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Chapter 6 Eggs as thickeners.


After reading this chapter,you should be able to:

* Describe the composition of an egg.

* Understand the importance of proper sanitation when using eggs.

* Define stirred and baked custards.

* Explain how egg proteins become set, coagulate, and thicken custards.

* Describe ways to prevent curdling of custards.

* Demonstrate the steps to prepare a stirred custard.

* Demonstrate the steps to prepare a baked custard.

* Understand how alpha-amylase can thin custards.

* Understand casein and how to avoid its formation.

* Demonstrate how to properly use eggs as thickeners by preparing the recipes at the end of this chapter.


air cell


amino acids

bain marie

baked custard

carryover cooking




creme anglaise




pastry cream




stirred custard



Eggs are such a versatile protein that they deserve two chapters all of their own. The one ingredient most recipes have in common is eggs. Eggs perform many functions in the kitchen. Not only are they versatile, but eggs also come in their own little fragile package. They are known as a complete protein, meaning that eggs contain all the essential amino acids that the body needs for protein formation.

Eggs play different roles in different recipes. They can provide structure, thickening power, tenderizing ability, leavening, richness, moistness, flavor, nutritional value, and color to the final baked good. A recipe may call for the whole egg (e.g., in a cake), the yolk (e.g., in a custard), or just the white (e.g., in a meringue). In this chapter and the next, we explore two main roles of eggs--as thickeners and as leavening agents.

Composition of an Egg

Fresh eggs consist of two main parts: (1) the white, or albumen, which is mostly protein, and (2) the yolk, which contains the fat (Figure 6-1). The egg has other components as well. The egg as a whole is naturally encased in a hard shell composed of calcium carbonate. Small, white, ropelike material, called chalazae, anchors the yolk on either side so it remains centered. As an egg ages, the chalazae weakens. When an older egg is cracked open, the chalazae looks stringy and disintegrated. In addition, two thin white membranes exist between the shell and the white. A pocket of air called an air cell forms at the larger end of the egg between these membranes once an egg is laid. As the egg ages, moisture evaporates through the porous shell and this air space gets larger.


Eggs come in several sizes: peewee, small, medium, large, extra-large, and jumbo (Table 6-1, Eggs Sizes and Weights). Most recipes call for large eggs. Weight of the eggs may vary even within the same size egg. In general, one large egg is approximately 2 ounces (60 g) or 1/4 cup (60 mL by volume). If a recipe asks for 2 ounces of eggs, then the egg should be weighed. If the recipe calls for 1/2 cup of eggs, then the eggs should be measured by volume in a liquid measuring cup. In this textbook, the size of eggs is thought be relatively uniform and, therefore, for simplicity, the recipes call for a number of whole eggs to be used instead of going by their weight or volume. The size of the egg is stamped on its container.

Most professional kitchens purchase fresh shell eggs by the case. Each case contains 30 dozen (360) eggs.

Eggs keep for 4 to 5 weeks in their carton in the refrigerator when stored at a minimum temperature of 36[degrees]F (2[degrees]C) and a maximum temperature of 41[degrees]F (5[degrees]C). To determine how fresh an egg is, just crack one open gently onto a plate. The higher the yolk stands and the firmer the white, the fresher the egg and the higher the quality. Eggs keep best when stored away from foods with strong odors like garlic, cheese, and onions because the shell is porous, meaning it allows air or moisture through it. The porous nature of egg shells allows odors in and moisture to evaporate out.

Often in the professional kitchen, egg whites and egg yolks are left over at the end of the day. Raw egg whites can be kept up to 4 days in the refrigerator in an airtight container. They also can be frozen in an airtight container or in individual ice cube trays with one egg white placed in each space. After freezing, the egg white cubes can be placed in an airtight freezer bag. They can be frozen for up to 2 to 3 months.

Raw, unbroken, fresh egg yolks can be stored in the refrigerator covered with water in an airtight container for up to 2 days.

Eggs sold in the United States are graded for quality by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). There are three grades for eggs: AA, A, and B. The highest grade is AA. Grade AA eggs have the firmest whites and the smallest air cell.

Egg Products Other Than Fresh Shell Eggs

There are several different ways to buy eggs other than fresh in the shell. Eggs purchased out of the shell are referred to as egg products. They are available as whole eggs, egg yolks, or egg whites. They are sold refrigerated, frozen, or dried. By law, egg products must be pasteurized, and they can be used in food items in which little or no cooking is required.

Pasteurization is a process whereby eggs are heated to a specific temperature for a specific amount of time. The heat destroys disease-causing microorganisms. Shell eggs, eaten raw or undercooked, carry the risk of causing foodborne illness, especially from Salmonella. Pasteurization allows eggs that are barely cooked to be consumed safely. There are a few different methods of pasteurization but the general guidelines set by the USDA state that eggs are pasteurized successfully if heated to a temperature of 140[degrees]F (60[degrees]C) for 3 1/2 minutes.

Frozen Whole Eggs

Whole eggs can be purchased frozen and are usually sold in cartons. Frozen whole eggs may contain citric acid to prevent discoloration when the eggs are heated.

Liquid Whole Egg Substitutes

Liquid whole egg substitutes contain approximately 99% egg whites and are used in recipes to lower the cholesterol and fat content. Read the label because liquid whole egg substitutes may contain ingredients other than egg whites such as beta-carotene to simulate an egg's yellow color, dry milk solids, and gums. Some brands may also contain herbs and spices not suited for baking sweet products.

Frozen Egg Yolks

Frozen egg yolks may contain sugar or corn syrup, which lowers their freezing point. This prevents the contents from forming excess ice crystals and damaging the texture of the eggs in the frozen state.

Frozen Egg Whites

Gums may be added to frozen egg whites to protect the whites in the frozen state. Frozen egg whites are pasteurized and are a good substitute for egg whites to prepare food items that will not be fully cooked such as meringues or meringue-based buttercreams. For the preparation of meringues, check manufacturer's directions to make sure the product can be used for this purpose. Not all brands of egg whites can be beaten to a stable foam to prepare meringues.

Dried Eggs

Dried eggs are available as whole eggs, egg yolks, and egg whites. Dried eggs have had most of their water removed and contain less than 5 percent moisture. Frozen whole egg products are used more frequently than whole dried eggs in the professional kitchen. However, there are applications for dried eggs, such as in commercial cake mixes, quick breads, and certain types of cakes. Dried egg whites can also be used frequently to prepare safe meringues. Because brands vary, it is important to follow manufacturer's directions when rehydrating or reconstituting dried eggs.

Storage of Egg Products

All egg products, even in the dried form, should be stored in the refrigerator. Thaw all frozen egg products in the refrigerator.

Proper Sanitation

Proper sanitation is critical when preparing any food products that contain eggs. Food items containing cream fillings and custards are especially susceptible to contamination by Salmonella bacteria. Be sure to wash hands before and after handling any egg products. Be sure all utensils and equipment are thoroughly cleaned.

Follow the directions in each recipe to be sure all egg products are thoroughly cooked. Be sure to use pasteurized egg products when certain foods are undercooked or will receive no further cooking.

Eggs as Thickeners

One of the most popular ways to use eggs is as a thickener. A thickener is a food that helps ingredients become less fluid and more dense. If you have ever prepared a rich vanilla custard sauce called creme anglaise or a pastry cream, then you have experienced the thickening power of eggs. Vanilla custard sauce and pastry cream are examples of custards. Custards, both sweet and savory, rely on the thickening power of eggs.

Custards Defined

A custard, by definition, is any liquid that is thickened by the coagulation of egg proteins. Custards contain eggs (sometimes the whole egg and sometimes just the yolks) usually with the addition of some liquid like milk or cream. For a sweeter custard, sugar is added. Flavoring ingredients are also added. A custard that is cooked on top of the stove is called a stirred custard. It is referred to as a stirred custard because it is stirred during preparation. Some stirred custards have a starch added for extra stability and to provide a thicker texture. A stirred custard that contains a starch is referred to as a pastry cream. A pastry cream can be used to fill cream pies, fruit tarts, cake layers, and cream puffs. A custard that is poured into a container and baked in the oven until thickened is called a baked custard. Examples of baked custards are bread pudding, creme brulee, quiche Lorraine, custard pie filling, and cheesecake. Some custards may be thicker than others. Thinner custards can be used as sauces. A creme anglaise is a stirred custard thickened without a starch that is used as a base for ice cream or as a dessert sauce.

There are two types of custards: stirred and baked.

Coagulation of Proteins

Eggs thicken custards through the coagulation of the egg proteins (Figure 6-2). As the eggs in a custard are heated, they become firm. This firming of the eggs is known as coagulation. As the heat is increased, the proteins in the custard thicken. Eggs are proteins just like meats, poultry, and fish. Proteins are chains of amino acids (the building blocks of protein) that are linked together. Think of egg proteins as chains of amino acids held together by bonds. On a microscopic level, proteins look like strands or coils of curly hair. Each curly coil of protein, as it is heated, straightens out and some break apart (at this stage the proteins are said to be denatured). As the heat increases, moisture within the custard gets trapped between each protein coil, forming a protein network. This makes the custard thicker. At this point, the proteins are said to be coagulated. Picture the protein network as a group of paper dolls with their arms gently reaching out to the doll next to them. This thick, moist, gel-like protein network can add a rich and velvety texture to many foods. If the proteins are heated for too long at too high a temperature, the custard will have a tendency to clump together, or curdle. When overheating occurs, these "paper dolls" get too close and squeeze out any moisture, forming clumps of protein in a pool of liquid much like scrambled eggs.


Coagulation of egg proteins occurs at different temperatures for the yolk and the white. Egg whites coagulate first at approximately 140[degrees] to 150[degrees]F (60[degrees] to 65[degrees]C), whereas egg yolks coagulate at approximately 150[degrees] to 160[degrees]F (65[degrees] to 71[degrees]C)

Ways to Prevent Curdling of Custards

The following are methods used to ensure that custards will be smooth every time they are made:

* Control the temperature and the rate of cooking. If egg proteins are cooked at too high a temperature, coagulation will proceed more quickly than if they are cooked at a lower temperature. In order to control the rate of cooking, use a warm water bath or a low setting on the stove.

* Temper the eggs. Often, a stirred custard or sauce requires a hot liquid like milk or cream to be poured into the beaten eggs. Eggs are very sensitive to hot liquids. If they are thrown in with a hot liquid suddenly without getting used to their new hot environment, the proteins within the eggs will curdle and form lumps. To properly add a hot liquid into eggs, whisk the eggs constantly with one hand while the hot liquid is slowly dribbled in with the other hand. As the eggs get used to the heat, they will be less likely to curdle and the hot liquid can then be poured in at a faster rate. This method of gradually bringing the eggs up to the proper temperature is called tempering.

* Add other ingredients to the eggs. The addition of other ingredients will increase the temperature at which the egg proteins will coagulate. These ingredients include water, sugar, a high-fat dairy-based liquid like cream, or the addition of a starch like cornstarch or flour. These ingredients interfere with the protein bonds and prevent them from bonding so closely, thereby lowering the chances of curdling. By using these ingredients in custards, the temperature needed to kill Salmonella instantly (160[degrees]F; 71[degrees]C) can be reached with little fear of curdling.

* Use a thermometer. Monitoring the temperature of the custard as it is cooking allows more control over the cooking process. This reduces the risk of curdling. Most custard sauces like creme anglaise should not exceed the temperature range of 180[degrees] to 185[degrees]F (82[degrees] to 85[degrees]C). This temperature range can be raised without fear of curdling if other ingredients are added, for example, when starch is added to a pastry cream. The pastry cream can be safely brought to the boiling point, attaining its maximum thickness, and reducing the chances of curdling.


* Rapidly cool the custard. As soon as the custard has reached the desired temperature, immediately pour it through a sieve into a bowl that has been placed over an ice water bath. The minute amounts of curdled protein that may occur at the bottom of the pan will be caught in the sieve, and the remaining custard will be instantly cooled. This stops any carryover cooking from occurring. Carryover cooking refers to the process in which cooking continues for a short period of time, even though the heat source has been removed. Considering the delicate nature of custards, stopping the cooking process as quickly as possible to prevent any possibility of curdling is desirable.

Steps to Prepare a Stirred Custard

Stirred custards include custard sauces and pastry creams.

1. Set up an ice water bath in a large bowl before starting the custard so it can be cooled quickly to prevent the eggs within the custard from overcooking and curdling.

2. Place a strainer over a medium bowl and place the bowl into the ice bath, making sure the ice water doesn't pour over into the dry bowl.

3. Whisk together whole eggs or egg yolks in a bowl with granulated sugar until they turn a paler yellow color.

4. Temper the eggs by slowly whisking in heated milk.

5. Pour the custard back into the saucepan that heated the milk.

6. Stirring constantly, cook the custard until it reaches a temperature of 180[degrees] to 185[degrees]F (82[degrees] to 85[degrees]C) or until it thickens and coats the back of a spoon.

7. Quickly pour the custard through the strainer into the bowl that was previously set in an ice water bath. Any coagulated egg particles will be caught in the sieve.

8. Flavor the custard and store it in the refrigerator.

(Note: Another method of telling whether a creme anglaise is properly cooked when a thermometer is not handy is to check whether the custard coats the back of a wooden spoon and leaves a path as you drag a finger across it [Figure 6-3]. The spoon should never be returned to the custard, to prevent contamination.)

There are two ways to tell when a stirred custard is done: (1) The temperature of the custard reaches 180[degrees] to 185[degrees]F (82[degrees] to 85[degrees]C). (2) The custard coats the back of a wooden spoon, leaving a path when you drag a finger across it.

Ways to prevent custards from curdling: (1) Control the temperature and rate of cooking. (2) Temper the eggs. (3) Add other ingredients to the eggs. (4) Use a thermometer. (5) Rapidly cool the custard.


Creme Anglaise (without a starch) (Chapter 20, page 499)

Pistachio Ice Cream (without a starch) (Chapter 18, page 439)

Vanilla Pastry Cream (with a starch) (This chapter, page 95)

Steps to Prepare a Baked Custard

Baked custards include bread puddings, cheesecakes, creme brulee, and quiche.

1. Milk or cream or a combination of the two are scalded and are slowly whisked into the eggs to temper them. Scalding is defined as heating a liquid to just below the boiling point. For sweet custards, sugar is added to the eggs before the hot milk is added. Other flavoring ingredients may be added to the mixture and it is poured into a baking dish.

2. The dish is placed in the oven in which the custard will thicken slowly with enough time and heat. Some recipes require the baking dish to be placed in a hot water bath. A hot water bath, known as a bain marie helps keep the temperature even all around the baking dish, preventing the eggs from curdling.

3. The eggs coagulate into a soft mass that is firm enough to lift out of the pan.


Double Chocolate Bread Pudding (This chapter, page 97)

Problems to Avoid with Custards

There are three substances that can wreak havoc on a custard. They are alpha-amylase, casein, and sugar.

* Egg yolks contain an enzyme known as alpha-amylase. This enzyme can dissolve a starchthickened custard into a pool of liquid. Enzymes are proteins that can speed up a chemical reaction. The chemical reaction in this case is the starch being broken down into its component sugars by the enzyme. The starch loses its thickening powers because it is now no longer a starch. Alpha-amylase is destroyed when the custard comes to a boil.

* A protein in milk and other dairy products known as casein dries out when it comes into direct contact with air. This can be a problem after preparing a hot custard. A skin or crusty formation occurs as the custard is cooled. To prevent a skin from forming on the surface of the hot custard, place a piece of plastic wrap or wax paper directly on the surface. Chill it in the refrigerator and when ready to use, peel off the plastic or wax paper.

* When egg yolks and sugar are combined and allowed to sit without being stirred, the egg yolks can begin to appear cooked--they appear as small, yellow clumps. This occurs as a result of the hygroscopic nature of sugar (Chapter 7); the sugar draws water out of the egg yolk, rendering it dry and congealed. It is important to combine egg yolks and sugar just as they are called for in the recipe and never allowing them to sit together without being stirred.

Problems to avoid with custards: (1) Destroy alpha-amylase by bringing a custard-containing starch to a boil. (2) Prevent the formation of casein by covering a hot custard. (3) Never allow egg yolks and sugar to remain together unstirred.

Makes 21/3 cups (18 2/3 fluid
ounces; 550 mL)

(Note: A vanilla bean can be used
instead of vanilla extract. Slit one
half of a vanilla bean lengthwise
and scrape out the seeds with a
knife. Place the seeds and the
bean into the milk and cream in
step 1. Remove the bean before
tempering the eggs. Omit the
vanilla extract.)

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a custard filling (also known as a pastry cream). A
  pastry cream is a stirred custard that contains a starch.

* Starches prevent egg proteins from curdling.

* Egg yolks and sugar should not be allowed to sit together without
  being stirred.

* Bringing the custard to a boil destroys alpha-amylase, an enzyme that
  breaks down starch.

* Covering the hot custard with plastic wrap prevents casein from

                   MEASUREMENT              INGREDIENTS

                 U.S.             METRIC

8 fluid ounces   1 cup            240 mL    whole milk, removing 1
                                            fluid ounce (2 table-
                                            spoons; 30 mL) and
                                            setting it aside

4 fluid ounces   1/2 cup          120 mL    heavy cream

3 each                             57 g     large egg yolks

3 1/2 ounces     1/2 cup          100 g     granulated sugar

3/4 ounce        2 tablespoons     20 g     cornstarch
                 +1 1/2 teaspoons

                 1 teaspoon        5 mL     vanilla extract

1. In a heavy medium nonaluminum saucepan, bring the milk (minus 1
   fluid ounce; 2 tablespoons; 30 mL) and cream to a boil. Avoid using
   aluminum pans, which react with milk and egg products, turning them
   a greenish-gray color.

2. In a heat-proof stainless steel or tempered glass mixing bowl, whisk
   egg yolks, sugar, cornstarch, and 1 fluid ounce (2 tablespoons;
   30 mL) of reserved milk until there are no lumps (Figure 6-4).

3. Slowly drizzle the hot milk mixture into the egg yolk mixture,
   whisking constantly until all the milk has been added (Figure 6-5).
   Pour the mixture back into the saucepan and place it over
   medium-high heat. Bring to a boil, whisking constantly. The mixture
   will become thick. Boil and whisk for 1 minute. Do not allow the
   custard to burn.





4. Remove the mixture from the heat and whisk in the vanilla extract
   (Figure 6-6). Pour the custard into a bowl and place a piece of
   plastic wrap directly onto the surface to prevent a skin from
   forming (Figure 6-7). Place it in the refrigerator until cold, about
   3 to 4 hours. The custard filling can be made 1 day in advance and
   should be kept chilled in the refrigerator.


Makes 1 half-size hotel pan
or approximately 9 servings

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a bread pudding. (A bread pudding is a baked custard.)

* Eggs in the custard coagulate in the oven and thicken the bread

* The bread pudding is baked in a bain marie to ensure even cooking.

                    MEASUREMENT               INGREDIENTS

                  U.S.              METRIC

1 pint; +         2 1/2 cups        600 mL    heavy cream
4 fluid ounces

3 fluid ounces    1/4 cup +          90 mL    whole milk
                  2 tablespoons

5 1/4 ounces      3/4 cup           150 g     granulated sugar

7 1/2 ounces      1 3/4 cups        215 g     semisweet chocolate,
                                              chopped into 1/4-inch
                                              (6-mm) pieces

2 each                               94 g     large eggs

                  1 1/2 teaspoons     7.5 mL  vanilla extract

1 pound           8 1/4 cups        580 g     chocolate cake cut
4 1/2 ounces                                  into 1-inch (2.5-cm)
                                              cubes (one recipe of
                                              the Fudgy Chocolate
                                              Cake, chapter 14)

1 1/2 ounces      3 tablespoons      45 g     semisweet chocolate,
                                              chopped into 1/4-inch
                                              (6-mm) pieces

1 1/2 ounces      3 tablespoons      45 g     granulated sugar
                                              mixed with 1/4
                                              ground cinnamon

1. Preheat oven to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C).

2. In a heavy saucepan, scald the heavy cream, whole milk, and 53/4
   ounces (3/4 cup; 165 g) sugar. Stir until the sugar is dissolved.

3. Remove the pan from the heat and add 71/2 ounces (13/4 cups; 215 g)
   semisweet chocolate. Whisk until the chocolate is melted (Figure


4. In a large heat-proof bowl, whisk the eggs and the vanilla until
   well blended.

5. Slowly temper the eggs by whisking in the hot chocolate and milk
   mixture (Figure 6-9).

6. Spray a half-size hotel pan, 10 inches by 12 inches by 2 inches
   (25.4 cm by 30.5 cm by 5.1 cm) with nonstick cooking spray.

7. Distribute cake cubes evenly into the hotel pan.

8. Whisk the chocolate custard to blend well and pour the mixture over
   the cake cubes (Figure 6-10).

9. Scatter 11/2 ounces (3 tablespoons; 45 g) of the chopped chocolate
   on top of the custard and sprinkle with the cinnamon and sugar
   mixture (Figure 6-11).

10. Allow the bread pudding to sit for 10 to 15 minutes to ensure the
    cake cubes are soaked with custard. Take the filled half-size hotel
    pan and place it into a large roasting pan on the middle shelf of
    the oven. Pour boiling water into the roasting pan so that it comes
    1 inch (2.5 cm) up the sides of the hotel pan.

11. Bake for about 50 minutes or until the custard has thickened and,
    when the pan is gently shaken, the center barely moves.

12. Serve warm.






1. How can you tell if an egg is fresh?

2. Egg yolks contain a substance that prevents starches from thickening. What is it?

3. Which part of the egg contains the fat?

4. Name four roles eggs can play in contributing to the final product.

5. What is tempering and why is it so important in the making of custards?

6. What role do enzymes play in chemical reactions?

7. What happens when proteins are heated?

8. Name the two types of custards.

9. What is casein? Name one way it can be prevented from forming on the surface of a custard.

10. Name three ways to prevent custards from curdling.


Professional Profile


Ursula Agyropoulos

Assistant Professor

Newbury College

Brookline, MA

1. Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?

Answer: I grew up in Germany where good breads were an important part of everyday life and desserts were a treat that belonged to the special "Kaffee." Kaffee is a tradition that still exists somewhat in Germany today. It is a gathering of friends that takes place at 4:00 p.m. and consists of an elegantly set table for coffee service and an array of desserts that include things such as cookies, kugelhopf, or very elaborate torten. When I realized not only the wonderful nutrition of whole grain breads but also the social pleasure that baked goods provide, I knew that I wanted to be involved in this field at some level.

2. Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?

Answer: When I came to the United States I lived with my aunt and uncle who owned a European-style bakery. My uncle was a konditormeister and I worked with him in the bakery. He taught me all the basics. He also instilled in me a sense of confidence so that I was never afraid to try something new.

3. Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?

Answer: The most challenging part was that I didn't understand "why" things went right or wrong.

4. Question: Where and when was your first practical experience in a professional baking setting?

Answer: Working with my uncle was my first experience in the field.

5. Question: How did this first experience affect your later professional development? Answer: I learned not to be afraid to bake. When I started teaching other people how to bake I realized how important this was. I understood that the fear of baking was one of the hurdles that many students need to overcome.

6. Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?

Answer: My uncle and my friend Ingrid Lysgaard, who learned her trade from her father in Denmark.

7. Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards in your professional life?

Answer: The "thank you's" I've received years later from students and employees is the greatest reward.

8. Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?

Answer: The most important traits for anyone entering this business are attention to detail, patience, the willingness to work hard, and--perhaps--even the love of pastry!

9. Question: If there was one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?

Answer: Keep learning at every step of the way. Take every opportunity to learn something from every person you encounter, now and especially after you graduate. I still go to seminars that might last an entire weekend and--if I've learned one new thing during those 48 hours--I feel as though it was worthwhile.
Table 6-1 Egg Sizes and Weights


Peewee eggs         15 ounces (425 g)    1 1/4 ounces (35 g)
Small eggs          18 ounces (510 g)    1 1/2 ounces (43 g)
Medium eggs         21 ounces (595 g)    1 3/4 ounces (50 g)
Large eggs          24 ounces (680 g)    2 ounces (57 g)
Extra-large eggs    27 ounces (765 g)    2 1/4 ounces (64 g)
Jumbo eggs          30 ounces (850 g)    2 1/2 ounces (71 g)
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Article Details
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Author:Sokol, Gail
Publication:About Professional Baking
Article Type:Recipe
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Previous Article:Chapter 5 Thickeners and stabilizers.
Next Article:Chapter 7 Eggs as leaveners and meringues.

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