Who was who in Madeira at the time of the second British occupation in 1807.
As with so many of the interventions carried out by Britain during the Napoleonic Wars, policy was clearly steered by commercial interest as well as considerations of strategy. Madeira was on the main shipping lanes and was frequently visited by vessels of all nations, having consuls representing France, Great Britain, the United States, Denmark and Sweden. There was a sizeable British community on the island, most of it linked in one way or another to the trade in Madeira wine and to the ancillary trades which throve alongside the export of the boal and verdelho. During the war Madeira's importance to Britain had substantially increased as it was there that merchant ships were assembled to be taken in convoy through the Channel.
In 1801 the occupation had been purely defensive and Clinton's men had been withdrawn once the terms of the Peace of Amiens had been agreed. By the end of 1803 Britain and France were once again at war and in October 1804 Britain had anticipated open hostilities with Spain by seizing four Spanish warships carrying silver. In retaliation Spain declared war formally in December 1804 and Britain once more found itself in conflict with its two greatest naval and colonial rivals. The Prince Regent of Portugal, Dom Joao, tried to keep clear of the conflict but was gradually enmeshed in the toils of French and Spanish diplomacy which exacted an ever higher price from Portugal for the privilege of remaining neutral. Meanwhile in Britain policy options were being weighed and contingencies drawn up to cover a situation where Spain and Portugal as well as the Netherlands, together with their colonies, would effectively be absorbed into an expanded French empire. In these circumstances Britain determined to safeguard its position by annexing or occupying colonial territories where it had vital strategic or commercial interests. In 1806 British forces had occupied the Dutch colony at the Cape and had sent an expedition from there which attempted unsuccessfully to capture Buenos Aires.
Plans for the annexation of Madeira were drawn up during the summer of 1807 but were not implemented while the direction of French policy was still uncertain and Portugal retained its neutrality. However, during July events began to move rapidly. In that month Napoleon presented an ultimatum to Portugal to close its ports to British shipping and began to assemble an army at Bayonne under General Junot. Portuguese diplomacy tried to find a way out of its dilemma and proposed various deals to Britain which included a promise of a commercial treaty as part of a 'General Peace' provided Britain took no offence at Portugal acceding to France's demands to close its ports. (2) By September a deal had been worked out in London between Canning and the Portuguese Minister, Domingos de Sousa Coutinho, whereby if Portugal closed its ports to British shipping Britain would occupy Madeira. Canning agreed 'que jusqu'a ce qu'il y aura une certitude d'une demarche, ou declaration hostile de la part de la France, aucune expedition ne sera entreprise contre l'isle de Madere, ni contre aucune possession Portuguaise par le Gouvernement Brittanique'. On their part the Portuguese agreed 'de ne pas permettre dorenavant le passage dans l'isle de Madere d'aucun renfort de Trouppe ni l'envoy d'aucun officier francais' and orders would be sent to Madeira 'de ne pas resister, ou de ne fair qu'une ressemblance de resistance a l'expedition anglais'. (3)
On 17 October Junot entered Spain with his army en route for Portugal and on 20 October, still trying to appease the French and ward off an invasion, Dom Joao agreed to adhere to the demands of the Berlin Decrees and to close his ports to British shipping. On 22 October Lord Strangford, the British Minister in Lisbon, was told that British troops would sail to occupy Madeira just as soon as Portugal took action to close its ports to British shipping. The justification for this action was made clear in a despatch of 7 November. It was 'compensation for the injury done to this country by the shutting of the ports of Portugal'. (4)
While France and Spain were planning a joint invasion of Portugal to be followed by a partition of the country, Lord Strangford was urging Dom Joao to put himself under British protection and leave for Brazil. Dom Joao delayed taking any action until Junot's army crossed the frontier but then decided to throw in his lot with Britain, sailing with all his court and government to Brazil on 30 November 1807. By this time the plans for the annexation of Madeira were already in train. In December Rear Admiral Samuel Hood had sailed with eight warships and fifteen transports carrying 3,658 men under the command of Major General William Carr Beresford, who the previous year had commanded a similar, though on that occasion unsuccessful, expedition to occupy Buenos Aires. (5)
Why was such a large force needed? As part of the secret negotiations between the British and Portuguese governments, entered into while Portugal was still technically neutral, it was agreed that it should be made to appear that Portugal was surrendering Madeira in the face of an overwhelming military and naval force. In this way it was hoped that Portuguese neutrality would not be placed in jeopardy. It was for this reason that Britain dispatched a large amphibious expedition on an enterprise where it was already known there would be no opposition. (6)
As part of the subterfuge, Madeira was to be formally annexed to the British Crown. Here there may well have been two conflicting understandings about what was agreed. Britain's original intention had been to annex the island whether Portugal agreed or not, a decision which had been taken during the summer of 1807 when Portugal was still neutral and still trying to appease the French. However, when Dom Joao threw in his lot with Britain, the decision to annex was not immediately revoked and it was only the following April that Madeira was formally returned to Portuguese sovereignty. For exactly four months (24 December 1807 to 24 April 1808) Madeira was to be a British Crown Colony.
When plans for the occupation of the island were being drawn up in the summer of 1807, Beresford had been approached not only to command the British troops but to become the first British governor of Madeira. As part of the preparation for the annexation two reports were prepared. One dealt with tactical and operational aspects of the occupation. The other was a confidential memorandum on the leading personalities on the island with whom any British governor would have to deal. This document is entitled 'Memorandum of Characters' and is reproduced in this article. (7)
The War Office in London had a variety of sources of information on which to draw. First there were the personnel who had been involved in Clinton's occupation in 1801-02. Second, there was a permanent British population on the island which numbered approximately one hundred and which was dominated by the representatives of the wine exporters, prominent among them the firm of Gordon. There were about twenty British trading establishments on the island and British merchants were organized in a Factory which had been in existence since the seventeenth century and which enjoyed privileges granted by Cromwell's treaty of 1654. Among these was the right to appoint its own Judge Conservator to hear cases involving the British community. By the end of the eighteenth century it had become customary to invite the Corregidor of Madeira to occupy this post. (8)
Thirdly, in addition to the permanent or semi-permanent British residents was the more transient population of invalids and visitors. Towards the end of the eighteenth century Madeira had become increasingly popular as a place for the treatment of tuberculosis. Booklets appeared extolling the island's climate and a number of British medical practitioners established themselves on the island. (9)
With such a wide choice of informants, it is not possible to say who was responsible for drawing up the two memoranda, both of which are anonymous. However, although the two documents are in a different hand, it seems likely that they were both written by the same person. The author of the memorandum on the occupation of the island writes, 'I shall in the course of this Evening furnish a list of persons both English and natives who it may be proper for the Commander of the Forces to know, that he may consult, employ or watch them as he shall see necessary'. (10) This is an exact description of the 'Memorandum of Characters' and it may safely be assumed the two documents have a single author. From internal evidence in the two documents, which were written between 10 August and 9 September 1807, one can say that the author was clearly not the Consul or his deputy; that he appears to have been British and to have been resident on the island at the time of the Clinton occupation until at least 1806 for there is a reference to Mr Scott as being 'not much acquainted with Madeira--where he only went to my house in 1806'.11 At the time of writing the author was resident in Cheltenham and had recently been asked by British traders to join with them in making representations to the British Government, which suggests that he himself may have had commercial links.
The importance of the 'Memorandum of Characters' lies partly in the biographical information it provides, much of it supplementary to the information in the standard historical encyclopaedia of Madeira, the Elucidario Madeirense. However, the 'Memorandum' is also significant for the way it traces the networks of family and influence that controlled the island affairs. These networks linked the senior government officials, the foreign consuls and the leading merchants and land owners and show clearly that in 1807 the ruling elite was far from united. Already it was clear that there were English-inclined and French-inclined factions and that even before the French occupation of Lisbon, divisions had appeared which were to run like fault lines through the ruling class of Portugal for the next two generations.
According to the author there were a number of leading figures on the island who would find an English annexation palatable if, as the 'Memorandum' makes clear, Britain intended a permanent occupation of the island. When considering the leading government officials, the author comments that 'it is almost certain that they will not choose to hold their offices under the British Government and I am not certain they would do so with safety to our Government'.
'MEMORANDUM OF CHARACTERS'
The Governor is new in Office, having arrived on 8th August. (12) His Character therefore is perfectly unknown--a letter dated the 10th of August has the following account of him and his Suite--
The detention of the vessel enables me to inform you of the departure of an old and the arrival of our new Governor. (13) People do not seem to think the Change for the better--and are afraid that in the Political, as in the Physical, World, a storm may succeed a Calm. The appearance and manners of the new man make me augur differently. He is an accomplished man, understands Music, Painting & Architecture--and is fond of Poetry and Belles Lettres--so at least speaks report. His wife is preciously ugly. His Secretary is no other than old John Marquis Caldeira, the Roses of whose nose have faded a little, altho the stock on which they grew has increased in length and Thickness. (14)
A. J. Marquis was Secretary to the Government when the former Expedition went to Madeira. He is an old solemn Coxcomb with little hair and little good in him, and it was always understood a little cash and a little civility had great influence with him, but he had great influence with nobody.
The Corrigedor--I knew nothing of--he is not a favorite with the English, (15) I believe, having threatened to imprison the Consul but I am inclined to think the Consul was to blame in the affair, as I am very sorry to say he has been in almost every dispute between him and the natives.
The Juiz de Fora--President of the Camara--a coarse bustling acute fellow, who has done many harsh and some unjustifiable things. (16) His situation makes him of consequence as being at the head of the Municipal body. Both the Corrigedor and the Juiz de Fora are natives of Portugal, and it is therefore almost certain that they will not choose to hold their offices under the British Government and I am not certain that they would do so with safety to our Government. Substitutes must be found to replace them and especially the Juiz de Fora, whose office as Presidente de Senado is important. The law provides that the oldest member of this Body should preside in case of the Juiz de Fora's incapacity or absence, and out of that Body a fit person must be chosen. I would recommend Nuno de Freitas da Sylva, the Uncle, as the man whose talents best fit him for this situation, he is well informed, an honorable Character, and more active than most of his Countrymen. He speaks French fluently, and understands English well. I much doubt his accepting the appointment. (17)
John Francisco da Camara--is a Man of the first Connections, tho' not of large fortune, and he has a good deal of information and of influence. (18) He was of much use in the former Expedition, and both he and Nuno de Freitas deserve every attention--as does Antonio Joaquim de Vasconcelles a man of very honorable Character and very wealthy--he will be very cautious, but as far as he commits himself, may be depended upon. He is not of such high family, (a thing much looked to) as either of the two others but he has a good deal of weight with certain classes and his services might be useful.
John de Carvashal--a Gentleman of most excellent Character, and of very large fortune (12 [pounds sterling] or 15000 [pounds sterling] per annum). (19) He was educated in England, but is at present travelling on the Continent--though I think he would return to the Island on hearing of its changing masters. Every thing should be done to conciliate this Gentleman whose Influence in the Country is very great, both on account of his large possessions and the very laudable use he makes of his fortune.
Fernando Corvea, late ambassador to the Courts of Stockholm and Berlin from the Court of Lisbon--very much a man of the world--talks as much, boasts as much and lies as much, as any Frenchman. His connexions both in the Island and in Portugal are very high. He is too high and ostentatious to be much liked or have much influence--but he would move Heaven and Earth to revenge any Insult or Slight. His income is moderate, but his Estates have long been mortgaged to an English Merchant. His wife, Donna Amelia, is an amiable little woman, daughter of Chev. Pinto, born & educated in London, which she calls her home. He has a very large family. The last accounts I had of him were from Germany, but I understood he was about to return to Madeira, where he may, for any thing I know, have arrived.
Dr Monteiro--a wealthy Portuguese merchant--very active--very violent--speaks French & English fluently. (20) His father is still alive. His politics are inclined to French, but his Wealth and Commercial Connexions will be a security for his good Conduct. The Monteiro family is very numerous, but the Doctor (for so he is called as he took his degrees at the University) is the only prominent character. He is unquestionably one of the ablest men in the Island--and very well informed--neither he nor his family are popular on account of their love of money, and also on account of some other things which render them very obnoxious.
Doctor Antonio Caetano--a Physician. (21) This Gentleman has much Influence amongst the first families. He speaks French & English, studied Physic at Edinburgh under Dr Cullen. His opinions are Revolutionary and Jacobinical--and his Politics rather French than English--he is a great talker--conceited--plausible--but superficial & full of Theories. He is however the oracle of his Party and if conciliated may do good. He and Monteiro, and also Nuno de Freitas are very intimate having been at college together.
Colonel Antonio Alberto was Adjutant General when the English troops were formerly in Madeira, and I believe still holds the same post. I imagine however he will take the Command of the Regular Troops. He has some Military Knowledge, but no Experience. He is not without Talents--but has more cunning than ability. He must either be conciliated or very carefully watched. His temper is meddling and violent.
Cardoza. Commander of the Artillery--a wild eccentric Character, but fundamentally not bad, although he would be a dangerous tool in the hands of a man of more ability than himself. He was one of those whom the late Bishop had engaged in an intended attack on the British troops along with Miguel Carvalho--an officer in a Militia Regiment. This is a daring, turbulent, active, able, and flagitious Character. He has courage to encounter any danger, and talents to execute any Enterprise--and he has no shame--no principle--no character--or moral sense to restrain him. He must be very narrowly watched. Should he attach himself to the English he may be very useful--but should he be hostile, his Intrigues and his bold activity render him dangerous.
Patroni--formerly Interpreter to the English troops. (22) He is an Italian by birth--speaks many languages--artful, insinuating and obsequious. He may be very useful, but as he is unprincipled, he must not be much trusted. He is very poor.
Agostinho de Ornellas--a very wild extraordinary kind of Character--very active and bustling--of high family & connexions, and therefore possessed of certain Influence notwithstanding his extreme Irregularities. (23) He has a dislike to the English, and he has too much reason for thro their means he suffered much Injury.
Pedro Julio de Camara (24)--uncle to the above--a Man of very high family, and of still higher Pride--much attached to the English--and he has now 4 sons and 2 daughters at school in England. His health is very bad--but if he should be in a state to accept of any Situation, no man would be more zealous in the cause.
Dr Jardein the ablest lawyer in the Island tho not perhaps the honestest. (25) He has always been employed by the English Factory--and where an Assessor may be necessary to assist any Magistrate he should be employed. He can do much for us, and much against us. His health has of late been bad.
Novaes--one of the Officers of Justice. The Townshend of Madeira. This man should not be overlooked as his Habits and Talents fit him for knowing any thing that is going. No man is so well acquainted with the detail of the Police. He is a man of real Talent and may be very useful. He can turn his hand to any thing. He is not over strict in his Principles.
Petta--scrivener--an honest man of whom many will speak well.
Mons de la Tuilliere--French Consul. This young man is not a Frenchman born, but descended from a family long domiciliated in Portugal. His Mother is sister to Dr Monteiro--much interest was used to obtain for him the appointment, and prevent its being given to a Native Frenchman of whom the Portuguese Government were much afraid. La Tuilliere acts principally under the direction of his Uncle Monteiro--and I understand that he has been very diligent in furnishing to the French Government information of all that has been going on in the Island--and dispatched regularly vessels to inform the French government when English Fleets or English Expeditions have touched at, or appeared off Madeira. This kind of connexion should make him be watched, altho I think the large stake which his family (the Monteiros) have in the island is a strong pledge for his good behaviour. He has several sisters married to Natives.
Mr Ayres--Danish Consul--a very inoffensive and insignificant man--The American Consul I do not know, tho he is not well spoken of. (26) He has probably however a due portion of the offensive Conceit and Ignorance of the American Character.
Mr Pringle, the English Consul. (27) He has managed to make himself universally disliked by the Natives, and neither respected nor liked by his countrymen. He has neither sense, manners nor temper--for his situation, and by his improper conduct and insolent Deportment has involved himself in many personal and disgraceful Quarrels and been the means of involving the British Factory in hostile and irritating discussions which have led to an alienation and illwill on the part of the natives towards the English, to a degree which I could never have imagined, considering the cordiality which had so long subsisted. So dangerous is folly in office.
Mr Veitch--the Consuls partner--a sedate, sensible and truly respectable man. (28) He is rather infirm and lives retired. It is not easy to get him to speak or to act--but he is possessed of prudence and good sense.
Mr Casey, a very active man of more acuteness than Education. (29) His temper is warm, and his prejudices very strong, but he is very indefatigable in any thing he undertakes, and as he has associated much with the Natives, he has a great deal of Influence among them, and the means of getting better Information than any other Englishman on account of his Connection with the Clergy, being a Catholic.
Mr Jas Gordon is not such an active turn as Mr Casey, altho of temper, Habits & Connexions nearly similar--both are then of Honorable Character. (30)
Mr Page--a Man not popular with either the natives or his own countrymen--but nothing can be said against his Character. (31) He was the only member of the Factory who would not visit or accept an invitation from General Clinton.
Mr Lewis (32) and Mr Cundell (33)--two very wealthy men, but who live in perfect Retirement.
Dr Gourlay. (34) Physician to the Factory--and who formerly had the Care of the English Troops left behind sick. He is a man of no address in society, but of considerable professional ability. His family are lately gone out, and are very amiable & respectable. This Gentleman's manners prevent his being a general favorite--but as a professional man I would prefer him to Mr Andrews--a medical man lately settled, and who has by his assiduity and attention very deservedly become a favorite with all Classes. Both Andrews and Gourlay are in the way, from professional connexions, of hearing a good deal of peoples opinions.
Mr Scott, a very mild Gentlemanlike man--but not much acquainted with Madeira--where he only went to my house in 1806. Of course knows little of the language manners and connexions of the Natives.
Mr Thomas Harris--a very good young man that is perfectly acquainted with the Language & Customs of the Country, and whose Character stands high with those who know him. (35) He is still too young to have great influence.
Mr Webster Gordon--a very superior young man of good Education and considerable Acquirements--much good sense and Honorable Feelings. (36) He is beyond all comparison the first Character in Madeira, but he is still too young to have that influence and weight in society which his Talents and his honorable Character will in due time give him.
(1) Accounts of the first British occupation can be found in, 'Ocupacao da Madeira por Tropas Inglesas', in Elucidario Madeirense, ed. by Fernando Augusto da Silva and Carlos Azevedo de Menezes, 4th edn, 4 vols (Funchal: 1984); and Alberto Artur Sarmento, Ensaios Historicos da Minha Terra, 3 vols (Funchal: 1952), III.
(2) PRO FO 63/55 Strangford to Canning, 25 July 1807.
(3) PRO FO 63/57, Memorandum between Canning and Sousa Coutinho, 12 September 1807.
(4) PRO FO 179/6 Canning to Strangford, 22 October 1807 and Canning to Strangford, 7 November 1807.
(5) For the constitution of the British force see PRO WO 6/68 Castlereagh to Beresford, 14 November 1807. William Carr Beresford was to play a key role in Portuguese history during the early nineteenth century. He was the illegitimate son of the Marquis of Waterford and as such was a member of the clique of Anglo-Irish gentry and peers which included the Wellesleys and Castlereagh. He had already commanded British forces in the Cape and Buenos Aires when he received the command of the Madeira occupation force. His four months as governor showed him to be extremely active in trying to reorganize judicial and economic affairs in the island and when he left in August 1808 it was to take up an appointment with the Portuguese army in Lisbon. In 1809 he was appointed to command the Portuguese armed forces and spent the next four years training a highly efficient regular army. He remained commander-in-chief until 1820, retaining the confidence of the Dom Joao and playing a key roll in Portuguese affairs until ousted by the revolution of 1820. There is no biography of Beresford, although there is an excellent essay on his life in Rose Macaulay, They Went to Portugal Too (London: Carcanet, 1990).
(6) The nature of this secret agreement is made clear in Beresford's instructions. See Castlereagh to Beresford, 14 November 1807, PRO WO 6/69. It appears that the existence of this secret agreement was not known to the two the editors of the Elucidario Madeirense or to Sarmento.
(7) The 'Memorandum of Characters' and the other untitled memorandum are enclosed with W. C. Beresford to Lord Castlereagh, 9 September 1807, PRO WO 1/354.
(8) In 1807 the Portuguese royal administration was principally in the hands of three officials--the Governador e Capitao-Geral, the Crown's chief representative, the Desembargador Corregidor da Comarca (Corregidor for short) who was the senior judicial official to whom all appeals were presented, and the Juiz da Fora who deputized for the Corregidor and who acted as president of the Senado da Camara, the municipal government of the capital, Funchal. For the appointment of the corregidor as Judge Conservator see N. C. Pitta, Account of the Island of Madeira (London: 1812), p. 110.
(9) Two of these, Drs Gourlay and Andrews are mentioned in the 'Memorandum of Characters' but perhaps the most famous was Dr Joseph Adams who published The Superiority of the Climate of Madeira in 1800 in which he advertised the residential care for invalids offered by himself and his wife, and Account of the Lazaretto in the Island of Madeira with an Inquiry into the various Diseases called Leprosy in 1806. He was the author of at least one other pamphlet on smallpox which was translated into Portuguese.
(10) Untitled memorandum (see note 7).
(11) 'Memorandum of Characters'.
(12) The governor was Pedro Fagundes Bacellar d'Antas e Meneses who held the post until 1813 when he was forced to retire through paralysis.
(13) The governor's predecessor was Ascencio de Siqueira Freire.
(14) Joao Marques Caldeira de Campos.
(15) The Corregidor was Dr Jose Caetano de Paiva Pereira. This was the one official with whom Beresford could not reach an accommodation and he had to insist on his removal. See PRO WO 6/68 Castlereagh to Beresford, 30 November 1808.
(16) The Juiz da Fora was Jose Julio Gordilho. The Juiz da Fora was supposed not to be a native of Madeira. In a letter to Castlereagh, Beresford mentions that the Juiz was very hostile to the British and had wanted to confiscate their property prior to the army's arrival. Beresford took no action against him. PROWO 1/354 Beresford to Castlereagh 2 January 1808.
(17) Nuno de Freitas da Silva is mentioned in the Almanach do Anno de 1807 (Lisbon: 1807) as one of the leading merchants of Madeira. He was also one of the leading citizens who signed a petition in 1809 requesting the establishment of a Cadeira de Desenho e Pintura (a school of drawing and painting) in Funchal. See 'Criacao e Funcionamento da Aula de Desenho e Pintura do Funchal', Arquivo Historico da Madeira (1934-35), IV, 139-58.
(18) Joao Francisco da Camara was another of the signatories to the 1809 petition. The Camara family was one of the oldest and most distinguished on the island.
(19) The man referred to is almost certainly Joao Jose Xavier de Carvalhal Esmeraldo Vasconcellos de Atouguia Bettencourt Sa Machado [sic], the first Conde de Carvalhal. He is described in the Elucidario Madeirense as the richest landowner in Madeira and a well known Anglophile. The future Conde features largely in the history of the island. His family was not only one of the richest in Madeira but also owned property in the Azores. He had a reputation for being liberal with his wealth. He was chosen to be president and treasurer of the asylum for the destitute and was described in the anonymous An Historical Sketch of the Island of Madeira (London: 1819) as 'the worthy proprietor of the largest estate in the island: his income is above 20,000 [pounds sterling] per annum; he was educated in England and has since travelled through the greater part of Europe. Any person respectably dressed is promptly admitted to traverse his noble domain and to view his charming gardens' (p. 29). As a man who professed liberal views he went into exile in England in 1828 but returned with the defeat of Dom Miguel in 1834 and became the first civil governor of the island. He died in 1837.
(20) Dr Joao Antonio Monteiro was a distinguished scientist, and expert in mineralogy who had been educated at Coimbra. His father was Pedro Jorge Monteiro, described as a 'rich merchant' and his brother Luis, also a merchant, played an active part in the Revolution of 1820 and was one of the deputies elected for Madeira. In 1804 Monteiro was appointed professor of Chemistry in Lisbon and was sent by the government on what was described as a 'scientific tour'. He does not appear to have returned to Portugal. His inclusion in this 'Memorandum' certainly suggests that he had maintained his connections with Madeira and possibly that he had been a recent visitor to the island. See his entry in the Elucidario Madeirense. Monteiro & Co. was a very prominent business house in Madeira. Beresford had to deal with it in its capacity as the 'lawful proprietors ad interim of all the revenues belonging to the Marquis [Castello Melhor] in the island'.
(21) An Historical Sketch of the Island of Madeira mentions four Portuguese doctors practising on the island, three of whom had been trained at Edinburgh.
(22) Francisco Manuel Patrone was an Italian and had acted as the interpreter to Clinton in 1801. He was re-engaged in 1807. He had made quite a name for himself translating as well as interpreting and had translated for the Madeira government Joseph Adams' work on the treatment of smallpox. Adams refers to him as 'inspector of artillery and interpreter general of the island'. See Adams.
(23) Agostinho Jose de Ornellas was one of the petitioners for the establishment of the School of Drawing and Painting.
(24) Pedro Julio da Camara Leme was a well known figure in Madeira, one of the signatories of the petition to establish the School of Drawing and Painting. He was the Provedor of the Santa Casa da Misericordia and his English connections led to his being appointed Provedor of the Enfermaria Britanica which was established to provide medical services for British seamen. For documents on the history of the Enfermaria see PRO FO 811/22. He was a member of the old and distinguished Madeira family of Camara Leme--one of whose members born in 1695 had also been called Pedro Julio da Camara Leme. He must have been a younger son whose family was debarred from the inheritance because with the death of Francisco Antonio in 1832 the family entailed estates passed to his nephew the Conde de Carvalhal (see note 7). See entry in Elucidario Madeirense and Sarmento, III, 185.
(25) This is probably Luis Antonio Jardim, described as an advogado and deputy to the Cortes of 1825. He was author of one of the first works published in Madeira, entitled Parabens poetico-politicos a grandiosa regeneracao portuguesa na congratulante aderencia da Ilha da Madeira em 1821 no teatro grande de Funchal. See entry in Elucidario Madeirense.
(26) The consul of the United States was James Leander Cathcart.
(27) Joseph Pringle was titular head of the English Factory and as such headed the list of signatories of the petition to Beresford about the payment of the contribution levied on British merchants (PRO FO 1/354 Beresford to Castlereagh, 2 January 1808) and the list of trustees of the Enfermaria (see note 22).
(28) Henry Veitch became consul after Joseph Pringle. The Elucidario Madeirense says he became consul in 1813 but already in 1812 N. C. Pitta had written 'Henry Veitch Esq a gentleman of high respectability is the present British Consul and with meritorious zeal watches over the interest of the British who are resident here'(pp. 119-20). Veitch's quinta was visited and described by T. E, Bowdich, Excursions in Madeira and Porto Santo during the autumn of 1823 while on his Third Voyage to Africa (London: 1825).
(29) William Casey was one of the directors of the Factory and a trustee of the Enfermaria.
(30) Jas [James] Gordon was one of the directors of the Factory and a trustee of the Enfermaria.
(31) Robert Page was one of the directors of the Factory.
(32) John Lewis was one of the directors of the Factory.
(33) James Alexander Condell was one of the directors of the Factory and a trustee of the Enfermaria. He was connected to Condell Innes which is mentioned as a leading trading house in Madeira in the Almanach do Anno de 1807.
(34) William Gourlay was the author of Observations on the Natural History, Climate and Diseases of Madeira during a period of eighteen years (London: 1811). In this he claims to have resided twenty-five years in Madeira and describes himself as Physician to the British Factory at Madeira. Bowdich is scathing about Gourlay's credentials as a scientist, The doctor's knowledge of Natural History, which has not enabled him to determine a single rock, mineral, bird, fish or plant, in this then wholly unexamined island, is confined to such remarks as 'mutton is not so much cultivated here as it ought'. The Doctor, however has given a very patient and useful meteorological register. (p. 147)
(35) Thomas Harris was a director of the Factory.
(36) J. D. Webster Gordon was a director of the Factory. There existed at one time an important correspondence from one of the Gordons to business associates in Britain covering the period of the occupation. Extracts from this correspondence, the whereabouts of which was not revealed, are included in Alan Lethbridge, Madeira Impressions and Associations (London: Methuen, 1925), Chapter 12.
M. D. D. NEWITT
KING'S COLLEGE LONDON
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|Title Annotation:||analysis of Memorandum of Characters 1807|
|Date:||Jan 1, 1999|
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