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Chapter 16 Mousse.

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OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

* explain the theory and principles regarding the components of mousse and the three major categories of mousse preparation.

* practice proper hygiene and sanitation guidelines required for working with ready-to-eat foods.

* successfully create a variety of mousse for cakes and desserts including Bavarian cream, fruit mousse, and chocolate mousse.

* troubleshoot mousse formulas and preparations for balance of ingredients and components.

HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF MOUSSE

Mousse preparations have been around since at least the mid-1800s. Fannie Farmer's 1896 cookbook includes formulas for strawberry and coffee mousse preparations and in 1918 presents the first formula for chocolate mousse.

Mousse preparations may be sweet or savory, hot or cold, but the texture should always be light. Sweet mousses are generally built on a base preparation of chocolate or fruit puree, with the addition of egg foam and/or whipped cream to lighten the mousse to its characteristic texture. Sweet mousse can be presented in many different ways: It may be a cake filling, or even the cake in its entirety. In fact, mousse cakes are becoming an increasingly popular alternative to the classic buttercream cake.

Sweet mousse preparations can be divided into three main categories: fruit mousse, chocolate mousse, and Bavarian cream. These categories of mousse are largely defined by their ingredients and base preparations. For example, fruit mousse and chocolate mousse are typically based on fruit puree or chocolate, respectively, as well as an egg foam, whipped cream, and gelatin. A Bavarian is based on a creme Anglaise, whipped cream, and gelatin. In this chapter, we will explore the components of each category of mousse preparation, as well as the processes required to make them.

MOUSSE: HYGIENE AND SANITATION

Before exploring the components and processes for mousse, we must first consider hygiene and sanitation. As with any ready-to-eat food, but especially with mousse-like preparations, the most stringent measures of sanitation must be followed. All equipment must be well cleaned and cross contamination from dirty hands or equipment must be avoided as bacteria flourish in the wet, sweet environment of mousse preparations. Gloves should be worn, clean utensils should always be used, and ingredients must be very fresh to ensure safety.

INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPONENTS OF MOUSSE

When making a mousse, one must balance flavors, textures, and setting properties through careful preparation of appropriate components. Although each type of mousse requires a different combination, the primary list includes the base, the egg foam, a setting agent, and whipped cream. Factors such as the cocoa content of the chocolate and the degree of sweetness of the base and egg foam each have a role in the overall composition.

THE BASE

As mentioned earlier, a mousse always contains a base preparation that is further developed to create the final product. Additional components of the mousse act as a lightening agents, which may also add sweetness. The type of base and its composition will influence the type of egg foam used and how much, if any, gelatin is required. A base can include preparations of fruit puree, cooked-stirred custards such as creme Anglaise and pastry cream, or a ganache.

Fruit Puree

Fresh or frozen fruit puree is typically the primary base for a fruit mousse. Some variations may be based on a creme Anglaise made with fruit puree, or a mixture of fruit puree and cream. However, this version of a fruit mousse requires cooking, which diminishes some of the delicate fruit flavor and colors.

As a base ingredient, the primary function of the fruit puree is to add flavor. A small quantity of lemon juice (about 5 percent, based on the weight of the puree) may be added to the fruit puree base to increase acidity and bring out the flavors of the fruit. Fresh fruit or a high-quality frozen puree may be used, both of which can make a very good mousse if handled properly. If using fresh fruit, the fruit should be as ripe as possible to obtain the best flavor and color. Whether fresh or frozen, fruit should be made into mousse immediately after it is pureed. Sitting too long can cause oxidization that will negatively affect the flavor, color, and quality.

Cooked-Stirred Custards

Creme Anglaise and pastry cream bases add specific texture and creaminess to the mousse preparation. Pastry cream, the heavier and thicker of the two, will require more lightening agents to create a more supple texture. Conversely, a mousse preparation with creme Anglaise will require more setting agent to create a mousse that can be contained within its own walls. As they are often on hand, both make very convenient bases for last-minute preparations.

The composition of a creme Anglaise or pastry cream for use in mousse cakes can vary greatly, depending on the additional components. The quantity of ingredients such as egg yolk, sugar, and butter will depend on their presence in the mousse's other components. For example, a custard-based, white chocolate mousse will require a different quantity of sugar than a custard-based, 64 percent chocolate mousse.

Ganache

When making a chocolate mousse, if the chocolate is added to the mousse improperly or at the wrong time, it will negatively affect the texture and volume of the final product. To ensure success, chocolate first needs to be transformed into a creamy texture that will ensure the smooth incorporation of other components. Ganache, the result of a liquid and chocolate emulsion, is the typical base. An emulsion is the result of two or more liquids combining to create a smooth mixture. The most common example of an emulsion is mayonnaise. There are two types of emulsions possible: a water in oil emulsion and an oil in water emulsion. Emulsions can be very stable and they can be very unstable. A ganache is an example of a water in oil emulsion, which can be considered semistable. Ganache is an extremely versatile product that can also be used for the fillings of chocolate candies, cakes, and cookies. Refer to Chapter 22 for a more detailed look at chocolate ganache.

Several factors, including temperature, viscosity, and emulsion, are important when using a ganache for a mousse. The quality of the emulsion determines the texture of the ganache, which is typically controlled by the ratio of cream to chocolate, in addition to the cocoa percent. For example, when using a 1:1 ratio of cream to chocolate, if using a chocolate with a higher cocoa percentage, it will lead to a firmer ganache.

Because some chocolates contain unknown fat quantities, a higher or lower ratio of cream to chocolate may need to be used to create a stable emulsion and an appropriate texture for the ganache base. One needs to determine the proper balance of fats and cocoa solids within the cream and the chocolate in order to create a stable emulsion and a ganache that has enough body to elaborate the mouse.

The viscosity of the ganache will dictate additional ingredients and their functions in the mousse. If a ganache is made using a higher ratio of cream to chocolate, a higher quantity of additional setting agents (other than the cocoa butter in the chocolate) will be required. The resulting mousse will be lighter in texture and chocolate flavor.

EGG FOAMS

Egg foams add lightness and volume to mousse cakes. Italian meringue and pate a bombe are the most popular. French or common meringues are sometimes used, but they are less stable than cooked egg foams and may contain microorganisms such as Salmonella. See Chapter 15 for more information on egg foams.

The type of mousse and its main ingredients will determine the type of egg foam used. For fruit mousse, the typical egg foam is the Italian meringue. Its light texture adds a delicate sweetness to a fruit mousse, and it is not as vulnerable to a loss of volume as a common meringue. In addition, the pure white color of an Italian meringue lends itself well to the final color of the preparation. Another, less-used option for fruit mousse cakes is a pate a bombe, which has a more complex flavor. The egg yolk-based pate a bombe is high in fats, which lead to a much richer flavor and color. To mask the more intense flavor, pate a bombe is often used in fruit mousse preparations with more intensely flavored purees such as lemon, passion fruit, grapefruit, or black currant.

For chocolate mousse cakes, the sweetness in the mousse needs to be balanced between the sugar content in the egg foam and the sugar content in the chocolate. Historically, common meringue was the most popular egg foam, but it is not commonly used today due to concerns about harmful bacteria. Instead, pate a bombe and Italian meringue are primarily used.

Not only does pate a bombe act as a lightening agent in chocolate mousse, but natural lecithin in the yolk helps to maintain the emulsion by suspending water in the fat content. The soft fats in the yolk also add richness and texture by retarding the rigid setting properties in cocoa butter and providing supple textures to the mousse.

Italian meringue works particularly well in chocolate mousse preparations when a creme Anglaise-based ganache has been made. The sweetness of the creme Anglaise can be adjusted to balance the sweetness of the chocolate as well as the Italian meringue. An Italian meringue will add a greater degree of lightness than a pate a bombe because the volume achieved by whipping egg whites alone is greater than that of egg yolk.

WHIPPED CREAM

The rich taste and smooth texture of whipped cream, along with its ability to trap air, make it the perfect addition to a mousse. Because whipped fat globules add stability and mouthfeel, the right selection of cream is essential to produce a smooth texture that is strong enough to support itself and the other components of the mousse. As long as the cream is whipped to the proper degree, it will add a smooth and refreshing characteristic.

Selection of Cream

A cream with a minimum fat content of 35 percent should be used to ensure sufficient whipability and strength. A cream with too little fat will not have enough structure to hold its volume or the volume of the mousse. A cream with too high a fat content will tend to whip quickly, and the higher quantity of fat crystals will create a grainy texture that will be carried through to the mousse and create an undesired sensation on the palate. These high-fat creams typically are only available commercially and should not be used for the production of mousse.

Function and Ratio of Cream in Mousse Cakes

While the preparation of whipped cream for mousse cakes is rather straightforward when compared to its other components, the choice of base and egg foam will create a number of variables to consider. The most important of these is the quantity of whipped cream in relation to the base and egg foam.

Higher quantities of whipped cream may thin out the flavors of the base and make the texture of the mousse much lighter, which can be appropriate for purees with a more intense flavor such as passion fruit, black currant, lemon, and lime. For these more concentrated flavors, and for chocolate mousse preparations, the ratio of whipped cream to puree is about 1:1. For milder purees such as raspberry, strawberry, and white peach, the percentage of cream to puree is generally 50 to 70 percent.

Whipped cream is typically added to the base mixture after the egg foam has been folded in to prevent overmixing. As it is folded in, the cream lightens the base preparations, leading to the final texture of the mousse. Care must be taken to initially underwhip the cream and to not overdevelop the cream during the folding-in process in order to prevent the texture from turning grainy.

Whipped cream should always be used cold. When added to fruit mousse, chocolate mousse, and Bavarian creams, it acts as a catalyst to drop the temperature of the preparation and begin the setting properties of the gelatin or cocoa butter.

SETTING AGENTS

All free-standing mousse cakes need some sort of setting agent to ensure they retain their texture and shape. The primary setting agents include gelatin and the cocoa butter contained in chocolate, with the ratio of setting agents to mousse varying with the composition. For example, the percentage of cocoa content and quantity of chocolate in the mousse will determine if additional setting agents are needed. This is particularly important when dealing with chocolate mousse because the cocoa content of chocolate varies considerably by type of chocolate and brand.

When gelatin is necessary, it must always be bloomed and melted before it is added to the mousse. The blooming process moistens the gelatin for even melting. It is advisable to bloom the leaf gelatin in a larger quantities of water in order to avoid transferring any "off" flavors or smells to the mousse. The sheets of gelatin should be separated before being placed in very cold water, which will allow maximum possibility for hydration and prevent dissolving. If powdered gelatin is being used, it should be dissolved in five times its weight in cold water. After the gelatin is softened, it should be strained (gelatin sheets) and then melted and tempered into the mousse. If the gelatin is to be added to a creme Anglaise base, the bloomed, drained gelatin can be added to the hot base and stirred to dissolve.

COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS AND FUNCTIONS

In summary, each of the components of mousse has specific ingredient requirements and functions. A flavorful base is essential for taste that will carry through the mousse preparation. The base will be lightened and volume added with egg foam, typically an Italian meringue, a pate a bombe, or potentially a common meringue. For whipped cream, a 35 to 40 percent fat content is required. The exact quantity of whipped cream will depend on the other components, along with desired results for flavor and texture, and its development will be tightly controlled to maintain the mousse's smooth texture. If any setting agent is needed, gelatin leaf will be used in just enough quantities to set the mousse.

THE GENERAL PROCESS FOR MOUSSE

Now that we have explored the major components of mousse and their functions, we can look at making mousse in general and then look at the specific processes of producing Bavarian creams, fruit mousse, and chocolate mousse. The most basic elaboration of a mousse always begins with the preparation of the base. The egg foam, if applicable, is added next, and then the whipped cream is folded in. Other ingredients or components may be included at various stages; however, this is the basic preparation.

For the production of any mousse, it is essential to combine or add components at specific times and temperatures. For example, if the gelatin is added when the preparation is too cold, or at the wrong time, it will not disperse evenly throughout the mousse. If the whipped cream is added when the base mixture is too warm, it will melt the fat globules in the cream and there will be a diminished volume and texture. Following the directions in the formulas is critical, as is paying close attention to the temperatures of the components and the physical working of the mousse.

Whenever working on the preparation of mousse cakes, or any pastry for that matter, it is imperative to work cleanly and to start the production of the formula once all ingredients and equipment have been gathered. Because mousse is particularly sensitive to temperature and timing, all components and molds must be ready before elaboration.

BAVARIAN CREAM

DEFINITION, HISTORY, AND USES

Bavarian cream, or Bavarois, is a creme Anglaise that has whipped cream added and is set by gelatin. Although its origin is somewhat mysterious, some believe that the preparation originated in Bavaria, where many French chefs worked for royalty. Careme has formulas for fromage Bavarois (Bavarian cheese); however, these preparations are clearly different from the Bavarian we know today (Montagne, 2001, p. 86).

Like many items, Bavarian cream was introduced to France by a member of European royalty--in this case, a Bavarian prince who was a client at Cafe Procope, one the most famous cafes of the time (Bilheux & Escoffier, 2000, p. 60). A meeting place for intellectuals, writers, revolutionaries, actors, and other notable personalities, the cafe was the first established coffee house in France and was decorated to appeal to the aristocracy (Montagne, 2001, pp. 937-38).

The original Bavarian creams were very frothy beverages that were often based on an infusion with ferns and later included eggs, yolks, kirsch, and milk (Bilheux & Escoffier, 2000, p. 60). Over the years, Bavar ian cream has evolved to be the mousse-like dessert we know today. Bavarian creams are very versatile and are often used in charlottes and Bavarian cakes.

BAVARIAN CREAM: INGREDIENTS AND COMPOSITION

The main ingredients of a Bavarian cream are milk, cream, egg yolks, sugar, and gelatin. Its main components include a creme Anglaise base, gelatin, and whipped cream. The choice for flavoring additives is virtually unlimited and may include chocolate, coffee, caramel, teas, fruit puree, spices, and vanilla.
FIGURE 16-1 BAVARIAN CREAM

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[1] Bloomed leaf gelatin is
ready to be melted and
added to the base (creme
Anglaise).

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[2] Whip the cream to soft
peaks.

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[3] After the creme Anglaise
base is at 75[degrees]F (24[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F
(29[degrees]C), fold in the soft-peak
whipped cream.

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[4] Deposit the finished
cream as desired.


Composition of the Creme Anglaise

Depending on the flavor of the Bavarois, the creme Anglaise may be differently formulated than a creme Anglaise used for a dessert sauce. The main variables will be the quantity of sugar, as determined by other ingredients such as chocolate, nut paste, and fruit purees, and the quantity of egg yolk as a ratio to the weight of the liquid in the formula. The quantity of egg yolk may fluctuate slightly, but an average range is 20 to 35 percent of the liquid in the formula. Although the thickening and enriching role of the egg yolk is important, using too much may lead to problems like coagulation and an egg taste. If a fruit-based Bavarois is desired, 100 percent fruit puree should be used in place of the liquid in the creme Anglaise preparation in order to obtain full fruit flavor.

Whipped Cream for Bavarians

Unlike other cakes in the mousse category, Bavarian creams always have whipped cream as a main component because it adds lightness to the base. The whipped cream should always be underwhipped to soft peaks, just as for fruit and chocolate mousse. It may be folded into the creme Anglaise base in two stages after the base has reached a temperature of 75[degrees]F (24[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C).

Setting Agents for Bavarians

Gelatin is the setting agent used in Bavarian creams. The quantity of gelatin to use as a percentage of the total formula is about 1 percent, or about 3 percent based on the weight of the liquid in the creme Anglaise.

Balancing Sugar in Bavarians

An important step in the success of a Bavarian is balancing the quantities of ingredients in the creme Anglaise, including the sugar and any additional ingredients such as chocolate or praline paste. The fresh flavors of the whipped cream or added flavoring agents should shine and not be overpowered by sweetness. A total sugar content for the finished cream should be in the range of 15 to 25 percent, depending on the flavor preferences of the audience.

BAVARIAN CREAM: PROCESS

The process for Bavarian cream is fairly straightforward. Like all mousse preparations, the gelatin should be bloomed in advance (see Bavarian Cream Figure 16-1, Step 1) and the cream may be whipped to soft peaks and reserved under refrigeration. (See Bavarian Cream Figure 16-1, Step 2.) Next, the creme Anglaise base is made, and the bloomed gelatin is added and stirred to dissolve. After the custard has cooled to 75[degrees]F (24[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C), the soft-peak whipped cream is folded in, and the Bavarian cream is deposited into molds. (See Bavarian Cream Figure 16-1, Steps 3-4.)

Most variations on this process will happen during the preparation of the creme Anglaise. For a coffee Bavarois, freshly ground coffee can be infused into the liquid ingredients for the custard sauce, or a coffee extract may be used. For a chocolate Bavarois, the chocolate is added to the hot Anglaise and an emulsion is formed before adding the whipped cream. Additional ingredients, such as alcohol, gelee or chocolate pearls, and liquors, may be added after the whipped cream has been folded in.

Process for Bavarian Cream

* Prepare all the molds and scale all the ingredients.

* Bloom the gelatin in cold water.

* Whip the cream to soft peaks and reserve in the refrigerator (or whip just before it is needed).

* Cook the creme Anglaise.

* Add the bloomed, drained gelatin to the creme Anglaise while hot and stir well to incorporate.

* When the base is 75[degrees]F (24[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C), finish the whipped cream to soft peaks.

* Fold in the whipped cream in two stages.

* If needed, fold in any additional ingredients.

* Deposit into the molds and place in freezer.

BAVARIAN CREAM: SHELF LIFE

The shelf life of a Bavarian cream is similar to that of a mousse or other fresh cream preparation. The maximum amount of time under refrigeration should be 48 hours, and a well-wrapped cake may be frozen for up to 2 weeks with good results.

FRUIT MOUSSE

Fruit mousse cakes offer an opportunity to create seasonal cakes or desserts using fresh local fruits as the base of their creations. The end result is a light, fruit-flavored cream that dissolves in the mouth and leaves a fresh taste of the season. Rather than relying on fresh fruit to use as the base, a consistent and popular option is to use high-quality, commercially made frozen fruit purees.

Fruit mousse is usually composed of a base, an egg foam, whipped cream, and a setting agent, the selection of which will have an effect on the final texture and flavor. This section will explore the formulation and process of making fruit mousse.

ASSEMBLING THE COMPONENTS FOR A FRUIT MOUSSE

The type of fruit used will dictate how to prepare it for the base. For berries and fruit with small seeds, puree and then strain the fruit through a chinois. For pit fruits such as nectarines or apricots, peel the fruit, remove the pit, and puree it. There is no need to strain pit fruits. Process the fruit just before starting the preparation and then store it covered and in the refrigerator until needed. If using a frozen fruit puree, defrost it in the refrigerator overnight.

One of the first steps in mousse preparation is to prewhip the cream to soft peaks and to return it to the refrigerator. Some may prefer to whip the cream to soft peak just before incorporation into the final mousse; however, the number of mixing bowls that are available is sometimes a consideration in when the cream is whipped. Whipping should stop once it has gained volume and the trail of the whisk can barely be seen on the surface of the cream. It is always better to underwhip the cream for finishing later.

The next step is to prepare the Italian meringue and bloom the gelatin in very cold water until it is soft. Once softened, it can be held off to the side until it is needed in the formula.

When the meringue is in its last minutes of whipping, the gelatin can be melted and added into the fruit puree base. (See Fruit Mousse Figure 16-2, Step 1.) To ensure even distribution, this is best done by a process of tempering.

A small portion of the puree (about five times the quantity of gelatin) should be heated to about 115[degrees]F (46[degrees]C). Separately, the gelatin should be melted to about the same temperature. This can be done in a micro wave or bain-marie. At this point, the melted gelatin can easily be incorporated into the warmed puree, and then added to the remaining fruit puree base and fully incorporated.

When the Italian meringue is lukewarm, it can be folded into the base. (See Fruit Mousse Figure 16-2, Step 2.) To ensure that maximum volume will be retained in the mousse, light components such as Italian meringue or whipped cream should be folded in using a two-stage process. Some like to incorporate the first addition of Italian meringue with a whisk until fully mixed and then fold in the rest with a rubber spatula in two stages.

The temperature of the fruit mousse preparation should still be about 80[degrees]F (27[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C), at which point the cream can be whipped to its final consistency of soft peaks. (See Fruit Mousse Figure 16-2, Step 3.) The cream will further develop as it is folded into the mousse in a couple of stages, and it should be mixed in just until there are no more streaks of white. At this point the mousse is ready to be molded. (See Fruit Mousse Figure 16-2, Steps 4-5.)

Fruit Mousse Process

* Prepare the cake rings or molds.

* Prepare the fruit puree as required.

* Whip the cream to soft peaks.

* Bloom the gelatin.

* Make the Italian meringue.

* Add the gelatin to the base.

* Fold the Italian meringue into the base in two or three stages.

* Fold in the whipped cream in two stages.

* Deposit the mousse into the cake rings or molds and freeze.

CHOCOLATE MOUSSE

Chocolate mousse can be a rich, intoxicating rush of chocolate with smooth flavors and a creamy mouthfeel. There are numerous preparations and formulas for chocolate mousse, from a simple combination of creme Chantilly and ganache to a formulation of several elements such as ganache, various egg foams (pate a bombe, Italian meringue, Swiss meringue, and common meringue), and whipped cream. Numerous options for composition and flavor development can be created from the three major categories of chocolate-white, milk, and dark.
FIGURE 16-2 FRUIT MOUSSE

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[1] Add the bloomed,
melted gelatin to the base.

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[2] Using a whisk, gently
whip in the Italian meringue.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Add the whipped cream
in two stages.

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[4] Fold the whipped cream
in gently with a spatula.

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[5] When no streaks of cream
can be seen, the mousse is
ready for depositing.


Because there are several key variables concerning cocoa content alone, one must understand the working properties of chocolate in order to have consistent results. For a detailed look at chocolate, refer to Chapter 22. Whatever preparation is chosen, the formulas and processes are all bound by common practices and techniques.

ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES FOR CHOCOLATE MOUSSE

To make a successful chocolate mousse, specific guidelines should be followed in the following areas:

* Ingredients and formulation

* Temperature

* Emulsion

* Handling and sanitation

Ingredients and Formulation

The quality of ingredients used in a chocolate mousse will be evident in its final structure and flavor. In particular, the percentages of cocoa butter and cocoa content in chocolate provide essential functions in the mousse, including setting properties, workability, and mouthfeel. If a couverture-grade chocolate is not used, for example, the chocolate may not be supple enough, and other hard fats in the preparation may interfere with the makeup process and have a negative effect on mouthfeel and flavor. In addition to the texture of the final product, the percentage of cocoa will affect the quantity of chocolate and additional sweet elements such as pate a bombe and Italian meringue.

As previously discussed, successful chocolate mousse is always based on a ganache because decrystallizing the cocoa butter (which contains hard crystalline fats) before elaboration enables easy incorporation of the remaining components. The ganache may be made with milk, pastry cream, cream, or creme Anglaise. Each liquid contains a different amount and variety of fats that will affect the texture of the ganache and ultimately the final mousse texture.
FIGURE 16-3 CHOCOLATE MOUSSE

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[1] The base of this chocolate
mousse is ganache.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] The pate a bombe is ready
to be folded into the mousse.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Fold the pate a bombe
into the mousse.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Fold the whipped cream
into the mousse in two stages.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[5] Fold in the cream just until
there are no more streaks
and then deposit as needed.


As for the egg foam component, pate a bombe adds a rich flavor, and the egg yolks help maintain a smooth emulsion. For these reasons, it is commonly used in chocolate mousse. Italian meringue may also be used; however, due to its lighter nature, it will provide somewhat more lightening capacity than the pate a bombe. Some mousse may be made without an egg foam.

Almost all chocolate mousse calls for whipped cream with a 35 to 40 percent fat content. The quantity of whipped cream added will thin the network of cocoa butter-setting properties, yet the developed cream should have enough strength from the developed fats to hold its own weight. As with fruit mousse, the temperature will drop and the final process of depositing the mousse should begin after the soft-peak whipped cream is incorporated.

Depending on the type and quantity of chocolate used for a mousse, additional setting agents may be required. A dark chocolate mousse should be able to set on its own, whereas white and milk chocolate mousse cakes generally require the addition of gelatin to ensure proper setting and texture. The quantity of gelatin will vary by process and the quantity of cocoa butter in the formula, but, in general, the lower the cocoa content, the higher the amount of alternative setting agents that will be needed for the final product.

Cocoa Percent and Sugar in Chocolate Mousse Formulas

The brand, percentage of cocoa, and type of chocolate are important considerations when determining the quantity of chocolate required for a mousse. The higher the percentage of cocoa is, the less chocolate will be required to substantiate a full chocolate flavor and set a specific amount of the mousse. Particular attention must be paid to the amount of chocolate used because the cocoa butter in it is the major setting agent for chocolate mousse cake. As a rule, cocoa butter makes up at least 50 percent of the cocoa content.

Balancing the cocoa and sugar content of the chocolate with the other fats and sugars in the mousse is essential to maintaining a smooth emulsion, proper mouthfeel, and taste. Cocoa content acts as a stabilizer and setting agent, and if the formula does not contain enough pate a bombe or whipped cream in relation to the chocolate, the mousse will be very firm. Conversely, too little cocoa content may not provide enough flavor or setting properties.

Temperature

Temperature control is as essential to a great mousse as the selection of high-quality ingredients. Because of the unique crystallization properties of the cocoa butter and its behavior over different temperature ranges, it is necessary to have a solid understanding of temperature guidelines before mousse preparation begins. The discussion of the properties of chocolate in Chapter 22 will serve as a good review for this section.

Chocolate needs to reach 110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C) to 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C) for the fat crystals to melt completely. When ganache is used as the base for a mousse, the temperature should be between 110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C) and 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C) to ensure that all cocoa butter is melted and that production is not rushed. After the ganache has cooled to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) to 105[degrees]F (41[degrees]C), the egg foam may be folded in and the whipped cream added.

Mousse should always be deposited before it cools to the point of cocoa butter crystallization, which occurs between 80[degrees]F (27[degrees]C) and 84[degrees]F (29[degrees]C). If the cocoa butter crystallizes before the mousse is deposited in the mold, it becomes difficult to portion, and quality is compromised. The mousse should set up in the mold after it has been deposited and not before.

Emulsion

A key step in producing a palatable mousse is to create a stable emulsion, or blend of water and oil. Considering the high fat and water content in a mousse, proper formulation, temperature control, and rate of incorporation must be observed. If not, the end product will have a sticky and greasy mouthfeel, will have a dense consistency, and will not cut cleanly.

Handling

For the mousse to maintain proper volume, overworking the mousse at all stages of production as well as makeup must be avoided. Mousse should be ladled into larger molds and piped into smaller ones. It should be noted that applying mousse with a spatula or piping bag may decrease the volume by 15 to 20 percent, which in turn may lead to increased costs for labor and ingredients, because more weight is needed to create the same volume.

CHOCOLATE MOUSSE: PROCESS

The general process for chocolate mousse is to begin by whipping the cream to soft peaks and reserving it in the refrigerator. Note, however, that some people prefer to whip the cream just before it is needed. The next step is to make the base ganache. (See Chocolate Mousse Figure 16-3, Step 1.) Depending on the formulation, this may be based on cream, creme Anglaise, or pastry cream and chocolate. If gelatin is used in the formula, it may be added to the warm ganache after blooming and melting. Next, the egg foam should be started. (See Chocolate Mousse Figure 16-3, Step 2.) After the egg foam has cooled to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) to 105[degrees]F (41[degrees]C) and the ganache-base is the same temperature, the egg foam may be added to the ganache. (See Chocolate Mousse Figure 16-3, Step 3.) It should be mixed in only to incorporation to avoid breaking the emulsion. Next, the soft-peak whipped cream may be added. (See Chocolate Mousse Figure 16-3, Steps 4-5.) Once all the cream is incorporated, the mousse should be deposited and frozen or kept in the refrigerator if it is not being unmolded.

Variations on chocolate mousse may include the addition of nut pastes, chocolate nibs, cubed gelee, or alcohol. Denser items such as nut pastes should be added to the ganache, whereas lighter ingredients and inclusions may be added after the whipped cream has been folded in. Caution must be taken to avoid overmixing the mousse during the addition of alcohol or other inclusions. The more the mousse is stirred, the more the fat develops, and the grainier the texture becomes.

General Process for Chocolate Mousse

* Scale all the ingredients and prepare all the molds.

* Whip the cream to soft peaks and reserve in the refrigerator (this may also be done right before it is needed for incorporation).

* Prepare the base ganache.

* Prepare the egg foam.

* After the base is 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) to 105[degrees]F (41[degrees]C), fold in the egg foam (if applicable).

* Finish whipping the cream to soft peaks and fold into the base.

* Gently fold in any inclusions (if applicable).

* Deposit into the molds and freeze or refrigerate.

CHOCOLATE MOUSSE: MUCH TO CONSIDER

The possibilities for flavor and presentation of chocolate mousse are quite vast. Careful selection of chocolate can produce a tremendous array of results, and using different egg foams, add-in ingredients, and different quantities of whipped cream will allow any chocolate to be transformed into virtually any mousse.
FORMULA

BASIC BAVARIAN CREAM
WITH VARIATIONS

This classic Bavarian cream formula can easily be adjusted with
a flavoring such as praline paste or chocolate.

Ingredients    Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Cream #1           50.00      0.242        0.532
Milk               50.00      0.242        0.532
Sugar              25.20      0.122        0.268
Egg yolks          31.40      0.152        0.334
Gelatin leaf        2.22      0.011        0.024
Cream #2          100.00      0.483        1.065
Total             258.82      1.250        2.756

Ingredients      Lb & Oz           Test

Cream #1           8 1/2       6 1/8 oz
Milk               8 1/2       6 1/8 oz
Sugar              4 1/4       3 1/8 oz
Egg yolks          5 3/8       3 1/8 oz
Gelatin leaf         3/8         1/4 oz
Cream #2             1 1      12 3/8 oz
Total           2 12 1/8           2 lb

Note

Combined weight of the milk and the first cream is 100 percent.

Process

1. Bloom the gelatin in very cold water and reserve.

2. Whip the second cream to soft peaks and reserve.

3. Boil the first cream and the milk and proceed with the base
preparation as for a creme Anglaise and cook to 180[degrees]F
(82[degrees]C).

4. Strain through a fine chinois into a clean bowl and add the
bloomed, melted gelatin and mix to incorporate.

5. When the base mixture has cooled to 75[degrees]F (24[degrees]C)
to 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C), fold in the whipped cream.

Note

A large batch of basic Bavarian cream can be made, and after straining
but before folding in the whipped cream, it can be flavored
accordingly.

Flavor Variations

Dark Chocolate Bavarian Cream

Scale out 6'/2 oz (0.188 kg) of 64 percent couverture (15 percent
total weight of Bavarian cream). Melt the chocolate in a microwave
to 110[degrees]F (44[degrees]C), and fold it into the creme Anglaise
while it is hot.

Praline Bavarian Cream

Scale out 3'/2 oz (0.100 kg) of praline paste (8 percent total
weight of Bavarian cream). Mix it in the hot creme Anglaise base
after straining.

FORMULA

WILLIAMS PEAR MOUSSE WITH AND
WITHOUT ITALIAN MERINGUE

The Williams pear mousse formula creates a delicately flavored
mousse. For the classic version, there is no Italian meringue; however,
a version that uses one is presented here. The puree for this mousse
formula can also be switched out using apricot, blackberry, blueberry,
orange, and blood orange to create a variety of other
flavors, using the same ratios of ingredients.

William Pear Mousse Without Italian Meringue Formula

Ingredients           Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Williams pear puree      100.00      0.692        1.526
Sugar                      8.00      0.055        0.122
Cream                     70.00      0.485        1.068
Gelatin leaf               2.60      0.018        0.040
Total                    180.60      1.250        2.756

Ingredients             Lb & Oz              Test

Williams pear puree    1 8 3/8      1 lb 1 3/4 oz
Sugar                  2 1 3/8 oz
Cream                  1 1 1/8          12 3/8 oz
Gelatin leaf               5/8             1/2 oz
Total                 2 12 1/8               2 lb

Note

The Williams pear puree can be substituted with one of the following
purees: apricot, blackberry, blueberry, orange, or blood orange.

Process

1. Whip the cream to soft peaks. Reserve in the refrigerator.

2. Bloom the gelatin in cold water and reserve.

3. Warm 7'/a oz (208 g) of the puree (30 percent of the puree weight)
and sugar to 110[degrees]F (44[degrees]C). Add the bloomed, melted
gelatin, and stir well to dissolve.

4. Add the puree with gelatin to the remaining puree and adjust the
temperature to 75[degrees]F (24[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F (29
[degrees]C).

5. Gently fold the whipped cream into the puree mixture. Fold until
there are no more white streaks.

6. Deposit into the desired molds.

Williams Pear Mousse With Italian Meringue Formula

Ingredients           Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Williams pear puree      100.00      0.724        1.597
Sugar                     11.00      0.080        0.176
Water                      2.20      0.016        0.035
Egg whites                 6.80      0.049        0.109
Cream                     50.00      0.362        0.798
Gelatin leaf               2.60      0.019        0.042
Total                    172.60      1.250        2.756

Ingredients             Lb & Oz            Test

Williams pear puree     1 9 1/2    1 lb 2 1/2 oz
Sugar                     2 3/4             2 oz
Water                       1/2           3/8 oz
Egg whites                1 3/4         1 1/4 oz
Cream                    12 3/4         9 1/4 oz
Gelatin leaf                5/8           1/2 oz
Total                  2 12 1/5             2 lb

Note

The Williams pear puree can be substituted with one of the following
purees: apricot, blackberry, blueberry, orange, or blood orange.

Process

1. Whip the cream to soft peak. Reserve in the refrigerator.

2. Bloom the gelatin in cold water and reserve.

3. Combine the sugar and water and cookto prepare an Italian meringue.
Prepare the egg whites.

4. Warm the fruit puree to 80[degrees]F (27[degrees]C).

5. Take a small portion of the fruit puree, warm it to 120[degrees]F
(49[degrees]C), and add the bloomed, melted gelatin to it. Stir to
dissolve. Temper this gelatin-puree mixture back into the main stock
of puree.

6. When the Italian meringue is room temperature, fold it into the
fruit puree base.

7. Lastly, at 80[degrees]F (27[degrees]C) to 85[degrees]F (29
[degrees]C), fold in the soft peak whipped cream, and deposit
into the desired molds.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE MOUSSE

This is a basic chocolate mousse formula, which can be used in
many ways for desserts, entremets, tarts, and petits fours, among
others. Proper ingredient selection, temperatures, and processes
must be followed to achieve a light, flavorful mousse that has
enough strength to stand without gelatin.

Ingredients       Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

35% cream            100.00      0.338        0.745
64% couverture       100.00      0.338        0.745
Egg yolks             30.00      0.101        0.223
Sugar                 30.00      0.101        0.223
Water                 10.00      0.034        0.074
40% cream            100.00      0.338        0.745
Total                370.00      1.250        2.756

Ingredients           Lb & Oz           Test

35% cream              11 7/8       8 5/8 oz
64% couverture         11 7/8       8 5/8 oz
Egg yolks               3 5/8       2 5/8 oz
Sugar                   3 5/8       2 5/8 oz
Water                   1 1/4         7/8 oz
40% cream              11 7/8       8 5/8 oz
Total                2 12 1/8           2 lb

Process

1. Make a ganache with the 35 percent cream and chocolate.

2. Make a pate a bombe with the egg yolks, sugar, and water.

3. Whip the 40 percent cream to soft peaks and reserve in the
refrigerator.

4. When the pate a bombe is between 100[degrees]F (38[degrees]C)
and 105[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add it to the ganache, which
should be the same temperature.

5. Fold in the soft peak whipped cream in two stages.

6. Deposit into molds and freeze.

Note

One 8 inch (20 cm) cake with two inserts (one bottom cake and one
frozen insert) requires approximately 33'/3 (950 g) of the
chocolate mousse.


CHAPTER SUMMARY

Mousse, which has been around for over a century, has a light and creamy texture as its trademark characteristic. It can be used in making cakes, or it can stand alone as a component to a plated dessert. To ensure the taste, texture, and mouthfeel that are the trademarks of a successful mousse, proper ingredient selection and formulation are essential. Taking into consideration the main components of a mousse, the base, the egg foam, the whipped cream, and the gelatin, there are many options for flavor and texture development. Proper temperature and mixing processes must also be practiced to ensure good results.

Mousse cakes have waned in and out of popularity, possibly due to the misuse of gelatin and its effect on consumers who have grown accustomed to sweet layer cakes. Today's trends point toward a growing demand for and enjoyment of a variety of mousse cakes with the rich, delicate tastes and textures featured at quality pastry shops. (See Chapter 17 for a closer look at specialty and mousse cakes.)

KEY TERMS

* Base

* Bavarian cream

* Chocolate mousse

* Emulsion

* Fruit mousse

* Ganache

* Mousse

1. Describe the typical components of the three main types of mousse and their functions.

2. What is the basic process for making a Bavarian cream?

3. What are the considerations of temperature when making chocolate mousse? Why are they important?

4. What hygiene and sanitation precautions need to be taken when making k mousse? Why?
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Title Annotation:PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:7466
Previous Article:Chapter 15 Syrups, creams, custards, egg foams, and icings.
Next Article:Chapter 17: Classic and modern cake assembly.
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