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Patrick Francis Moran: the making of a scholar.



Patrick Moran Patrick Moran is the name of a number of notable individuals.
  • Pat Moran, an American baseball player
  • Patrick Alfred Pierce Moran, an Australian statistician, also commonly known as Pat Moran
 was ordained or·dain  
tr.v. or·dained, or·dain·ing, or·dains
1.
a. To invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on.

b. To authorize as a rabbi.

2.
 to the priesthood on 19 March 1853 by Archbishop Antonio Luigi Bussi. This was by papal dispensation Papal dispensation is a reserved right of the Pope that allows for individuals to be exempted from a specific Canon Law. Dispensations are divided into two categories: general, and matrimonial. , as he was one-and-a-half years under the canonical age Canonical age is, in Roman Catholic canon law, the age at which a Catholic becomes capable of incurring certain obligations, enjoying special privileges, embracing special states of life, holding office or dignity, or receiving the sacraments.  of twenty-four. He had been living in Rome since the age of twelve, from late 1842, when as an orphan he had been brought there by his uncle Paul Cullen Paul Cullen is the head coach at Super League club Warrington Wolves.

Cullen joined Warrington Wolves in 1980, where he stayed for 17 years. He played mainly in the second row position at the club.

After ending his playing career in 1996, Cullen moved into coaching.
, rector of the Irish College Irish Colleges were centres of education for Irish Catholic clergy and lay people on continental Europe in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The Colleges were set up to educate Catholics from Ireland in their own religion following the takeover of the country by the Protestant . No diary entries of Moran's survive before 1850, but the important details of his academic career are clear. In 1843, 1844 and 1845 Cullen would have assigned people at the Irish College to attend to his instruction. In November of 1845 he began a course in philosophy and mathematics at the Collegio Romano, a Jesuit institution. (1) The Irish College had its own courses and came under the wing of the Congregation of Propaganda. Moran's studies in philosophy and mathematics occupied three years. His teachers at the Collegio Romano included Francescoe de Vico, professor of astronomy and mathematics, who discovered a number of comets including six of the telescopic variety (comets that never become visible to the naked eye), and Benedict Sestini, professor of astronomy and mathematics who in 1847 completed the first systematic survey and catalogue of the heavens for star-colours, but whose real passion was pure mathematics. The professors of philosophy were Italian, German and Spanish Jesuits. Students came here from all over the world.

On 8 January 1846 Cullen wrote to his nephew Hugh, 'Your cousin, P. Moran, is now an excellent Italian and Latin scholar. He speaks Italian and Latin as well as any man in Rome.' Fluency in Latin was vital; it was regularly used by any visiting ecclesiastics ECCLESIASTICS, canon law. Those persons who compose the hierarchical state of the church. They are regular and secular. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t. 5, c. 4, Sec. 1.  who did not have good Italian, and it was the language in which most of the lectures were delivered at international institutions like Propaganda College. Moran had a facility for languages and would soon be proficient in eight: English, Italian, French, German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Gaelic.

Moran's courses in philosophy and mathematics at the Collegio Romano were completed by mid-1848 and he then embarked on four years of theology at Propaganda College (the Collegio Urbano) where there were a hundred students from over thirty nations. It is probably idle to try to discern any particular line adopted by the professors either in philosophy or theology. In late 1846 to early 1947 John Henry Newman had taken up residence at Propaganda College and was warned by a Jesuit there what to expect or not expect:
   It arose from our talking of the Greek studies of the Propaganda
   and asking whether the youths learned Aristotle. 'O no--he
   said--Aristotle is in no favor here--no, not in Rome: not St
   Thomas. I have read Aristotle and St Thos, and owe a great deal to
   them, but they are out of favor here and throughout Italy. St
   Thomas is a great saint--people don't dare to speak against
   him-they profess to reverence him, but put him aside.' I asked what
   philosophy they did adopt. He said none. 'Odds and ends--whatever
   seems to them best--like St Clement's Stromata. They have no
   philosophy. Facts are the great things, and nothing else. Exegesis,
   but not doctrine.' He went on to say that many privately were sorry
   for this, many Jesuits, he said; but no one dared oppose the
   fashion. When I said I thought that there was a latent power in
   Rome which would stop the evil, and that the Pope introduced
   Aristotle and St Thos into the Church, and the Pope was bound to
   maintain them, he shrugged his shoulders and said the Pope could do
   nothing if people would not obey him, and that the Romans were a
   giddy people, not like the English. (2)


The theology lectures Newman attended presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
adj.
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 confirmed this.

During Moran's time there he won gold medals and was twice selected to expound ex·pound  
v. ex·pound·ed, ex·pound·ing, ex·pounds

v.tr.
1. To give a detailed statement of; set forth: expounded the intricacies of the new tax law.

2.
 and defend Catholic teachings before an audience of cardinals. In late August 1851 the English Catholic magazine The Tablet published a report on the first of these public defences, sent by a Roman correspondent:
   On 18 August 1851 a very interesting literary display took place in
   the halls of the college of Propaganda. It consisted of a public
   defence of the theological tract on the Most Holy Trinity. The
   defendant was a student of the Irish College, Mr Patrick Moran, a
   young gentleman from Leighlinbridge, Co. Carlow, and nephew of the
   lord primate. The programme of the defence consisted of eighty-four
   theses which, commencing with an explanation of the true notion of
   this sublime mystery, developed gradually the heads of doctrine and
   the arguments in connection with it which the scriptures and the
   works of the ante-Nicene Fathers supply in such rich abundance.
   Cardinals Fransoni, Castracane, Amati, Simonetti and Riario Sforza
   were present. The objectors were Right Rev. Dr Grant, bishop of
   Southwark, and Very Rev. Father Giovanni Perrone, S.J., the
   celebrated professor of theology in the Roman college. (3)


In the following year, 1852, Moran's Acta Publica in universal theology, which took the form of a defence of the Church's teachings in regard to infidelity and heresy, was so impressive that he was granted his doctorate by acclamation (not by examination of a thesis).

Following his ordination in March 1853 Moran took a holiday in Ireland, (4) relatively uneventful except for his meeting with the great Eugene O'Curry Eugene O'Curry (20 November 1794 – 30 July 1862) was an Irish scholar.

He was born at Doonaha, near Carrigaholt, County Clare, the son of a farmer who was a man of unusual intelligence. He went to Limerick c. 1824 and spent a period working there at a mental hospital.
, recalled in an address in Sydney thirty years later:
   In 1853 [O'Curry] was employed under the Brehon Law Commission to
   transcribe and translate those ancient Laws. It was towards the
   close of that year that I was introduced to him in the little room
   at Trinity College, where he and [John] O'Donovan were busily
   engaged making transcripts of the oldest texts of the Brehon Laws.
   I was a very young priest and, unfortunately, quite a stranger as
   yet to Irish history, whilst he was the very foremost of living
   Celtic scholars and palaeographers. Nevertheless, he was unassuming
   as a child, and most kind and considerate in answering the
   questions which my curiosity and inexperience proposed to him. He
   was full of enthusiasm whilst explaining the relative value of the
   ancient MSS. piled up before him, but his voice became slow and
   mournful when he spoke of the prevalent neglect of Celtic studies
   and the sad indifference of so many to the genuine history of
   Ireland. (5)


This memorable introduction to Irish palaeography palaeography or US paleography
Noun

the study of ancient handwriting [Greek palaeo- ancient + -graphy]

paleography, palaeography
1.
 had profound consequences for Moran.

He was already regarded among those who knew him in Rome as scholarly. His diary entry for November 1854 is of particular importance as revealing his role in the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception Immaculate Conception

In Roman Catholicism, the dogma that Mary was not tainted by original sin. Early exponents included St. Justin Martyr and St. Irenaeus; St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas Aquinas were among those who opposed it.
 that Mary, by special grace, was preserved free from all stain of original sin original sin, in Christian theology, the sin of Adam, by which all humankind fell from divine grace. Saint Augustine was the fundamental theologian in the formulation of this doctrine, which states that the essentially graceless nature of humanity requires redemption  at the moment of conception in her mother's womb. This dogma was about to be issued by Pius IX Pius IX, 1792–1878, pope (1846–78), an Italian named Giovanni M. Mastai-Ferretti, b. Senigallia; successor of Gregory XVI. He was cardinal and bishop of Imola when elected pope.  as the bull Ineffabilis Deus Ineffabilis Deus (Latin for "Ineffable God") is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius IX. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.  on 8 December. A commission had been appointed to make the necessary preparations for the dogmatical decision, and this commission had thought it expedient to request the scholarly Fr Carlo Passaglia Carlo Passaglia (May 2, 1812-March 12, 1887), Italian divine, was born at Lucca.

Passaglia was soon destined for the priesthood, and was placed under the care of the Jesuits at the age of fifteen.
, a professor of dogmatic theology Same as Dogmatics.

See also: dogmatic
, to produce for insertion into the Bull a document which would be (in Moran's words) 'an elaborate and as far as possible complete exposition of the doctrinal grounds on which the Catholic doctrine rested'--that is, a scholarly justification for the bull. Passaglia's document was around fifty pages long and contained over a hundred references to the early Fathers. On 16 November the complete bull, substantially Passaglia's work, was given to Moran's uncle, Paul Cullen, to read through. Cullen was now archbishop of Dublin and was visiting Rome at this time. Scholarship on the early Fathers was not Cullen's forte and he passed it to Moran, who two days later wrote in his diary:
   Examine these various references to the works of the Fathers: find
   many of them erroneous: some too made to spurious works: and the
   same sermon is cited at one time (pag. 4. not. 2.) as
   Pseudo-Augustine, at another (pag. 9. not. 2.) as of S. Fulgentius.


The next day Cullen, visiting Alessandro Barnabo, Secretary of Propaganda,
   asks him if it would be displeasing to the H[oly] F[ather] did the
   Bishops make any difficulties in regard of the manner in which the
   Bull had been drawn up. Monsig. B[arnabo] answers that nothing
   would please the H. F. more: that he was anxious the Bishops should
   have a part in preparing the Bull; and had invited them especially
   to deliberate on the manner of proposing the doctrine to the
   faithful.


Moran kept these entries from his 1854 diary because they reveal his elimination of error from the dogmatic definition In Catholicism, a dogmatic definition is an infallible statement published by a pope or an ecumenical council concerning a matter of faith or morals, the belief in which the Catholic Church requires of all Christians (although Christians who are not Catholic do not recognize the  of the Immaculate Conception. For a 24-year-old with a dawning interest in scholarly endeavours this augured well. (6) Jesus had promised his disciples that the Holy Ghost Holy Ghost: see Holy Spirit. , whom he would send to them, would lead them into all truth. If that was true, then, given that the definition was to be dogmatically binding, here was Moran under direct inspiration, perhaps.

From Dublin Cullen proceeded to encourage his nephew's research interests. Knowing Moran had some time on his hands, Cullen in early 1854 asked Tobias Kirby, who had replaced Cullen as rector of the Irish College, to press Moran to undertake a study of the Irish saints as 'We know nothing about them'. (7) Moran's researches into early Irish ecclesiastical history, an unploughed field, meant locating and carefully transcribing the ancient manuscripts, many half-forgotten, and that meant developing a proficiency in palaeography and the Irish language Irish language, also called Irish Gaelic and Erse, member of the Goidelic group of the Celtic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Celtic languages). . This research was inspired partly by the presence in Rome of the greatest palaeographer Pa`lae`og´ra`pher

n. 1. See Paleographer, Paleographic, etc.
 of that time, Angelo Cardinal Mai, whose work on palimpsests had brought to light previously unknown passages from the writings of over 350 authors, pre-eminently the De republica of Cicero. It was also inspired by the example of Eugene O'Curry. Moran's researches became more intense from 1859, establishing his name amongst that small group of scholars in the Irish Archaeological Society and the Celtic Society who were pioneering early Irish studies.

Meanwhile he was appointed vice-rector of the Irish College on the departure of his predecessor Dr Bernard Smith This article is about Bernard Smith the seventeenth-century organ maker. For Bernard Smith the Australian art historian, see Bernard William Smith.

"Father" Bernard Smith (c. 1630 - 1708) was a German-born master organ maker in England in the late seventeenth century.
, who had joined the Benedictines of Monte Cassino Monte Cassino (môn`tā käs-sē`nō), monastery, in Latium, central Italy, E of the Rapido River. Situated on a hill (1,674 ft/510 m) overlooking Cassino, it was founded c.529 by St. , and with whom Moran had earlier fallen out. (8) In 1856 Moran had broken the ice:
   A note from me will perhaps surprize you, but I am unwilling that
   that misunderstanding should continue, which I am sorry has so long
   seemed to exist between us.

   I have ever been fully conscious of the many kindnesses which I
   received from you when a student, and nothing will prevent my being
   ever grateful for them. It is not through any desire of mine that I
   have remained in this College: far different indeed is the mission
   which alone I have aspired to from my infancy, & which to this day
   would be more congenial to the impulse of my soul. But when it
   seemed to be the will of God that I should remain here, I obeyed.
   As to any offence which I may have given you when carried away by
   my nat. & perhaps too often excessive ardour in dispute I am sure
   you will pardon and forgive me. I hope then that this
   misunderstanding will cease, and as for my part I have already
   forgotten every thing which could in any way disturb our mutual
   friendship.

      I remain with sincere esteem your much obliged & obedient servt
      PFM. (9)


By the 'mission which alone I have aspired to from my infancy' he probably meant the normal pastoral activities of a parish priest Parish priest may refer to
  • A Parish Priest, a parish's assigned pastor
  • A biography of Fr. Michael J. McGivney by Douglas Brinkley and Julie M. Fenster
. However, that would have to wait.

According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Moran's diary he was 'Presented by Dr Kirby to Card. Barnabo as Vice-Rettore' on 17 August 1856. (10) Barnabo was Prefect prefect or praefect (both: prē`fĕkt), in ancient Rome, various military and civil officers. Under the empire some prefects were very important. The Praetorian prefects (first appointed 2 B.C.  of Propaganda. It was an auspicious time to be appointed, as a month later, at the prize-giving at Propaganda College, Moran noted the many prizes taken by the Irish students and the fact that they took all four medals in Hebrew, tutored probably by himself. Three days later the pope invited six students from the Irish College to dine with him, and on 3 November the following year the secretary of Propaganda, Mgr Bedini, appointed Moran Professor of Hebrew and Scripture at Propaganda College. Obviously Moran had a working knowledge of biblical Greek by this time. He started teaching two days later. (11) Having just come from a retreat he jotted down his reflections:
   How happy and thankful I should be that God has placed it in my
   power to be ever united with him, and to do all for his honour and
   glory. I should be also thankful that some trials are strewed in my
   path--What matters it to be despised by man, if we give joy to
   Heaven and are loved by God--How many persons in the world have far
   more trials, and yet are ever meek and patient. (12)


Unfortunately he does not specify the nature of his current trials. Who despised him, and why? Did he have enemies? He recorded reflections as well as events but seldom poured his troubles into his diaries.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

In May of 1859 his researches into the early Irish ecclesiastical and political records, soundly based in a knowledge of palaeography and the Irish language, were given an immense boost when Cardinal Cullen, then in Rome, gained him unrestricted access to the most important archives. On 2 May, during an audience with the Pope (as Moran noted), 'Cullen procured an order from the H. Father to have all the codices co·di·ces  
n.
Plural of codex.
 connected with the Irish Church, from the Vatican, Propaganda and the Brivi' made available for examination. This order took a month to effect. The codices and other papers were apparently handed over to Moran to work on in his own rooms at the Irish College, a great privilege. This is the logical interpretation of diary entries in which he reports Augustin Theiner Augustin Theiner (b. at Breslau, 11 April1804, d. at Civitavecchia, 8 August1874) was a German theologian and historian.

He was the son of a shoemaker. As a boy he was a pupil at the gymnasium of St. Mathias at Breslau, and studied theology in the same city.
 'promising to give me the papers on our Irish affairs from the Vatican Archives' where Theiner was Prefect, and Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect of Propaganda, giving full permission for all the papers of the Archives. (13) Moran's work on these materials would feed into his early publications: the Memoirs of the Most Rev. Oliver Plunket, Archbishop of Armagh Today there are two people who hold the title of Archbishops of Armagh:
  • Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic)
  • Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland)
Both bear the title Primate of All Ireland for their respective churches.
, and Primate of All Ireland Primate of All Ireland is a title held by the Archbishops of Armagh, in both the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland traditions, to signify that within their respective churches they are the senior churchmen in the island of Ireland. , Who Suffered Death for the Catholic Faith in the Year 1681. Compiled from original documents (James Duffy James Duffy is the name of:
  • James E. Duffy, Jr. (born 1942), United States Democratic Party nominee for the Hawaii Supreme Court
  • James Duffy (psychiatrist), neuropsychiatrist and associate professor of clinical psychiatry at the University of Connecticut
, Dublin, 1861); the Historical Sketch of the Persecutions Suffered by the Catholics of Ireland under the Rule of Cromwell and the Puritans (James Duffy, Dublin, 1862); the Essays on the Origin, Doctrines, and Discipline of the Early Irish Church (James Duffy, Dublin, 1864) and the History of the Catholic Archbishops of Dublin, Since the Reformation (James Duffy, Dublin, 1864), of which only the first volume appeared.

A visitor to Rome around this time happened to be invited to the Irish College where he watched Moran address the white-robed alumni and an aristocratic group of English visitors. Twenty-five years later he recalled the effect this had on him:
   In his voice were re-echoed sounds reminiscent of the Irish soil,
   but his bronzed face told that Italy had claimed him as her own for
   years. The sacred tranquility of the moment was reflected in the
   repose of his manner; and the growing darkness was figured by the
   sombre expression which deep thought and study had wrought upon his
   features.


Though unprepossessing to look at, there was in Moran something singularly striking; there was even to some persons something strongly attractive. (14)

Moran's scholarly interests developed strongly over the following months and years and went with a surprisingly liberal attitude to the literary world. In early 1862 Dr Manning told him he was soliciting Cardinal Barnabo to have the Rambler ram·bler  
n.
1. One that rambles: tourists and Sunday ramblers on the village streets; a conversational rambler.

2. A type of climbing rose having numerous red, pink, or white flowers.
 put on the Index. 'I hope this will not be done', Moran noted. 'Ad quid? A periodical sometimes has bad articles, sometimes good. It would be better to combat it by a good rival than to draw attention to it by cursing it." (15) His happiest milieu was the company of scholars. One of these was Augustin Theiner, already mentioned. Theiner was a theologian and historian from Breslau who had been appointed prefect of the Vatican archives by Pius IX. A liberal, Theiner would later assist those opposed to the defining of Papal Infallibility papal infallibility

In Roman Catholicism, the doctrine that the pope, acting as supreme teacher and under certain conditions, as when he speaks ex cathedra (“from the chair”), cannot err when he teaches in matters of faith or morals.
 at the Vatican Council Vatican Council
n.
Either of two ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church, the First Vatican Council (1869-1870) and the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), convoked by Pius IX and John XXIII, respectively.
 in 1870. He would die outside the Church. In 1862 he had just completed the second volume of his Codex codex

Manuscript book, especially of Scripture, early literature, or ancient mythological or historical annals. The earliest type of manuscript in the form of a modern book (i.e.
 Diplomaticus and was hesitating to embark on the relevant Irish documents. Moran was able to assure him they were not as numerous as had been hitherto supposed, for by now he was familiar with most of the Irish documents in the Roman archives.

His first substantial monograph, the Memoirs of the Most Rev. Oliver Plunket, Archbishop of Armagh, and Primate of All Ireland, Who Suffered Death for the Catholic Faith in the Year 1681, appeared in Dublin in 1861. Plunkett (the more common spelling) had been executed by the English during the Popish Plot Popish Plot: see Oates, Titus.
Popish Plot

(1678) In English history, a fictitious but widely believed rumour that Jesuits planned to assassinate Charles II and replace him with his brother, the Catholic duke of York (later James II).
 scare. The title is misleading: this is not Moran's edition of Plunkett's memoirs but his biography of Plunkett. It is compiled from a vast range of letters and other seventeenth-century documents, most of them never before published, and dedicated by the author (in the third person) to Cullen, the first patron and encourager of his studies. Moran explains his procedure in the Preface: 'As the annals of our Church in the seventeenth century are very imperfect, I have inserted in these Memoirs as many original documents as possible, trusting that they may throw light upon several points of the interesting history of that period, even though they interrupt the narration.' Most of the documents in the book were transcribed from Roman archives, and Theiner is prominently thanked. A sixty-odd pages introductory chapter catalogues the atrocities committed on the Irish by Cromwell's Puritan soldiers, and the biography that follows runs to a further 404 pages of fine print. The book reflects immense archival research, and Moran's procedure of packing it with documents ensures its permanent value. It was consciously designed to strengthen the case for Plunkett's beatification beatification: see canonization. .

When the great Irish scholar Dr James H. Todd visited Rome for a few months in the first half of 1862 Moran was able to guide him to the manuscripts he wished to examine. Twenty-five years Moran's senior, Todd was famous as the librarian of Trinity College, Dublin For other institutions named Trinity College, see .
Trinity is located in the centre of Dublin, Ireland, on College Green opposite the former Irish Houses of Parliament (now a branch of the Bank of Ireland).
. He had put that library's manuscript collection into order and expanded it to the point that it was now of European significance. A Protestant, Todd was President of the Royal Irish Academy The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) is one of Ireland's premier learned societies and cultural institutions. Founded in 1785, its current and former members include artists, scientists and writers from around Ireland.  and founder of the Irish Archaeological Society. He was particularly interested in making or procuring transcripts of Irish manuscripts held in continental collections.

It is instructive to follow Todd and Moran around the Roman archives. Todd first called on Moran on 21 March but he was out. Two days later Moran repaid the visit and they had a long conversation about manuscripts. Todd had been delighted with his reception in Rome. He had just found that the manuscript Liber Hymnorum, the Irish Book of Hymns, held at St Isidore's, had numerous glosses that were not in the Dublin manuscript which he had been using as copy-text for his edition of the work. He had published the first instalment of this in 1855 and was now working on the second. Todd was also keen to find 1. Diary entry for 31 October 1874: 'Dr Croke, Bishop of Auckland, came to stop with me for a few days. We were old friends as students in the Irish College, Rome. He left Rome in Nov. 1847. I was then commencing my 3rd year's Philosophy.' Moran Diaries, Moran Papers (MP), Sydney Archdiocesan Archives (SAA (Systems Application Architecture) A set of interfaces designed to cross all IBM platforms from PC to mainframe. Introduced by IBM in 1987, SAA includes the Common User Access (CUA), the Common Programming Interface for Communications (CPI-C) and Common Communications ).

2. Newman to J. D. Dalgairns, 22 November 1846, The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman, ed. Charles Stephen Charles Stephen is a famous indian hockey player.  Dessain, Thomas Nelson Thomas Nelson may refer to:
  • Thomas Nelson, 2nd Earl Nelson (1786-1835), British nobleman, born Thomas Bolton.
  • Thomas "Tommy" Nelson, mayor of the City of New Roads, Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana.
 & Sons Ltd, London, 1961, XI, 279.

3. The Tablet, 30 August 1851.

4. See the entry for 18 February 1871, Moran Diaries, Moran Papers, Sydney Archdiocesan Archives (SAA). Also Moran to Kirby, 7 June 1853 from Dublin, and 11 October 1853 from Liverpool on the way back to Rome. New Kirby Papers, Irish College, Rome, Archives (ICRA (Internet Content Rating Association, www.icra.org) An organization dating back to 1994 that was created to protect children from potentially harmful online content and to protect free speech on the Internet. ICRA did not rate Web sites or label the content. ).

5. Moran, The Fruits of Self-Culture: Address delivered by the Archbishop of Sydney Archbishop of Sydney could refer to:
  • List of Anglican bishops of Sydney
  • Catholic Bishops and Archbishops of Sydney
, at a Special Meeting of the Catholic Young Men's Association, in the Sacred Heart The Sacred Heart is a religious devotion to Jesus' physical heart as the representation of the divine love for humanity

This devotion is predominantly used in the Roman Catholic Church and also used in the Anglican Church.
 Hall, Sydney, 1st December, 1884, O'Hara & Johnson, Sydney, n.d. [1885], p. 27. This was reprinted as Industry and Self-Culture (Browne & Nolan, Dublin, 1885) after Moran delivered it to the Kilkenny Catholic Young Men's Society that year.

6. Entries for 16, 18, 19 November 1854, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA. Passaglia was an interesting man. In 1861 he published Pro causa italica in support of the movement for Italian unity, and it was put on the Index of Prohibited Books. He fled to Turin. For liberal intellectuals, inclusion of a book on the Index made it a 'must read'. Moran, as I show in my biography, thought the Index a dubious institution.

7. Cullen to Kirby, 16 January 1854, Kirby Papers, ICRA. The Lenten Pastoral (written, according to Moran's diary, on 7 February) is in Mac Suibhne, Paul Cullen and His Contemporaries, vol. 2, p. 191. See too the diary entry for 5 March 1859: another Pastoral for Cullen, on St Patrick, during another of Cullen's trips to Rome (in Mac Suibhne, vol. 2, pp. 285B6).

8. Cullen to Kirby, 21 July 1854 (Moran has complained about Smith) and 3 September 1854 (tell [Moran] to be courteous, and to use all due regard to a senior priest), New Kirby Papers, ICRA.

9. Moran to Bernard Smith, 2 August 1856 (draft), U2208, 3.7, MP, SAA.

10. Moran Diaries, MP, SAA. For a short time Moran was also interim vice-rector at the Scotch College Scotch College is the name of several schools affiliated with either the Uniting Church or Presbyterian Church. (There are also a number of schools and Roman Catholic seminaries called Scots College. , Rome, while a suitable Scottish candidate was sought.

11. Entries for 4 and 7 September 1856 and 3 November 1857, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA_ The official letter of appointment to the cattedra (university chair) came on 17 November 1857.

12. Undated un·dat·ed  
adj.
1. Not marked with or showing a date: an undated letter; an undated portrait.

2.
 entry for October 1857, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

13. Entries for 2 May and 3 and 6 June 1859, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

14. Daleth da·leth  
n.
The fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. See Table at alphabet.



[Hebrew d
 (pseudonym pseudonym (s`dənĭm) [Gr.,=false name], name assumed, particularly by writers, to conceal identity. A writer's pseudonym is also referred to as a nom de plume (pen name). ), 'The Most Rev. Dr. Moran, Archbishop-elect of Sydney', Brisbane Courier, 14 February 1884.

15. Entry for 16 January 1862, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

16. Entry for 16 January 1862, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

17. Entries for 5 and 4 August 1862, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.nary nar·y  
adj.
Not one: "Frequently, measures of major import . . . glide through these chambers with nary a whisper of debate" George B. Merry.
 Committee. (17)

The cordiality Moran showed his distinguished visitor did not foreclose fore·close  
v. fore·closed, fore·clos·ing, fore·clos·es

v.tr.
1.
a. To deprive (a mortgagor) of the right to redeem mortgaged property, as when payments have not been made.

b.
 later attacks on his publications: Moran would assault Todd's work systematically, and that would not prevent his election in 1869 as a member of the august, Protestant-dominated Royal Irish Academy in which Todd, as past president, had great influence. (18) Todd was a leading light of the Anglo-Irish intellectual establishment, and at this time scholarship on early Ireland had a strongly sectarian flavour. That was expected. There was a show of disinterestedness, the establishment of objective facts based on documentary evidence A type of written proof that is offered at a trial to establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact that is in dispute.

Letters, contracts, deeds, licenses, certificates, tickets, or other writings are documentary evidence.
, but they were facts supporting arguments about (for instance) the authority, or lack of authority, of the Holy See over the ancient Irish Church, or whether the Blessed Virgin Mary Blessed Virgin Mary
n.
The Virgin Mary.
 was as profoundly venerated in the earliest times of the Irish Church as she was now. These are among the points at issue in Moran's Essays on the Origin, Doctrines, and Discipline of the Early Irish Church (James Duffy, Dublin, 1864), moving towards completion at the time he was showing Todd around the archives. It consists of three long essays on the early Irish Church, the first on its origin and connection with Rome, the second on its teaching regarding the eucharist, the third on the degree of its devotion to the Blessed Virgin. The essays are divided into chapters and followed by appendices consisting of extracts from early manuscripts and further arguments on them. The detailed table of contents at the end serves as an Index and shows the nature of the book. Parts of chapters include:
   Dr Todd's opinion that St. Palladius was not a deacon of Rome:
   contrary to the testimony of Prosper ... Dr Todd's opinion that St.
   Patrick did not commence his apostolate until 440: not supported by
   St. Patrick's writings: the Irish Nennius: Synchronisms of the
   Irish Kings: explicit testimony of the Annals of Ulster: Tirechan's
   statement: inconsistency of Todd's arguments: the Irish poet
   Gilla-Caemhain: not opposed to the common opinion: chronological
   Tract of Book of Lecan: true meaning of the passage cited by Dr.
   Todd: all our records conspire in referring the mission of St.
   Patrick to the year 432 3 ... Dr. Todd's opinion that St. Patrick
   received no mission from Rome ... illogical reasoning of Dr. Todd
   ...


and so on. Some of the appendices are also devoted to refuting Todd:
   Missal of St. Columbanus. Published by Mabillon: Dr. Lanigan and
   O'Conor prove that it contains the Irish liturgy: Dr. Todd's
   opinion refuted: proofs that it is Irish: agrees with Stowe Missal
   ... Dr. Todd's Remarks on Bobbio Missal. Dr. Todd endeavours to
   prove that this Missal is not Irish: his arguments refuted. (19)


Interestingly, there is no disagreement on the Collectio Hibernensis Canonum, three manuscripts of which Moran had found for Todd at the Vatican and Vallicellian archives.

Moran returned to Dublin to be Cullen's secretary in 1866, a busy job, particularly as he combined it with teaching at Holy Cross College
For universities named Holy Cross, see Holy Cross University


Holy Cross College or Saint Cross College may refer to:
  • Holy Cross College Ryde in Sydney, Australia
  • The College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.
, Clonliffe, and at the Catholic University. In what spare time remained to him, and out of term-time, he carried on his researches and writing. No substantial monographs appeared during his secretaryship, but he published a pamphlet on The Episcopal Succession in Ireland During the Reign of Elizabeth (Dublin, 1866; first published in the Irish Ecclesiastical Record of which he was a founding editor), a subject of much controversy at the time, and a new edition, with prefatory pref·a·to·ry  
adj.
Of, relating to, or constituting a preface; introductory. See Synonyms at preliminary.



[From Latin praef
 memoir, of Peter Lombard's De Regno Hiberniae Sanctorum Insula INSULA, Latin. An island. In the Roman law the word is applied to a house not connected with other houses, but separated by a surrounding space of ground. Calvini Lex; Vicat, Vocab. ad voc.  Commentarius (Dublin, 1868) which, however, contains only the last part of Lombard's work, not the interesting earlier parts. He was concurrently publishing numerous scholarly articles on early Irish ecclesiastical history in the Irish Ecclesiastical Record. Books Moran had earlier published had won him renown as a scholar second to none in Irish hagiology hag·i·ol·o·gy  
n. pl. hag·i·ol·o·gies
1. Literature dealing with the lives of saints.

2. A collection of sacred writings.

3. An authoritative list of saints.
 and Church history, and he enjoyed a substantial correspondence with other writers and researchers, including the prominent poet Aubrey Thomas de Vere Aubrey Thomas de Vere (10 January 1814–20 January 1902) was an Irish poet and critic.

He was born at Curragh Chase, County Limerick, being the third son of Sir Aubrey de Vere Hunt (1788-1846). In 1832 his father dropped the final name by royal licence.
, a Catholic convert close to the ageing Wordsworth-Coleridge circle, with strong antiquarian an·ti·quar·i·an  
n.
One who studies, collects, or deals in antiquities.

adj.
1. Of or relating to antiquarians or to the study or collecting of antiquities.

2. Dealing in or having to do with old or rare books.
 and political interests. De Vere De Vere may mean:
  • Aubrey de Vere II (d. c. 1112) and his descendants the de Vere family, 20 of whom who held the title of Earl of Oxford in succession, until 1703
  • Cecil Valentine De Vere, chess player
 was sixteen years Moran's senior. Both were tall, elegant men, with similar personalities: intellectual and serious, yet sophisticated and witty. They knew each other well and exchanged publications. (20) Another friend, correspondent and admirer was Dr William Maziere Brady William Maziere Brady was an Ecclesiastical historian and journalist who converted from Anglicanism.[1] References

1. ^ William Maziere Brady - Catholic Encyclopedia article
, five years older than Moran, a Protestant who would be received into the Catholic Church in 1873. Brady's interests included Protestant ecclesiastical history--Clerical and Parochial Records of Cork, Cloyne and Ross (3 vols, Dublin, 1863-4) and State Papers The term State papers is used in the British and Irish contexts to refer exclusively to government archives and records. Such papers used to be kept separate from non-governmental papers, with state papers kept in the State Paper Office and general public records kept in the Public  Concerning the Irish Church in the Time of Queen Elizabeth Queen Elizabeth, or Elizabeth, may refer to: Living people
  • Elizabeth II, Queen regnant of the Commonwealth Realms
Deceased people
Bohemia
 (London, 1868) among other titles, and he supported the disestablishment dis·es·tab·lish  
tr.v. dis·es·tab·lished, dis·es·tab·lish·ing, dis·es·tab·lish·es
1. To alter the status of (something established by authority or general acceptance).

2.
 of the (Anglican) Church of Ireland Noun 1. Church of Ireland - autonomous branch of the Church of England in Ireland
Anglican Church, Anglican Communion, Church of England - the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs); has its see in Canterbury
, which occurred in 1871. In the debate over the Irish episcopal succession he was on Moran's side. These and others, including the great antiquarian Dr Charles Russell Charles Russell may refer to:
  • Charles Addison Russell (1852-1902), U.S. Representative from Connecticut
  • Charles Albert George Russell (1887-1961), Essex and England batsman
  • Charles Edward Russell (1860-1941), American muckraking journalist, author, and activist
, president of Maynooth College Maynooth College may mean either of two institutions in Maynooth, Ireland:
  • St Patrick's College, Maynooth
  • National University of Ireland, Maynooth
Generally Maynooth College refers to St Patrick's College, Maynooth.
 and member of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, regarded Moran as the leading authority in his fields, someone they could rely on for help with their own work. They in turn helped him (Russell, for instance, carried out research for Moran while working at the Bodleian Library Bodleian Library (bŏd`lēən, bŏdlē`ən), at Oxford Univ. The original library, destroyed in the reign of Edward VI, was replaced in 1602, chiefly through the efforts of Sir Thomas Bodley, who gave it valuable collections of  in Oxford). In his publications Moran acknowledged his debts, even to popular writers like Charles Patrick Meehan, translator, historian and member of the Royal Irish Academy, who wrote to him on 28 March 1861, 'You are the first and only ecclesiastic ECCLESIASTIC. A clergyman; one destined to the divine ministry, as, a bishop, a priest, a deacon. Dom. Lois Civ. liv. prel. t. 2, s. 2, n. 14.  of our Church who ever condescended to notice me.' (21)

Unlike some of his scholarly confreres, Moran had sufficient money of his own to pay copyists to transcribe To copy data from one medium to another; for example, from one source document to another, or from a source document to the computer. It often implies a change of format or codes.  manuscripts for him in Rome, in Milan and other parts of Italy, at the St Gall monastery in Switzerland, in London, in fact anywhere there were manuscripts he wanted transcribed. It was not a great expense. Dr Bartholomew

Woodlock, second rector of the Catholic University in Dublin, in the course of seeking out manuscripts for Moran at the British Museum and Public Record Office, secured him a London copyist at the rate of 6d per folio of 72 words, not a bad deal for either side. The copyists were impecunious im·pe·cu·ni·ous  
adj.
Lacking money; penniless. See Synonyms at poor.



[in-1 + pecunious, rich (from Middle English, from Old French pecunios, from Latin
 young men grateful for the work. (22)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Throughout my biography of Moran I pay considerable attention to his scholarship and here there is only time to sketch its early development. One shouldn't, in an ex-post-facto way, judge that scholarship by the embarrassing obsession of his much later work on the so-called discovery of Australia by De Quiros. He was not a geographer and one should distinguish this pious and peculiar idee fixe i·dée fixe
n. pl. i·dées fixes
A fixed idea; an obsession.


idee fixe Fixed idea Psychiatry An obsessive idea, delusion, or compulsion
 from his earlier work in ecclesiastical history, which has stood the test of time well despite its element of parti pris. A number of his editions of Catholic writings are still the standard ones, not having been re-edited, and his collection Spicilegium Ossoriense (1874-84) provides numerous documents which are otherwise difficult to access. His work on Oliver Plunkett and other Irish martyrs identified and employed a profusion of sources and documents which have been made use of by subsequent historians, as one of the foremost researchers in the fields Moran developed, Professor Colin Lennon of the National University of Ireland, Maynooth The National University of Ireland, Maynooth (NUIM) was founded in 1997 by the Universities Act, 1997 as a constituent university of the National University of Ireland. , points out. In Lennon's view
   There's no doubt that he was essentially a scholar when he
   approached the past and not a dogmatist. As to his scholarly
   methods, perhaps I can point to a couple of case studies. I have
   used the manuscript copy of John Howlin's 'Perbreve' compendium of
   c. 1589 which is in the Salamanca papers here in Maynooth, along
   with Moran's edition of the Spicilegium. I haven't come across
   major discrepancies, but there are a few pretty important
   marginalia in the manuscript that are not referred to in the
   printed version. Similarly, I have consulted the original state
   papers documenting aspects of the career of Primate Creagh as well
   as the edited versions of Moran in Spicilegium. There are a few
   fairly minor errors in the latter, but nothing of much significance
   ... My overall assessment of his standing as a historian is that he
   is rightly regarded as a pioneer of research into the
   ecclesiastical history of the early modern period in terms of his
   finding of sources and editing of them, but that his commentaries
   and biographical sketches need to be treated with circumspection
   because they are suffused with the devotional spirit of his times.
   Once this element is recognised, however, his work can in itself be
   of historiographical importance. (23)


All the more regrettable, then, that he allowed his obsession with De Quiros to give Australians a false impression of his quality as a researcher.

(1.) Diary entry for 31 October 1874: 'Dr Croke, Bishop of Auckland, came to stop with me for a few days. We were old friends as students in the Irish College, Rome. He left Rome in Nov. 1847. I was then commencing my 3rd year's Philosophy.' Moran Diaries, Moran Papers (MP), Sydney Archdiocesan Archives (SAA).

(2.) Newman to J. D. Dalgairns, 22 November 1846, The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman, ed. Charles Stephen Dessain, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, London, 1961, XI, 279.

(3.) The Tablet, 30Augnst 1851.

(4.) See the entry for 18 February 1871, Moran Diaries, Moran Papers, Sydney Archdiocesan Archives (SAA). Also Moran to Kirby, 7 June 1853 from Dublin, and 11 October 1853 from Liverpool on the way back to Rome. New Kirby Papers, Irish College, Rome, Archives (ICRA).

(5.) Moran, The Fruits of Self-Culture: Address delivered by the Archbishop of Sydney, at a Special Meeting of the Catholic Young Men's Association, in the Sacred Heart Hall, Sydney, 1st December, 1884, O'Hara & Johnson, Sydney, n.d. [1885], p. 27. This was reprinted as Industry and Self-Culture (Browne & Nolan, Dublin, 1885) after Moran delivered it to the Kilkenny Catholic Young Men's Society that year.

(6.) Entries for 16, 18, 19 November 1854, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA. Passaglia was an interesting man. In 1861 he published Pro causa italica in support of the movement for Italian unity, and it was put on the Index of Prohibited Books. He fled to Turin. For liberal intellectuals, inclusion of a book on the Index made it a 'must read'. Moran, as I show in my biography, thought the Index a dubious institution.

(7.) Cullen to Kirby, 16 January 1854, Kirby Papers, ICRA. The Lenten Pastoral (written, according to Moran's diary, on 7 February) is in Mac Suibhne, Paul Cullen and His Contemporaries, vol. 2, p. 191. See too the diary entry for 5 March 1859: another Pastoral for Cullen, on St Patrick, during another of Cullen's trips to Rome (in Mac Suibhne, vol. 2, pp. 285B6).

(8.) Cullen to Kirby, 21 July 1854 (Moran has complained about Smith) and 3 September 1854 (tell [Moran] to be courteous, and to use all due regard to a senior priest), New Kirby Papers, ICRA.

(9.) Moran to Bernard Smith, 2 August 1856 (draft), U2208, 3.7, MP, SAA.

(10.) Moran Diaries, MP, SAA. For a short time Moran was also interim vice-rector at the Scotch College, Rome, while a suitable Scottish candidate was sought.

(11.) Entries for 4 and 7 September 1856 and 3 November 1857, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA. The official letter of appointment to the cattedra (university chair) came on 17 November 1857.

(12.) Undated entry for October 1857, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

(13.) Entries for 2 May and 3 and 6 June 1859, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

(14.) Daleth (pseudonym), 'The Most Rev. Dr. Moran, Archbishop-elect of Sydney', Brisbane Courier, 14 February 1884.

(15.) Entry for 16 January 1862, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

(16.) Entry for 16 January 1862, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

(17.) Entries for 5 and 4 August 1862, Moran Diaries, MP, SAA.

(18.) Manuscript Minutes of the Royal Irish Academy, V (1869), 46: meeting of Monday 11 January 1869: The names of the Rev Patrick F. Moran, D.D. and William MacCormack, M.D. &.c, with those of their proposers and seconders were read from the Chair ; his name was read a second time on Monday 8 February 1869 and he was elected (Minutes, V, 51, 52); at the meeting of 22 February he signed the Roll and was admitted, membership no. 1218 (Minutes, V, 56). Proposer and seconder unnamed. President and chairman, Lord Talbot de Malahide.

(19.) See Moran, Essays on the Origin, Doctrines, and Discipline of the Early Irish Church (James Duffy, Dublin, 1864), pp. 329-37 and passim PASSIM - A simulation language based on Pascal.

["PASSIM: A Discrete-Event Simulation Package for Pascal", D.H Uyeno et al, Simulation 35(6):183-190 (Dec 1980)].
. Many of Moran's works are disputatious dis·pu·ta·tious  
adj.
Inclined to dispute. See Synonyms at argumentative.



dispu·ta
. Thus the History of the Catholic Archbishops of Dublin, which came out that year, attacks the continuity theory of succession advocated by Anglican scholars for the Church of Ireland.

(20.) See de Vere's letters to Moran of 26 December 1866, 9 September 1867, 16 March 1868, 26 February 1869 and 31 March 1871, Moran Papers, Ossory Diocesan Archives (ODA ODA - Open Document Architecture (formerly Office Document Architecture). ).

(21.) Correspondence from Brady, Russell, Meehan and others in the Moran Papers, ODA.

(22.) Correspondence from various copyists, Moran Papers, ODA.

(23.) Professor Colm Lennon, NUI (1) (Network User Interface) A user interface for a computer attached to the network. The NUI is designed to work with remote applications and files as easily as local files.  Maynooth, to the author, 7 September 2005.

Philip Ayres was head of the English Department at Monash University, 1998-2001. He is author of Classical Culture and the Idea of Rome in Eighteenth-Century England (1997), other books on English literary and cultural history, and major Australian biographies: Malcolm Fraser (1987), Douglas Mawson (1999), Owen Dixon (2003). This paper was delivered to the Society in 2006 and was a precursor to his Prince of the Church: Patrick Francis Moran Patrick Francis Cardinal Moran (16 September 1830 – 16 August 1911) was the third Archbishop of Sydney.

An Irishman born at Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland, he died an Australian at Manly, Sydney.
, 1830-1911 (Miegunyah/MUP, 2007), launched in July 2007.
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