes, many Southern Baptists feared and opposed women's liberation, Southern Baptist publications continued to affirm traditional views while encouraging openness to new norms of gender equality. Publications often noted that trends toward the ordination of women were new and that few churches opted for the practice--and they reminded readers that sole authority for these practices resided in each local church. Over and over, publications reiterated the value of women's roles as wives, mothers, and homemakers and emphasized these roles as valid callings. While the publications encouraged readers to think about women's equality, they left room for disagreement--which was often expressed in letters to the editors.
Occasionally, Southern Baptist publications included pro and con articles about women's equality in the same issue. The April 1973 edition of The Deacon did just that with a three-part series of articles on the question, "Should Churches Elect Women as Deacons?" The three answers in the articles were: yes, no, and maybe. (48) Home Life published narratives both of women who stayed at home and women who pursued careers, validating both choices.
By affirming traditionalists, the publications created a space in which traditionalists could feel secure in their beliefs while at the same time encountering new ways of thinking about women's issues. In particular, by offering alternative biblical interpretations that supported women's equality, the publications offered their strongest arguments by appealing to traditionalist Southern Baptists' absolute reliance on scripture as an authoritative guide for faith and practice.
Looking only at publications from the 1970s, a reader finds the SBC poised on the brink of creating full equality for women in the denomination. The timing of the 1979 beginning of the fundamentalist movement to take control of the denomination and the fundamentalists' subsequent reversal of the gains made by women in the denomination in the 1970s can hardly seem coincidental. Nonetheless, in the 1970s, Southern Baptist publications reflected the profound changes in American culture that were happening as a result of the women's movement, giving them a Southern Baptist flavor with an emphasis on biblical and theological understandings, church and denominational history, and Baptist distinctives. These publications blazed trails in Baptist life and had enormous influence on the growing consciousness of many Southern Baptists, particularly young women who in historic numbers enrolled in Southern Baptist seminaries in the 1970s and 1980s. While far from radical, these publications did suggest an openness to feminism and full support of women's equality, undergirded by Baptist beliefs in the authority of scripture, the priesthood of believers, and the autonomy of the local church.
(1.) Unpublished manuscript, May 7, 1977. Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives.
(2.) "An Analysis of the Images of Women in Selected Southern Baptist Literature," Findings of The Consultation on Women in Church-Related Vocations," Inter-agency Council, SBC, 1978.
(3.) Funding for this research was provided by the Louisville Institute, Oregon State University's Valley Library, and the Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives. Bill Sumners and Kathy Sylvest at the SBHLA, Pat Brown at LifeWay library and archives, and Amy Cook at Woman's Missionary Union archives provided invaluable assistance in locating documents for this research.
(4.) Following is a list of the specific publications examined: Western Recorder, Baptist Standard, Word & Way, Biblical Recorder, Home Life, The Student, The Deacon, Baptist Program, The Commission, Home Missions, Search, The Tie, Review & Expositor, Baptist History & Heritage, Southwestern Journal of Theology, The Theological Educator, Accent, Contempo, Royal Service, Dimension, Baptist Young People, Baptist Youth, Training Young People, Women in the Church, Findings of the Consultation on Women in Church-Related Vocations.
(5.) "Equality & Stained Glass: A Look at Woman's Changing Role in the Church," Home Missions 43 (May 1972): 2.
(6.) "Woman's Changing Role," Royal Service 70 (September 1975): 30.
(7.) "The Feminine Crisis in the Church," Training Young People 69 (July-August-September 1969): 27.
(8.) "From the Back of Society's Bus," Home Missions 43 (May 1972): 9.
(9.) "A Woman's Place," Royal Service 70 (February 1976): 8.
(10.) See for example, C. Anne Davis, "Liberation, Not Separation," Review & Expositor 72 (Winter 1975): 63-69.
(11.) "Pardon Me, Lady, But Is That Miss, Mrs., or Ms.?" Home Missions 43 (May 1972): 3.
(12.) Gladys Hunt, "Call Me Ms.," Contempo 4 (Nov. 1973): 10-11.
(13.) William Clemmons, "Occupation Forecast: Working Women in the '70's," Contempo 2 (April 1972): 19-21.
(14.) "Educators Encourage Equal Rights for Women," Theological Educator 38 (July/August 1974): 7.
(15.) Christian Life Commission Program Report, 1974 Southern Baptist Convention Annual, 209-10.
(16.) C. A. Bertolino, "To Work or Not to Work?" Home Life 34 (October 1979): 6-7; Margene Bryant, "Finding My Own Place in the World," Home Life 33 (May 1979): 8-9; Gail Denham, "Virtuous Woman-Working Wife," Home Life 33 (Feb. 1979): 30-32; Marcella Siegel, "It's Good to be a Working Mother," Home Life 30 (April 1976): 6-7; Martha Nelson, "Going to Work was Good for Me," Home Life 30 (December 1975): 24-25; Herman H. Green, Jr., "Christian Marriage and the Working Wife," Home Life 29 (January 1975): 28-29.
(17.) Catherine Allen, "Working Married Mothering," Contempo 6 (May 1976): 6.
(18.) Cos Barnes, "Minority Report," Home Life 33 (May 1979): 36; Barbara Carter Daffy, "You Don't Work, So ...," Home Life 33 (May 1979): 25; Marylea Ritzer Hurst, "From Working Wife to Stay-at-Home Mother," Home Life 33 (May 1979): 20-21; Jane Williams Pugel, "The Last of the Great Stay-at-Homes," Home Life 30 (Dec. 1975): 20-22.
(19.) Pugel, "The Last of the Great Stay-at Homes," 26.
(20.) The Baptist Program, "The Open Meeting," (December 1974): 16-19; The Baptist Program, "More on 'The SBC and Women,'" (January 1975): 22-23.
(21.) William M. Pinson, Jr., "Questions You Ask.," The Window 41 (April 1970): 25.
(22.) George Sheridan, "Tremors of Change," Home Missions 43 (May 1972): 26-29; Elaine Furrow, "Women in Missions: Declining Opportunities in a Time of Increasing Need," Home Missions 47 (July-August 1976): 9-12.
(23.) Jesse C. Fletcher, "The Women in Foreign Missions," The Commission 37 (November 1974): 1.
(24.) Ray Summers, "Deacons--Deacon--Deaconness," Baptist Standard 6 (July 3, 1974): 9; Bob Cate, "Shall We Have Women Deacons in Baptist Churches," Word and Way 111 (May 2, 1974).
(25.) "Deaconnesses Elected, Seminary Students Urge 'Female Rights,'" Western Recorder 147 (October 27, 1973): 16.
(26.) E. Glenn Hinson, "On the Election of Women as Deacons"; various, "Many Southern Baptist Opposed to Women Deacons;" Carlton L. Myers, "Deaconesses, Women Deacons, or Deacons' Wives?" "A Survey of Selected Southern Baptist Church," The Deacon 3 (April 1973): 5-15.
(27.) "Editorial Introduction," Review and Expositor 72 (Winter 1975): 3.
(28.) Ralph Langley, "The Role of Women in the Church," Southwestern Journal of Theology 9 (Spring 1977): 60-72; Terry Young, "Baptists and the Ordination of Women," The Theological Educator 7 (Spring 1977): 7-9.
(29.) "Woman's Position and Privilege," Dimension 7 (Jan.-Mar. 1977): 1.
(30.) "Equality & Stained Glass," p. 2.
(31.) "A Woman's Place," Royal Service 70 (February 1976): 7.
(32.) The Student 87 (March 1973): 18.
(33.) Review and Expositor 77 (Winter 1975): 63-68.
(34.) "Women, Women, and More Women!" Royal Service 65 (October 1970): 37-39.
(35.) "The Bible and Women," The Student 59 (February 1975): 45-49.
(36.) Hinson, "On the Election of Women as Deacons," 5-7; Ray Summers, "Deacons-Deacon-Deaconness," 9.
(37.) See for example, Minette Drumwright, "A Woman's Place," Contempo 4 (February 1974): 24-27; Dona Kelly, "The Changing Scene for Women in Missions," The Commission 37 (November 1974): 6-7.
(38.) Jim Newton, "Beyond the Barriers," Home Missions 43 (May 1972): 32-46; Theo Sommerkamp, "Just an Ordinary Pastor," Royal Service 65 (September 1970): 6-7.
(39.) "The Church: Liberator or Oppressor of Women," Review and Expositor 77 (Winter 1975): 29.
(40.) "The Role of Women in Southern Baptist History," Baptist History and Heritage, 12 (January 1977): 3, 25.
(41.) "A Historic Decision for South District Baptists," Western Recorder 150 (October 26, 1977): 4.
(42.) "What to do with Women Seminary Students," Western Recorder 150 (October 28, 1976): 2-3.
(43.) "The New Look in Seminary Graduates," Western Recorder 150 (June 2, 1977): 2.
(44.) "Woman's Role in the Southern Baptist Convention and its Churches as Compared with Selected Other Denominations," Review & Expositor 72 (Winter 1975): 31-39.
(45.) "A Survey of Selected Southern Baptist Churches," The Deacon 3 (April 1973): 13-15.
(46.) "The State of the Second Sex: Emancipation or Explosion," The Student 4 (May 1974): 37.
(47.) "Occupation Forecast: Working Women in the '70's," Contempo 2 (April 1972): 19-21.
(48.) The Deacon 3 (April 1973): 5-12.
Susan M. Shaw is director of Women Studies at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
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|Author:||Shaw, Susan M.|
|Publication:||Baptist History and Heritage|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2007|
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