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Military diesel engines: more punch at each stroke; a brief survey of what western industry has to offer.

Military Diesel Engines: More Punch at Each Stroke

It is probably true to say that whatever their merits as regards performance, adaptability to a particular weapon system and other features, engines will in the final analysis be largely chosen by military procurement agencies on the basis of their country of origin, and that a local product, or one built under licence locally, will usually have priority over one manufactured abroad. Moreover, military assistance funding (such as is practised by the USA) and/or favourable credit terms are major decision criteria, so that the engine's technical quality is not always the dominant factor in its choice.

Another point worth making is that "military specials", i.e. engines specially developed for military applications, are in the main only found in armoured combat vehicles. All other engines used in military vehicles tend to be derivatives of standard commercial designs.

Diesel Engine Manufacture

in Germany

Probably the best known German military diesel manufacturer is MTU (Motoren- und Turbinen-Union GmbH) which, together with its aeronautical sister company (more properly speaking parent company) MTU Munchen constitutes the Engine Division of the Daimler-Benz-Subsidiary/Deutsche Aerospace AG. In 1969 MAN's and Daimler-Benz's activities in the high-speed diesel engine field were concentrated at MTU in Friedrichshafen.

In the 1950s Daimler developed at the request of the Swiss Army a tank engine for the Panzer 61, out of which there grew a successful series of over 14000 units, the MB-837, consisting of six, eight and ten-cylinder engines developing between 330 and 1030 kW at 2400 rpm. The high performance and reliability of the above series contributed significantly to the success of the Leopard 1, which was powered by the 1030 kW unit. Engines of this series are also found in the Swiss Panzer 68, in the dieselized Turkish M-48 as well as in the Marder APC and Jaguar rocket-firing tank-killer.

More compact in size albeit with higher performances is the second generation of tank engines which was developed as from the mid-60s, the 870 series, comprising eight, ten and twelve-cylinder engines of 880 to 1100 kW (with an upper limit of 1320 kW) at 2600 rpm. The 12-cylinder MB 873 Ka-501 powers the Leopard 2, and its 8-cylinder version the Korean K-1.

Whilst the second-generation series was able to develop some 800 kW for a volume of one cubic metre (including all the for most part integrated accessories) - as compared to the first generation's 500 kW - the current third generation of MTU engines, the MT 880 series, offers 1100 kW/[m.sup.3]. At the same time the weight has been reduced by 16%, the number of parts by 33% and fuel consumption by 12%. At 3000 rpm the 6, 8, 10 and 12-cylinder engines of this new series develop between 550 and 1100 kW. The 12-cylinder MT 883 - with reduced power-has been mounted in the two competing German armoured howitzer 2000 prototypes. The production model of the latter is due to receive the 8-cylinder MT 881, the same engine as that planned for the Marder 2 APC, which is still under development. Built again on the modular principle, as all MTU series, it has considerable logistic advantages for the user since different types of vehicle can be powered by the same engine base and the number of spare parts reduced. The small size of the MT 880 series reduces the area of the engine compartment requiring armour protection and enables more powerful front-drive vehicles to be built (as is the case with the howitzer 2000).

Until now the highest horsepower rating installed in main battle tanks has been 1100 kW. Although 1100 kW is seen as sufficient in Germany to power a 60-tonne tank, higher ratings might be required in the future to power electromagnetic gun-equipped main battle tanks. In this case, diesels would have a serious rival in the shape of the gas turbine. A diesel-electric powerpack would have to be used to enable the reciprocating engine to run constantly at its nominal power speed and drive a generator from which electric power would be picked up to feed the running gear motors and the guns. The 44-litre V12 MT 880 engine could attain a tidy 1600 kW power rating.

The development of such high-performance engines naturally costs money, and since the series are not all that large, these units do not come cheap. This is where the competition comes in, as it would like to gain a foothold with more or less "militarized" derivatives of commercial vehicle or ships' engines in the battle tank field. True, these engines are bigger in size and hence heavier than MTU's Special-Purpose Engines but, as they are mass-produced, they come cheaper. In West Germany there are two such competitors above all: KHD and MAN.

From the ship's and heavy vehicle Deutz MWM 234 engine (6 to 12 cylinders developing 200 to 900 kW) KHD developed the Deutz MWM 834 series. As fitted to the Brazilian Osorio battle tank the TBD 834 V 12 develops 810 kW at 2300 rpm. (It can also be installed in the AMX-30, amongst others). As opposed to the 234 series some of its components have been adapted to military requirements. The same goes for the MAN six-in-line cylinder 325 kW D-2866 engine which powers the Krauss Maffei Puma 1 light Armoured Combat Vehicle, which is a military version of a tried and tested ship's and truck engine. The heavier Puma 2 will be receiving the 10-cylinder MAN 550 kW D-2840L diesel engine.

MTU is also following this path in the lower powered category: thus with its MT 183 series it offers 6 to 12-cylinder diesels from the most up-to-date Mercedes-Benz OM 440 commercial truck engine series. Only very minor modifications have been made to the original engine. For re-engining the M-113 MTU offers its 6 V 183 TC 22 developing 257 kW at 2100 rpm.

Marine Engines

MTU occupies very much the same leading position in naval warship diesels as in the battle tank field. Its high-speed and hence light, turbocharged diesels power both small patrol boats and 3500-tonne frigates, not to mention fast merchant ships and locomotives. MTU diesels are predominant above all in fast patrol boats (FPB) all over the world. The smallest series, the 331/396, numbers 6 to 12-cylinder engines with power ratings between 525 and 1920 kW at respectively 2340 and 2100 rpm. The magnetically compensated MTU 396, with a slightly larger cubic capacity than the 331, powers the new SM 343 and MJ 332 mine countermeasures (MCM) ships of the German Navy and also serves as an auxiliary power plant on larger warships.

Fitted with a turbocharger for back-pressure running, the 396 is also used for submarine propulsion in four classes of German export U-boats. It is in addition earmarked for the future class 212 U-boats.

The MTU 538 series, comprising 12 to 20-cylinder, 1780-4120 kW engines developed by Maybach, is the traditional form of propulsion for FPBs.

The 2520 to 7400 kW range is covered at the lower end of the range by the atmospheric 12-cylinder 956 (2520 kW at 1500 rpm) and at the top by the turbocharged 20-cylinder 1163 (7400 kW at 1200/1300 rpm). These engines are used as the main power plants in frigates or FPBs, either in a CODAD installation (as in the Turkish Yavuz class frigates) or as cruising engines in a CODOG configuration (as in the German F-122 and F-123 frigates). For better performance, lower fuel consumption and part-load running the most up-to-date versions are equipped with cylinder cut-out, charge transfer and sequential turbocharging.

Deutz MWM's commercial ships' diesels, which cover power ratings of up to 3000 kW in 6 to 16-cylinder engines, are in widespread use as auxiliary power plants in warships. They are used for example in the German Navy F-122 and F-123 frigates, FPBs and the new MCM ships (demagnetized). However, they are being increasingly used also as main propulsion units in, among others, the three class 423 fleet support ships of the German Navy (each of which is powered by two SBV 16M 628s developing 3200 kW at 1000 rpm) as well as in foreign patrol boats.

Wheeled Vehicle Engines

The Bundeswehr uses plain commercial engines in its soft wheeled vehicles and thus has a wide choice. As a general rule the vehicle manufacturer is also the engine manufacturer: so one finds a Mercedes diesel in a Mercedes truck, a MAN diesel in a MAN truck, and so on. However, there is an exception: the Bundeswehr prefers air-cooled engines in its cross-country vehicles amongst other things because of their greater invulnerability to bullets and shell splinters compared with the water-cooled variety. Thus the highly manoeuvrable cross-country MAN-built trucks or special-purpose vehicles are powered by the Deutz Diesel BF8L513C (265 kW) engine which is also used by the IA1 category vehicles which serve inter alia as carriers for the Patriot and Roland.

One should not of course forget the large number of lower powered diesels used as stationary, mobile or vehicle and weapon system-mounted APUs and pump engines. Among these there are of course commercial diesels from a large variety of manufacturers, in addition to those already mentioned (like Deutz-Diesel, whose plants are used for electrical power supply in the Roland air defence missile system), such as the Bavarian engine manufacturer Hatz, which covers a broad range from 1 to 60 kW.

As the world's armed forces have to cope with shrinking budgets, they will tend more and more to look around for commercial engines or their derivatives. This applies more particularly to the lower power ratings. Nevertheless, there will still be a need for the "military special" such as is used in armoured vehicles. The aim of all developments in West Germany is to make the diesel a higher performance, more user-friendly and above all more environment-friendly engine.

Diesel Engine Manufacture

in France

There are three manufacturers of diesel engines for tanks and armoured wheeled vehicles in France: SACM Diesel, Baudouin and Renault Vehicules Industriels. Renault's policy in this branch of its activities, which accounts for 15% of its Defence Equipment Division's turnover, stems from its status as a truck manufacturer, in other words it derives its range of military diesels from its mass-produced commercial engines, which is a new approach as far as tank engines are concerned.

The only tank engine still specifically manufactured by Renault V.I. is the HS 110, which powers the AMX 30 family. Below 500 horsepower its range consists in the main of two power plants. The first one is the 602.26, a six-cylinder in-line, six-litre engine which is due to equip the VAB NG, a 180 kW engine that has passed the NATO 400-hour test. It has also been certified by NATO for kerosene propulsion - a new requirement looming up in 1994-95 since by then NATO will be supplied by a pipeline conveying only kerosene. The 602.26 is due to be boosted to 220 kW. Then there is the 620.45, a six-cylinder, 9.84-litre engine which up till now has powered the VAB, and which one also finds on the VTL G290 and the TRM 10000. Apart from the VAB version this engine is essentially a commercial truck engine, but it is intended to militarize it by uprating it to 365 kW.

Beyond the above we come to the E9, originally a Mack design, a 16.4-litre direct injection supercharged diesel engine. This 365 kW engine is produced in thousands by Mack with a 500-horsepower rating for commercial-type vehicles. A militarized E9 version has been developed by Renault with a 515 kW rating for powering the TRM 700-100 tank transporter and also with a 550 kW rating as a tank powerpack. The 550 kW version is embarking on its 400-hour NATO test at the GIAT ETAS (Etablissement Technique d'Angers).

In addition, Renault is jointly developing a 735 kW E9 with Mack which should complete its 400-hour NATO certification tests by mid-1991.

Taking advantage of current heavy investments, Renault covers the entire power range up to 735 kW rating with relatively easily produced engines whose procurement and running costs are lower than those of purpose-built engines.

The engines in the 735 kW range and above are of a technological design far removed from that of truck engines - apart from those equipped with a hyperbar system (as a matter of fact the E9 made a successful demonstration at a power rating of 1100 kW fitted with a hyperbar system in 1985) - and Renault would prefer to see what can be achieved in this range in cooperation with heavy engine specialists like MTU or Perkins.

In 1989 Renault delivered 320 tank engines and clearly intends to make this side of its activities a specific branch of development.

Backed by its experience with the sale of close on 30000 diesel engines marketed over the last 40 years under the names of Poyaud, MGO and AGO, the SACM Diesel group (Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques) designs, manufactures and markets, under the make Uni Diesel, a complete range of gaz (LPG) and diesel engines all belonging to the high-speed diesel category (1000 to 2500 rpm) and with power ratings extending from 200 to 10000 HP for cylinder bores of 135 to 240 mm. SACM Diesel produces power plants both for armoured vehicles and seagoing and railway applications.

Its ground vehicle engines are represented by the new X range and a few engines of the old UD 18 range, the latter being still turned out in essence for re-engining. The X range comprises: two engines under development with power ratings of 365 and 475 kW, namely the conventional supercharged UD V6X T5 and the twin supercharger UD V6X T6; a V12, the 1300 HP UD V12X developed for the AMX 40. In the planning stage are the 625 kW UD V8X T6, which may be installed on the export version of the AMX 30 C2, and the 550 kW UD V8X T55 and 535 kW UD V8X T5, both under consideration for the reengining of the French Army's AMX 30 B2, a project on which SACM is competing with Renault and Baudouin. The V8 range of engines is also due to re-engine the Soviet T tanks.

SACM Diesel has been selected as the engine supplier for the AMX Leclerc, the French Army's future battle tank. The engine that has been developed for the latter is an 16.47-litre V8 engine (with a 142 mm cylinder bore and a 130 mm stroke) developing 1100 kW at 2500 rpm. Called the UD V8X 1500 T9, this highly supercharged engine works on the Suralmo hyperbar principle.

This 1100 kW engine is no larger than that of the AMX 30, which develops 513 kW horsepower, thus enabling the size of the chassis and the weight of the hull to be reduced, thus allowing for an increase in armour protection. With a weight of two tonnes, its volume is two cubic metres. The engine can run at an outside temperature of -30[degrees] to + 150[degrees]C. and enables a 50-tonne tank to accelerate from 0 to 30 km/h in less than five seconds.

Production of the US V8X T9 is due to start at the end of 1991. It has been put through performance trials in the USA, at the request of TACOM, at the same time as a MTU engine and a Rolls-Royce engine. The Americans are said to be on the lookout for diesel engines that could be installed in the M1 Abrams, which is at present powered by a gas turbine.

Since the first of January 1989 the ALSPI group (Alsacienne de Participation Industrielle), which owned SACM, has surrendered 42% of its shareholding to the Finnish Wartsila financial group, a specialist in marine diesels.

Baudouin, a subsidiary of Maneurop (of the Paribas group) has for over 70 years been producing seagoing diesel engines of 53 to 1030 kW (for fishing boats, pleasure boats and harbour launches, etc.) as well as industrial and military diesels. In 1989 its defence branch accounted for 15% of the firm's turnover, of which marine engines made up 70%. All the engines offered by Baudouin for military purposes are derived from series-produced marine engines. From a standard F range six-cylinder engine Baudouin has developed military power plants ranging from 125 kW to 300 kW.

Thus the 6 F11 SRX, a two-stroke charge-cooled V6 engine of 6.4 litres cubic capacity and developing 220 kW at 3000 rpm has been chosen to re-engine the French Army's AMX 10 RC as from the sixth phase of the programme (previous types having been powered by the Renault HS 115). The Baudouin engine is also due to equip or re-engine all versions of the AMX 10. This represented a 450-engine order for the French Army (370 vehicles plus spares), while another 50 were installed in the AMX 10 P and tracked PAC 90s delivered to Indonesia.

The engine is distinguished by its low fuel consumption, the low smoke content of its exhaust gases, its improved power and its lower purchase price compared with the HS 115.

A version developing 205 kW at 3200 rpm, as well as a Detroit Diesel engine, have been proposed to power the AMX 13s retrofitted by Creusot-Loire Industrie as a replacement for the original Sofam petrol engine.

Creusot-Loire Industrie has chosen a Baudouin engine for its new tank. This is the 6 F12 SRY, derived in a straight line from the AMX 13 engine and uprated to 295 kW. Its use with a Renk automatic transmission is being considered. The engine could also meet the export AMX 10s' re-engining needs.

The French Gendarmerie's VXBs have all been re-engined by Baudouin. Baudouin has also provided 36 auxiliary power units for the Thomson-CSF Crotale launch vehicle.

Still in the F range, the 615 kW V12 15-litre 12 F120 SR, derived from a pleasure boat engine, has been selected to power the future Engin de Franchissement de l'Avant (EFA-combat bridging system) due to be put in service in Engineer units. It has been certified by the ETAS (500-hour trials) with a power rating of 495 kW and 513 kW, and further certification at 535 kW has been applied for.

Concurrently with this adaptation of the F range to ground vehicles, Baudouin has also supplied 314 power plants and 198 generators for the French Navy's harbour launches and landing barges.

Diesel Engine Manufacture

in the United States

Several recent efforts in the area of US military diesels include development work on the Army's Advanced Integrated Propulsion System (AIPS) retrofit programmes to upgrade the performance of existing combat systems, and a possible joint venture initiative directed toward overseas markets.

In the programme conducted by the US Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM), the diesel prototype propulsion system being developed for a full-scale demonstration in FY 90 is the XAP 1000 using the Cummins Engine Company XAV28 as the core. Cummins reportedly will demonstrate 770 kW sprocket horsepower from their system during the mid-1990 demonstration. The company demonstrated 550 kW horsepower from their system during the summer of 1989.

Cummins currently provides the 370 kW and 440 kW horsepower VTA-903T V-8 diesel engine used in the M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles as well as in the Multiple Launch Rocket System.

Contractor representatives decline to discuss current AIPS programme status, citing the sensitivity of the TACOM contract. However, considerable information can be found in the programme description disseminated by the US Army's Armor Center at Ft. Knox, Kentucky. According to that description, AIPS is a US government programme "to develop advanced propulsion system technology for the next generation of heavy combat vehicles. The engine, transmission, and other components for AIPS are being designed as an integrated system. This approach ensures maximum system performance and efficiency and more efficient packaging."

The two AIPS prototypes are scheduled to complete testing during next summer, after which "one of the two concepts will be selected for further development."

Another US company with a strong track record in military diesels is Michigan-based Teledyne Continental Motors. Its AVDS-1790 is utilized in 60 percent of the main battle tanks fielded in the free world. TCM continues its strong product line featuring both new and remanufactured 1790 series diesel engines. Its new "Red Seal" range includes 550, 660, 770 and 880 kW units with new components that include a solid pin crankshaft, hardened cylinder bores and improved exhaust manifolds. TCM's confidence in the reliability and performance of these engines is evident in the 1000-hour or four-year warranty provided.

Teledyne Continental Motors has also developed a "Gold Medallion" kit for older AVDS-1790 "RISE" engines. This kit features the same improved components found in the new engines but is designed for installation during the regular overhaul process.

Retrofitting

Since TCM did not receive a new diesel development contract under the AIPS programme, company representatives characterize their present emphasis as "retrofit and service to foreign markets".

One domestic retrofit opportunity that holds significant business potential would be a major retrofit programme for US M60 MBTs. At the present time, a large number of these systems are fielded with US Army Reserve Component (Army Reserve and National Guard) elements. Although these Reserve Component forces expect eventually to replace their M60 MBTs with new M1 series tanks, continuing cuts in the M1 production line keep postponing that expected replacement date further into the future. At some point those M60 units will be forced to select an upgrade programme to maintain combat viability. Continuing cuts in the M1 MBT line could force such a decision in the mid-1990s.

Another US upgrade programme that might provide new diesel opportunities is the M88A1E1 (M88A2) Tank Recovery Vehicle. The winning M88A1E1 prototype featured the 770 kW TCM AVDS 1790-8DR diesel (versus the 552 kW TCM AVDS 1790-2DR diesel found in the standard M88A1). Although the Army decided to continue with full-scale engineering development of the M88A1E1 in December 1988, they did not proceed with system procurement. However, there are indications of recent movement in some circles to proceed with that programme.

One foreign market opportunity being explored by TCM is a new 1100 kW joint venture programme known as the AVDS 1790-15A; the engine is currently being offered to several overseas markets. After laboratory testing at 1065 kW TCM has determined that the AVDS-1790 can reliably produce 1100 kW horsepower in its present form. Under this programme TCM would provide a manufacturing license for the new engine together with a technical assistance agreement covering both engine development and manufacturing. Although the new engines would not carry the same 1000-hour warranty, TCM representatives point out that the AVDS 1790-15A is based on a very mature engine design and they logically expect the same level of performance.

Diesel Engine Manufacture in

the United Kingdom

Genuinely indigenous United Kingdom military automotive diesel engine manufacturing capability is centred on Perkins Engines which has a product line embracing both logistic and armoured vehicles. However, increased emphasis on competitive procurement in the domestic market, and the current interest in the turbine-powered M1 for the Britain's current MBT requirement have led to increased competition for defence-related business.

The Perkins Eagle MX series acquired with its mid-1980s purchase of the Rolls-Royce Diesels business provides power in the 146 to 292 kW range for the British Army's DROPS Medium Mobility (Leyland DAF) and Improved Medium Mobility (Foden) load carriers, Foden heavy recovery trucks and Tank Transporters (Leyland DAF/Scammell), and is assured a role in its future wheeled bridge launcher programme. The Eagle product provided Perkins with an ideal complement to its own 6.3544 106 to 185 kW, 4.236 and 8.640/540 engines, which power amongst other military vehicles, the Alvis Stormer (T6.3544 - 146 kW), Engesa Ogum (T4.236) GKN Simba (TV8.540 - 158 kW) and the ACMAT truck range (T6.3544).

At the top of the power spectrum Perkins' Condor V8 rated at 395 kW powers the Warrior mechanised combat vehicle. With a growth potential up to 735 kW the V8 seems assured of a continued role in programmes calling for premium performance from a proven high-density power pack and the reliability that reflects its well-proven Eagle origins. Much the same can be said of the Condor V-12 which is installed in the Challenger MBT in a 880 kW form but has been demonstrated at 1100 kW and is said to have the potential for development up to 1470 kW. This proven technology positions Perkins well to adopt a "power pack approach", matching engines and transmission systems to meet new-build and retrofit requirements for cleaner high-output engines with a smaller installed volume. Its engineers are examining the application of Variable Geometry and Positive Displacement turbocharging to such needs and, in conjunction with the development of electronic engine management techniques, how to control such systems in real time in response to changes in operational load and environment.

Likewise, the revolutionary Quadram piston design adopted for the company's Phaser engine sets new standards in fuel efficiency and improved performance which are said to be particularly applicable to emerging mid-range requirements including the upcoming United Kingdom Future Family of Light Armoured Vehicles.

Cummins' most significant British coup to date has been the selection of its MILPAC 600/660 Power Pack - based on the VTA903T V8 engine - for the VSEL AS90 SP 155 mm howitzer. The 903 Series is already familiar to military users as the power plant for such vehicles as the MLRS launch vehicle and the Bradley series of infantry combat vehicles, and Cummins is also trying to break into the re-power market with a version of its mid-range 8.3 litre C Series (normally rated between 110 and 184 kW) for M113 re-power programmes. In 1989 Cummins increased its influence in the West European military truck market - albeit at arm's length - when the Leyland-DAF 4 X 4 for which it builds the Leyland-badged engine was selected by the MoD as its "next-generation" four-tonne load carrier.

Marine Engines

British naval programmes continue to offer reasonable prospects for propulsion and power generation specialists and to create an ongoing demand for state-of-the-art diesels. The CODLAG configuration of the Type 23 frigates, the four-boat programme for the Upholder class of conventionally powered submarines, and the British and Saudi Arabian requirements for the Sandown-class SRMH not only underline the dominant position of the Paxman Valenta series in the market but also its versatility in the 540 to 3670 kW power range. This owes much to a design emphasis on achieving a high power-to-weight ratio, which has been carried downstream in the closely-related Vega range which Paxman (a GEC subsidiary) believes to be more suited to roles closer inshore.

Perkins too has achieved considerable success in naval markets with navalized versions of its Condor range, its widely-used Range 4M family, and more recently has offered a navalized version of its Prima turbo-charged engine producing 57 kW at 4500 rpm to provide near-gasoline performance for powering planing, semi-planing and full displacement hulls.

Increased interest in high-performance diesel outboard engines has led to several promising new designs. AQAP-approved EP Barrus, designers of the Mariner range of outboards, has a new range of diesels, whilst Coventry Climax has recently introduced its Climax 25 18 kW unit which is said to offer the advantages of 60% fuel savings and a longer service life than an equivalent kW two-stroke.

Diesel Engine Manufacture

in Scandinavia

Sweden's automobile industry, although somewhat restricted in the scope of its military activities, has a reputation for the production of truck diesels that commands universal respect. The country's Combat Vehicle '90 programme is unquestionably one of the most interesting of current military vehicle programmes. The selection of a version of the Scania DS14 engine as its power plant reflects its designer's conviction; namely that state-of-the-art commercial engine design now makes it possible to employ a high-torque/low specific fuel consumption truck engine derivative to power armoured vehicles required to operate in arduous environments. The AFV adaptation of the 14-litre charge-cooled DS14 - which is more usually installed in premium trucks rated at around 295 to 345 kW - features dry sump lubrication and a lowered profile for the charge-air cooling subsystem. Navalized versions of the DS14 are in service with the Swedish Navy to power one of its 201 personnel landing craft and, more significantly, its six Landsort-class coastal minesweepers.

Sweden's other internationally renowned truck-builder Volvo tends to focus its efforts in the military automotive market on the sale of complete trucks. Thus its newly-developed 355 kW TD162FL diesel which delivers 2160Nm torque at only 1100 rpm is likely to attract the attention of military logistic fleet operators. The engine has already been used to power a range of heavy duty tractive units based on the company's F16 6 X 4 chassis, and is likely to be proposed for DROPS/PLS-type systems in which a high degree of mobility is sought for heavy combat stores pay-loads.

Sweden's Hedemora has achieved a close identity with Kockums-built submarines and has supplied engines for surface vessels operating in some support roles. However, the Volvo Penta range is probably the most widely used of the Scandinavian marine diesels, with a product line that spans the 13 to 405 kW range. Although the Volvo Penta range is often thought of in terms of applications in the workboat band of the power spectrum, its new TAMD162 6-cylinder 16-litre can be used typically (in multiple configurations) to power Ro-Ro vessels via 1000 kW electric motors.

Finland's domestic truck-builder Sisu acquires the engines for its military product line from several sources including Cummins, Deutz and the indigenous product from Valmet. The country's principal marine diesel manufacturer Wartsila is a major supplier in the merchant vessel sector of the market and provides the engines for vessels employed in a broad spectrum of support roles.
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Publication:Armada International
Date:Apr 1, 1990
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Previous Article:Air-to-ground weapons systems: from sight to seeker; a reader's guide to current and future systems.
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