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Chapter 6 Pet care industry.

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I am as vigilant as a cat to steal cream.

--William Shakespeare (Henry IV, Part 1)

KEY TERMS

American Pet Product Manufacturers Association (APPMA)

Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC)

pet food industry

Pet Food Institute (PFI)

Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO)

kitty litter

James Herriot

Mark Morris

applied animal behaviorists

veterinary behaviorists

dog training

Association of Pet Dog Trainers (APDT)

veterinary medicine

grooming

National Dog Groomers Association of America

boarding kennels

American Boarding Kennel Association

pet sitting

media

nonprofit

The growing interest in companion animals is fueling an expanding industry of businesses, professions, and organizations associated with their care and treatment and that provide services to pet owners. These include pet foods, medical care, media, and charities. It is not simply a case of more of the same things such as food, collars, and leashes. There is also a greater range of products available than ever before (Guthrie, 2005). Agrawal (2006), for example, points out that there are over 800 bakeries in the United States that specialize in producing treats for pets. Tupperware-style parties are held to introduce people to new toys and products in a convenient fashion. These parties also provide a social support network that implicitly endorses the purchase of these products (Masters, 2005). Spending on pet care supplies outsells baby care supplies $8.5 billion to $6.2 billion (Glater, 2005). Overall, the $36 billion pet care industry total is in the same range as the motion picture and sound industry, $47.3 billion, and furniture and related products at $31.4 billion (Smith & Lum, 2005). The design, manufacturing, and sale of these products are creating a wide variety of new jobs in the various pet care industries. Pharmaceutical research related to companion animal care is a growth area that is creating new job opportunities for biologists (Agres, 2003). Spending on companion animals, especially veterinary care, is steady, even during tough economic times (Richardson, 2006). This chapter will introduce the major categories of the pet care industry, their histories, and their current status and practice.

PET PRODUCTS

A visit to a modern pet supply super store such as PetSmart or PETCO is a revelation. They are the two dominant retailers in the marketplace, with over 1,500 locations between them and thousands of employees. They boast large stores with a bewildering array of products and choices (Figure 6-1). The consumer is presented with an enormous range of choice in terms of foods, treats, toys, and other needs, and they are welcome to bring their pets to the store to shop with them. These stores are a long way from the small "mom and pop" pet shops that typified the field until the late 1900s (Figure 6-2).

Through the mid-1800s, pet care products were rare. They were often homemade, or from a local craftsman. Pets typically ate leftovers from whatever their family had for dinner, and home doctoring was the most common form of medical care. In the latter half of the 1800s, as interest in pets continued to grow, a number of entrepreneurial companies were founded to meet the needs of pets and their owners. In some cases, these early pioneers in the business not only invented theproduct, they inventedthe needfor the product aswell. As they offered their wares, they also tracked the development of national consumer brands.

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Sergeant's Pet Products is a good example of how a national brand of pet care products developed. Polk Miller was a druggist in Richmond, VA, and the founder of the Polk Miller Drug Company. He was also an avid hunter and sportsman who loved his hunting dogs. He compounded a variety of medicines and remedies for his own dogs and those of friends and relations. In 1868 he founded a new company named for his favorite hunting dog, Sergeant. In addition to medicines, Polk Miller's advice on dog care was distilled into a series of booklets on the subject (Figure 6-3). The cover of the booklet featured Polk Miller himself and his dog Sergeant. Each section of the booklet provided a description of a canine affliction, along with symptoms to watch for, and a treatment, typically a product offered by the company. Purchasing a product entitled the consumer to free advice from a company department run by a veterinarian. The booklets also featured Senator Vest's Tribute to a Dog (see sidebar). The sentiment expressed in the tribute, and Polk Miller's use of the story in materials distributed with his products, is an early sign of how the pet industry would exploit the human-animal bond in marketing (Glater, 2005).

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Sergeant's also now owns the Geisler brand. Geisler was another of the early companies that provided a range of pet care products. Founded by Max Geisler in 1888, the company began importing and selling small caged birds such as canaries. Eventually Geisler offered a line of specialty foods for the birds. Similar to Geisler, Hartz Mountain also started with the importation of canaries in the 1920s and later added a wide range of other products. As these products represented a growing source of company income, Hartz Mountain stopped selling live animals in the 1950s (Grier, 2006).
Senator Vest's "Tribute to a Dog"

Senator Vest, of Missouri, was attending court in a country town, and
while waiting for the trial of a case in which he was interested, he
was urged by the attorneys in a dog case to help them. He was paid a
fee of $250 by the plaintiff. Voluminous evidence was introduced to
show that the defendant had shot the dog in malice, while the other
evidence showed that the dog had attacked the defendant. Vest took no
part in the trial and was not disposed to speak. The attorneys,
however, urged him to make a speech or else their client would not
think he had earned his fee. Being thus urged, he arose, scanned the
face of each juryperson for a moment, and said the following:

"Gentleman of the Jury: The best friend a man has in the world may turn
against him and become his enemy. His son or daughter that he has reared
with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest and
dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name
may become traitors to their faith. The money that man has he may lose.
It flies away from him, perhaps when he needs it most. A man's
reputation may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-considered action. The
people who are prone to fall on their knees to do us honor when success
is with us may be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure
settles its cloud upon our heads. The one absolutely unselfish friend
that man can have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts
him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog. A
man's dog stands by him in prosperity and poverty, in health and
sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground where the wintry winds blow
and the snow drives fiercely, if only he may be near his master's side.
He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer; he will lick the
wounds and sores that come in encounter with the roughness of the
world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince.
When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wings and
reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in
its journey through the heavens.

"If fortune drives the master forth an outcast in the world, friendless
and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of
accompanying him, to guard against danger, to fight against his
enemies, and when the last scene of all comes, and death takes the
master in its embrace, and his body is laid away in the cold ground, no
matter if all other friends pursue their way, there by the graveside
will the noble dog be found, his head between his paws, his eyes sad,
but open in alert watchfulness, faithful and true even in death."

Senator Vest sat down. He had spoken in a low voice, without any
gesture. He made no reference to the evidence or the merits of the
case. When he finished, judge and jury were wiping their eyes. The jury
returned a verdict in favor of the plaintiff (Polk Miller Products
Corp., 1927).


PET INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION

There are two major organizations of companies in the pet industry. The American Pet Product Manufacturers Association (APPMA) was founded in 1958 (<www.appma.org>). Its 830 members include product manufacturers, importers, and livestock suppliers. Its primary purpose is to promote and advance pet ownership, and it is responsible for an annual survey of pet owners that is discussed elsewhere in this book. APPMA also has a government relations division that monitors pet ownership laws being considered at the state and federal level. Among other groups, APPMA helped to mobilize its members during the response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, shipping millions of dollars worth of food, cages, and other critical materials needed during rescue operations.

The Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) is a second major organization in the field (<www.pijac.org>). The Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council includes pet stores and provides training and certification programs for animal care and husbandry in pet stores. Similar to APPMA, PIJAC has a very active government relations division that monitors federal, state, and local initiatives that could have an impact on the industry. Together these two organizations play a significant role in protecting the business interests of the pet industry.

PET FOODS

For most of their history as human companions, dogs and cats subsisted on a diet of table scraps, leftovers, and homemade foods. The first important development in the pet food industry came from James Spratt in the 1860s. Spratt was an Ohio electrician selling lightning rods in London when he observed stray dogs on a dock eating scraps of the biscuits and hard tack that sailors carried on voyages for food. These biscuits had the advantage of being easy to pack, store, and had a reasonably long shelf life. Spratt developed a recipe based on wheat meal, beet root, meat, and vegetables and was soon marketing Spratt's Dog Cake (Campbell, Corbin, & Campbell, 2005). Spratt had a talent for promotion and marketing, anticipating many of the strategies used today for the sale of pet foods and other products. He promoted his foods as a brand that represented high quality for people who cared about their dogs. He utilized logos and various promotions to ensure high visibility of his product line (Figure 6-4). He associated his food with top-quality dog shows by sponsoring events and printing kennel club registration papers for dogs, with a promotional advertisement for his dog foods on the back. His first employee, Charles Cruft, was instrumental in this strategy, and one of the world's premier dog shows, Crufts in England, is named after him. Spratt even anticipated the eventual development of specialty foods and foods for different life stages of dogs.

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Spratt's success spurred the development of many other companies in the pet food arena. Many of these were small milling companies that added a pet food line to the other cereals and products they produced for human and livestock consumption. In 1894 George Rolenson and William Danforth started an animal feed business in St. Louis, MO. They added whole wheat breakfast cereals for humans in 1898. These breakfast cereals were endorsed by Dr. Ralston, a well-known health food guru at the time, promoting the benefits of high-quality, pure foods that had limited processing. The company name, Purina, was derived from the advertising slogan Where Purity Is Paramount. Eventually the company name was changed to Ralston Purina. The familiar red-and-white checkerboard square design was added to the company's product packaging in the early 1900s to provide a consistent, easily identifiable look. Dog food was offered as a meal through dealers of Purina Livestock feeds (Ralston Purina Company, 1994). In 1933, Admiral Byrd needed a light, convenient dog food that would not freeze to feed his dog teams during his trek to the South Pole. Purina provided dog food for Byrd's teams and would eventually use Byrd and his dogs in advertising promotions for the company (Figure 6-5).

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Purina would revolutionize the pet food industry in the 1950s, when they introduced Purina Dog Chow, the first pet food product produced by high-pressure extrusion. A Purina employee, Doug Hale, had watched a local St. Louis company bake corn curls with an extruder that compressed and heat-treated the corn. He then worked with several other Purina employees to adapt the process to the manufacture of dog food (Ralston Purina Oral History Archives, n.d.). The extrusion method of production offered a number of advantages:

* The final product had a more appealing and substantial appearance when compared with pelleted meals.

* It provided the ability to coat the surface of the food with fats and flavors to increase the palatability of the food.

* It enhanced the shelf life of the food, opening up the grocery story consumer market.

Purina Dog Chow soon became a dominant brand, and the company could not keep up with demand. Purina eventually added Cat Chow in 1962 and introduced the first semi-moist foods in 1971.

The Iams Company also arose from the livestock feed sector. Paul Iams was a student of nutrition and experimented with developing a high-quality dog food. He formed his company in 1946 and introduced his first food, Iams 999, in 1950. Paul Iams also experimented with developing supplements for mink food that would improve the quality of their fur. When he eventually developed a food that accomplished this, he discovered that the dogs that guarded the mink farms also ate the food and were healthy with glossy coats. He continued his research and in 1961 introduced Iams Plus, the first nutritionally complete diet for dogs (Iams Company, n.d.). Purina was always part of a large consumer products company that included cereals, restaurants, and even Eveready Batteries. Iams remained an independent pet food company until it was acquired by Proctor and Gamble in 1999. The acquisition resulted in an expansion of marketing for the Iams Company pet foods, including introduction to grocery store shelves.

Canned foods for pets developed out of the introduction of canned meats for human consumption in the mid-1800s. Animal parts not used for human consumption could be processed and canned for pets. At the turn of the twentieth century, there were many regional slaughterhouses located near cities. Canning plants were often opened up nearby or in conjunction with the slaughterhouse to process and preserve meats that could not be immediately shipped for sale fresh. In the years following World War I, as electric trolleys and motorized tractors accelerated the retirement of many horses that worked in both cities and on farms, they were frequently slaughtered and provided a cheap, high-quality meat for the pet food industry (Dorosz, 2006). This led to competing claims between companies that manufactured feeds from meats and grains and those that processed and sold canned meat pet foods. Each company made claims about the quality of its food and frequently employed well-known celebrities, both human and canine, in their promotional efforts.

Canned foods are higher in moisture (about 75%) than dry kibble foods (about 10%) and are pressure-sterilized to kill bacteria. As a result, canned foods have a longer shelf life than dry foods, which will deteriorate and lose nutritional value over time. Most pets find canned foods to be highly palatable because of the high levels of protein and fats. Modern processing methods have resulted in canned foods that appear very similar to human foods. Many owners find this appealing and prefer to feed canned foods even though the higher moisture level in canned foods results in a higher cost per meal. The observation that their pets seem to really enjoy canned foods and may prefer them to dry kibble will influence the owner's decision on what to feed their companion. It is not uncommon for people to feed a combination of canned and dry food, adding a couple of spoonfuls of canned food to the kibble at each meal.

Treats, Leftovers, and Raw Foods

In addition to the many commercially produced diets that are available, people also tend to feed their pets a wide range of treats and leftovers from their own meals. Treats are not unexpected given the affection of that people have for their pets. However, much as for humans, too much snacking can lead to obesity, a significant health problem among America's pets (Case, 2003). In addition to obesity, feeding excessive amounts of treats, which do not need to be nutritionally balanced or complete, and leftovers can result in animals not receiving adequate levels of required nutrients. It is generally recommended that treats and leftovers not exceed 10% of the daily caloric intake of pets. Another concern that must be considered when feeding leftovers or other human foods to companion animals is that a number of different food items eaten by people can be toxic to pets. Chocolate is one well-known example. More recently it was discovered that raisins and grapes can be toxic to dogs. An extensive list of other foods that can sicken pets is available at the Web site of the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (<www.aspca.org/apcc>).

Some pet owners have also started to make their own homemade foods. While this method can provide pets with an adequate diet, it does require a substantial amount of work to ensure that the final product includes a complete nutritional balance. It is important to recognize that some preparation methods can reduce or compromise some of the nutrients that were present in the food, and without appropriate preservation, they can deteriorate rapidly over time. Individuals wishing to use a homemade diet should consult with their veterinarian for an acceptable recipe.

Raw foods have also become popular as a more natural way to feed companion animals. These diets may sometimes be referred to as BARF (bones and raw food) diets. Care must be taken with these diets, whether prepared at home or purchased commercially (Case, 2005). Muscle meat alone, while a good source of protein, does not provide adequate and complete nutrition for pets. Additional foods or supplements need to be given to provide needed calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins, and other nutrients. Raw diets also expose companion animals and owners to an increased risk of foodborne illness and parasitic infection. In addition to being dangerous to the pets, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and other pathogens are also zoonotic and place the pet owner at risk of infection as well.

Pet Food Industry Organization

The Pet Food Institute (PFI) was founded in 1958 and represents about 97% of the industry. It provides education and consumer research for its member companies. It also lobbies legislative bodies on issues of importance to the industry (for more information, visit <http://www.petfoodinstitute.org>).

The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) is a nonregulatory, nongovernmental group that conducts feeding trials to verify the nutritional claims made by pet food companies. The Association of American Feed Control Officials defines a complete and balanced diet as one that provides all essential nutrients plus ingredients that provide energy at needed levels. It recommends minimum levels required for essential nutrients and maximum levels permitted for ingredients that may be toxic if present in too great an amount. On the basis of this information, AAFCO proposes model regulations for state and federal agencies to ensure consistency among nationally marketed foods (AAFCO, 2007). Nutritional claims for a food can be substantiated in two different ways. The most thorough evaluation is made when a company formulates and manufactures a food and then conducts feeding trials. Feeding trials demonstrate the digestibility and bioavailability of all nutrients at the proper level following the manufacturing process. Acceptable foods meet the needs and support the health of the intended species and life stage of the animals. A second type of evaluation would be for the company to show that the food is formulated with the proper nutrient profile through ingredient composition and laboratory analysis of the nutrient content of the finished product. A drawback to this method is that it does not address the nutrient availability, digestibility, or palatability of the final product.
Pet Food Recall 2007

In late winter and early spring of 2007, the pet food industry was
rocked by a massive recall of products stemming from the contamination
of dog and cat foods. Menu Foods, a Canadian company, produced packaged
pet food for a great many different brands and companies. They began to
receive complaints that foods it manufactured were sickening pets in
February. By March, veterinarians working for Iams were receiving
complaint calls about renal failure in cats that had eaten a "cuts and
gravy" product produced for Iams by Menu Foods. They conveyed their
concerns to Menu Foods. In the meantime, Menu Foods conducted a
palatability study during which nine cats died of acute renal failure
before the test ended. Menu Foods then notified the United States Food
and Drug Administration on March 15, and a recall of pet foods produced
by the company was announced on March 16. The recall included over 60
million packages of cuts and gravy-type foods produced for more than
100 brands of pet food.

The nature of the contamination took some time to work out. Eventually
it was discovered that wheat gluten, purchased from a Chinese supplier
and used to thicken the gravy and increase the protein levels of the
food, had been contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid. Melamine
and cyanuric acid are both moderately toxic; however, it was found that
in combination they formed crystals in the kidneys of pets that had
consumed the foods. These crystals plugged kidney tubules, reducing and
then blocking kidney function, resulting in kidney failure. It is still
unknown how many pets died as a result of the contamination, though
estimates run into the hundreds and thousands.


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KITTY LITTER

Kitty litter may be one of the most significant developments in our history with companion animals. Until the development of kitty litter, cat lovers used a wide variety of materials in their kitty pans, ranging from sand to dirt, shredded paper, sawdust, and ashes. The mess and odor from these litter pans helped to make cats less than welcome in the indoor home environment. In 1948 a woman in Michigan went out to the local sand pile and found it frozen. She went to Ed Lowe, whose family ran a coal, ice, and sawdust company (Magitti, 1996). Lowe had some granulated mineral clay that he offered. The woman tried it, and it worked out so well that she told all of her friends with cats about it. This created demand for "kitty litter," and Ed Lowe was soon bagging the clay and selling it (Figure 6-6). This part of the industry has grown rapidly, and with sales of $708 million a year, it accounts for one-third of dollars spent on pet supplies. It also played a major role in helping cats become a favorite indoor pet and their eventual surpassing of dogs as the most common companion animal in the United States.

Kitty litters are now available in a wide-ranging array including the various clumping litters, with and without scents. All of these "classic" type litters are still based on the same granulated clay substrate. A variety of newer products are now made with natural organic compounds, compressed recycled newspapers, and other substrates, though these are still a small part of the overall market. In addition to the development of new litter formulations, the ingenuity of inventors can be seen in a myriad of litter box variations. There are automatic boxes that will "scoop" once a cat uses the boxes and hops out, and any number of other systems that will limit our exposure to the smell and mess of cat waste.

VETERINARY MEDICINE

When people think about companion animals and their care, veterinarians are probably one of the first thoughts that come to mind. Veterinarians are well-respected professionals in our society and are generally presented in a favorable, positive manner. In addition to the positive personal experiences that people may have with the veterinarians that care for their pets, many pet owners have been influenced by the beloved books of James Herriot (see sidebar). Nearly every young person with a pet has probably thought about growing up to become a veterinarian at one time or another.

Origins of Veterinary Medicine

Providing medical care for animals probably dates back to the earliest days of domestication of animals and their association with humans. These early efforts were generally directed toward animals that were important for economic reasons or were significant for the interests of the ruling classes. Horses were critical to warfare and transportation. Oxen and asses provided the power needed to forge a stable, agrarian society. Dogs seemed to intersect with all levels of society. They were used for herding, guarding, and pulling carts, and they hunted with royalty. The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (circa 1760 BCE) included rules for veterinary practice:

* If a "veterinary surgeon" performed a major operation on either an ox or ass and cured it, the owner of the ox or ass shall give to the doctor one sixth of a shekel of silver as his fee.

* If he performed a major operation on an ox or ass and has caused its death, he shall give to the owner of the ox or ass one fourth of its value. (Dunlop & Williams, 1996, p. 55)
James Herriot

James Herriot was the pen name of James Alfred Wight (1916-1995), a
practicing veterinarian in Yorkshire, England. He attended veterinary
college at Edinburgh and moved to Yorkshire, where he joined a small
mixed practice in the years betweenWorld War I andWorld War II. He
documented the life and labors of a country veterinarian in a series of
best-selling books. His humor and sensitivity captivated readers as he
described the colorful clients and patients that he and his colleagues
came across in their work. These were the years when small country
farms in that part of England were just starting to transition from
horses to tractors, from hand milking of cows to mechanical milking,
the appearance of antibiotics and vaccines for a number of diseases,
and a growing interest and emphasis on companion animals. His stories
were collected and first published in the United States in All
Creatures Great and Small in 1972. The success of this publication led
to All Things Bright and Beautiful, All Things Wise and Wonderful, and
The Lord God Made Them All. The books stimulated the production of a
popular television series on the BBC that was also broadcast on
American public television. Wight continued to practice veterinary
medicine with his partners even after international acclaim as a
bestselling author. He was obviously happy in his work, and his stories
take on a feel of being romantic and heroic and no doubt inspired many
readers to consider a career in veterinary medicine.


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To provide some context, a physician treating a freeman would be paid five shekels and treating a slave would bring a fee of two shekels. Castration was probably the first common veterinary operation performed, primarily to control the behavior of stallions, bulls, and boars.

For quite some time, animal care existed somewhere between skilled stockmen, priests, and medicine. Across various cultures the treatment of animals paralleled the philosophical and religious influences on illness and medicine for humans. Spells and prayers were often combined with surgical procedures, drugs, and medicines. For example, in China the balance of the dual forces yin and yang was an important influence on medical practice for humans and was also prominent in the treatment of animal ailments. By 650 BCE, acupuncture charts were available for treating animals, along with herbal medicines and preparations (Dunlop & Williams, 1996).

Medical care for animals further developed in Greece. It was influenced by Hippocrates (460-367 BC), a Greek physician who also formalized medical ethics. Nearly all physicians and veterinarians take some form of the Hippocratic Oath governing their treatment of their patients. A critical element of the oath is captured in the phrase primum non nocere--"Above all, do no harm." The Greeks also contributed the icon associated with medical professions, the caduceus. This is the familiar image of a snake wrapped around a staff. It is derived from the staff that was carried by Asklepios, a mythological healer and son of the god Apollo. The veterinary version of this image includes a V superimposed over the staff and snake (Figure 6-7).

The vast Roman Empire was dependent on horses to transport goods and information. The care of horses was an important consideration. The term for animal caretakers was souvetaurinarii, and the compounds used for holding animals were known as veterinarium, providing a possible derivation for the term veterinarian (Dunlop & Williams, 1996). The decline and destruction of the Roman Empire resulted in a tremendous loss of knowledge in the Western world. The remaining knowledge was often fragmentary, and some practices were carried on with no clear sense of understanding or purpose. Various herbs and mystical potions that might be mixed with holy water from a Catholic church were mixed and delivered to both human and animal patients. Bleeding was a frequent treatment for a wide variety of ailments, often with the aid of leeches. This was so common that leech became something of a synonym for someone who provided medical care.

Veterinary Education

The roots of modern medicine are found in the Renaissance era. The study of anatomy, based on dissection and vivisection, and eventually experimental physiology, led to a more complete understanding of both human and animal biology. Treatments for disease evolved, became more sophisticated, and were based on scientific principles. This was the era when the practice of medicine as a scientific discipline came to separate it from its past associations with religion and mysticism. The next stage in the evolution of veterinary medicine would be its disengagement from animal husbandry through the development of a formalized education process. King Louis XV established the world's first veterinary school at Lyon, France, in 1761. A second school was established in 1765 at Alfort, France, and additional schools would follow in Austria and other areas of the continent. The Veterinary College of London would eventually follow in 1791. The first American veterinary college would not come until 1868, when Cornell was founded in Ithaca, NY.

Much of the development of formal veterinary medicine was driven by the continued significance of horses for transport and work, livestock for food and fiber in the economy, and concern for public health. The field was largely male dominated, which would continue until after World War II. Small-animal medicine was a minor part of the training and practice of veterinarians. Rabies and distemper as diseases of dogs did attract the attention of veterinary medicine at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Rabies was a significant zoonotic threat to humans, and distemper could sweep through a dog population killing hundreds of dogs, including those kept for hunting, herding, and other purposes. The profession began to organize in America with the formation of the United States Veterinary Medical Association (USVMA) in New York City in 1863. In 1898 the organization would change its name to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). The AVMA has grown to become the largest and most important voice representing the veterinary profession. It promotes the practice of high-quality medicine and professional conduct. The AVMA also evaluates and approves the curricula of veterinary colleges.

In the early 1900s, there were a number of private veterinary colleges that often existed for short time frames. A significant development in veterinary education was the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 (Miller, 1981). This legislation provided the infrastructure that led to the formation of Land Grant Colleges that would support education, research, and service to support agriculture and engineering. As a number of states established universities under this plan, they included veterinary colleges as a part of the campus (Table 6-1). The educational requirements for these schools are fairly consistent from one institution to another. The vast majority of students enter with an undergraduate degree in some pre-professional major such as biology, biochemistry, or animal science. Veterinary school typically takes four years to complete, and graduates receive a doctorate in veterinary medicine (DVM; except for the University of Pennsylvania, which awards a VMD). Students are required to pass a licensing exam administered by the State Board of Veterinary Medicine in the state where they desire to practice. Following World War II a number of specialties developed within veterinary medicine. These include surgery, internal medicine, toxicology, nutrition, and many others. Individuals who wish to be board certified in a specialty are required to complete an approved two- to three-year residency under the supervision of a veterinarian who is already board certified in the specialty. In addition to other requirements that may be specific to the specialty, passing an exam is also required before being admitted as a diplomat to the College of the specialty. For example, after completion of all requirements, someone who specializes in surgery would become a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and could indicate this by placing the acronym DACVS following the veterinary degree after his or her name.

Post-World War II Developments

Two significant developments in the years following World War II have helped to change the face of veterinary medicine. One was the increasing number of women entering the field. Aleen Cust was the first woman to graduate from a veterinary college in 1900, when she completed her studies at the Veterinary College of Edinburgh. However, she was not permitted to join the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons at that time. She would wait until 1923 before she was allowed to take the licensing exam. The first American woman to complete veterinary school was Elinor McGrath in 1910. Women were rare in the field until the later part of the twentieth century. It is likely that women were often discouraged from entering the profession due to the perceived physical requirements of working with horses and livestock in the early days of the profession. A remarkable transition has occurred, and women now make up themajority of students in veterinary schools, and of new veterinarians entering practice. Some part of this change in gender representation may be associated with another significant change in veterinary practice. In the years following World War II, horses were eventually phased out of work on farms and elsewhere. At the same time, as noted in earlier chapters, the number of animals kept as companions began to grow rapidly. The horse doctor of the past was giving way to the small animal practitioner. A glimpse of this development could be seen in the formation of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) in 1933 to promote high-quality small-animal medicine. It would not be until the post-World War II years, however, that the growth of this part of veterinary practice would really take hold.
Mark Morris

Dr. Mark Morris had a profound impact on the science of pet
nutrition and on the veterinary profession. Born in Colorado in
1900, his daily commute to school included walking, riding a
bicycle, and riding a horse and a horse-drawn buggy. A poor student
in mathematics at first, he eventually buckled down to master the
subject when he realized that it was essential to understand fully
the chemistry that he enjoyed. He began his veterinary studies at
Colorado State University, transferring to Cornell to complete his
veterinary degree in 1926. Soon after graduation he bought a mixed
large and small-animal practice in New Brunswick, NJ. As his
practice expanded he took on a partner to handle the large animal
cases so he could concentrate on companion animals. This was a bold
move in those days, as few veterinarians concentrated on treating
pets, relying on livestock care as the primary focus of their work,
and income. He built a new hospital designed for the treatment of
dogs, cats, and other pets. Morris had not lost his fascination
with chemistry, and his new hospital included a laboratory. It was
here that he began a series of studies that would help to change
the field. Working with blood and urine samples from his patients,
he conducted detailed analyses to link the chemical profiles of
samples from the animals with specific diseases. He combined this
work with studies of nutrition and was soon mixing special diets
for patients in his care. When he was confronted with a seeing-eye
dog with kidney problems, Morris produced the first prescription
diet for a specific condition. This formulation, which he canned
himself, eventually became Prescription Diet k/d[R]. As he used the
diet with other animals, he was convinced that this approach could
be used as part of the treatment for a number of different
ailments. Word of his success with this approach soon spread in the
profession, and colleagues began to request his prescription diets
for their patients. Demand overtook the ability of his small staff
to mix and can the products in his small hospital. Morris would
eventually negotiate an agreement with Hill Packing Company in
Topeka, KS, to produce, can, and distribute his prescription diets
to veterinarians. In mid-October, 1948, Morris supervised the first
production run at Hill Packing Company, and prescription diets were
soon available for national distribution. This humble start would
lead to an immensely successful pet food company.

If all Mark Morris had done was to develop the concept and perfect
the formulation of his prescription diets, he would occupy an important
niche in the history of companion animal care. However, in addition
to this work, he also played a key role in the organization of the
American Animal Hospital Association, serving as its first
president. He would eventually serve as president of the American
Veterinary Medical Association in 1961. When he died in 1993, he
left behind many contributions to the care of companion animals.
His interest in scientific research to benefit animal care is
carried on by the foundation that he founded in 1948 (Haselbush,
1984). The Morris Animal Foundation, endowed with royalty funds
from the sale of prescription diets, has provided over $42 million
in funding for over 1,200 studies in animal health research (Morris
Animal Foundation, 2006).


Corporate Practices

While the traditional model of companion animal veterinarian is a private practice and small business owner, this is now changing. There is some consolidation in the field. A good example of this is Banfield, The Pet Hospital. Banfield started as a single small practice in Portland, OR, in 1955. In 1993 the group opened a practice in a PetSmart store. By 1999 Banfield purchased 114 veterinary practices within PetSmarts to become the sole provider of veterinary services at the stores. For a while these practices were known as VetSmart, but in 2000 all these practices were renamed Banfield, The Pet Hospital. As of 2006, there are now 600 practices within the Banfield system. They are linked by sophisticated software into a comprehensive case record/management system. This allows them to stay on top of emerging disease trends, cost management, and pricing strategy for services. There are other large corporate practices of this type, including Veterinary Clinics of America (VCA). They offer a variety of advantages and challenges for the practice of veterinary medicine. These practices can make it easier for veterinarians to balance their personal lives and schedules, receive a salary and benefits, and not bear the primary responsibility for management of what is really a small business. On the other hand, there is some concern among veterinarians that working in such a practice will limit their individual freedom to practice medicine if there is too much regimentation in service delivery. The issues will be important to monitor over the next decade, as they will influence veterinary careers and the delivery of health care to companion animals.

Veterinary Health Insurance

Veterinary health insurance has been slow to take hold in the United States and lags behind its acceptance overseas (Veterinary Practice News, 2006). The industry is expected to grow from $185 million in 2005 to $550 million in 2010. Currently 83% of policies are purchased for dogs and just 15% for cats. Infections are the most common claim for dogs (9%), and urinary tract infections for cats (7%).

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR SERVICES

An understanding of animal behavior was likely an important part of human evolution. Knowing what an animal was doing and what it meant by its actions may have been the difference between getting dinner or being dinner for our ancestors. Naturalists, explorers, and philosophers frequently described and commented on animal behaviors that they had observed or were reported to them. The systematic study of animal behavior began with Charles Darwin when he included behavior in his work on evolution and natural selection. His classic work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872/1965), described how behavior could help a species adapt, and traced the evolutionary links and similarities between humans and animals. George Romanes followed in Darwin's footsteps and published Animal Intelligence in 1882 (Romanes, 1882/1970). He emphasized careful descriptions of animal behavior and, like Darwin, placed species and behaviors into an evolutionary context. A criticism raised against both Darwin and Romanes by those who continued the research into animal behavior was their tendency to anthropomorphize, or interpret animal behaviors in human terms, and place too much emphasis on anecdotes or single examples of a behavior. Darwin, for example, described how his dog played with its food and how this behavior helped it to relish its food more (Darwin, 1872/1965). A well-known example of how observation of a single animal's behavior, without experimentation or rigorous evaluation of the context and conditions of the behavior, is that of Clever Hans (Griffin 2001; Linden, 1999). Hans was a horse who could not only count but could do arithmetic. Hans and his owner traveled throughout Europe putting on demonstrations of his skills. Audience members would pose simple math problems, and Hans would tap his hoof on the ground until he had arrived at the correct answer. A special commission of scientists was established and was given the task of understanding how Hans was able to do these amazing things. Led by Oskar Pfungst, the commission discovered that Hans was not able to count or do math. If Hans was unable to see his owner when he was "answering" a question, he would not be able to provide a correct answer. Apparently, as Hans tapped his foot and approached the correct answer to the problem, his owner must have made subtle changes in facial expression or how he held his body. At that point Hans would stop tapping. While it was disappointing to many that Hans was not able to count and do math, the story makes two important points. The first is that we need to always ask questions about how and why an animal is behaving the way it is, and second, whether he could count or not, Hans had a remarkable ability to read subtle signs in his owner's behavior.

Significant contributions to the understanding of animal behavior, especially how they learn, would be made by Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike. Pavlov had already made important discoveries in the study of digestive physiology, winning a Nobel Prize for his work, when he turned his attention to the study of conditioned reflexes in dogs (Pavlov, 1927). Pavlov demonstrated that reflexive behaviors, paired with a reliable signal, can over time be elicited by that signal or stimulus (Figure 6-8). Thorndike studied a variety of species, including cats, and established the Law of Effect (Thorndike, 1913). He observed that behaviors that are followed by pleasant or positive results were likely to occur more often, while those followed by unpleasant results would decrease in frequency. Pavlov's work would form the basis for understanding classical conditioning, and Thorndike's work established the fundamental nature of instrumental conditioning. J. B. Watson (1959) and then B. F. Skinner would later expand our understanding of instrumental conditioning, providing a strong theoretical and practical framework for our understanding of learning (Skinner, 1938). Both forms of conditioning or learning are used in training animal behavior and treating behavior problems presented by companion animals (Reid, 1996).

[FIGURE 6-8 OMITTED]

While the study of animal learning was primarily focused on research conducted in laboratories, another group of scientists was studying animal behavior under natural conditions. Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch studied what they considered the natural behaviors of animals. Their studies of these behaviors fit well with an evolutionary understanding of animal behavior. This approach to the study of animal behavior came to be known as ethology. Lorenz, Tinbergen, and von Frisch shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1973 for their contributions. While knowledge of companion animal behavior has been part of their care as long they have lived with humans, the integration of the scientific study of animal behavior with companion animal care and treatment is a more recent development. While there are currently three main groups of practitioners providing behavior services for pets, namely, applied animal behaviorists, veterinary behaviorists, and dog trainers, there is overlap in how they approach the issues and frequently combine learning and ethological perspectives (Zawistowski, 2004).

Dog Training

Modern dog training began in Germany in the early 1900s. It was based on the practices developed for training dogs for German military and police applications (Lindsay, 2001). Stories that highlighted the performance of heroic dogs during World War I fueled greater public interest in dog training. A number of German trainers came to the United States and helped further popularize dog training. Among these trainers was Carl Spitz. In addition to training family pets, he also trained dog actors, including Buck in The Call of the Wild. The performance of Buck, Rin Tin Tin, and other well-known canine film stars helped to establish public appreciation for the role that training could have on a dog's abilities and role as a companion. Obedience training as a competitive event within the dog fancy was a natural extension. Helen Whitehouse-Walker and Blanche Saunders and Josef Weber (Burch & Bailey, 1999) were instrumental in getting the sport started and accepted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) as a sanctioned form of competition in 1936.

At the start of World War II, the U.S. Army had a limited canine service in place. The AKC played a key role in the recruitment of dogs for training and military service (Lindsay, 2001). Many of the civilian and military trainers and handlers from the war-dog program developed dog-training practices in the years following the war. William Koehler was an influential trainer coming from this tradition. The methods that he advocated became quite controversial because of his forceful and coercive approach and potentially harmful effects on dogs. These included hanging a dog, or holding it up by its leash and collar, cutting off its air or beating the dog. These techniques are less acceptable than they were, and positive training methods are more often encouraged and used (American Humane Association, 2001; Delta Society, 2001).

In addition to the military training influence on the field, marine mammal trainers and their techniques have had a strong influence on dog training. Among these, Karen Pryor (1975, 1985) has been particularly significant. She is generally seen as the most visible and active proponent of clicker training for companion animals. This methodology is derived from the system used by marine mammal trainers. The clicker is used as a sound bridge between the behavior performed by an individual and a treat or reinforcement (marine mammal trainers typically use a whistle for the sound bridge). Adherents of clicker training are effusive in the praise of using this technique to train dogs, cats, and other animals and to correct behavior problems.

Dog Training Organizations. While dog training is a very individualistic profession, there have been several attempts to form organizations to set standards of professional conduct and promote the profession. The National Association of Dog Obedience Instructors was formed in 1965 (Lindsay, 2001). Its primary activity was to provide training for group obedience instructors. These instructors would then work with people who were preparing for competition in AKC obedience competition.

The Society of North American Dog Trainers (SNADT) formed in 1987 and continued until 1995. It involved Job Michael Evans, Carol Benjamin, Captain Arthur Haggerty, and Brian Kilcommons and other trainers well known for their books and television appearances. SNADT promoted dog training as an honorable profession that played an important role in helping dogs fit into human society. The organization also developed a two-level certification program for trainers to demonstrate their knowledge and skill, emphasized continuing education, and held monthly meetings with speakers who would address topics ranging from animal behavior research and learning theory to business practices. A variety of competing interests would eventually lead to the dissolution of SNADT. While SNADT was short-lived, it set a tone for changes in dog training. Its emphasis on professional development, ethical standards, and business practices would prove a lasting influence in the field.

Ian Dunbar, a veterinarian and behaviorist, played a key role in the formation of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers (APDT). The APDT holds a well-attended annual conference featuring a wide variety of speakers. It has developed a certification program that reflects the broad range of knowledge that a professional dog trainer should have. Certification is based on an exam administered by an independent third party, and successful candidates earn the title Certified Pet Dog Trainer (CPDT). The certification program is now completely independent of the APDT and is administered by the Certification Council of Pet Dog Trainers (CCPDT).

Applied Animal Behaviorists

While academically trained scientists have studied and written about companion animal behavior, they seldom attempted direct application of their theories and observations to companion animals with behavior problems. Tuber, Hothersall, and Voith (1974) published an article titled "Animal Clinical Psychology: A Modest Proposal," which set the stage for the development of a new field. While a few individuals such as Peter Borchelt took up the challenge, it would be nearly two decades before a formal program was developed to set standards for applied animal behaviorists. In 1991, the Animal Behavior Society established a Board of Professional Certification and determined the education and experience requirements for certification. There are two levels of certification: Certified Applied Animal Behaviorists have a doctorate in animal behavior and five years of experience in the field, and Associate Applied Animal Behaviorists have a master's degree and a minimum of two years of experience. The education requirements balance a background in both ethology and learning theory. Certification is valid for five years, and individuals are required to submit a recertification application to demonstrate that they have remained current and up to date in the field. In addition to working with companion animals, applied animal behaviorists also work with laboratory animals or in zoos.

Veterinary Behaviorists

The American College of Veterinary Behaviorists (ACVB) was formed to recognize the treatment of behavior problems in animals as a specialty within veterinary medicine. Similar to other veterinary specialties, diplomate status is achieved following completion of the doctorate in veterinary medicine, an approved residency under the supervision of a diplomate in the field, and passing a qualification examination. In addition to behavior modification methods that might be employed by an applied animal behaviorist or dog trainer, veterinarians may also prescribe drugs. At this time there are only two drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of behavior problems in companion animals-both for dogs. Anipryl is approved for the treatment of canine age-related cognitive disorder, and Clomipramine is approved for the treatment of separation anxiety. Veterinarians have the professional discretion to prescribe other drugs based on their professional judgment and experience. This extra-label usage allows them to employ a variety of the psychoactive drugs that have been tested and approved for the treatment of human disorders.

DOG GROOMING

All dogs require some sort of grooming. Even the "hairless" breeds need appropriate skin cleaning and care. Grooming is especially important for many of the breeds with long or thick coats of hair. Failure to groom can have a negative impact on the dog's health. While dog owners are typically able to manage the basic needs of bathing and brushing their pets, skilled help may be needed for more difficult grooming needs or for the custom cuts that are desired for some breeds, or for showing in competitions. Competence in grooming is typically acquired through training at a dog grooming school or apprenticeship with an experienced groomer (Figure 6-9).

The National Dog Groomers Association of America (<www.national doggroomers.com>) was formed in 1969 to promote excellence in professional standards. The NDGAA offers a variety of accredited training workshops to enhance an individual's skills. Completion of various workshops and successful performance on an exam that includes both written and practical portions will result in certification as a "National Certified Master Groomer." The exam includes breed identification, breed standards and anatomy, use of pesticides among other areas, as well as a demonstration of grooming skills on breeds of dogs representing the various breed groups. The exam requires knowledge of cat grooming as well.

[FIGURE 6-9 OMITTED]

Most dog-grooming professionals work as independent businesses. In addition to grooming parlors, a number of groomers have begun to operate mobile grooming salons, coming to a pet owner's home to groom their dogs. Some of the large pet supply stores may also include a grooming service at their locations. Another area of growth in the field has been the appearance of self-service grooming locations. Dog owners can bring in their pet and use tubs and bathing facilities at the location to wash their dog themselves. This is especially convenient for people who have large dogs but live in small apartments.

BOARDING, DAY CARE, AND PET SITTING

Occasionally, people need to find temporary care for their pets while they travel, during work hours, or for other reasons. In many cases, people are able to arrange for friends or family to care for their pets. At other times, however, other arrangements need to be made. Boarding kennels have been available for decades as a temporary place for dogs, cats, or other animals to stay. The American Boarding Kennel Association (<www.abka.com>) represents the profession and promotes training and standards of practice. All ABKA members are required to adhere to a standard of ethical practice that respects the rights of pet owners and the welfare of the pets in their care. The organization supports this philosophy by offering training programs for pet care technicians and kennel operators. Successful completion of these training programs and passing required exams allow people to earn certification in the field. There is also a voluntary accreditation program for facilities. This certification program includes business practices, animal care procedures, sanitation, fire safety, and a number of other topics.

[FIGURE 6-10 OMITTED]

While boarding facilities are generally considered for some form of extended overnight care for pets, daycare for pets is becoming more common. Often called doggie daycare, it provides people an option for pet care for part of a day (Figure 6-10). This can be especially helpful for people with long workdays who are unable to walk and exercise their pets during the day. It can also provide dogs with an opportunity to socialize with other dogs during the day, since the dogs may be kept in a large indoor or outdoor play area with other dogs spending the day at the facility. In other cases, individuals may arrange for a regular dog walker, someone who will come in on a regular basis and take their dog for a walk. This might be with several other dogs, or alone, depending on how much the dog owner is willing to pay for the service. Once again, this is a convenient option for people who are away from home for long periods during the day and want to ensure that their pet gets some exercise and a chance to go to the bathroom outside.

Another service growing in popularity is pet sitting. In this case, pet owners will arrange to have someone come into their home and care for their pets when they are away. This will generally include feeding, cleaning cat litter, walking dogs, and other needs. This is especially useful for people with cats, since cats are generally more comfortable in their home than in a boarding facility. Reptiles, birds, aquariums, and other pets that would be more difficult (or impossible) to move also benefit from this sort of care option. It is important that pet owners check carefully to ensure that the pet sitter they employ is experienced and skilled in the care of their type of pets. The National Association of Professional Pet Sitters (NAPPS, <http://www.petsitters.org>) was formed in 1989 to represent people working in this field. Its mission statement addresses the needs of the professional, the public, and the pets:

* To provide tools and support to foster the success of members' businesses

* To promote the value of pet sitter to the public

* To advocate the welfare of animals

The National Association of Professional Pet Sitters supports this mission by offering training programs that include options for certification upon successful completion of an exam. They are also able to offer liability insurance to members through an NAPSS insurer.

MEDIA

Companion animals have appeared in the primary media of almost every era. Dogs and cats can be seen in the hieroglyphics that adorned the pyramids of the pharaohs, the pots of Rome and Greece, and the hand-copied books and scrolls of the Middle Ages. It is no surprise that companion animals are a common theme in our modern media formats. Classic books featured companion animals, and they were an integral part of early children's literature (see Chapter 3.9). Rin Tin Tin and Lassie starred in films before they went on to join Americans in their homes in early television series. These traditions continue in films such as The Truth About Cats & Dogs and best-selling books such as Marley and Me by John Grogan (2005). The expansion of television variety through cable and satellite access has led to not only television shows that depict pets, but now an entire network dedicated to animals, Animal Planet. Animal Planet is part of the Discovery television family of networks and draws heavily on the interest and affection that people have for their companion animals for viewers, sponsors, and content. Popular shows on the network have ranged from veterinary care to pet psychics and from breed profiles to cruelty prevention (Figure 6-11). Radio shows also feature companion animal topics. Jon Patch hosts a regular syndicated radio show, Pet Talk, which is carried in 95 markets and features a wide range of guests who provide personal stories about their life with pets and expert pet care information for listeners (Figure 6-12).

The Internet has had an enormous influence on how people entertain and inform themselves about companion animals. Any Internet search engine will generate thousands of Web sites associated with pets. The quality and nature of these sites will vary from excellent training and health care information to sharing humor (see Figure 6-13). Care needs to be taken, however, since it is as easy to broadcast false or misleading information as truthful and helpful information. Urban legends about products that might be dangerous to animals (but often are not), home remedies for sick pets (which may not work or may put the pet at greater risk), and other questionable materials can spread like wildfire through the Internet. For the most part, however, the Internet has proven to be a great benefit for people and companion animals. Research for this book was greatly facilitated by use of the Internet. For those who are connected, it has a great impact on nearly every part of a person's life, including the companion animals that share that life.

[FIGURE 6-11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 6-12 OMITTED]
FIGURE 6-13

The Internet has made it possible to share pet stories with people
across the nation and around the world quickly and easily. Pet
humor is one popular topic. Care must be taken however, since urban
myths travel as quickly as factual information on the information
highway. (Courtesy ASPCA)

How many dogs does it take to change a light bulb?

GOLDEN RETRIEVER: The sun is shining, the day is young, we've got
our whole lives ahead of us, and you're inside worrying about a
stupid burned out bulb?

BORDER COLLIE: Just one. And then I'll replace any wiring that's
not up to code.

DACHSHUND: You know I can't reach that stupid lamp!

ROTTWEILER: Make me.

BOXER: Who cares? I can still play with my squeaky toys in the
dark.

LAB: Oh, me, me!!!!! Pleeeeeeeeeze let me change the light bulb!
Can I? Can I? Huh? Huh? Huh? Can I? Pleeeeeeeeeze, please, please,
please!

GERMAN SHEPHERD: I'll change it as soon as I've led these
people from the dark, check to make sure I haven't missed any, and
make just one more perimeter patrol to see that no one has tried to
take advantage of the situation.

JACK RUSSELL TERRIER: I'll just
pop it in while I'm bouncing off the walls and furniture.

OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG: Light bulb? I'm sorry, but I don't see a light
bulb!

COCKER SPANIEL: Why change it? I can still pee on the carpet
in the dark.

CHIHUAHUA: "We don't need no stinking light bulb."

GREYHOUND: It isn't moving. Who cares?

AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD: First,
I'll put all the light bulbs in a little circle ...

POODLE: I'll just blow in the Border Collie's ear and he'll do it. By
the time he finishes rewiring the house, my nails will be dry.

How many cats does it take to change a light bulb?

Cats do not change light bulbs. People change light bulbs. So, the
real question is: "How long will it be before I can expect some
light, some dinner, and a massage?"

ALL OF WHICH PROVES, ONCE AGAIN, THAT WHILE DOGS HAVE MASTERS, CATS
HAVE STAFF!


CHARITIES AND NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

In addition to the multibillion dollar pet product industry supported by petowning consumers, there is also a large nonprofit sector that is supported by charitable contributions. These range in size from the Humane Society of the United States with a budget of over $100 million and a staff of hundreds to small local organizations that are organized and run by volunteers with little or no budget. In general, charitable contributions to animal protection and environmental organizations accounts for about $8.9 billion, a small fraction of the total of the $260 billion dollars that Americans give to charity each year (Bain, 2006). It is estimated that companion animal organizations receive between $2.5 and $3 billion each year (Figure 6-14). Charitable organizations are strictly regulated under federal law, with substantial attention paid to accounting for finances. Each year they are required to file an accounting form called the 990 that lists revenue and expenses related to administration, fund-raising costs, and program delivery. These are public documents and charities are required to make them available to interested parties. In addition there are independent oversight groups that scrutinize the finances and activities of charitable organizations and rate them for their effectiveness and efficiency. Guidestar, for example, provides as Web site (<www.guidestar.org>) that breaks these finances down into an easy to understand format and further rates charities for their use of funds collected and used in program delivery versus expenses related to administration and fundraising.

Fundraising is done through a variety of methods. Direct mail marketing is a well-known example where solicitations are mailed directly to the public. Charities may sell or exchange their lists with other charities to expand the number of people that they are able to solicit. Bequests are another common source of gifts to nonprofits where individuals may remember a favorite charity in their will. Special events such as "dog walks" can be used to not only raise funds, but also to generate some fun and a sense of community around a shared appreciation for companion animals (Figure 6-15).

In addition to contributions from the public, nonprofit animal groups may receive support from foundations or corporate partners. Foundations can be organized in several different ways; they share in common the mandate to distribute financial assistance to individuals and groups that meet the foundation's mission-related requirements. Foundations may be set up by individuals wishing to use their financial resources to assist a cause that they believe in. Maddie's Fund is one such example. Established by Dave Duffield, the founder of the PeopleSoft Company, it has an endowment of $250 million dollars. Named for Duffield's miniature schnauzer Maddie, the foundation supports efforts to eliminate the euthanasia of companion animals in animal shelters as a response to pet overpopulation. Maddie's Fund targets large-scale, high-visibility projects. For example, in 2005 it provided $15.5 million dollars to groups in New York City over a period of five years to make New York a no-kill city. Corporations may also establish foundations that support philanthropic efforts. These may be closely associated with the business and products of the corporation, or they may have limited or no direct connection to their business interests. PETCO and PetSmart both have foundations that distribute money to companion animal groups to support pet adoption programs. Funds for these two foundations come from both in-store donations by customers and contributions by employees.

[FIGURE 6-15 OMITTED]

In addition to charitable, philanthropic donations to nonprofit groups, corporations may also enter into cause-marketing agreements with these groups. Unlike the donations that a corporate foundation may make to a group, funds contributed through a cause-marketing arrangement are more closely tied to a specific marketing or product promotion effort. For example, the Meet-Your-Match pet adoption program described in an earlier chapter is part of a cause-marketing relationship between the Iams Company and the ASPCA. Program support materials include the logos of both the ASPCA and Iams, and help to support building the public awareness of both organizations. Pet adopters benefit because the program is designed to assist them in the selection of an appropriate pet, and participating shelters benefit because they gain access to expertise in adoption management, adoption support materials, and promotional materials that support their pet adoption programs. Another type of cause marketing is where a company promotes the fact that for every unit of a particular product sold, a portion of the purchase price will be contributed to a particular charitable cause. Another way in which nonprofit groups may benefit from a relationship with a corporation is through an endorsement or licensing agreement. In this case, a nonprofit animal group may endorse or lend their name to a particular product. For the consumer, this provides some confidence that the product is of good quality and will benefit them and their pet. This may be in the form of a seal of approval, and the organization will typically receive a royalty payment based on the sale of product units.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. What are the two major organizations of companies in the pet industry? What are one difference and one similarity between the two organizations?

2. What role did James Spratt play in the establishment of the pet food industry?

3. What is extrusion? When was the extrusion method first applied to the manufacturing of pet food, and by whom? What advantages does it offer in the manufacturing of pet food?

4. How and when did canned pet food develop? What are the advantages and disadvantages of feeding canned food as compared to feeding dry kibble?

5. What are the challenges/concerns with feeding homemade and raw diets?

6. What are two ways that a pet food can meet a nutritional claim? Which way is preferred, and why?

7. What were some substrates used as kitty litter prior to the use of clay? How did the introduction of clay litter affect the popularity of cats as companions?

8. When and where was the first veterinary school established?

9. When and where was the first American veterinary school established?

10. What species and diseases prompted the establishment of small animal medicine as a subset of veterinary medicine? Approximately when did this occur?

11. How did the gender make-up of the veterinary profession compare before and after World War II? What factors contributed to this shift?

12. What are the two levels of certification for Applied Animal Behaviorists?

13. What are three ways that the American Boarding Kennel Association promotes standards of practice in its profession?

14. Name two services that exist for pet owners who are unable to provide the desired level of daily attention for their pets.

15. Approximately what proportion of the money donated to charity each year in the United States is received by companion animal organizations?

16. Describe two methods by which corporations financially support nonprofit groups.

17. What major contributions has Mark Morris made to the companion animal industry?

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TABLE 6-1
Veterinary Colleges in the United States (Courtesy ASPCA)

Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine
Auburn University
Auburn, AL 36849
www.vetmed.auburn.edu
Established in 1892

UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine
One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616
www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu
Established in 1905

Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine
  & Biomedical Sciences
1601 Campus Delivery
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1601
www.cvmbs.colostate.edu
Established in 1907

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Ithaca, NY 14853-6401
www.vet.cornell.edu
Established in 1894

University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine
Gainesville, FL 32610
www.vetmed.ufl.edu
Established in the 1970s

University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine
Athens, GA 30602-7371
www.vet.uga.edu
Established in 1946

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign College
  of Veterinary Medicine
2001 South Lincoln Avenue
Urbana, IL 61802
www.cvm.uiuc.edu
Established in 1948

Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine
PO Box 3020
Ames, IA 50011
www.vetmed.iastate.edu
Established in 1872

Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine
101 Trotter Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506
www.vet.ksu.edu
Established in 1905

Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine
Skip Bertman Dr.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
www.vetmed.lsu.edu
Established in 1973

Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine
G100 Vet Med Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
www.cvm.msu.edu
Established in 1855

University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine
231 Pillsbury Dr. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
www.cvm.umn.edu
Established in 1891

Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Mississippi State, MS 39762
www.cvm.msstate.edu
Established in 1974

University of Missouri-Columbia College of Veterinary Medicine
Columbia, MO 65211
www.cvm.missouri.edu
Established in 1884

North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine
4700 Hillsborough St.
Raleigh, NC 27606
www.cvm.mcsu.edu
Established in 1978

Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine
1900 Coffey Rd.
Columbus, OH 43210
www.vet.ohio-state.edu
Established in 1885

Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences
Stillwater, OK 74078
www.cvm.okstate.edu
Established in 1951

Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Corvallis, OR 97331
http://oregonstate.edu/vetmed
Established in 1975

University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine
3451 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
www.vet.upenn.edu
Established in 1884

Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine
625 Harrison Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907
www.vet.purdue.edu
Established 1957

University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine
2407 River Dr.
Knoxville, TN 37996
www.vet.utk.edu
Established in 1967

Texas A & M University College of Veterinary Medicine
College Station, TX 77483
www.cvm.tamu.edu
Established in 1916

Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine
North Grafton, MA 01536
www.vet.tufts.edu
Established in 1978

Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine
Tuskegee, AL 36088
www.tuskegee.edu/cvmnah
Established in 1945

Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
Blacksburg, VA 24061
www.vetmed.vt.edu
Established in 1978

Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Pullman, WA 99167
www.vetmed.wsu.edu
Established in 1899

Western University College of Veterinary Medicine
Pomona, CA 91766
www.westemu.edu/xp/edu/veterinary/home.xml
Established in 1998

University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine
2015 Linden Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
www.vetmed.wisc.edu
Established in 1983

FIGURE 6-14
U.S. charitable giving in 2005. Total giving was $260 billion, with
animal welfare and environment accounting for 3.5% or $8.86 billion.
Environmental giving accounted for most of this figure, with about
$3.4 billion directed toward animal welfare. This includes companion
animal welfare groups, as well as groups who oppose vivisection and
hunting, and hold other similar positions. (Courtesy Dr. Tom
Latrielle-Humane Society of Broward County, 2007 Walk for the Animals)

Religious                  36%
Education                  15%
Heath                       9%
Public/society benefit      5%
Arts, culture, humanities   5%
Environment, animals        3%
Other                      17%
Human services             10%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Zawistowski, Stephen
Publication:Companion Animals in Society
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
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