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Jerome Moross: an introduction and annotated worklist.

Of the considerable number of accomplished American composers of the twentieth century, Jerome Moross (1 August 1913-25 July 1983, fig. 1) is one of the less familiar names, but he left an important legacy of music for stage, screen, and theater, and some of it is finding a new audience. Those who do recognize the composer's name generally know Moross's once notorious ballet Frankie and Johnny (1938), his cabaret standard "Lazy Afternoon" (from The Golden Apple, 1950, with lyrics by John Latouche), or his scores to such films as The Big Country (1958), and The Cardinal (1963). Some listeners familiar with all this music do not realize that it is the work of the same man, and that each piece represents only one aspect of a multifaceted composer. A new assessment of Moross's place in American music is overdue, and what follows is an attempt to place this body of work, which has fallen into relative and undeserved obscurity, in historical perspective, to make details known to potential listeners and performers, and to stimulate further research. The annotations in the worklist relate important biographical details to the relevant music, and this brief introduction attempts only to provide an overview of the career of Jerome Moross and a survey of his musical activities.

The second of three sons born in Brooklyn to Russian-Jewish immigrant parents, Jerome Moross (1) studied piano at any early age with his mother. He was a precocious child who graduated from high school several years ahead of schedule and from New York University at the age of eighteen. During the academic year 1931-32 (his final year at NYU), he also held a fellowship in conducting at Juilliard. (2) Initially, Moross wrote in a dissonant, modernistic style (e.g., Paeans for chamber orchestra, 1931), but it was not long before he began to mix a more conservative, tonal approach with jazz, popular, and folk idioms. Moross said of his early influences,

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
 ... all my life I heard popular music. I heard folk music. It was the
 kind of thing we sang when I was a child, and even while I was going
 to Juilliard I was working at jobs in jazz bands. I worked in theater
 pits. Popular music was all around me and it seemed absolutely right
 to use it. As a matter of fact, two people encouraged me in it. One
 was Charles Ives, with whom I was quite friendly in my late teens....
 Ives was very kind and very helpful. He once told me that he thought
 it was a good thing that I was mixing up real popular music in my
 style, which at that time was still quite Schoenbergian/Webernesque. I
 was intent upon quarter-tones and all the rest ... then I suddenly
 felt it was a dead end, a wall, and I left it.... I should have said
 three people because it was [also] Henry Cowell and Aaron Copland....
 (3)


Moross was an active member of Copland's Young Composers' Group, (4) and was a frequent performer in concerts of new music given in New York City throughout the 1930s, playing both his own music and that of others. Among the more interesting pieces in his repertoire were the First Piano Sonata of Charles Ives and the Second Piano Sonata ("The Airplane") of George Antheil. (5) Large-ensemble pieces on these concerts were conducted by Arthur Berger, future lexicographer Nicolas Slonimsky, or Bernard Herrmann, who would become a celebrated composer of film scores. (6) In 1936 Aaron Copland expressed both high expectations and frank criticism of a number of America's most promising young composers in an important article, writing
 Moross is probably the most talented of these men [writing
 collectively of Moross, Elie Siegmeister, Irwin Heilner, and Andrew
 Cazden]. He writes music that has a quality of sheer physicalness,
 music "without a mind," as it were. It is regrettable that we cannot
 yet point to any finished, extended work. What he seems to lack is a
 sense of artistic discipline and integrity, which his talent needs for
 development. (7)


Both Moross and Bernard Herrmann were strong advocates for the music of Charles Ives, (8) and Moross was also active in performing or promoting performance of works by Ives, George Antheil, Henry Cowell, and the (then) little-known nineteenth-century American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk. (9) Two of Moross's early orchestral pieces, Paeans and Biguine [sic] were published in 1933 and 1935, respectively, in Cowell's important New Music Orchestra Series (New Music Editions, San Francisco). It was Copland who recommended Moross to dancer Ruth Page, for whom Moross was to write several ballets, the most important of which was Frankie and Johnny (1938). (10) Through Oscar Levant, Moross met George Gershwin, who in 1937 invited the young composer to be vocal coach and pianist for the touring production of Porgy and Bess. This he did; Moross was only twenty-three years old at the time.

In 1939, Moross married Hazel Abrams, whom he had met in Los Angeles. The young couple settled in Manhattan, enjoying the rich cultural life of the city and rearing their only child Susanna, born the following year. A career highlight of another sort occurred on 18 October 1943 when Sir Thomas Beecham conducted Moross's Symphony with the Seattle Symphony (figs. 2-3); three more performances of the Symphony were given the following year with Alfred Wallenstein conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic. (11) On 21 January 1945, an article in the New York Times announced that Moross was among several young composers to receive commissions from CBS to write new works "in whatever form they please," (12) and on 14 April 1947, a New York Herald Tribune article revealed that Moross had been awarded a Guggenheim fellowship in composition. (13) In his concert music, Moross was an important successor to Gershwin in that he was a classically trained musician who broke away from European models and incorporated folk song, jazz, blues, ragtime, and other popular styles in concert music as part of his compositional vocabulary rather than as novelty or diversion.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

By 1940, Moross had also begun to work intermittently in Hollywood as a film score orchestrator. Significantly, the first of these assignments was Copland's score to Our Town. (14) In 1948, having had what amounted to a long apprenticeship as a staff orchestrator for Warner Brothers, Moross received his first offer to compose original film music. Over the next twenty years he accepted such work from time to time (primarily to finance his composition in other forms), but did not desire to become known primarily as a composer for motion pictures. His scores were always well crafted, nicely complementing the action on screen (perhaps a valuable lesson learned from working with Copland), and earned him a high degree of respect. It is clear that Moross was required to devote a great deal of his creative energy, more than he would have liked, to commercial music. Indeed, table 1 shows the extent to which his efforts in the 1940s and 1950s were dominated by work in film and television.

Moross was at his most inventive in the world of musical theater, and he is historically important for introducing a number of hybrid forms. In the ballet Frankie and Johnny (1938), for example, three Salvation Army "Salvation Susies" wander around on stage playing percussion instruments and commenting on the action in a manner both Greek and Brechtian; in Ballet Ballads (1948), several characters are represented both by singers and dancers; and in The Golden Apple (1950) there is no spoken dialogue whatsoever, a feature unprecedented for a musical of its day. This last-named work received the New York Drama Critics Circle Award in 1954 for Best Musical of the Year. His musical Underworld (1962), although containing some fine music, was never produced because of bitter disagreement between producers and authors. Moross was plagued by ill health in his later years, and these were largely spent revising earlier music and composing a series of pedagogical pieces of modest difficulty (Sonatinas for Divers Instruments). His last work for the stage was the one-act opera Sorry, Wrong Number (1977). Jerome Moross died in 1983 of congestive heart failure, a few days before his seventieth birthday and a few months after the death of his beloved wife of over forty years.

Characteristics of Moross's music include syncopation, gapped scales (often pentatonic, showing the influence of folk song), "blue" notes, modal harmony, melodic sequence, a pronounced symmetry of phrasing, rhythmic ostinato, and occasional dissonance, even bitonality. (15) His orchestration, progressive for its time, included exotic percussion instruments, trap set, muted brass (cup, harmon, and wah-wah mutes), vibraphone, etc., but his harmonic language is often closer to musical theater than to concert repertoire. Moross was neither a major innovator, responsible for significant change in the musical direction of his time, nor a mere practitioner satisfied to uncritically follow the musical traditions which preceded him. In spite of his early and thorough musical training, Moross never studied composition per se with a private teacher but developed a style that was personal, idiosyncratic, and essentially self-taught. His style embraced popular musical aesthetics, and was perhaps shaped as much by his own experience performing in nightclubs and pit orchestras as by his youthful academic study.

The young American composers active in New York City primarily in the 1930s and 1940s are often considered and evaluated as a group. (16) Yet this was a bright galaxy, and there were several lesser stars whose substantial legacy awaits rediscovery. Though touched only occasionally or even rarely by what may be called the muse of genius, the music of Jerome Moross is distinguished by a passion for American history, dance, and popular culture, a high level of technical competence, musical and literary sensitivity, and the essential but elusive combination of taste and imagination.

The Music of Jerome Moross: An Annotated Worklist

I. Concert and Theater Music

II. Music for Film (1948-1969)

III. Orchestrations of Film Scores by Other Composers (1940-1952)

IV. Music for Television (1955-1968)

Arrangement of the Worklist

Section I is organized as follows:

Concert and theater music titles (i.e., all works not for film or television) are entered in a single alphabetical sequence, with each title followed parenthetically by the year of completion and by a genre classification. Following section I is a classified list of the same titles arranged by genre; these are based on Library of Congress subject headings for music, but do not follow them in all details. Because of its historical interest, even non-extant music is mentioned in a few cases. Particulars of the annotations are in the following sequence:

* Individual sections (songs from musicals, sonata movements, ballet sections)

* Instrumentation, listed in score order and abbreviated as follows: flute, fl; piccolo, pic; oboe, ob; English horn, Eng hrn; clarinet, cl; alto clarinet, alt cl; bass clarinet, b cl; soprano saxophone, sop sax; alto saxophone, alt sax; tenor saxophone, ten sax; baritone saxophone, bari sax; bassoon, bsn; contrabassoon, cbsn; horn, hrn; trumpet, trp; cornet, cnt; trombone, trb; bass trombone, b trb; tuba, tu; doubles/doubling, doub; timpani, timp; snare drum, sn dr; bass drum, b dr; tenor drum, t dr; side drum, s dr; cymbals, cym; suspended cymbals, sus cym; glockenspiel, glock; xylophone, xyl; vibraphone, vib; marimba, marim; gong, g; chimes, ch; bells, b; tom-tom, tom; castanets, cast; maracas, marac; triangle, tri; woodblocks, wb, cowbells, cowb; bongos, bon; piano, p; celesta, cel; harp, h; violin, vln; viola, vla; cello, vc; double bass, db; strings, str.

* Approximate duration

* First performance (date, conductor, director, cast, etc.)

* Additional performances

* Publisher of music

* Location of MS sources. The essential repository of material relating to Moross is the Jerome Moross Papers at Columbia University. Most of the composer's works, copied in his own hand, are found here, some in different stages or versions, and most references to MS sources in the worklist are to this collection, abbreviated JMP.

* Recordings (both commercially available and out-of-print)

* Comments (historical background, commissions, awards, bibliography, etc.)

Sections II-IV of the worklist are arranged more loosely. One does not normally speak of a "first performance" of a film score, for example, and it is unusual for such music to be available in printed form. Most of Moross's music in this medium (like that of other composers) is accessible primarily through the films themselves or the occasional soundtrack recording. There are, however, a growing number of modern digital recordings devoted to classic film music, and symphony orchestras have shown that live concerts, sometimes in conjunction with large screen images, are an important and satisfying programming possibility. (Two suites of such music designed for concert performance are described in section I under The Big Country and Music for the Flicks.)

I. Concert and Theater Music

Adam and Eve in Eden

See comments to The Last Judgement

An American Pattern (1936)

BALLET Introduction / The Office / The Old Women / Party Scene / The Gigolo / The Old Women / Dance of the Revolutionary / Duet / Finale.

Instrumentation: 2 fl (2d doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), 2 cl (2d doub b cl), bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??], trb / 2 timp, sn dr, sus cym, glock, ch, Chinese blocks (temple blocks) / h / p /str.

Approximate duration: 20 minutes.

First performance: 1937. Chicago, Great Northern Theatre (other details unknown). Choreography by Ruth Page and Bentley Stone.

Later performances:

1) 20 June 1938. Great Northern Theatre, Chicago, under the joint auspices of the Chicago Opera Ballet and the Works Progress Administration Federal Theatre. Choreography by Ruth Page and Bentley Stone. Other works on program: Behind This Mask by David Sheinfeld and Frankie and Johnny by Moross.

2) 8 June 2000. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: New York Public Library, Dance Collection, Ruth Page Collection. Contains both full score and piano score.

Comments: Ballet in one act. Commissioned by Ruth Page; scenario by Ruth Page and Nicholas Remisoff. Composer's MS reads "New York-Chicago-Albuquerque-Los Angeles" and, below, "April-Dec 1936" [?--lower half cut off]. Moross himself believed this music to be lost.

An American Saga

See Paul Bunyon: An American Saga (1934)

Ballet Ballads

See Susanna and the Elders, Willie the Weeper, The Eccentricities of Davy Crockett, and Riding Hood Revisited

The Banjo (composed L. M. Gottschalk, 1854-55; arr. J. Moross, 1934)

PIANO MUSIC, ARRANGED (2 PIANOS)

Instrumentation: 2 p.

Approximate duration: 5 minutes.

First performance: 2 April 1935. Vera Brodsky and Harold Triggs, duopianists. Metropolitan Opera House, New York City (Concert of American Music).

Music published: J. Fischer, 1935; later Schirmer.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 10.

Recordings:

1) Classics in the Park. John Arpin, piano. Classical Heritage 1222 [1999], CD.

2) Gottschalk: Music for Two and Four Hands. Alan Marks, Nerine Barrett, pianos. Nimbus 7045 [2000], 2 CDs.

Comments: Moross's arrangement of Louis Moreau Gottschalk's Le banjo, esquisse americaine, op. 15, RO 22. Moross had a life-long interest in both Gottschalk (1829-1869) and two-piano music (Moross's extensive collection of music for two pianos now resides in the music library of the Manhattan School of Music). With its idiomatic, extroverted technique and its quotation of American tunes (including the revival song Roll, Jordan Roll and Stephen Foster's Camptown Races), The Banjo achieves an arresting, rollicking, and quintessentially American effect. Moross had been introduced to several of Gottschalk's works by John Kirkpatrick in 1932. In a letter dated 11 May 1934, Moross asked Kirkpatrick to loan him "such pieces as O ma Charmante [O ma charmante, epargnez-moi, op. 44, RO 182], Reponds-moi [Reponds-moi (Di que si), op. 50, RO 225], and others that can't be bought" (Kirkpatrick Papers, 56/25/273). Although he could hardly have known it at the time, it might have been fruitful for Moross to have pursued his interest in Gottschalk. He wrote to Kirkpatrick that he had hopes of arranging some of Gottschalk's music as a short ballet, but this did not come to pass. Years later, Hershy Kay did precisely this with much success in his ballet Cakewalk (1951), and Kay's reconstruction (for pianist Eugene List) of Gottschalk's Grande tarantelle (1961) was choreographed by Balanchine and figured considerably in the Gottschalk revival of the 1960s. According to pre-concert newspaper publicity, Mrs. William Randolph Hearst specifically requested that Moross's arrangement of The Banjo be given at the performance cited above.

The Big Country (1958)

SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA Main Title / Waltz (Waltz from Major Terrill's Party) / Ballad (Raid on Blanco Canyon) / Scherzo (Old Thunder) / Finale (The Welcoming).

Instrumentation: 3 fl (2d & 3d doub pic), 2 ob (2d doub Eng hrn), 3 cl (3d doub b cl), 2 bsn (2d doub cbsn) / 4 hrn, 3 trp in B[??], 2 trb, b trb, tu / timp, sn dr, t dr, b dr, sus cym, cym, glock, vib, tri (4 percussionists) / h / p, cel / str.

Approximate duration: 16 minutes.

Selective list of performances:

1) 27 November 1966 (two performances, 6:00 and 8:45 p.m.). Mantovani Concert Orchestra; Mantovani, cond. Philharmonic Hall, Lincoln Center, New York City.

2) 22 October 1971. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Elmer Bernstein, cond. London, England.

3) 19 and 20 February 1982. Long Beach Symphony; John Green, cond. Long Beach, California.

4) 8 June 1996. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas. Main title only.

5) 16 February 2002. Corpus Christi Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Corpus Christi, Texas. Main title only.

6) 26 and 27 April 2002. Waterloo/Cedar Falls Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Waterloo, Iowa. Main title only.

7) 6 March 2004. Hartford Symphony Orchestra; Jeff Tyzik, cond. Mortensen Hall, Bushnell Performing Arts Center, Hartford, Connecticut.

8) 13 March 2004. Rapides Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Rapides Parish, Louisiana. Main title only.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Recording: See The Big Country under section II, Music for Film.

Comments: Suite drawn from music composed for the motion picture. Orchestrations of the movements in the suite were revised by the composer and differ somewhat from those heard in the film soundtrack.

The Big Country was listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from Chappell.

Biguine (1934)

ORCHESTRAL MUSIC Instrumentation: 2 fl, pic, 2 ob, 2 cl in B[??], b cl, 2 bsn / 4 hrn, 4 trp in B[??], 3 trbs, tu / timp, sn dr, b dr, cym, xyl, marac / p / str.

Approximate duration: 5 minutes.

First broadcast performance: 21 November 1934. CBS Symphony Orchestra; John Green, cond. CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) broadcast, aired from New York City.

First concert performance: 25 August 1944. Los Angeles Philharmonic; Franz Waxman, cond. "Symphony Under the Stars at Hollywood Bowl," Los Angeles, California.

Music published: In New Music Orchestra Series, [no. 9] (subscription series, ed. Henry Cowell), 1935; Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 11.

Recording: New Zealand Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7367-2 H1 [1996], CD (rec. January 1996).

Comments: Biguine received its premiere performance some six months before the stage work Parade, although its thematic material is derived from the latter. The work was conceived as a dance vehicle for Charles Weidman. The theme and rhythmic accompaniment was later reused in music the composer provided for the 1956 film The Sharkfighters. The curious spelling of the title is the composer's own.

Blood Wedding (1949)

INCIDENTAL MUSIC Introduction (instrumental) / Lullaby (act 1, scene 2--"Oh lullaby, my baby") / End of Scene 2 (act 1, scene 2--"Carnation sleep and dream") / Interlude (act 1, scene 2, 3--instrumental) / Processional (act 1, between acts 3 and 4--"Awaken, O bride") / Exit to the Church (act 1, scene 4--instrumental) / Opening Song (act 2--"A turning the wheel") / Dance (act 2, scene 1--instrumental) / Song (act 2, scene 1--"With the back of her head") / End of the Wedding (act 2, scene 1--instrumental) / Red Wool (act 2, scene 3--"Wool, red wool, what would you make?").

Instrumentation: trp in B[??] / guitar / men's voices / women's voices.

Approximate duration: 10 minutes.

First performance: 1949 (specific date unknown). New Stages Theatre, New York.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 11.

Comments: Incidental music to the play by Federico Garcia Lorca. Lorca poems were set by Moross in his ballet Guns and Castanets.

Concerto for Flute with String Quartet [or String Orchestra] (1978)

CONCERTO, FLUTE WITH STRING QUARTET

I. Allegro / II. Andante. Tune with 4 Improvisations. / III. Vivace.

Instrumentation: fl / 2 vln, vla, vc (db ad lib).

Approximate duration: 24 minutes.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 12.

Recordings:

1) Alexa Still, flute; New Zealand Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7367-2 H1 [1996], CD (version for flute and string orchestra, rec. January 1996).

2) Frances Zlotkin, flute; Richard Sortomme, Benjamin Hudson, violins; Toby Appel, viola; Frederick Zlotkin, cello. Varese Sarabande VC 31101 [1979], LP (version for flute and string quartet, rec. 1979).

Comments: Conceived originally for clarinet; the composer's last completed work. Designed to be accompanied by either string quartet or string orchestra, for which a contrabass part was provided; the two recordings cited illustrate both versions.

The Eccentricities of Davy Crockett ("Ballet Ballad No. 3"; 1946 / orch. 1966)

MUSICAL Oh the Western Star Is Riding Low / I'm Ridin' on the Breeze / A Funny Kind of a Lad is Davy / Young Women, They Run Like Hares / Sally Ann Cyclone Thunderbird Crockett / Peace Be on This House of Logs/ Cherokee Choctaw Shawanoe / Fill the Snakeskin Quivers / You're My Yeller Flower of the Forest / I Swam Upstream This Morning / There's a Comet a-Comin' / To the Tail of a Comet I Have Clung / Oh Davy Would a-Huntin' Ride / Brave Hunter / Maybe I Should Cut Some Public Capers / Davy Journeyed to the Alamo.

Instrumentation: 2 fl (2d doub pic), ob, 2 cl in B[??] (2d doub b cl), bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??], trb, b trb / timp, sn dr, b dr, tom, sus cym, b, ch (A, B, C), xyl / p, cel / str.

Approximate duration: 30 minutes.

First performance: Opened 9 May 1948 in New York City at Maxine Elliott's Theatre. Produced by Nat Karson, The Experimental Theatre, Inc. (Cheryl Crawford, producer), and the American National Theatre and Academy (Alfred de Liagre Jr., executive producer; Jean Dalrymple, executive director). Production ran continuously but moved to The Music Box Theatre (produced by T. Edward Hambleton and Alfred R. Stern), opening 18 May 1948, closing 10 July 1948. Total number of performances: 69. Directed by Mary Hunter; design by Nat Karson; choreography by Hanya Holm; musical direction by Hugh Ross; John Lesko Jr. and Mordecai Sheinkman, pianos. Cast of the production included:
Davy Crockett: Ted Lawrie
Sally Ann: Barbara Ashley
Indian Chief: Lorin Barrett
General Andrew Jackson: Carl Luman
The Mermaid: Betty Abbott
The Comet: Olga Lunick
Brown Bear: William A. Myers
Ghost Bear: Robert Baird
John Oldham: sung by William Ambler / danced
 by John Castello
Ann Hutchinson: sung by Gertrude Lockway /
 danced by Sharry Traver
Nathaniel Bacon: sung by Eddie Varrato / danced by
 Frank Seabolt
Grace Sherwood: sung by Arlouine Goodjohn /
 danced by Barbara Downie
Nathaniel Turner: sung by Arthur Friedman / danced
 by Beau Cunningham
President Andrew Jackson: Harold Michener


West Coast premiere: Opened 8 October 1950. Century Theatre, Los Angeles. Produced by Jerome Moross, Bruce Savan, and Richard Martin; choreography by Hanya Holm; restaged by Olga Lunick; musical direction by Ernest Gold; Eugene Feher and Gershon Kingsley, pianos. Played 8 October through 21 November 1950. Cast of the production included:
Davy Crockett: Theodore Uppman
Sally Ann: Joan Spafford
Indian Chief: Lee Ledford
General Andrew Jackson: Christopher Brown
The Mermaid: Betty Abbott
The Comet: Olga Lunick
Brown Bear: Jay Meyer
Ghost Bear: Lee Ledford
John Oldham: sung by Patrick Morgan / danced
 by Christopher Brown
Ann Hutchinson: sung by LaVada Marlan / danced
 by Roberta Stevenson
Nathaniel Bacon: sung by John LaMonica / danced
 by Frank Seabolt
Grace Sherwood: sung by Dolores Peterson /
 danced by Ellen R. Albertini
Nathaniel Turner: danced by George Reeder
President Andrew Jackson: Arne Markussen


Other performances:

1) 1950 (details unknown). Peninsula Playhouse, Peninsula, Ohio.

2) Opened 3 January 1961 at East 74th Street Theatre, 334 East 74th Street, New York City. Produced by Ethel Watt; musical direction by Don Smith; choreography by Glen Tetley; production design by Gary Smith; costumes by Hal George; lighting by Jules Fisher. Cast of the production included:
Davy Crockett: Jack Mette
Sally Ann: Sallie Bramlette
Indian Chief: John Peck
The Mermaid: Alice Scott
The Comet: Carmen de Lavallade
Brown Bear: Steve Paxton
Ghost Bear: Ted Lambrinos
John Oldham: sung by Ed Zimmerman / danced
 by Steve Paxton
Ann Hutchinson: sung by Dianne Nichols / danced
 by Ellen Graff
Nathaniel Bacon: sung by Ted Bloecher / danced by
 Fred Herko
Grace Sherwood: sung by Lorraine Roberts / danced
 by Betty de Jong
President Andrew Jackson: John Peck


3) 28 February 2000. "A Tribute to Jerome Moross," Songbook Series at Joe's Pub, New York City. Arrangements of Jerome Moross songs by Eric Stern and Tommy Krasker (excerpts only).

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1949 (piano--vocal score). Songs "My Yellow Flower" and "Ridin' on the Breeze" published earlier in sheet music editions by Chappell, 1948.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 10, 48; flatbox 237.

Recording: Songs "My Yellow Flower" and "Ridin' on the Breeze" are on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

Comments: Third of the Ballet Ballads, with text by John Latouche. The setting is the American frontier in the early nineteenth century. The people assemble to celebrate the memory of Davy Crockett. In the terms of his own tall tales they recall his exploits; his youth, courtship, and marriage; how he built a living house in the wilderness; how he fought the Indian Wars; how he hooked a mermaid; how he saved the world from Halley's comet; how he went to Congress and left it; how he died at the Alamo and became a legend. In correspondence with investors, Moross wrote that the Ballet Ballads could be produced in Los Angeles for $15,000, or $6,000-$7,000 less than in New York. Shares in the production were sold at $300 each. In 1966, CBS commissioned the composer to complete orchestrations for Ballet Ballads in preparation for a planned television production. This, unfortunately, never took place.

Frankie and Johnny (1937-38) BALLET

Introduction / Stomp / Blues / Rag [no. 1] / Rag [no. 2] / Tune / Fox-Trot / One-Step.

Instrumentation: 2 fl, 2 ob, 3 cl in B[??] (3d doub b cl), 2 bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??], 2 trb / timp, sn dr, b dr (small), tamb, cym (10-inch), sus cym, xyl, ch in F# (5 percussionists) / p / str / 3 female singers--2 sopranos, 1 alto. N.B.: It is desirable that 3 percussionists (tamb, b dr, cym) be the onstage singers.

Approximate duration: 19 minutes.

First ballet performance: 20 June 1938. Great Northern Theatre, Chicago, under the joint auspices of the Chicago Opera Ballet and the Works Progress Administration Federal Theatre. Choreography by Ruth Page and Bentley Stone, who also danced the title roles. Other works on program: An American Pattern by Moross and Behind This Mask by David Sheinfeld. The ballet's run was extended to six weeks, the longest of any ballet in Chicago up to that time.

First concert performance: 20 September 1945. Meth Symphonette; Max Meth, cond. Town Hall, New York City.

Recent performances:

1) 11 June 1998. Hot Springs Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

2) 8 June 2000. Hot Springs Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

3) 26 January 2001. Corpus Christi Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Corpus Christi, Texas.

4) 16 and 17 February 2001. Waterloo/Cedar Falls Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Waterloo, Iowa.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 14, 15, 45; flatbox 242.

Recordings:

1) Hot Springs Music Festival Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Naxos 8.559086 [2002], CD (rec. June 2000).

2) New Zealand Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7367-2 H1 [1996], CD (rec. January 1996).

3) American Recording Society Orchestra; Walter Hendl, cond. American Recording Society ARS 12 [1953], LP (rec. 1951); paired with Copland's Music for the Theater (omits "Blues" section of the ballet).

4) Same performance, reissued as Desto D-408 (mono.) / DST-6408 (stereo.) [1965], LP; paired with MacDowell's Indian Suite no. 2.

5) Same performance, reissued as Bay Cities BCD-1007 [1989], CD (but with the orchestra now identified as Vienna Symphony); paired with Norman Dello Joio, Epigraph for Orchestra; and Randall Thompson, Symphony no. 2.

Comments: Composed 1 December 1937-23 March 1938 (dates from the composer's autograph manuscript). Under sponsorship of the Works Progress Administration Frankie and Johnny enjoyed more than fifty performances. It was purchased by the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo in 1945 and its New York production won the New York Times Award for Best Ballet of the 1945 Season (the title roles were danced by Ruthanna Boris and Frederic Franklin). It remained in their repertory for several seasons. There were numerous complaints about the choreography, which was highly suggestive by standards of the day, and the piece was eventually dropped. Its revival in Paris in 1950 attracted much attention and was the center of a heated political controversy. The popular song Frankie and Johnny, upon which the ballet is based, was inspired by a real-life incident of 1899, in which Frankie Baker, a prostitute in St. Louis, shot and killed her lover in a fit of jealous rage. Although the song was first published in 1904 (as "He Done Me Wrong," by Hughie Cannon), at the time of the ballet's composition it was by no means the popular standard it became in post-Elvis America. Moross might have known the 1920s recordings of Joe "King" Oliver (Victor 38109) or Fate Marable (Okeh 40113), jazz classics among today's collectors. The tune had been included, along with more than twenty verses, in Carl Sandburg's The American Songbag (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1927), 79-81. The three female vocalists portray Salvation Army "Saving Susies," wandering around on stage, playing percussion instruments, and commenting on the action in the manner of a Greek chorus. The sung text is not that of the popular song, but a libretto devised by the composer in collaboration with Michael Blankford. Among the many companies that have produced Frankie and Johnny are Les Ballet des Champs-Elysees, Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, Cincinnati Ballet Company, Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, and the Dance Theatre of Harlem. Frankie and Johnny was still listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from the composer.

Gentlemen, Be Seated! (1956) MUSICAL

[Act 1] Grand March / [dialogue 1] / In the Sunny Old South / The Freedom Train / [dialogue 2] / Waltzing in the Shadow / Fare You Well / The Dome / [dialogue 3] / Picnic at Manassas / [dialogue 4] / Mockingbird / Shiloh / [dialogue 5] / The Ballad of Belle Boyd / 'Mancipation / This Isn't a Gentleman's War / The Contraband Ball / [act 2] Gentlemen, Be Seated! / [dialogue 6] / All Quiet on the Potomac / The Ballad of Stonewall Jackson / Mr. Brady Takes a Photograph / [dialogue 7] / I Can't Remember / From Atlanta to the Sea / [dialogue 8] / What Has Become of Beauty? / Have You Seen Him? / Grand Finale.

Instrumentation: 2 fl (2d doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), 2 cl in B[??] (2d doub b cl), bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??], 2 trb / timp, sn dr, t dr, b dr, cym, glock, vib / h / p, cel / banjo / str.

Approximate duration: 90 minutes.

First performance:

10 October 1963. New York City Opera Company. New York City Center. Directed by Robert Turoff; scenery by William Pitkin; costumes by Henry Heymann; conducted by Emerson Buckley; dances created by Paul Draper, who played Mr. Taps. Cast of the production was as follows:
Mister Interlocutor: Dick Shawn
Mister Tambo: Avon Long
Mister Bones: Charles Atkins
The Comedienne: Alice Ghostley
The Contralto: Carol Brice
Johnny Reb: William McDonald
Billy Yank: Richard Fredricks
Southern Girl: June Card
Northern Girl: Mary Burgess
Mister Banjo: Bernard Addison
Character Actor: Richard Krause
Mister Taps: Paul Draper


Music published: The songs "Have You Seen Him?" "I Can't Remember," and "The Freedom Train" were published as Three Songs from "Gentlemen, Be Seated!" (voice with piano accompaniment) by Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1966.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 16-20, 42, 47; flatboxes 243-48.

Recording: Songs "Fare You Well" and "I Can't Remember" are on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

Comments: A portrait of the Civil War told in the form of a minstrel show. Lyrics by Edward Eager, book by Moross and Eager. Commissioned in 1955 by Roger L. Stevens for the Playwrights Group. Funding was not available until 1963, when the Ford Foundation, under a program to support new American operas, sponsored three performances by the New York City Opera. The original thirty-six (!) numbers were ultimately reduced to twenty-two. In the end, both composer and librettist were naive in attempting to revive the genre of the minstrel show at the height of the civil rights movement. Although there were threats to march and organize protests, the climate was calmed and tension diffused through the efforts of Avon Long, an officer in the NAACP who also played Mr. Tambo in the production. The New York City Opera proved to be an unfortunate venue, and the show received devastating reviews from critics who expected something quite different. Rex Reed wrote the composer a long letter of encouragement and appreciation in which he actually apologized for the conservative reaction of New York reviewers (JMP box 1). When Eager died of cancer the following year, he and Moross were at work on an opera based on another unusual subject, the life of President Warren G. Harding.

The Golden Apple (1948-50) MUSICAL

[Act 1, scene 1] Nothing Ever Happens in Angel's Roost (Helen) / Angel's Roost Has Its Situation (Miss Minerva, Mrs. Juniper, Lovey Mars, Helen) / Good Morning to You One and All (Mother Hare, Miss Minerva, Mrs. Juniper, Lovey Mars, Helen) / My Love Is On the Way (Penelope) / [act 1, scene 2] Our Noble Boys in Blue (Ensemble) / It Was a Glad Adventure (Ulysses, the 6 Boys) / Come Along, Boys (Ensemble) / It's the Coming Home Together (Ulysses, Penelope) / Mother Hare's Prophecy (Mother Hare, Penelope, Ulysses) / Good Is a Word that Fools Believe (Mother Hare) / Helen Is Always Willing (the 6 Boys) / [act 1, scene 3] Let's Pay a Visit (Ulysses, Penelope) / If You Select My Angel Food (Mrs. Juniper) / I'll Teach You (Miss Minerva) / The Loveliest Things in Life (Lovey Mars) / It's a Fraud (Miss Minerva, Mrs. Juniper) / [act 1, scene 4] Lazy Afternoon (Helen) / The Elopement to Rhododendron (Company) / [act 2, scene 1] My Picture in the Papers (Helen, Men) / Plumes on Her Hat (Ulysses, Hector, the 6 Boys, Citizens) / [act 2, scene 2] Hector's Song (Hector) / [act 2, scene 3] Windflowers (Penelope) / [act 2, scene 4] Store-Bought Suit (Ulysses, the 6 Boys) / Madame Calypso's Parlor (Calypso, Hector, Ulysses, the 6 Boys, Party Guests) / The Brokerage Office of Scylla and Charybdis (Hector, Scylla, Ulysses, the 6 Boys) / A Waterfront Dive (Siren, Ulysses, the 6 Boys, Girls) / The Hall of Science (Scientist, Ulysses, the 6 Boys) / The Wrong Side of the Tracks (Circe, Hector, Ulysses, Achilles, Paris, Chorus) / Ulysses's Soliloquy (Ulysses, Chorus) / [act 2, scene 5] Busy Little Sewing Bee (Penelope, Miss Minerva, Mrs. Juniper, Lovey Mars, Mother Hare, Helen, Menelaus, Chorus) / Penelope's Tirade (Penelope) / We've Just Begun (Ulysses, Penelope).

Instrumentation: (5 reed players, all doub except bsn) fl (doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), 2 cl (1st doub alt sax, 2d doub b cl & ten sax), bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??] (both doub cnt in B[??]), trb / timp, glock, xyl, vib, tri, wb (2 sizes), cowb (2 sizes), cast, trap set--b dr, sn dr (brushes and sticks), t dr, tom, sus cym (several), pedal cym (high hat or sock) / p doub cel / h / str.

Approximate duration: 90 minutes.

First performance:

Opened 11 March 1954 at the newly formed Phoenix Theatre (T. Edward Hambleton, co-founder and managing director; Norris Houghton, co-founder), produced by Hambleton and Houghton. The run at the Phoenix was successful (48 performances), but the show moved to the Alvin Theatre on Broadway (now the Neil Simon Theatre), produced in association with Alfred De Liagre Jr. and Roger L. Stevens, where it was in production from 20 April through 7 August 1954 (125 performances). Total number of performances in New York: 173. Directed by Norman Lloyd; choreography and musical numbers staged by Hanya Holm; musical director Hugh Ross; costumes by Alvin Colt; settings by William and Jean Eckart; associate conductor Benjamin Steinberg; lighting by Klaus Holm; legendary arranger Hershy Kay assisted the composer in the orchestrations.

The original cast was as follows:
Helen (mezzo-soprano): Kaye Ballard
Lovey Mars/Siren (contralto): Bibi Osterwald
Mrs. Juniper/Madame Calypso
 (mezzo-soprano): Geraldine Viti
Miss Minerva Oliver/The Scientist
 (soprano): Portia Nelson
Mother Hare/Circe (contralto): Nola Day
Penelope (soprano): Priscilla Gillette
Menelaus/Scylla (tenor): Dean Michener
Ulysses (baritone): Stephen Douglass
Theron (baritone): David Hooks
Mayor Juniper (baritone): Jerry Stiller
Paris (dancer): Jonathan Lucas
Hector/Charybdis (baritone, song
 and dance man): Jack Whiting
 The Heroes (The Six Boys)
Diomede (tenor): Robert Flavelle
Patroclus (tenor): Larry Chelsi
Doc MacCahan (tenor): Gary Gordon
Nestor (bass): Maurice Edwards
Ajax (bass): Marten Sameth
Achilles (bass): Julian Patrick
 The Heroes (Dancers)
Captain Mars: Frank Seabolt
Agamemnon: Crandall Diehl
Bluey: Murray Gitlin
Thirsty: Don Redlich
Silas: Peter De Maio
Homer: Barton Maumaw
 Local Girls
Sara Bettis, Dorothy Etheridge, Nelle Fisher, Dee Harless, Janet Hayes,
Lois McCauley, Ann Needham, Joli Roberts, Jere Stevens, Tao Strong,
Helen Ahola
 Local Boys
Santo Anselmo, Bob Gay, Charles Post, Arthur Schoep


Notable recent revival:

Opened 25 March 1990. Presented by the York Theater Company, New York City. Performance venue: Church of the Heavenly Rest. Directed by Charles Kondek; choreography by David Holgrive; musical director Lawrence W. Hill; costumes by Maryanne Powell-Parker; scenic design by James Morgan; lighting by Mary Jo Dondlinger. The cast was as follows:
Helen (mezzo-soprano): Ann Brown
Lovey Mars/Siren (contralto): Mimi Wyche
Mrs. Juniper/Madame Calypso
 (mezzo): Mary Stout
Miss Minerva Oliver/The Scientist
 (soprano): Cynthia Sophiea
Mother Hare (contralto): Muriel Costa-Greenspon
Penelope/Circe (soprano): Sylvia Rhine
Menelaus/Scylla (tenor): Gordon Stanley
Ulysses (baritone): Robert McCormick
Paris (dancer): Kelly Patterson
Hector/Charybdis (baritone): Kip Niven
 The Heroes
Diomede (tenor): Glen Pannell
Patroclus (tenor): Bryan Batt
Doc MacCahan (tenor): Tim Salce
Nestor (bass): Alan Souza
Ajax (bass): Tim Warmen
Achilles (bass): John Kozeluh
 Townswomen
Mary Lee Marson, Mary Phillips, Gina Todd
 Townsmen
Jim Athens, Mitchel Kantor, Brent Winborn


Notable amateur performance:

The Golden Apple has a veritable cult following among lovers of musical theater, and has been performed on dozens of college campuses, too numerous to mention. A notable early performance was given by the Lowell House Music Society (Lowell House Opera Group) at Harvard University in April of 1956. The production was directed by Stephen Aaron; musical direction by Howard Brown; scenic design by Webster Lithgow; lighting by Jordan Jelks; cast included Elizabeth Kalkhurst, Hugh Fortmiller, Lee Jeffries, Patricia Hess, Clare Scott, Harold Scott, Johanna Linch, Helen Raisz, Diana Sterling, Dean Gitter, and Andre Gregory. Remarkably, this production restored the burlesque of America's industrial age in act 2, which had been cut in the New York presentation, and was fully staged and accompanied by pit orchestra. Both Latouche and Moross were in attendance on opening night. Several participants in the production went on to successful careers in theater.

Several excerpts from The Golden Apple were performed on 28 February 2000 during "A Tribute to Jerome Moross," Songbook Series at Joe's Pub, New York City. Featured were Jerome Moross songs in arrangements by Eric Stern and Tommy Krasker.

Music published:

1) In 1995 a printed piano-vocal score was published by Tams-Witmark Music Library, Inc., and was made available for public performance by rental agreement. In the winter of 2003 a new piano-vocal score was prepared, collating the original 1954 orchestral parts with the composer's revised score, adding cues from the conductor's score. This revised piano-vocal score, edited by Larry Moore and engraved by Scott Tilley, is considered definitive and replaces the earlier one available from Tams-Witmark. In April of 1977 Moross made numerous corrections to the piano-vocal score. The major revisions, incorporated in the 1995 publication, were a new version of Penelope's act 1 "My Love Is On the Way" and the restoration of the act 2 duet-finale "We've Just Begun," which was cut in the show's transfer from the Off-Broadway Phoenix Theatre to Broadway's Alvin Theatre.

2) The song "Lazy Afternoon" was published in a sheet music edition (voice with piano) by Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP) in 1954 and subsequently in various vocal music anthologies and instrumental "fake books."

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 21-25, 28, 29, 48; flatboxes 25, 249, 250.

Recordings:

1) The Golden Apple: Original Cast Album. Elektra EKL 5000 [1954], LP. Selections from the original cast recording, recorded 12 March 1954; notes by Edward Jablonski.

2) The Golden Apple. RCA Victor 09026-68934-2 [1997], CD. This expanded original cast recording (still less than half the music in the show) includes the following numbers: Overture / [narration no. 1] / My Love Is On the Way / The Heroes Come Home / It Was a Glad Adventure / Come Along Boys / It's the Coming Home Together / [narration no. 2] / Mother Hare's Prophecy / [narration no. 3] / Helen Is Always Willing / [narration no. 4] / The Judgment of Paris / [narration no. 5] / Lazy Afternoon / [narration no. 6] / The Departure for Rhododendron / My Picture in the Papers / [narration no. 7] / Hector's Song / [narration no. 8] / Windflowers / [narration no. 9] / Store-Bought Suit / [narration no. 10: The Big Spree] / Calypso / Scylla and Charybdis / Goona-Goona / Doomed, Doomed, Doomed / Circe / [narration no. 11] / Ulysses's Soliloquy / The Sewing Bee / The Tirade / Finale: Going Home Together.

3) Songs "Lazy Afternoon," "Windflowers," and "It's the Going Home Together" are on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000). N.B.: Recordings of Golden Apple's "Lazy Afternoon" are vast in number--the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) WorldCat database contains some 180 distinct bibliographical entries for sound recordings. Kaye Ballard, the song's original performer on Broadway, remained closely associated with it for years. With its (for its time) progressive sixth-, seventh-, and ninth-chords, modal harmony, and evocative text ("we can watch the grass as it grows..."), it is that rare popular song which appeals both to mainstream singers and to more eclectic, jazz-oriented stylists. It is the title song of the Barbra Streisand album Lazy Afternoon (Columbia PC 33815 [1975], LP)--the composer's name is nowhere mentioned--and was recorded by many prominent singers, including Tony Bennett (Legendary Singers, Time Life Music 4LGD-10 [1986], cassette), June Christy (Gone for the Day, Capitol T-903 [1957], LP), Sarah Vaughan (Complete Roulette Sessions, Mosaic 8214 [2002], CD, rec. 196-?), and others. Bobby Hackett played "Lazy Afternoon" as his feature ballad solo when touring with the Benny Goodman Sextet in 1963, and over the years it has been played and recorded by many jazz instrumentalists, Herbie Hancock (1970s) and Wynton Marsalis (1980s) among them.

Comments: Lyrics by John Latouche; book by Moross and Latouche. Awarded the New York Drama Critics Circle Award, the Donaldson Award (Billboard magazine), and the Newspaper Page One Award. Set in 1900 at Mount Olympus in Washington State with its soldiers returning from the Spanish-American War, the story is based loosely on The Iliad (act 1) and The Odyssey (act 2), maintaining the colorful Greek names of people and places. A delightful and original work, forward-looking in its complete absence of spoken dialogue, and with many winning tunes, memorable characters, sewing bees, pie-baking contests, hot-air balloons, etc. The text was published separately from the music as The Golden Apple: A Musical in Two Acts (New York: Random House, 1954), and an abridged version was included in Louis Kronenberger's The Best Plays of 1953-1954: And the Year Book of the Drama in America (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1954; reprinted 1968), with magnificent sketches by the late Al Hirschfeld.

Guns and Castanets (1939) BALLET

Instrumentation: 2 fl, 2 cl, b cl, alt sax, ten sax / 2 trp, 2 trb / timp, sn dr, sus cym, cast, pistol shots / p / h / str (at least 12--4,4,2,1,1) / mezzosoprano.

Approximate duration: 15 minutes.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 30.

Comments: A ballet written for Ruth Page with music based on Bizet's opera Carmen. Contains the songs Ballad of the Spanish Civil Guard ("At five in the afternoon") and Lament ("And believing that she was a maid"), Lorca poems in English translation by A. A. Lloyd, which were later extracted from the ballet and arranged as independent songs with piano. The title page of the composer's manuscript reads:
 Guns and Castanets / a ballet. / Scenario adapted from / Merimee,
 Meilhac and Halevy, / by Ruth Page and Thos. H. Fisher / Texts
 selected from / Poems by Frederico [sic] Garcia Lorca / and from
 Spanish Revolutionary Songs, / by Jerome Moross / Music adapted from /
 Bizet's opera "Carmen," / by Jerome Moross.


Jabberwocky

See Two Songs (Jabberwocky and Those Gambler's Blues, 1932)

The Last Judgement (1953) BALLET

The Resurrection of Eve: Poco allegretto / Eve Is Refused Admittance into Heaven: Agitato ma non troppo / Adam Charges Eve with the Original Sin: Allegro marcato / Adam's Story (a): Adam and Eve In Eden: Andante con moto / Adam's Story (b): Adam and Eve and the Benediction: Allegretto / Adam's Story (c): Eve and the Benefactor: Allegro moderato / Eve's Denial: Allegro ma non troppo / The Exorcising of the Evil One: Allegro molto / Eve's Story: Allegro moderato e marcato / The Beatification of Eve: Andante con moto.

Instrumentation: fl (doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), cl in B[??] (doub b cl), bsn (doub cbsn) / hrn, trp in B[??], trb, b trb, tu / timp, sn dr, cym, sus cym, vib, glock, g, tri, tamb, tom (high and low), bon (high and low), marac (large) / p, cel / h / str.

Approximate duration: 23 minutes.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 30, 31.

Recording: London Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7188-2 H1 [1993], CD (rec. 1-2 March 1993).

Comments: Written for Ruth Page, but (for reasons unknown) not produced as a ballet. Unusual in several respects, the ballet has a revisionist plot which updates the story of Adam and Eve, absolving woman of original sin. New themes are introduced for the various sections, with the primary theme of each dance becoming the secondary theme of the one which follows. With a slight suggestion of recapitulation, the final dance brings back the theme of the first one. The Chicago Civic Opera intended to produce the ballet in the fall of 1955, but this did not come to pass. The Last Judgement was still listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from the composer; a version for smaller orchestra was also listed as available under the title Roundelay. The entire ballet was also arranged by the composer for piano, 4 hands (Sorom Editions). In 1995, the fourth dance was arranged by Paul Bateman as the piano trio Adam and Eve in Eden (available from Sorom Editions).

Mother (1935) INCIDENTAL MUSIC

Music for this Broadway play was provided by Jerome Moross, Hanns Eisler, and Alex North. Produced by the Theatre Union; written by Bertolt Brecht, based on the novel by Maxim Gorky; translated by Paul Peters; scenic design by Mordecai Gorelik; original cast included Lee J. Cobb. Opened at the Civic Repertory Theatre, New York City, 19 November 1935; closing date unknown; total number of performances: 36. No extant music by Moross.

Music for the Flicks (1952-65) SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA

An Episode in Vienna (from The Cardinal) / Pastorale (from Proud Rebel) / Romanza (from Five Finger Exercise) / Habanera and Danzon (from The Sharkfighters) / Nocturnal Procession (from The Warlord).

Approximate duration: 15 minutes.

Instrumentation: 3 fl (3d doub pic), 3 ob (3d doub Eng hrn), 3 cl in B[??] (3d doub b cl), 2 bsn (2d doub cbsn) / 4 hrn, 3 trp in B[??], 3 trb, tu / timp I (4 drums), timp II (4 drums), tom (high and low), bon (high and low), sn dr, cym, sus cym, vib, glock, g, tri, tamb, marac (large) (4 or 5 percussionists) / p, cel / h / str.

First performance: 11 April 1980. Oakland Symphony Youth Orchestra. Oakland, California.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP flatbox 252.

Comments: Movements of quite diverse styles, derived from five film scores composed between 1952 and 1965. Orchestrations of the movements in the suite were revised by the composer and differ somewhat from those heard in the film soundtracks. Music for the Flicks was listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from Chappell. It is likely that Moross was influenced by the example of Aaron Copland, who arranged music from three of his own film scores into the five-movement suite Music for Movies (1942). See also comments under individual films in section II, Music for Film.

Paeans (1931) CHAMBER ORCHESTRA MUSIC

Instrumentation: fl, pic, ob, cl, bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in C, trb / timp, sn dr, b dr, tri (small and large), wb, xyl, ch (B, C#, D, E[??], E, F), sus cym, cym, high g / p / str.

Approximate duration: 4 minutes.

First performance: 13 February 1932. Chamber Symphony Orchestra; Bernard Herrmann, cond. Juilliard Concert Hall, New York City.

Recent performance: 9 June 2000. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. (orchestral read-through). Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: In New Music Orchestra Series, [no. 8] (subscription series, ed. Henry Cowell), 1933 (two different editions appeared, one in Moross's hand, the other in engraved music symbols); available from Theodore Presser.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 31.

Comments: Composed in summer and fall of 1931, the composer's first important work for orchestra, composed at the age of eighteen. It is uncharacteristically dissonant and angular, showing influence of futurists. Paeans was listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from Theodore Presser. The unusual title had also been used for a set of piano pieces by Dane Rudhyar, published in New Music 1, no. 2 (January 1928).

Parade (1935) MUSICAL

Letter to the President / Life Could Be So Beautiful / Music Notebook / Bourgeois Processional / Cock-Eyed Finale / Don't Tell Us You're Going / Flight from the Soviets / I'm All Washed Up on Love / I'm Telling You, Louie / Join Our Ranks / Marry Me / Newsboy-Ballet Scene / Newsboy-Opening Music / No Time to Sing a Gay Song Now / On Parade / The Policeman ("I love boys in blue") / Selling Sex / Send for the Militia / Snow from Heaven / Wild Boys on the Road / You Ain't So Hot / Dance / Fear in My Heart / My Feet Are Planted Firmly on the Ground / The Tabloid Reds.

Approximate duration: 70 minutes.

Instrumentation: fl (doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), 2 alt sax, ten sax, bari sax / hrn, 2 trps in B[??], trb / sn dr, b dr, cym, xyl, wb / p / str.

First performance: Opened 20 May 1935, Guild Theatre, New York. Produced by the Theatre Guild; book by Paul Peters, George Sklar, Frank Gabrielson, David Lesan, and Kyle Crichton; choreography by Robert Alton; scenic design by Lee Simonson; conducted by Max Meth. Closing date unknown. Total number of performances: 40. Original cast included Edgar Allan, Avis Andrews, Eve Arden, Charles D. Brown, Dorothy Fox, Leon Janney, Esther Junger, David Lawrence, Yisrol Libman, Roger Logan, Vera Marche, Evelyn Monte, Earl Oxford, Polly Rose, Jimmy Savo, Jean Travers, and Charles Walters.

Music published: Songs "Life Could Be So Beautiful" and "You Ain't So Hot" published by Chappell Music, Inc., in sheet music edition (voice and piano), 1935.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 31, 49; flatbox 252.

Recording: Two songs--"Life Could Be So Beautiful" and "You Ain't So Hot"--are on Broadway Dreams: Songs of Morton Gould and Jerome Moross. Premier Recordings PRCD 1016 [1991], CD.

Comments: Moross's first work for musical theater. Lyrics credited to Paul Peters and George Sklar.

Paul Bunyon: An American Saga (1934) BALLET

First performance: 27 October 1935. Guild Theatre, New York City. Danced by Doris Humphrey and the Charles Weidman Dance Group. Also performed 26 January 1936 (same venue).

Comments: Music not extant.

Quintet for Piano and Strings (1964) PIANO QUINTET

Theme / Variations 1-4.

Instrumentation: p / 2 vln, vla, vc.

Approximate duration: 12 minutes.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 13.

Recording: Classical Hollywood III. Scot Woolley, piano; Korngold Quartet (Stacey Woolley, Bing Wang, violins; Steven Rosen, viola; Daniel Culnan, cello). Bay Cities BCD 1037 [1992], CD.

Comments: This piece was not originally composed for the concert stage but rather for the short film Forget Me Not, and listeners who approach it with the expectation of chamber music in the dramatic tradition of Brahms and Schumann are certain to be disappointed. It is a modest work in the form of original theme (the song "Some Day, Some April Day") with variations. The techniques of variation are at times Schubertian and at times rather sentimental and include pianistic idioms. These are combined in a wistful evocation of earlier musical styles, paralleling the memories of the film's main character, a widower. See also comments to Forget Me Not, in section II, Music for Film.

Ramble on a Hobo Tune

See comments to Symphony

Recitative and Aria for Violin and Piano (1941) VIOLIN AND PIANO MUSIC Broadly / Moderato / Tempo primo.

Instrumentation: vln / p.

Approximate duration: 6 minutes.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 32.

Comments: In one continuous movement; highly influenced by jazz and blues but idiomatically written, employing singing legato, grace notes in octaves, trills, and parallel sixths. The composer also prepared a version with string accompaniment.

Riding Hood Revisited: Simple Symphony in E Flat Major

("Ballet Ballad No. 4"; 1945-46 / orch. 1966) MUSICAL

Overture / Rhumba / Pastorale / Waltz and [10] Variations / Coda.

Approximate duration: 25 minutes.

First performance: Unknown.

Later performance: Opened 3 January 1961 at East 74th Street Theatre, 334 East 74th Street, New York City. Produced by Ethel Watt; musical direction by Don Smith; choreography by Mavis Ray; production design by Gary Smith; costumes by Hal George; lighting by Jules Fisher. Cast of the production included:
Mrs. Nature: Alice Scott
Three Clouds: Alice Scott, Lorraine Roberts, Sallie Bramlette
Dragon Fly: Dounia Rathbone
Riding Hood: Dounia Rathbone
Good Humor Man: Gregg Nickerson
Viennese Wolf: Buck Heller
Granny: Dianne Nicholson


Music published: Chappell Music, Inc., 1956 (piano-vocal score).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 10; flatbox 237.

Recording: Song "Come Live With Me" (part of "Pastorale" movement) is on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

Comments: Fourth and last of the Ballet Ballads, with text by John Latouche, a humorous updating of the Grimm fairy tale. It features a mature, urbane Wolf, a willing-to-be-seduced Red Riding Hood, Riding Hood's suitor (the Good Humor Man), and a modern, libertine Grandmother. The Grandmother lusts after the Wolf, who is, in Latouche's words, "a Viennese wolf, aging a bit, grey at the temples, but still retaining his feral vivacity." The story is told primarily through the variations, which are as follows:
 Waltz: Allegretto
 Variation 1: Allegro molto (Riding Hood and her beau, the Good Humor
 Man encounter the Wolf)
 Variation 2: Con brio (The Good Humor Man cautions Riding Hood
 concerning the Wolf, but she pays no attention)
 Variation 3: Grazioso (The Wolf begins seducing Riding Hood, giving
 her champagne and a jeweled heart)
 Variation 4: Presto e furioso (As Riding Hood dances, the Wolf licks
 his chops)
 Variation 5: Andante (Mother Nature warns the Wolf against corrupting
 the young)
 Variation 6: Allegro ma non troppo (The Wolf tries to pull away from
 Riding Hood, but she will not give him up)
 Variation 7: Allegro leggiero (Mother Nature works up a storm in an
 unsuccessful attempt to delay the arrival of Riding Hood at her
 Grandmother's house)
 Variation 8: Allegretto cantabile (Riding Hood arrives, puts Granny in
 the closet, gets into bed, and awaits the Wolf)
 Variation 9: Commodo (Clouds report the progress inside the cabin to
 Mother Nature)
 Variation 10: Vivace (Cupid's arrow strikes Riding Hood, who falls in
 love with the Good Humor Man. Granny emerges from the closet and
 embraces the Wolf; his picture is on the wall and she has had her
 eyes on him for some time.)


N.B.: In the opinion of its original producers, the four stories of Ballet Ballads made too long an evening's entertainment, so Riding Hood Revisited was dropped from most productions. In the 1961 production cited above, however, Riding Hood Revisited was substituted for Susanna and the Elders. The title is given erroneously as Robin Hood in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Music, 8th ed. (New York: Schirmer, 1992), 2511, and other sources. See also comments to Variations on a Waltz for Orchestra.

Roundelay

See comments to The Last Judgement

Sonata for Piano Duet and String Quartet (1975) SEXTET, PIANO (4 HANDS) AND STRINGS

I. Allegro / II. Allegretto / III. Vivace.

Instrumentation: p (4 hands) / 2 vln, vla, vc.

Approximate duration: 19 minutes.

Recent performance: 10 June 1998. Gary Hammond and Andrew Russo, piano (4 hands); members the Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 33.

Recordings:

1) Classical Hollywood. Nancy Weems, John Jenson, piano (4 hands); Lyric Art Quartet (Kenneth Goldsmith, Albert Muenzer, violins; Lawrence Wheeler, viola; Terry King, cello). Bay Cities BCD 1014 [1990], CD (rec. 5-8 April 1990).

2) Chamber Music of Bernard Herrmann and Jerome Moross. Albany Records Troy 301 [1998], CD. Reissue of above, with the ensemble now called the Texas Festival Chamber Ensemble.

3) Sahran Arzruni, Ron Gianattosio, piano (4 hands); Richard Sortomme, Benjamin Hudson, violins; Toby Appel, viola; Frederick Zlotkin, cello. Varese Sarabande VC 31101 [1979], LP (rec. 1979).

Sonatina for Brass Quintet ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 4"; 1968) BRASS QUINTET

I. Lento e sostenuto / II. Allegro con brio.

Instrumentation: 2 trp in B[??], hrn, trb, tu.

Approximate duration: 9 minutes.

First performance: 1969. Miami Chamber Ensemble (details unknown).

Later performance: 5 June 2000. Members of Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1969; Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 34.

Recording: Pro Musica of London; David Katz, director; John Wilbraham, Laurie Evans, trumpets; Nicholas Busch, horn; Roger Brenner, trombone; John Jenkins, tuba. Desto DC-6469 [1972], LP.

Comments: The first movement is a blues-influenced movement; the second, a sonata form. Trumpets in C are also effective in performance. About the Sonatina, Moross said the following (from liner notes of Desto recording cited above):
 I hadn't written chamber music in a long time and the Sonatina for
 Clarinet Choir had kindled a desire to compose more for small
 combinations, so I suggested to Chappell that I write three more
 sonatinas to form a sequence. They were interested and so each year
 for the next 3 years among other things I wrote one of the sonatinas.
 The Brass Sonatina [No. 4] was finished before the Woodwind Sonatina
 [No. 3]. I had made sketches for the woodwind piece but I got an idea
 for the two-movement brass work and was deflected. Anyway, in 1970 I
 had finished the Sonatina for Woodwind Quintet only to find that
 Chappell had had a change of management and the new management was no
 longer interested in the work. So the first, second, and fourth of
 the Sonatinas are published by Chappell but the third is not.


Sonatina for Clarinet Sextet ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 1"; 1966) SEXTET, CLARINETS

I. Allegro / II. Andante / III. Vivace.

Instrumentation: 4 cl in B[??], alt cl in E[??], b cl in B[??].

Approximate duration: 10 minutes.

Recent performances:

1) 5 June 1997. Members of Hot Springs Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

2) 10 June 1998. Members of Hot Springs Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1967; Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 34.

Recording: Pro Musica of London; David Katz, director; Alan Hacker, Martin Ronchetti, Hal Hambleton, Frank Reidy, clarinet in B[??]; Steve Trier, alto clarinet in E[??]; Peter Howes, bass clarinet in B[??]. Desto DC-6469 [1972], LP.

Comments: First movement is a sonata form; the second, a blues-like movement featuring the alto clarinet; the third, a rondo in which a theme from the first movement returns. About the Sonatina, Moross said the following (from liner notes of Desto recording cited above):
 In 1966 I was asked by my then publisher, Chappell & Co., to write a
 piece for clarinet choir. I had never heard of the clarinet choir
 before, but I was assured that clarinet choirs were springing up all
 over the country and that there was a dearth of literature. I was
 charmed with the idea of writing for a sextet of clarinets; the tonal
 possibilities were exciting, ideas began to flow and very quickly I
 found myself embarked on the Sonatina for Clarinet Choir. When I
 brought it in there was a moment of consternation. What had been
 expected was a 3 or 4 minute work of elementary technique for school
 groups and I had written a 10 minute piece, quite demanding
 technically, and meant for concert performance. But they gallantly
 published the work anyway.


Sonatina for String Bass and Piano ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 2"; 1966) SONATINA, DOUBLE BASS AND PIANO I. Andante / II. Allegro ma non troppo / III. Poco lento ma ben ritmo.

Instrumentation: db / p.

Approximate duration: 13 minutes.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1967; Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 34.

Recording: Pro Musica of London; David Katz, director; John Grey, double bass; Leslie Pearson, piano. Desto DC-6469 [1972], LP.

Comments: Second movement in sonata form; the third movement is unusual in that a bowed melody is accompanied by pizzicato on the open strings. The recording cites the work as Sonatina for Contrabass and Piano.

Sonatina for Woodwind Quintet ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 3"; 1970) WOODWIND QUINTET I. Allegro molto / II. Lento / III. Allegro brillante.

Instrumentation: fl, ob, cl in B[??], hrn, bsn.

Approximate duration: 13 minutes.

Music published: Joseph Boonin Music, 1977; Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 34.

Recording: Pro Musica of London; David Katz, director; Christopher Taylor, flute; Richard Morgan, oboe; Alan Hacker, clarinet; Nicholas Busch, horn; Martin Gatt, bassoon. Desto DC-6469 [1972], LP.

Comments: First and last movements in sonata form, the latter featuring staccato articulation. The last of the four Sonatinas to be composed; see comments under Sonatina for Brass Quintet.

Sorry, Wrong Number (1977) OPERA

Instrumentation: 2 fl (2d doub pic), 2 ob (2d doub Eng hrn), 2 cl in B[??] (2d doub b cl), 2 bsn (2d doub cbsn) / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??], 2 trb, tu / timp, sn dr, t dr, sus cym, tri, vib (3 percussionists) / p / h / str.

Approximate duration: 40 minutes.

First performance: 1977. Lake George Opera Festival. Glen Falls, New York (details unknown).

Other performances:

1) 7 August 1980. Lake George Opera Festival. Glen Falls, New York.

2) 22, 23, and 24 June 1982. Actors and Directors Theatre, 412 West 42d Street, New York City. One of several one-act operas presented under the collective title "Urban Bouquet." An open dress rehearsal with select audience had been given 19 June at Theatre in the Park, Flushing Meadows.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 35; flatbox 253.

Comments: An opera in one act, based on the radio play by Lucille Fletcher, former wife of Moross's longtime friend Bernard Herrmann. Also a popular Hollywood film starring Barbara Stanwyck and Burt Lancaster (Paramount, 1948, dir. Anatole Litvak), for which a film score was composed by Franz Waxman. It is noteworthy that Francis Poulenc's one-act opera La voix humaine (1958) has but a single character, a young woman who is on the telephone during the entire opera. The cast of Sorry, Wrong Number is as follows:
Mrs. Wallace Hanley: soprano
George: bass
A Man: baritone
Four operators: 4 mezzo-sopranos
Receptionist: mezzo-soprano
Chief operator: contralto
Sergeant Duffy: tenor
Western Union man: tenor
Trio of female voices


Susanna and the Elders ("Ballet Ballad No. 1"; 1940-41 / orch. 1941, 1946) MUSICAL

Hear the Story of Susanna / Of All the Daughters of Israel / There Were Two Elders / Now If You Don't Give In to Us / If a Woman Be Taken / High Above in His Cloudy Tent / The Lord Sent an Angel / Proud Were the Towers of Babylon.

Instrumentation: 2 fl (2d doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), cl in B[??] (doub b cl), bsn / hrn, cnt in B[??], trb / timp, sn dr, b dr, tri, cym, sus cyml, tamb / p / str / soprano, baritone soloists / mixed chorus.

Approximate duration: 25 minutes.

First performance as concert piece (without dance or costume, etc.): Winter 1941 (date unknown). Hollywood Theatre Alliance; Alfred Newman, cond. Los Angeles, California. Program included Bachianas Brasileiras No. 1 (for eight cellos) by Heitor Villa-Lobos, Concerto for Chamber Orchestra by Amadeo de Fillippi, and concluded with Susanna and the Elders, which the composer described as an "oratorio ... meant as an entertainment piece for chorus and orchestra ..." utilizing "the style of revivalist meetings." Moross himself reviewed this and another concert in "Hollywood Music without Movies," Modern Music 18, no. 4 (1941): 261-63.

First performance, as opening number of Ballet Ballads: Opened 9 May 1948 in New York City at Maxine Elliott's Theatre. Produced by Nat Karson, The Experimental Theatre, Inc. (Cheryl Crawford, producer), and American National Theatre and Academy (Alfred de Liagre Jr., executive producer; Jean Dalrymple, executive director). Production ran continuously but moved to The Music Box Theatre (produced by T. Edward Hambleton and Alfred R. Stern), opening 18 May 1948, closing 10 July 1948. Total number of performances: 69. Directed by Mary Hunter; scenic design by Nat Karson; choreography by Katherine Litz; musical direction by Hugh Ross; John Lesko Jr. and Mordecai Sheinkman, pianos. Cast of the production included:
The Parson: Richard Harvey
Susanna: sung by Sheila Vogelle / danced by Katherine
 Litz
The Cedar from Lebanon: Sharry Traver
The Little Juniper Tree: Ellen R. Albertini
Handmaidens: Margaret Cuddy, Barbara Downie
The Elder (Moe): Frank Seabolt
The Elder (Joe): Robert Trout
The Angel: James R. Nygren


Later performances:

1) Played 8 October through 21 November 1950. Century Theatre, Los Angeles. Produced by Jerome Moross, Bruce Savan, and Richard Martin. Choreography by Robert Trout and Frank Seabolt; musical direction by Ernest Gold; Eugene Feher and Gershon Kingsley, pianos. Cast of the production included:
The Parson: Paul Hinshaw
Susanna: sung by Marni Nixon / danced by Olga Lunick
The Cedar from Lebanon: Donna Volz
The Little Juniper Tree: Ellen R. Albertini
The Wall: Marjorie Pragon, Roberta Stevenson
The Elder (Moe): Frank Seabolt
The Elder (Joe): Robert Trout
The Angel: Christopher Brown


2) 1950. Peninsula Playhouse, Peninsula, Ohio (details unknown).

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1949 (piano-vocal score).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 9; flatbox 236.

Comments: First of the Ballet Ballads, with text by John Latouche. The scene is a revival meeting. The parson takes his sermon from the story of Susanna and the Elders as found in the Apocrypha. Composed in 1940 and 1941; orchestrated 1941, then reorchestrated 1966. In corr-espondence with investors, Moross wrote that the Ballet Ballads could be produced in Los Angeles for $15,000, or $6,000-$7,000 less than in New York. Shares in the production were sold at $300 each. In 1966 CBS commissioned the composer to complete orchestrations for Ballet Ballads in preparation for a planned television production. This, unfortunately, never took place. Note that in the East 74th Street Theatre Production of Ballet Ballads (opening 3 January 1961), Riding Hood Revisited was substituted for Susanna and the Elders. The story of Susanna is also treated in Carlisle Floyd's later opera by that name.

Symphony (1940-42) SYMPHONY

I. Theme and [8] Variations / II. Sonata-scherzo / III. Invention / IV. Fugue.

Instrumentation: 3 fl (3d doub pic), 3 ob (3d doub Eng hrn), 3 cl in A (2d doub cl in E[??], 3d doub b cl), 3 bsn (3d doub cbsn) / 4 hrn, 3 trp in C (1st changes to trp in D for last movement), 2 trb, b trb, tu / timp, sn dr, cym, sus cym (2 or 3 percussionists) / p, cel / str.

Approximate duration: 20 minutes.

First performance: 18 October 1943. Seattle Symphony Orchestra; Sir Thomas Beecham, cond. (fig. 3 reproduces the program for this concert).

Other performances:

1) 16, 17, and 19 November 1944. Los Angeles Philharmonic; Alfred Wallenstein, cond. In the last of these concerts the composer was a last-minute substitute for the regular pianist, who was "indisposed" (maternity emergency).

2) 8 June 2003. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 32, 36, 37, 46; flatbox 254; New York Public Library, CBS Collection (Ramble on a Hobo Tune). Fig. 2 reproduces the first page of Moross's manuscript score.

Recordings:

1) London Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7188-2 H1 [1993], CD (rec. 1-2 March 1993).

2) Previously unreleased broadcast recording of the 19 November 1944 performance of Moross's Symphony with the composer as pianist, Alfred Wallenstein, cond. (see above). Premiere PR-1012 [1959], LP; paired with Bernard Herrmann's Welles Raises Kane, Bernard Herrmann, cond. (rec. 3 July 1949). "Limited edition for collectors."

Comments: The composer's autograph bears the inscription "January 1940-February 1942," but origins of the Symphony actually go back to 1938. In this year CBS commissioned a number of composers, including Moross, to provide orchestral arrangements of American folk songs (other composers commissioned were Henry Brant, Ruth Crawford Seeger, Ross Lee Finney, Roy Harris, William Grant Still, and Aaron Copland). The arrangements were intended for broadcast on the radio program American School of the Air: Folk Music of America, aimed at young audiences. The subject of Moross's arrangement was the folk song "Midnight Special," which was suggested by folklorist John Lomax. "Midnight Special" had appeared in Lomax's own American Folk Songs and Ballads (New York: MacMillan, 1934) and had been included earlier, along with several variants, in Carl Sandburg's The American Songbag (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1927), 26-27. Moross's setting of the song was originally titled Ramble on a Hobo Tune. In it the folk song is subtly treated and its presence is not at all obvious to the ear (it is first heard in the cello and viola entrance at m. 15). Moross's original setting was for chamber orchestra, but he revised and reorchestrated the work; the later version, now called "Invention," became the third movement of his new four-movement Symphony. Though composed during wartime, the Symphony is decidedly optimistic in tone. The composer wrote in later program notes, "... many people were feeling gloomy about the war and I thought it was right to try to cheer them up with a happy and hopeful piece. I realized the seriousness of the situation, but I did not believe in being downhearted." A brief analysis of the Symphony was published in Lawrence Morton's article "Jerome Moross: Young Man Goes Native," Modern Music 22, no. 2 (1945): 111-14. The "Sonata-scherzo" requires a pianist with considerable technique; this movement was arranged by the composer for piano, 4 hands (Sorom Editions, distr. Theodore Presser). The Symphony was still listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from the composer. Moross's planned second symphony, a jazz-influenced work in three movements, was discarded (sketches and extensive drafts in JMP box 37); some of the music was used in other pieces. (Bibliographically speaking, the sometimes-seen appellation "Symphony No. 1" for the present work is rather misleading.) Beecham admired Moross's Symphony and planned to conduct the New York Philharmonic in a performance of it on 24 June 1944 in the Stadium Concerts series at Lewisohn Stadium, College of the City of New York. (He had conducted its premiere in October of the previous year in Seattle.) Unfortunately, because of postal delivery problems common during wartime, the orchestral parts did not arrive from Los Angeles in time, and what would have been an important New York performance of the Symphony did not transpire. Moross enjoyed telling the story of Beecham asking him to cut four bars from the Symphony. When asked which four bars, Beecham laughed and replied, "My dear boy, any four bars" (he never made any cuts).

A Tall Story for Orchestra (1938) ORCHESTRAL MUSIC

Instrumentation: 3 fl (3d doub pic), 2 ob, 3 cl (3d doub b cl), 2 bsn / 4 hrn, 3 trp in B[??], 2 trb, b trb, tu / timp, sn dr, b dr, cym, xyl, wb (3 percussionists) / str.

Approximate duration: 9 minutes.

First performance: 25 September 1938. CBS Symphony Orchestra; Howard Barlow, cond. CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) radio broadcast performance.

Other performances:

1) 16 October 1938. CBS Symphony Orchestra; Howard Barlow, cond. (first concert performance).

2) 8 January 1939. Illinois Symphony Orchestra; Daniel Saidenberg, cond. Great Northern Theatre, Chicago, Illinois.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 37; flatbox 255.

Recording: New Zealand Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7367-2 H1 [1996], CD (rec. January 1996).

Comments: Composed from 24 June to 16 August 1938 (dates from composer's autograph manuscript). Commissioned by the Columbia Broadcasting System. A Tall Story was still listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from the composer.

Those Everlasting Blues (1932)

CANTATA, SECULAR (LOW VOICE WITH CHAMBER ORCHESTRA)

Instrumentation: fl, ob, cl in B[??], bsn / hrn, trp in C, trb / timp, b dr, sn dr, sus cym, cym, wb, Chinese blocks (temple blocks), rhumba blocks, xyl, glock (3 percussionists) / p / str / mezzo-soprano (or baritone?).

Approximate duration: 6 minutes.

First perfcrmance: 4 November 1932. Pan American Chamber Orchestra; Paula Jean Lawrence, soloist; Nicolas Slonimsky, cond. New School for Social Research, New York City.

Recent performance: 8 June 2000. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; Diane Kesling, soloist; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 37.

Recording: Hot Springs Music Festival Orchestra; Diane Kesling, soloist; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Naxos 8.559086 [2002], CD (rec. June 2000).

Comments: Composed in spring and summer of 1932 in Vienna and Cagnes-sur-Mer (from the composer's autograph manuscript). Text by Alfred Kreymborg. Moross had provided music (not extant) for Kreymborg's play There's A Moon Tonight presented in New York at The Institute Theatre 2-30 May 1932.

Those Gambler's Blues

See Two Songs (Jabberwocky and Those Gambler's Blues, 1932)

Trio for Piano, Violin, and Violoncello (Moross, arr. Paul Bateman)

See comments to The Last Judgement

Two Songs (Jabberwocky and Those Gambler's Blues, 1932)

SONGS, LOW VOICE WITH PIANO

Instrumentation: voice / p.

Approximate duration: 7 minutes.

First performance: 15 January 1933 (Sunday afternoon). "First Concert of the Young Composers Group." Hubert Linscott, baritone; Jerome Moross, piano. New School Auditorium, New York City.

Music unpublished.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 30, 37.

Comments: Jabberwocky is a modernistic, tongue-in-cheek setting of Lewis Carroll's poem; Those Gambler's Blues, an updated version of the classic "St. James Infirmary," made known by Louis Armstrong (and others) beginning in the latter 1920s. During the previous year the same singer, Hubert Linscott (accompanied by Aaron Copland), had performed seven songs of Charles Ives at the First Festival of Contemporary American Music at Yaddo in Saratoga Springs, New York (1 May 1932).

Underworld (1961-62) MUSICAL

Prologue / Baby's Gonna Shake It Tonight / The Bad Old Days / Beer and Flowers / The Cream of Society / Cicero's Danger Song / The Girls / Give Me a Chance / It's Almost Time Now / I've Even Been in Love / Keep On Saying It / Kinda Like / Love Me / Paddy Boy / Pepita's Song / That Extra Bit / You've Got Brains / All I Have Left / Chicago Isn't Mine Any More / Fighting and Drinking / Make It a Fast One / Mock Wedding / Start It Moving / We're Throwing a Party / Epilogue.

Approximate duration: 70 minutes.

Notable performance (excerpts only): 5-6 February 1980. "A Jerome Moross Sampler." Lyric Theatre of New York, Musicale Series. Produced by Mike Snell and Lesley Anderson Snell.

Music unpublished.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 37, 38; flatbox 255.

Recordings:

1) Six songs--"Beer and Flowers," "That Extra Bit," "I've Even Been In Love," "Baby's Gonna Shake It," "Love Me," and "It's Almost Time Now"--are on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

2) Eight songs--"Prologue," "Paddy Boy," "That Extra Bit," "It's Almost Time Now," "I've Even Been in Love," "Beer and Flowers," "Love Me," and "The Cream of Society"--are on Broadway Dreams: Songs of Morton Gould and Jerome Moross. Premier Recordings PRCD 1016 [1991], CD.

Comments: Never produced on stage. Book by Ben Hecht and Ted Yates, based on Hecht's childhood memories of Chicago. In 1927 his screenplay had become the silent film classic Underworld, directed by Josef von Sternberg, which was the prototype for virtually all subsequent Hollywood gangster movies. Moross was initially approached by Hecht to work on a musical version; the composer then brought in lyricist John Hollander and, later, Lester Judson. There were many delays due to disagreement about script and storyline, and at least two potential directors (Vincent Donahue and Burgess Meredith) came and went. The songs written by Moross were legally separated from the book in 1962. Underworld pits Irish beer-runner and florist Dion ("Deannie") O'Bannion against Al Capone and introduces a fictitious mutual love interest. In spite of some very fine music--"It's Almost Time Now" is as exquisite and hypnotic as Golden Apple's "Lazy Afternoon"--Underworld was never produced. The composer was uncharacteristically (and justifiably) bitter that his music was never given a realistic chance of success.

Variations on a Waltz for Orchestra (1946 / orch. 1966)

VARIATIONS FOR ORCHESTRA

Waltz / Variations 1-9 / Coda.

Instrumentation: 3 fl (2d & 3d doub pic), 3 ob (3d doub Eng hrn), 3 cl (3d doub b cl), 3 bsn (3d doub cbsn) / 4 hrn, 3 trp in B[??], 2 trb, b trb, tu / timp, sn dr, t dr, b dr, sus cym, cym, glock, xyl, vib (5 percussionists) / h / cel / str db with low C).

Approximate duration: 14 minutes.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 38; flatbox 255.

Recording: London Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7188-2 H1 [1993], CD (rec. 1-2 March 1993).

Comments: In 1966 the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) commissioned Moross to complete orchestrations for Ballet Ballads in preparation for a planned television production. This, unfortunately, never took place. Because of time considerations--earlier producers had felt that the ballet ballads conceived by Moross and Latouche made too long an evening's entertainment--Riding Hood Revisited had been dropped from the original set of Ballet Ballads. Moross took this opportunity to rework and reorchestrate the fourth section (Waltz and Variations) of Riding Hood, entitling it Variations on a Waltz for Orchestra. The original music of Variation 9, being choral, was omitted from the orchestral transcription. The Variations were listed in the ASCAP Symphonic Catalog, 3d ed. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977), 325, as available from Chappell. The composer occasionally referred to this piece as The Wolf Waltzes (pun?), and it is listed by that title in some reference works. The Variations are best appreciated when the listener knows the program (not the original story of Little Red Riding Hood, but Latouche's retelling--see comments to Riding Hood Revisited). There is also a version of the Variations arranged by the composer for two pianos (Sorom Editions, distr. Theodore Presser).

Willie the Weeper ("Ballet Ballad No. 2"; 1945 / orch. 1966) MUSICAL [Introduction] Did You Ever Hear about Willie the Weeper? / [episode 1: Rich Willie] He Has a Million Cattle / [episode 2: Lonely Willie] I'm Mister Nobody from Nowhere / [episode 3: Famous Willie] I'm Famous; I'm Terrific / [episode 4: Baffled Willie] Keep to the Right / [episode 5: Big Willie] They Can't Scare Me with Their Wills and Won'ts / [episode 6: Contented Willie] When Your Flights of Fancy / I've Got Me / [episode 7: Sexy Willie] Introducin' Ya to Cocaine Lil / Oh Baby, Gee Baby.

Instrumentation: 2 fl (2d doub pic), ob (doub Eng hrn), 2 cl in B[??] (1st doub sop sax ad lib, 2d doub b cl), bsn / 2 hrn, 2 trp in B[??], trb / timp (2 players), 2 vib, 2 xyl, sn dr, glock, tri, t dr, g, cym (3 percussionists) / p, cel / str / tenor / mixed chorus.

Approximate duration: 35 minutes.

First performance: Opened 9 May 1948 in New York City at Maxine Elliott's Theatre. Produced by Nat Karson, The Experimental Theatre, Inc. (Cheryl Crawford, producer), and the American National Theatre and Academy (Alfred de Liagre Jr., executive producer; Jean Dalrymple, executive director). Production ran continuously but moved to The Music Box Theatre (produced by T. Edward Hambleton and Alfred R. Stern), opening 18 May 1948, closing 10 July 1948. Total number of performances: 69. Directed by Mary Hunter; design by Nat Karson; choreography by Paul Godkin; musical direction by Hugh Ross; John Lesko Jr. and Mordecai Sheinkman, pianos. Willie the Weeper sung by Robert Lenn, danced by Paul Godkin; Cocaine Lil danced by Sono Osato.

Later performances:

1) Played 8 October through 21 November 1950. Century Theatre, Los Angeles (produced by Jerome Moross, Bruce Savan, and Richard Martin). Choreography by Esther Junger; musical direction by Ernest Gold; Eugene Feher and Gershon Kingsley, pianos. Cast of the production included: Willie the Weeper sung by Jerry Duane, danced by Bert May; Cocaine Lil danced by Olga Lunick.

2) 1950. Peninsula Playhouse, Peninsula, Ohio (details unknown).

3) Opened 3 January 1961 at East 74th Street Theatre, 334 East 74th Street, New York City. Produced by Ethel Watt; musical direction by Don Smith; choreography by John Butler; production design by Gary Smith; costumes by Hal George; lighting by Jules Fisher. Cast of the production included: Willie the Weeper sung by Arne Markussen, danced by John Smolko; Cocaine Lil danced by Carmen de Lavallade.

4) 5-6 February 1980. "A Jerome Moross Sampler." Lyric Theatre of New York, Musicale Series. Produced by Mike Snell and Lesley Anderson Snell (excerpts only).

5) 28 February 2000. "A Tribute to Jerome Moross." Songbook Series at Joe's Pub, New York City. Arrangements of Jerome Moross songs by Eric Stern and Tommy Krasker (excerpts only).

First performance of Willie the Weeper in the composer's full orchestration: 8 June 2000. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; John DeHaan, tenor; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1949 (piano-vocal score); song "I've Got Me" published earlier by Chappell as sheet music (voice and piano), 1948.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 9; flatboxes 236, 237.

Recordings:

1) Hot Springs Music Festival Orchestra; John DeHaan, tenor; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Naxos 8.559086 [2002], CD (rec. June 2000).

2) Songs "Oh Baby, Gee Baby" and "I've Got Me" are on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

Comments: Second of the Ballet Ballads, with text by John Latouche. When fully produced on the stage, Willie requires a singing Willie, a dancing Willie, and a double ensemble; half the ensemble dances while the other half "moves well" and sings. The opening develops Moross's song Willie the Weeper of 1932; some of episode 7 is derived from his earlier, abandoned, musical play The Cow in the Trailer. In correspondence with investors, Moross wrote that the Ballet Ballads could be produced in Los Angeles for $15,000, or $6,000-$7,000 less than in New York; shares in the production were sold at $300 each. In 1966 CBS commissioned the composer to complete orchestrations for Ballet Ballads in preparation for a planned television production. This, unfortunately, never took place.

Concert and Theater Music Classified by Genre

BALLET

An American Pattern (1936)

Frankie and Johnny (1937-38)

Guns and Castanets (1939)

The Last Judgement (1953)

Paul Bunyon: An American Saga (1934, music not extant)

BRASS QUINTET

Sonatina for Brass Quintet ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 4"; 1968)

CANTATA, SECULAR (LOW VOICE WITH CHAMBER ORCHESTRA)

Those Everlasting Blues (1932)

CHAMBER ORCHESTRA MUSIC

Paeans (1931)

Ramble on a Hobo Tune. See Symphony (1940-42)

CONCERTO, FLUTE WITH STRING QUARTET

Concerto for Flute with String Quartet [or String Orchestra] (1978)

INCIDENTAL MUSIC

Blood Wedding (1949)

Mother (1935, music not extant)

MUSICAL

The Eccentricities of Davy Crockett ("Ballet Ballad No. 3"; 1946 / orch. 1966)

Gentlemen, Be Seated! (1956)

The Golden Apple (1948-50)

Parade (1935)

Riding Hood Revisited: Simple Symphony in E Flat Major ("Ballet Ballad No. 4"; 1945-46 / orch. 1966) material later used in Variations on a Waltz

Susanna and the Elders ("Ballet Ballad No. 1"; 1940-41 / orch. 1941, 1946)

Underworld (1961-62)

Willie the Weeper ("Ballet Ballad No. 2"; 1945 / orch. 1966)

OPERA

Sorry, Wrong Number (1977)

ORCHESTRAL MUSIC

See also SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA, SYMPHONY, VARIATIONS FOR ORCHESTRA

Biguine (1934)

A Tall Story for Orchestra (1938)

PIANO MUSIC, ARRANGED (2 PIANOS)

The Banjo (composed L. M. Gottschalk, 1854-55; arr. J. Moross, 1934)

PIANO QUINTET

Quintet for Piano and Strings (1964)

SEXTET, CLARINETS

Sonatina for Clarinet Sextet ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 1"; 1966)

SEXTET, PIANO (4 HANDS) AND STRINGS

Sonata for Piano Duet and String Quartet (1975)

SONATINA, DOUBLE BASS AND PIANO

Sonatina for String Bass and Piano ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 2"; 1966)

SONGS, LOW VOICE WITH PIANO

Two Songs (Jabberwocky and Those Gambler's Blues, 1932)

SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA

The Big Country (1958)

Music for the Flicks (1952-65)

SYMPHONY

Symphony (1940-42)

VARIATIONS FOR ORCHESTRA

Variations on a Waltz for Orchestra (1946 / orch. 1966)

VIOLIN AND PIANO MUSIC

Recitative and Aria for Violin and Piano (1941)

WOODWIND QUINTET

Sonatina for Woodwind Quintet ("Sonatinas for Divers Instruments, No. 3"; 1970)

II. Music for Film (1948-1969)

Following is a complete chronological list of films for which Jerome Moross composed original music. Because of time constraints involved in production and the requisite division of labor, detailed orchestration of these scores was often done by others. Identification of specific orchestrators is not always possible, but has been given when known. Generally, Moross would see a film in "rough-cut" form (with the director and producer present) to determine the points at which music was needed. He would then view the film again, taking notes, and begin composing on a four- or five-line "short" score. (17) As a general practice, Moross would lay out for his orchestrator(s) in fairly specific terms what he wanted done in terms of the score's instrumentation. Whenever possible, a list of the composer's "cues" for each film is given, even if not all were used in the final film. The studio and year of release for each film are given parenthetically.

Close-Up (Eagle-Lion Films, 1948)

Directed by Jack Donohue; produced by Robert L. Joseph and Frank Satenstein; written by John Bright and Max Wilk, based on a story by James Poe; adaptation by Martin Rackin; cinematography by William Miller; starring Alan Baxter, Virginia Gilmore, Richard Kollmar, Loring Smith, and Russell Collins.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 12.

Recording: The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. A beautifully played digital recording of some of the composer's best music from several films, this includes a brief suite of music from Close-Up in new orchestrations by Nic Raine, based on the composer's manuscripts.

When I Grow Up (Eagle-Lion Films, 1951)

Written and directed by Michael Kanin; produced by Jack Broder and Sam Spiegel; cinematography by Ernest Laszlo; starring Bobby Driscol, Robert Preston, Martha Scott, Sherry Jackson, and Johnny McGovern.

Music unpublished.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 39.

The Captive City (United Artists, 1952)

Directed by Robert Wise; produced by Aspen Productions; written by Alvin M. Josephy and Karl Kamb, based on a story by Alvin M. Josephy; cinematography by Lee Garmes; starring John Forsythe, Joan Camden, Harold J. Kennedy, Marjorie Crossland, and Victor Sutherland.

Music published: Sorom Editions (distr. Theodore Presser).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 11.

Recording: The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes a brief suite of music from Captive City in new orchestrations by Nic Raine, based on the composer's manuscripts.

Seven Wonders of the World (Cinerama Productions, 1956)

The Holy Land / The Mediterranean / Rome / The Vatican.

Narration by Lowell Thomas.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 33.

Recording: The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes "The Holy Land" and "The Mediterranean" from Seven Wonders of the World in new orchestrations by Nic Raine, based on the composer's manuscripts.

Comments: Seven Wonders of the World was a Cinerama documentary presented by Lowell Thomas. In addition to that of Moross, original music was also provided by David Raksin and Sol Kaplan. Emil Newman was in charge of overall supervision of the musical score and conducted the orchestra in the soundtrack recording, at which Moross was present.

The Sharkfighters (United Artists, 1956)

Directed by Jerry Hopper; produced by Samuel Goldwyn Jr.; screenplay by Lawrence Roman and John Robinson, from a story by Jo and Art Napoleon; cinematography by Lee Garmes; starring Victor Mature, Karen Steele, James Olsen, Philip Coolidge, and Claude Akins.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 33, 47; flatbox 255.

Recording: The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick.

Comments: On the digital recording of some of the composer's best film music, cited above, the late Christopher Palmer fashioned, from disparate elements of the Sharkfighters score, an "overture" (some eleven minutes in duration) which showcases the composer's use of Caribbean rhythms and exotic percussion instruments. Some of the music for this film derives from the composer's Biguine of over twenty years earlier (1934). "Habanera and Danzon" from The Sharkfighters was used as the fourth movement of the composer's orchestral suite Music for the Flicks.

Proud Rebel (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1958)

Main Title / The Town / Father and Son / The Fight in the Valley / The Wagon Ride / The Wagon Ride (alternate version) / The New Home / The Farm / The Sheep Invade / The Sheep are Expelled / Scene at the Brook / Night Scene / The Doctor Arrives / No Sale / The Swing / Barn Burning / The Burned Barn / The Dress / Conversation Piece / The Search / The Bandage / The Promise / The Final Fight / My Rebel Heart.

Directed by Michael Curtiz; produced by Samuel Goldwyn Jr.; written by James Edward Grant, Lillie Hayward, and Joseph Petracca, based on a story by James Edward Grant; cinematography by Ted D. McCord; starring Alan Ladd, Olivia De Havilland, Dean Jagger, David Ladd, Cecil Kellaway, John Carradine, and Harry Dean Stanton.

Music published: Chappell Music Inc. (ASCAP).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 32.

Recordings:

1) Proud Rebel: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack. Screen Classics SC-2-JM [1993], CD. Orchestra conducted by Emil Newman; orchestration by Bernard L. Mayers. Final mix achieved 7 April 1958. Notes by Michael H. Price and John Caps. The following numbers are included: Main Title / The Town / Father and Son / The Fight in the Valley / The Wagon Ride / The Wagon Ride (alternate version) / The New Home / The Farm / The Sheep Invade / The Sheep Are Expelled / Scene at the Brook / Night Scene / The Doctor Arrives / No Sale / The Swing / Barn Burning / The Burned Barn / The Dress / Conversation Piece / The Search / The Bandage / The Promise / The Final Fight / My Rebel Heart.

2) The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes the following cues from The Proud Rebel in orchestrations by Tony Bremner, based on the composer's manuscripts: Main Title / The Wagon Ride / The Dress / Fight in the Alley / The Farm / Night Scene / The Sheep Are Expelled / The Promise / The Final Fight / Finale.

Comments: Orchestrations for the film were done by Bernard L. Mayers. Songwriter Ned Washington was commissioned by the producers of Proud Rebel to set words to the score's principal lyrical melody, resulting in the song "My Rebel Heart." Although sheet music was published, no vocal rendition was ever recorded. Emil Newman did conduct an instrumental recording of this popularized version, and, although it is not heard in the film, it is included on the Screen Classics compact disc cited above. "Pastorale" from this score was used as the second movement of the composer's orchestral suite Music for the Flicks.

The Big Country (United Artists, 1958)

Main Title / Julie's House / The Welcoming / The Hazing / Courtin' Time / The Terrill Ranch / Old Thunder / The Raid, parts 1 and 2 / McKay's Decision / The Capture / McKay's Triumph / Major Terrill's Party (dance 1, dance 2, Waltz, Polka) / Night in Blanco Canyon / McKay's Ride / McKay Is Missing / The Old House / Waiting / Horror Stories / Big Muddy / Still Waiting / McKay Alone / Night at Ladder Ranch / The Fight / Cattle at the River / Pat's Mistake / Buck Comes for Julie / The Abduction / The Captive / The Attempted Rape / The War Party Gathers / McKay in Blanco Canyon / Jim and Julie / The Major Alone / The Duel / The Death of Buck Hannassey / Ambush in Blanco Canyon, part 1 / Ambush in Blanco Canyon, part 2 / The Stalking / End Title.

Directed by William Wyler; produced by William Wyler and Gregory Peck; based on the story "Ambush in Blanco Canyon" by Donald Hamilton (originally appearing in The Saturday Evening Post), later published in expanded form as The Big Country (Dell paperback); cinematography by Franz Planer; titles by Saul Bass; starring Gregory Peck, Carroll Baker, Jean Simmons, Charlton Heston, Charles Bickford, and Burl Ives.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 10; flatboxes 238-41.

Recordings:

1) The Big Country: Original Music from the Motion Picture Soundtrack. Jerome Moross, cond. United Artists UAL 40004 (mono.) / UAS 5004 (stereo.) [1958], LP. Twelve excerpts from the soundtrack recording. The stereo version of the LP is artificially enhanced, not true stereophonic sound. Dates of the recording sessions were 28 April; 12 and 26 May; 9, 16, 23, and 25 June 1958. This album has also been issued by Pickwick, Sunset, and other labels.

2) Spectacular Music for Films. London Symphony Orchestra; Morton Gould, cond. Sine Qua Non 79029 [1978], LP (rec. 22 September 1978). Contains main title only.

3) Round-Up. Cincinnati Pops Orchestra; Erich Kunzel, cond. Telarc CD 80141 [1986], CD. Contains main title only.

4) The Big Country. Philharmonia Orchestra; Tony Bremner, cond. Silva Screen FILM CD 030 [1988], CD (rec. October 1988); reissue, Silva Screen SSD 1048 [1995], CD. An excellent digital recording of most of the music composed for the film (55 minutes), with notes on the music by conductor Bremner.

5) The Big Country: A Musical and Memorial Tribute to the Composer. Jerome Moross, cond. Screen Classics SC-1-JM [1994], CD. A deluxe boxed set issuing the twelve numbers of the United Artists LP previously cited, in much improved sound, with thirty more from the original sessions, a total of forty-two numbers. Includes a booklet rich in photographs, illustrations, biography and musical discussion by John Caps. An extraordinarily rich limited edition.

6) The Big Country. Image Entertainment [1996], DVD. This superb laser-disc edition contains, on isolated analog tracks, the orchestral score and William H. Rosar's informative discussion of Moross's musical style, with excerpts from earlier recorded interviews with the composer. Unfortunately, the film transfer to DVD format contains none of these musical features.

7) Great Western Themes. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Carl Davis, cond. Philharmonic Classics 908 [2000], CD. Contains main title only. N.B.: The main title to The Big Country appears on many anthologies of film music and has been recorded often in different forms and guises, sometimes by unnamed ensembles. These performances do not always accurately reflect the composer's musical conception.

Comments: The composer's magnum opus film score, and without doubt one of the most celebrated main titles ever composed. The combination of music by Moross and design by Saul Bass produced one of the most dramatic opening sequences of any film from this era. Moross was nominated for an Academy Award in 1958 for his work on The Big Country; it is generally conceded today (and was widely held even at that time) that he deserved the award. (Ironically, Dimitri Tiomkin, a composer best known for his scores to Westerns, prevailed for his music to the film adaptation of Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea.) The Big Country's original soundtrack, with its distinctive bright orange and yellow cover, was a best-selling record album of its day, and, in response to its unusual popular success, the composer arranged five of the movements as a concert suite (see The Big Country in section I, Concert and Theater Music). To the composer's irritation, the main title theme was adapted to words by Morty Neff and Jack Lewis and published as the song "Another Day, Another Sunset," and recorded by Diahann [sic] Carroll (United Artists 142X, 45 rpm single--Moross later said of this "... a terrible lyric ... it sold two copies"). Some instrumental recordings of the main title actually refer to it by that name, but this was not the composer's intention. The movement "McKay's Triumph," used in the film and issued on United Artists UAL 40004 / UAS 5004 (side 1, track 4), is a replacement cue not composed by Moross, while "The Death of Buck Hannassey" on the soundtrack recording was composed for it but not actually used. Orchestrations were by Bernard L. Mayers, with the following exceptions: Buck Comes for Julie / Abduction / Captive / Attempted Rape / McKay in Blanco Canyon / Major Alone / Duel / Death of Buck Hannassey / Ambush in Blanco Canyon, parts 1 and 2 / and Stalking were orchestrated by Conrad Salinger; Julie's House / Old Thunder / Polka from Major Terrill's Party / Night in Blanco Canyon / and McKay is Missing were orchestrated by Gil Grau; and the single cue "The War Party Gathers" was orchestrated by Alexander Courage. The Big Country is one of the few film scores to have been the subject of academic study: Jack Kohl has written "Jerome Moross's 1958 Film Score The Big Country: A Study Through Piano Transcription," in which he provides a "suite of cues from the film score in a piano transcription suitable for performance" (D.M.A. thesis, University of South Carolina, 2000). Director William Wyler had superior critical taste directing actors, but decidedly poor judgment in music. He intensely disliked Moross's score, and the composer said in an interview many years later that he had been tempted to withdraw from the project after receiving a scathing telegram from the director. (18) As a composer who had trouble working with William Wyler, Moross was in good company, for Wyler was also known to have disliked Hugo Friedhofer's score to The Best Years of Our Lives (1946). Friedhofer's music was, in fact, one of the most acclaimed aspects of the film and received an Academy Award (Moross was one of the uncredited orchestrators). A few years later the director replaced Aaron Copland's original prelude to The Heiress (1949) with a conventional orchestral arrangement of the song "Plaisir d'amour" by J.P.E. Martini; Copland was neither consulted nor informed of this decision. In their autobiographies, actors Charlton Heston and Carroll Baker both praise Moross's score in their recollections of The Big Country. Ironically, in Directed by William Wyler, the 1986 film documenting the director's career, it is Moross's main title to The Big Country which introduces the program.

The Jayhawkers (Paramount, 1959)

Seal and Main Title / Kansas / Cam Recovers / Jeanne Hides Cam / Chopping Wood / Jeanne's House / Cam's Capture / A Smashed Guitar / Cam Saves Jake / Cam Shoots Evans / The Stronghold / Attempted Assault / Raid Montage, parts 1 and 2 / Cam Riding / Love and a Doublecross / The Posse / Brothers / A Raid / Accusation / Darcy Weakens / Cam Arrives / Darcy Arrives / Premonitions / Zero Hour / Danger Trill / The Last Act / Prelude to Death / Death / Finale.

Directed by Melvin Frank; produced by Melvin Frank and Norman Panama; cinematography by Loyal Griggs; costumes by Edith Head; starring Jeff Chandler, Fess Parker, Nicole Maurey, and Henry Silva.

Music published: Famous Music Corporation.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 30.

Recording: The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes the following from The Jayhawkers in new orchestrations by Nic Raine, based on the composer's manuscripts: Main Title / Cam / The Lynching / The Two Brothers / The Jayhawkers / Attack on Abilene / Death of Darcy / Finale.

Comments: The composer's popular pentatonic theme to the television series Wagon Train first appeared in the "Two Brothers" cue from this score.

The Mountain Road (Columbia, 1960)

Main Title / The Men / The Airplane / Destroying the Airbase (partial list of cues).

Directed by Daniel Mann; produced by William Goetz; screenplay by Alfred Hayes, based on the book by Theodore H. White; cinematography by Burnett Guffey; starring James Stewart, Lisa Lu, Glenn Corbett, Henry Morgan, Frank Silvera, and James Best.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 45.

Recording: The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes a suite of music from The Mountain Road, newly orchestrated by Mike Townend. The suite consists of the first four cues of the composer's score, although not all are heard in the film: Main Title / The Men / The Airplane / Destroying the Airbase.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1960) Main Title / Hannibal, Missouri / Huck and Jim / Huckleberry Finn / Pap / Pap's Cabin / Pap and Huck / Huck's Murder / Huck Gets Away / Starting Down the River / After the Feud / Jim's Sins / On to Pikesville / The Placard / In Pikesville / The Blessing / Huck Hunts the Gold / Huck Gets the Gold / Huck Hides the Gold / The English Uncles / On the Raft / A Houseboat in the Fog / The Raft Is Destroyed / The Riverboat / I Ain't Never Felt So Good Before / I'll Wait for You by the River / In the Pilothouse / The River / Back to the River / Carmody's Circus / Jim Is Caught / The Sheriff / Jim in Chains / The Sheriff's Wife / Huck Frees Jim / The Chase / The New Raft / Hannibal, Missouri / End Title.

Directed by Michael Curtiz; produced by Samuel Goldwyn Jr.; screenplay by James Lee from the book by Mark Twain; cinematography by Ted McCord; starring Tony Randall, Eddie Hodges, Archie Moore, Patty McCormack, Neville Brand, Mickey Shaughnessy, Andy Devine, Buster Keaton, Finlay Currie, Judy Canova, and John Carradine.

Music of Jerome Moross published: EMI Robbins Catalog, Inc. (ASCAP).

Songs by Burton Lane and Alan J. Lerner published by Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP).

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 6, 43.

Recordings:

1) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack. Film Score Monthly FSM vol. 6, no. 9 [2003], CD. Limited edition. Conducted by Jerome Moross. Film score recorded on 19, 26, and 28 January, and 4 February 1960; demonstration tracks and source music recorded on 24 and 25 September; 13 October; and 13 and 16 November 1959. All recording done at M-G-M Studios Scoring Stage in Culver City, California. Music remix by Michael McDonald; digital mastering by Doug Schwartz. An outstanding release with annotations by Jeff Bond and Lukas Kendall, this disc also contains demo recordings and unused material, all richly documented.

2) The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes a suite of the following excepts from The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in new orchestrations by the late Christopher Palmer: Prelude / Huck's Escape / The Mississippi / Flight and Finale.

Comments: The songs "Huckleberry Finn," "I Ain't Never Felt So Good Before" (both sung in the film by Archie Moore), "I'll Wait for You by the River," and "Pittsburgh Blue" (both sung by Dolores Hawkins) are adaptations of songs by Burton Lane and Alan J. Lerner, from their abandoned 1953 musical Huckleberry Finn. (The musical was to be produced by Arthur Freed and was to feature Gene Kelly and Danny Kaye, among others.) On 3 September 1959 a demo recording of the song "Huckleberry Finn" was made by John Hawker; on the following day, another by Archie Moore; on 21 December 1959 the noted operatic baritone George Bledsoe recorded "Huckleberry Finn" and "I'll Wait for You by the River" for possible use in the film. The producers ultimately favored the folksy, untrained voice of Archie Moore. Orchestrations of the original score were done by Robert Franklyn. This was a most enjoyable assignment for Moross, who had a long-standing and congenial working relationship with Samuel Goldwyn. Moross had hopes of creating an orchestral Huckleberry Finn suite or overture for concert use, drawing on elements of the score, but this never materialized.

Five Finger Exercise (Columbia, 1962)

Directed by Daniel Mann; produced by Frederick Brisson; screenplay by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett, based on the play by Peter Shaffer; cinematography by Harry Stradling; starring Rosalind Russell, Jack Hawkins, Maximilian Schell, Lana Wood, and Richard Beymer.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 13.

Recording: The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes the composer's orchestration of "Romanza" from Five Finger Exercise; this later was used as the third movement of the suite Music for the Flicks.

Comments: Five Finger Exercise was initially a pleasant experience for Moross (with some of his best, and least "Western," writing), but later became a painful one. Unlike many film composers, Moross was meticulous in his concept of musical form, and was distressed when post-production cutting, splicing, and refilming of Five Finger Exercise disrupted his carefully designed transitions, key relationships, and development of themes. In later interviews, he was careful to distance himself from the final artistic product.

The Cardinal (Columbia, 1963)

Main Title / Stonebury / The Monks at Casamari / Dixieland-Tango / The Cardinal's Faith / They Haven't Got the Girls in the U.S.A. / The Cardinal in Vienna / Annemarie / The Cardinal's Decision / Way Down South / Alleluia (Mozart) / The Cardinal Themes.

Directed by Otto Preminger; written by Robert Dozier, based on the novel by Henry Morton Robinson; titles by Saul Bass; starring Thomas Tryon, Carol Lynley, Dorothy Gish, Cecil Kellaway, John Saxon, John Huston, Burgess Meredith, Jill Haworth, Raf Vallone, Ossie Davis, and Romy Schneider.

Main title published as "The Cardinal: Main Theme" in piano score by Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP), 1963; also "Main Theme" and "Waltz" published in piano versions by Gamma Productions, Inc., 1963.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 11; flatbox 241.

Recordings:

1) The Cardinal: An Original Soundtrack Recording. Jerome Moross, cond. RCA Victor LSO 1084 [1963], LP (rec. 1 October 1963). Cover design by Saul Bass; program notes by George T. Simon. Includes the following from the film score: Main Title / Stonebury / The Monks at Casamari / Dixieland-Tango / The Cardinal's Faith / They Haven't Got the Girls in the U.S.A. / The Cardinal in Vienna / Annemarie / The Cardinal's Decision / Way Down South / Alleluia (Mozart) / The Cardinal Themes.

2) The Cardinal: Original Motion Picture Sound Track. Entr'acte ERS 6518 [1980], LP. Reissue of above. Notes by Royal S. Brown.

3) The Cardinal: Original Motion Picture Sound Track. Preamble PRCD 1778 [1987], CD. Reissue of above in compact disc format. Program notes by Royal S. Brown.

4) The Cardinal: Original Soundtrack Composed by Jerome Moross. RCA Victor 74321720552 [1999], CD; released by BMG, Spain. Reissue of the original soundtrack recording, with original Saul Bass graphics and notes by George T. Simon.

5) The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes the following cues from The Cardinal (with the exception of "The Cardinal in Vienna," orchestrations are by Christopher Palmer, based on the composer's manuscripts): Prologue / Stonebury (Scherzo) / The Cardinal's Faith (Elegy) / Annemarie (Quickstep) / The Cardinal in Vienna (Waltz) / The Cardinal's Decision / Finale.

Recordings of main theme: Several commercially-oriented instrumental recordings of The Cardinal's main title, too numerous to detail, appeared more or less concurrently with the film's release in 1964, including those of Roger Williams, Ray Anthony, Richard Hayman, Nelson Riddle, Hugo Montenegro, the Clebanoff Strings, the "Warner Bros. Orchestra"--even the Harmonicats--and, because of its striking modal harmony, it has served as the basis of a number of recorded jazz improvisations.

The song "Stay With Me" (adaptation of main title with lyric by Carolyn Leigh) has been recorded by several vocalists, most notably:

1) Frank Sinatra on Sinatra '65. Reprise RS 6167 [1965], LP.

2) Jimmy Scott on Lost and Found. Rhino R2 71059 [1993], CD (rec. October 1972).

3) [vocal company] on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

Comments: When the film was shown commercially in movie theaters, "The Cardinal in Vienna"--a sumptuous waltz--was reprised at the intermission. This was also used as the opening movement of the composer's orchestral suite Music for the Flicks; the composer's own rich orchestration may be heard in the Silva Screen compact disc cited above. The forgetable lyrics to the vaudeville revue number "They Haven't Got the Girls in the U.S.A." sung in the film (by a young Robert Morse) were provided by Al Stillman. Soprano Wilma Lipp appeared briefly on screen, singing the "Alleluia" from Mozart's Exultate, Jubilate, K. 156a. This film assignment was among the composer's most enjoyable. Moross was actively involved in the film and accompanied director Otto Preminger on various shooting locations, serving, as he put it, as a "traveling music department." Depictions of certain events may seem quite dated today, but for once in a Hollywood film, the screenplay (by Robert Dozier) treats the viewer as intelligent and musically literate. It is quite likely that Moross, the film's composer and musical advisor, was responsible for this crisp, sterling dialogue:
 [CARDINAL GLENNON (actor John Huston), rising from the piano--he has
 just finished playing J. S. Bach's Chromatic Fantasia BWV 903--and
 offering his hand to the priest:]
 Good afternoon, Father Fermoyle.

 [FATHER FERMOYLE (actor Thomas Tryon), bowing and taking the
 Cardinal's hand to kiss his ring:]
 Your eminence.

 [CARDINAL GLENNON (realizing that he has taken off his ring):]
 I ... uh ... take the ring off for Bach. Every day I practice for an
 hour. My staff encourages it. It may be that they hate music and enjoy
 hearing what I do to it. Or perhaps they've discovered that the more I
 pound the piano, the less I pound them. They're probably right.

 [FATHER FERMOYLE:]
 I'd hardly call it pounding, your eminence. You play very well!

 [CARDINAL GLENNON:]
 The Goldberg Variations are a great challenge to the amateur.

 [FATHER FERMOYLE:]
 But ... wasn't your eminence playing the Chromatic Fantasy?

 [CARDINAL GLENNON (smiling, realizing that his ploy has not worked and
 that the priest really knows Bach):]
 When you compliment me as a musician, I must find out whether you know
 music ... not that I'm trying to trap you. That isn't my purpose at
 all.

 [FATHER FERMOYLE:]
 It isn't?


Forget Me Not (undistributed film, 1964)

Main Title (the song "Some Day, Some April Day") / The Flowers / The Doily / The Bus Ride / The Cemetary (song "Maybe, When Summer Goes," reprise of main title).

Instrumentation: mezzo soprano (movements 1 and 5) / p / 2 vln, vla, vc.

Approximate duration: 12 minutes.

Music unpublished.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 13.

Recording: Song "Some Day, Some April Day" is on Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. PS Classics [2001], CD (rec. April 2000).

Comments: Written for the short film of the same name. The story concerns a widower who encounters difficulties visiting his wife's grave and placing flowers there in her memory. The film was never distributed, and the music composed for it was used, virtually intact (but without vocal), as a brief chamber music piece. See also comments for Quintet for Piano and Strings in section I, Concert and Theater Music.

The War Lord (Universal, 1965)

Prelude / Main Title / Pagan Shrine / Forsaken Village / Obsession Begins / Father's Fate / The Hunt / Naked Emotion / To Ease the Pain / Agony Shared / Injured Dignity / Witch Chase / Come Lie With Me / Judge and Jury / Consent to Wed / Rustic Wedding / Marriage Ceremony and Dance / Virgin Sacrifice / Bewitched / Vigil in the Night / Pledge at Dawn / What of the Future? / Vengeance and Death / End Title.

Directed by Franklin J. Schaffner; produced by Walter Seltzer; screenplay by John Collier and Millard Kaufman, based on the play The Lovers by Leslie Stevens; cinematography by Russell Metty; starring Charlton Heston, Richard Boone, Rosemary Forsyth, Maurice Evans, Guy Stockwell, Niall MacGinnis, and James Farentino.

Music published: Chappell Music, Inc. (ASCAP).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 39; flatbox 256.

Recordings:

1) The War Lord: The Original Sound Track Album. Joseph Gershenson, cond. Decca DL 79149 [1965], LP. Music composed by Jerome Moross. Includes the following cues from the score: Main Title / Forsaken Village / Love Theme / The Ascent to the Tower and Frustrated Love / The Druid Wedding / Nocturnal Procession / Chrysagon and Bronwyn / The War Lord in Battle / Premonitions / The Death of Draco / The Reckoning and End Title. N.B.: "The Death of Draco" and "The War Lord in Battle" were composed by Hans J. Salter. See comments below.

2) The War Lord: The Original Sound Track Album. Varese Sarabande VSD 5536 [1994], CD. Reissue of the original LP, including content, cover art, and presentation. New notes on the music by Jack Smith.

3) The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes the following excepts from The War Lord in new orchestrations by Mike Townend: Prelude and Main Title / What of the Future? / Vengeance and Death / Finale.

Comments: A memorable main title and fine musical score to what could have been the most lyrical of Hollywood's epic medieval films of the period. Because of artistic disagreements, delays in editing, and difficulties in reaching a final cut--Charlton Heston, among others, was disappointed in various aspects of the film's final version--Moross's allotment of time to produce a score was reduced from ten weeks to five. For this reason composer Hans J. Salter was brought in to assist. Though not uncommon in film music circles, this practice was often frustrating for the composers involved. Salter contributed less than fifteen minutes of music, but Moross insisted that he be appropriately acknowledged as composer of a portion of the score. Because the studio already had conductor / music supervisor Joseph Gershenson on its staff, Moross did not conduct the recording sessions heard in the film. It is worth noting that the most disappointing moments in The War Lord (the woefully unrealistic battle scenes) are not accompanied by music by Moross. "Nocturnal Procession" from the score was used as the final (fifth) movement of the composer's orchestral suite Music for the Flicks.

Rachel, Rachel (Warner Bros., 1968)

Japonica Street (Main Title) / Shadow Pictures / Accident Fantasy / Hand-Kissing Fantasy / Auto-Erotica / Hysteria / Country Walk / The Sci-Fi Flick / Fantasy Dance / Love Scene / Pill Fantasy / The Cellar Door / Down on the Farm / End of the Affair / Rachel Pregnant / The Basement / Suicide Fantasy / The Operation / End Title.

Produced and directed by Paul Newman; screenplay by Stewart Stern, based on the novel A Jest of God by Margaret Laurence; cinematography by Gayne Rescher; starring Joanne Woodward, Estelle Parsons, James Olsen, Kate Harrington, Donald Moffat, and Geraldine Fitzgerald.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 32; flatbox 252.

Recording: The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes a suite of music from Rachel, Rachel adapted by James Fitzpatrick, but retaining the composer's original spare orchestrations. The sections are: Japonica Street (Main Title) / Shadow Pictures / A Walk in the Country / End Title.

Comments: A respected and underrated film (Paul Newman's directorial debut). Unfortunately, not all the music composed by Moross for the film was used, and that which was used was dubbed at a relatively low dynamic level, in keeping with the introspective nature of the film's subject.

The Valley of Gwangi (Warner Bros., 1969)

The Landscape / The Forbidden Valley / Pterodactyl Attack / Capture of Gwangi / Gwangi Enchained / Night in the Valley / Gwangi at the Cathedral / Death of Gwangi / Finale.

Directed by James O'Connolly; produced by Charles H. Schneer; screen-play by William E. Bast; cinematography by Erwin Hiller; visual effects by Ray Harryhausen; starring James Franciscus, Gila Golan, Richard Carlson, and Laurence Naismith.

Location of MS sources: JMP boxes 13, 38.

Recording: The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Notes by James Fitzpatrick. Includes a suite of music from The Valley of Gwangi in new orchestrations by Nic Raine. The sections are: The Landscape / The Forbidden Valley / Pterodactyl Attack / Capture of Gwangi / Gwangi Enchained / Night in the Valley / Gwangi at the Cathedral / Death of Gwangi / Finale.

Hail, Hero (National General Pictures, 1969)

Directed by David Miller; produced by Harold D. Cohen; written by David Manber and John Weston, based on the novel by John Weston; cinematography by Robert B. Hauser; starring Michael Douglas, Arthur Kennedy, Teresa Wright, John Larch, and Charles Drake.

Comments: A mediocre film, this was an unhappy affair for the composer and was his final film score. Moross had long been disenchanted with the lot of the film composer, having no authority to make artistic decisions concerning the use of his work.

III. Orchestrations of Film Scores by Other Composers (1940-1952)

Orchestration of music by other composers was an important part of Moross's early career (see table 1). In the chronological list below, "uncredited" means that Moross is not mentioned by name in the film credits shown on screen. The studio and year of release for each film are given parenthetically. Primary sources of this music are generally in archives of the respective composers.

Our Town (United Artists, 1940)

Composer of musical score: Aaron Copland.

Uncredited orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

They Drive by Night (Warner Bros., 1940)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Uncredited orchestrators: Jerome Moross, Hugo Friedhofer, Arthur Lange.

The Big Shot (Warner Bros., 1942)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Uncredited orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Juke Girl (Warner Bros., 1942)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Uncredited orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

The North Star (RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., 1943)

Composer of musical score: Aaron Copland.

Uncredited orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Northern Pursuit (Warner Bros., 1943)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Credited as "music arranger": Jerome Moross.

Action in the North Atlantic (Warner Bros., 1943)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Uncredited orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Since You Went Away (United Artists, 1944)

Composer of musical score: Max Steiner.

Uncredited orchestrators: Jerome Moross, Gil Grau, Leonid Raab, Eugene Zador.

The Mask of Dimitrios (Warner Bros., 1944)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross (name misspelled as "Jerome Morross" in credits).

Once Upon a Time (Columbia, 1944)

Composer of musical score: Frederick Hollander.

Uncredited orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Uncertain Glory (Warner Bros., 1944)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Christmas in Connecticut (Warner Bros., 1945)

Composer of musical score: Frederick Hollander and others.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Conflict (Warner Bros., 1945)

Composer of musical score: Frederick Hollander.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Pillow to Post (Warner Bros., 1945)

Composer of musical score: Frederick Hollander.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Escape in the Desert (Warner Bros., 1945)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

The Best Years of Our Lives (Samuel Goldwyn Company, 1946)

Composer of musical score: Hugo Friedhofer (Academy Awardwinning score).

Uncredited orchestrators: Jerome Moross, Edward B. Powell, Sidney Cutner, Leo Shuken.

Nobody Lives Forever (Warner Bros., 1946)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Three Strangers (Warner Bros., 1946)

Composer of musical score: Adolph Deutsch.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

The Bishop's Wife (Samuel Goldwyn Company, 1947)

Composer of musical score: Hugo Friedhofer.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Joan of Arc (RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., 1948)

Composer of musical score: Hugo Friedhofer.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 30.

Roseanna McCoy (Samuel Goldwyn Company, 1949)

Composer of musical score: David Buttolph.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Hans Christian Andersen (Samuel Goldwyn Company, 1952)

Composer of musical score: Frank Loesser.

Orchestrator: Jerome Moross.

Location of MS sources: JMP box 31 (Liszt).

Comments: The underwater ballet "The Little Mermaid" from this film--at over ten minutes, an exceptional feature for a popular film of the period--is performed to several works by Franz Liszt. With one theme (from the Sonata in B Minor) recurring as a kind of leitmotif, excerpts from the following Liszt works are heard in orchestrations by Moross: Sonata in B Minor, piano; "Gnomenreigen" from Konzertetuden, piano; Les preludes, orchestra; "Au bord d'une source" from Annees de pelerinage, premiere annee (Suisse), piano; "Tanz in der Dorfschenke" (Mephisto Waltz) from Episoden aus Lenaus Faust, orchestra; Valse oubliee no. 1, piano; and Tasso, orchestra.

IV. Music for Television (1955-1968)

Gunsmoke (series). Various episodes, incl. "Stolen Horses" (1955).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 43.

Have Gun Will Travel (series). Various episodes, incl. "Bear Bait" (1957).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 30.

Wagon Train (series). Six episodes (1957); main theme (1959-64).

Understandably, the composer never developed the series theme beyond the brief time restriction imposed on the opening and closing credits of the television program; on the compact disc The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross (Silva Screen SSD 1049), the Wagon Train theme is heard in an extended version orchestrated by Mike Townend. Moross had inadvertently used the indentical pentatonic theme in his score to the film The Jayhawkers (1959); Paramount Studios granted permission for Universal to use it after the fact.

Wagons Ho! (series). Various episodes (1959).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 39.

National Geographic Special. Episode entitled "Grizzly!" (1964).

A Tumwater Rhapsody. Music for Olympia Beer commercial (1966).

Location of MS sources: JMP box 37; flatbox 255.

Lancer (series). Main theme (1968).
TABLE 1. Chronology of Jerome Moross's works (year cited is year of
completion)

1931 Paeans Chamber orchestra music
1932 Those Everlasting Blues Cantata, secular
 Two Songs Songs
1934 Paul Bunyon: An American Saga Ballet
 The Banjo (Gottschalk, arr. J. Moross) Piano music, arranged
 Biguine Orchestral music
1935 Mother Incidental music
 Parade Musical
1936 An American Pattern Ballet
1938 Ramble on a Hobo Tune Folksong arrangement
 Frankie and Johnny Ballet
 A Tall Story Orchestral music
1939 Guns and Castanets Ballet
1940 Our Town Film score orchestration
 They Drive by Night Film score orchestration
1941 Recitative and Aria for Violin and Piano Violin and piano music
 Susanna and the Elders Musical
1942 Symphony Symphony
 The Big Shot Film score orchestration
 Juke Girl Film score orchestration
1943 The North Star Film score orchestration
 Northern Pursuit Film score orchestration
 Action in the North Atlantic Film score orchestration
1944 Since You Went Away Film score orchestration
 The Mask of Dimitrios Film score orchestration
 Once Upon a Time Film score orchestration
 Uncertain Glory Film score orchestration
1945 Willie the Weeper Musical
 Christmas in Connecticut Film score orchestration
 Conflict Film score orchestration
 Pillow to Post Film score orchestration
 Escape in the Desert Film score orchestration
1946 The Best Years of Our Lives Film score orchestration
 Nobody Lives Forever Film score orchestration
 Three Strangers Film score orchestration
 The Eccentricities of Davy Crockett Musical
 Riding Hood Revisited Musical
1947 The Bishop's Wife Film score orchestration
1948 Close-Up Film score
 Joan of Arc Film score orchestration
1949 Roseanna McCoy Film score orchestration
 Blood Wedding Incidental music
1950 The Golden Apple Musical
1951 When I Grow Up Film score
1952 Hans Christian Andersen Film score orchestration
 The Captive City Film score
1953 The Last Judgement Ballet
1955 Gunsmoke Music for television
 series
1956 Gentlemen, Be Seated! Musical
 Seven Wonders of the World Film score
 The Sharkfighters Film score
1957 Have Gun Will Travel Music for television
 series
 Wagon Train Music for television
 series
1958 Proud Rebel Film score
 The Big Country Film score
1959 The Jayhawkers Film score
 Wagons Ho! Music for television
 series
1960 The Mountain Road Film score
 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Film score
1962 Five Finger Exercise Film score
 Underworld Musical
1963 The Cardinal Film score
1964 Forget Me Not Film score
 National Geographic Special Music for television
 special
 Quintet for Piano and Strings Piano quintet
1965 The War Lord Film score
 Music for the Flicks Orchestral suite
1966 CBS commissions Moross to orchestrate
 Ballet Ballads (Susanna and the
 Elders, Willie the Weeper, and The
 Eccentricities of Davy Crockett)
 Waltzes from Riding Hood Revisited
 ("Ballet Ballad No. 4") are reworked
 and orchestrated as Variations on a
 Waltz for Orchestra
 A Tumwater Rhapsody Olympia Beer commercial
 Sonatina for Clarinet Sextet Sextet, clarinets
 Sonatina for String Bass and Piano Sonatina, double bass
1968 Sonatina for Brass Quintet Brass quintet
 Lancer Television series main
 theme
 Rachel, Rachel Film score
1969 The Valley of Gwangi Film score
 Hail, Hero Film score
1970 Sonatina for Woodwind Quintet Woodwind quintet
1975 Sonata for Piano Duet and String Quartet Sextet, piano (4 hands),
 strings
1977 Sorry, Wrong Number Opera
1978 Concerto for Flute with String Quartet Concerto, flute, string
 quartet


Archival Sources Consulted

The Jerome Moross Papers (1924-2000) in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University.

The essential repository of material relating to Moross. Consisting of 49 boxes, 13 flatboxes, and 1 mapcase (39 linear feet), this is an extensive collection of music manuscripts, printed music, scripts, printed programs, reviews, recordings, set designs, photographs, correspondence, financial records, etc. It also includes photocopies of Moross-related items from other collections.

The Charles Ives Papers in the Gilmore Music Library of Yale University (MSS 14).

The John Kirkpatrick Papers in the Gilmore Music Library of Yale University (MSS 56).

The Virgil Thomson Papers in the Gilmore Music Library of Yale University (MSS 29-29A).

New York Public Library, Dance Collection, Ruth Page Collection.

New York Public Library, Music Division, Aaron Copland Collection.

American Music/Oral History Archives, Yale University.

1. "Moross," pronounced "ma-ROSS," is the Russian word for "frost."

2. Other recipients of Juilliard fellowships in conducting were Leo Kucinski, William Liberman, and George Raudenbush.

3. Unpublished interview with Paul Snook (1970), courtesy Susanna Moross Tarjan.

4. This short-lived group was active in 1932 and 1933, and initially included Moross, Arthur Berger, Henry Brant, Israel Citkowitz, Lehman Engel, Vivian Fine, Irwin Heilner, Elie Siegmeister, and Moross's life-long friend Bernard Herrmann; they were later joined by the already well-known Oscar Levant and John (Johnny) Green. This was apparently a volatile assembly of highly opinionated young men (and one woman). For a good discussion of the Young Composers' Group, see Howard Pollack, Aaron Copland: The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man (New York: Henry Holt, 1999; reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000), 185-88.

5. On 16 July 1933 (Sunday evening, 8:00 p.m.) Moross performed the Antheil sonata and the "In the Inn" movement of the Ives, broadcast live on radio station WEVD as part of the Pan American Association of Composers Series of All-American Programs (weekly Sunday concerts). Two weeks earlier (2 July), on a program in the same series, Moross had accompanied soprano Mary Bell in a broadcast program of songs by Alejandro Caturla, Charles Ives, Carlos Chavez, and Heitor Villa-Lobos (programs in John Kirkpatrick Papers, Yale University, Gilmore Music Library, MSS 56/25/273). Moross's respect for Antheil was apparently reciprocated; Moross's copy of the Airplane Sonata bears Antheil's inscription "With H.B. [Henry Brant?] one of the only two younger composers I believe in, and whose destiny is a great one" (score in Jerome Moross Papers, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, box 5).

6. Bernard Herrmann's conducting was captured briefly on film, for he portrayed the orchestral conductor in Alfred Hitchcock's The Man Who Knew Too Much (Paramount, 1956), one of several classic Hitchcock films he scored.

7. "Our Younger Generation: Ten Years Later," Modern Music: A Quarterly Review 13, no. 4 (1936): 9.

8. Moross particularly admired the Fourth Symphony, the First Piano Sonata, and the songs "Charlie Rutledge" and "At the River" from 114 Songs (Redding, CT: the composer, 1922; various reprints), which he performed as a teenager, with Bernard Herrmann playing the vocal line on violin.

9. See comments to The Banjo in worklist, section I.

10. Moross expressed his warm regard for Copland in a 1979 interview: "He told Ruth Page she should hire me to do her ballets ... things like that. He was always doing things for us. Aaron is a very generous man.... He's a great man, a man of warmth and dignity who had a genuine interest in seeing American music grow. He welcomed all of us and nurtured us." Unpublished interview with Craig Reardon, 16 April 1979.

11. For details of these performances, and others of Moross's music, see the respective entries in the worklist.

12. Other recipients of commissions were Quincy Porter, Robert Russell Bennett, Leo Sowerby, and Nathaniel Dett.

13. Other composers receiving Guggenheims that year were Alex North, Edward Cone, Louise Talma, Harold Shapero, Gian Carlo Menotti, Ross Lee Finney, and Samuel Barber. Moross received a second Guggenheim the following year.

14. For details see Pollack, 344-48.

15. These general traits are remarkably consistent among the various genres he explored.

16. For an excellent account of the rich New York musical scene immediately preceding Moross, see Carol Oja, Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

17. Unpublished interview with Andre Trudeau, September 1975.

18. Unpublished interview with Craig Reardon, 16 April 1979.

19. Out-of-print recordings, LPs, etc. are cited under individual titles in the worklist.

Bibliography

Caps, John. "An Interview with Jerome Moross." Cue Sheet 3 (1988): 73-80; 4 (1988): 99-108. Recorded in 1979, transcribed and published posthumously, an engaging interview dealing primarily with Moross's film music.

Copland, Aaron. "Our Younger Generation: Ten Years Later." Modern Music 13, no. 4 (1936): 3-11. A summary of leading young composers in America.

Larkin, Colin. "Jerome Moross." Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 3d ed. in 8 vols., at 5:3789. Ed. by Colin Larkin. New York: Muze, 1998.

Moross, Jerome. "Hollywood Music without Movies." Modern Music 18, no. 4 (1941): 261-63. A review of two concerts given in Los Angeles during the winter of 1941.

Morton, Lawrence. "Jerome Moross: Young Man Goes Native." Modern Music 22, no. 2 (1945): 111-14. Brief analysis of Symphony.

Oja, Carol. Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. An outstanding discussion of composers, works, influences, activities in New York City in the generation preceding Moross.

Palmer, Christopher. "From The Big Country with Big Style." Gramophone 71 (October 1993): 18. An affectionate appreciation and summary of career.

_____ and Michael Meckna. "Jerome Moross." New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2d ed., at 17:144-45. New York: Grove, 2001. Summary of career with incomplete worklist.

Perlis, Vivian. Charles Ives Remembered: An Oral History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974. Interview with Jerome Moross, 19 September 1969 (pp. 163-66).

_____ and Aaron Copland. Copland 1900 through 1942. New York: St. Martin's/Marek, 1984.

_____ and Aaron Copland. Copland Since 1943. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

Pollack, Howard. Aaron Copland: The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man. New York: Henry Holt, 1999. Contains an excellent discussion of the Young Composers' Group (pp. 185-88).

Reardon, Craig. Unpublished interview with Jerome Moross, 16 April 79. Deals mostly with Moross's relationship with Bernard Herrmann, about whom Reardon was writing a book.

Snook, Paul. Unpublished interview with Jerome Moross, undated (1970?). Broadcast on radio station WRVR, New York City, as part of the series Composers in Our Time.

Trudeau, Andre. Unpublished interview with Jerome Moross, September 1975.

Recent Discography (19) (chronological by release date)

[Untitled]. Historic Americana Series. Bay Cities BCD-1007 [1989], CD. Reissue of the 1951 recording of Frankie and Johnny by the American Recording Society Orchestra, conducted by Walter Hendl, but with the orchestra identified on this reissue as the Vienna Symphony. Contains Frankie and Johnny (performance omits the "Blues" section) by Moross; Epigraph for orchestra by Norman Dello Joio (Hans Swarowsky, cond.); Symphony no. 2 by Randall Thompson (Dean Dixon, cond.).

Classical Hollywood. Nancy Weems, John Jenson, piano; Lyric Art Quartet (Kenneth Goldsmith, Albert Muenzer, violins; Lawrence Wheeler, viola; Terry King, cello). Bay Cities BCD 1014 [1990], CD (rec. 5-8 April 1990). Contains the Sonata for Piano Duet, and String Quartet by Moross; Quintet for Clarinet and String Quartet (Souvenirs de voyage) by Bernard Herrmann; String Quartet no. 2 in E-flat major, op. 26, by Erich Wolfgang Korngold.

Broadway Dreams: Songs of Morton Gould and Jerome Moross. Helene Williams, Sheila Wormer, Craig Mason, Robert McCormick, Aldyn McKean, voices; Leonard Lehrman, piano. Premier Recordings PRCD 1016 [1991], CD. Songs by Moross are "Prologue," "Paddy Boy," "That Extra Bit," "It's Almost Time Now," "I've Even Been in Love," "Beer and Flowers," "Love Me," and "The Cream of Society" from Underworld; and "Life Could Be So Beautiful" and "You Ain't So Hot" from Parade.

Classical Hollywood III. Scot Woolley, piano; Korngold Quartet (Stacey Woolley, Bing Wang, violins; Steven Rosen, viola; Daniel Culnan, cello). Bay Cities BCD 1037 [1992], CD. Contains the Quintet for Piano and Strings by Moross; "Auld lang syne" Variations for piano quartet by Franz Waxman; Piano Quintet by Erich Wolfgang Korngold; Americansuite by Colin Towns.

Proud Rebel: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack. Emil Newman, cond. Screen Classics SC-2-JM [1993], CD. Reissue of the original soundtrack recording.

[Untitled]. London Symphony Orchestra; JoAnn Falletta, cond. Koch International Classics 3-7188-2 H1 [1993], CD (rec. 1-2 March 1993). Contains Symphony, The Last Judgement, and Variations on a Waltz.

The Big Country: A Musical and Memorial Tribute to the Composer. Jerome Moross, cond. Screen Classics SC-1-JM [1994], CD. A deluxe boxed set issuing the twelve numbers of the 1958 United Artists LP (cited in the worklist), in much improved sound, with thirty more from the original sessions, a total of forty-two numbers. Includes a booklet rich in photographs, illustrations, biography and musical discussion by John Caps.

The War Lord: The Original Sound Track Album. Joseph Gershenson, cond. Varese Sarabande VSD 5536 [1994], CD. Reissue of the original soundtrack recording.

The Big Country. Philharmonia Orchestra; Tony Bremner, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1048 [1995], CD (rec. Oct. 1988). Reissue of Silva Screen FILM CD 030 [1988], CD. A brilliant digital recording of some fifty-five minutes of music composed for the film. The music was nominated for an Academy Award in 1958.

The Valley of Gwangi: The Classic Film Music [of] Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SSD 1049 [1995], CD (rec. 1995). Contains selections from music composed for the following films: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; Five Finger Exercise; Wagon Train (television theme); The War Lord; The Sharkfighters; Rachel, Rachel; The Mountain Road; and The Valley of Gwangi.

Moross: Frankie and Johnny. Koch International Classics 3-7367-2 H1 [1996], CD (rec. January 1996). Contains Frankie and Johnny, Biguine, and A Tall Story: New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, JoAnn Falletta, cond.; and Concerto for Flute and Orchestra: Alexa Still, flute; New Zealand Chamber Ochestra; Donald Armstrong, cond.

The Golden Apple. RCA Victor 09026-68934-2 [1997], CD. Original cast recording of 1954. Contains excerpts.

Chamber Music of Bernard Herrmann and Jerome Moross. Albany Records Troy 301 [1998], CD. Partial reissue of Classical Hollywood, with the ensemble now called the Texas Festival Chamber Ensemble. Contains the Sonata for Piano Duet and String Quartet by Moross; Quintet for Clarinet and String Quartet (Souvenirs de voyage) and String Quartet (Echoes) by Bernard Herrmann.

The Cardinal: Original Soundtrack Composed by Jerome Moross. Jerome Moross, cond. RCA Victor 74321720552 [1999], CD; released by BMG, Spain. Reissue of the original soundtrack recording.

The Cardinal: The Classic Film Music of Jerome Moross. City of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Bateman, cond. Silva Screen SILKD 6030 [2000], 2 CDs (rec. June 2000). Contains selections from music composed for the following films: The Jayhawkers, Seven Wonders of the World, Close-Up, The Captive City, The Proud Rebel, and The Cardinal.

Windflowers: The Songs of Jerome Moross. Alice Ripley, Richard Muenz, Jessica Molaskey, Philip Chaffin, Jenny Giering, voices; various instrumentalists; Eric Stern, pianist and music director; Tommy Krasker, producer. PS Classics, without catalog number [2001], CD (rec. April 2000). Contains "Beer and Flowers," "That Extra Bit," "I've Even Been In Love," "Baby's Gonna Shake It," "Love Me," and "It's Almost Time Now" from Underworld; "Lazy Afternoon," "Windflowers," and "It's the Going Home Together" from The Golden Apple; "Some Day, Some April Day" from Forget Me Not; "Come Live with Me" from Riding Hood Revisited; "Oh Baby, Gee Baby" and "I've Got Me" from Willie the Weeper; "My Yellow Flower" and "Ridin' on the Breeze" from The Eccentricities of Davy Crockett; "Fare You Well" and "I Can't Remember" from Gentlemen, Be Seated!; and "Stay With Me" (adaptation of The Cardinal main title).

Frankie and Johnny. American Classics. Hot Springs Music Festival Symphony Orchestra; John DeHaan, tenor; Richard Rosenberg, cond. Naxos 8.559086 [2002], CD (rec. June 2000). Program Notes by Richard Rosenberg and Laura Rosenberg. Contains Frankie and Johnny, Those Everlasting Blues and Willie the Weeper.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack. Jerome Moross, cond. Film Score Monthly FSM vol. 6 no. 9 [2003], CD. The original soundtrack recording with superior, remixed sound.

Some Useful Web Sites (all accessed 24 November 2004)

IBDB: Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com). Contains detailed information on Broadway productions, including dates, cast members, musical directors, etc.

IMDb: Internet Movie Database (www.imdb.com). A good source of information on film scores, including orchestrators.

Jerome Moross: The Official Site (www.moross.com). Good for biographical information on the composer and information on availability of recordings and scores. Maintained by the composer's daughter, Susanna Moross Tarjan.

Jerome Moross Papers (1924-2000), Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library: Finding Aid prepared by Jennifer Sears and Henry Rowen (www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/rare/guides/Moross/index.html).

A guide to the extensive collection of Moross materials.

Theodore Presser Company (www.presser.com).

Search "Moross" to identify his works available for sale (14) and rent (20).

Charles Turner is associate professor of music history at The Hartt School, University of Hartford. There are many performers and scholars to whom I am indebted for assistance in the preparation of this study. I wish to thank conductors JoAnn Falletta, Richard Rosenberg, and Jeff Tyzik; soprano Marni Nixon; Suzanne Eggleston (Assistant Music Librarian for Public Services, Gilmore Music Library, Yale University); Vivian Perlis and Susan Hawkshaw (Oral History / American Music, Yale University); Henry Rowan, Jennifer Sears, and Bernard Crystal (Rare Books and Manuscripts. Butler Library, Columbia University); Caldwell Titcomb (Professor Emeritus, Brandeis University); Professor Ira Braus, violinist Katie Lansdale, cellist Terry King, guitarist Richard Provost, and Music Librarian Linda Solow Blotner, all colleagues of mine at The Hartt School, University of Hartford; and, above all, Susanna Moross Tarjan, daughter of Jerome Moross, whose generosity extended beyond anything I could have hoped for. I am also grateful to the Faculty Development Fund of The Hartt School, University of Hartford, for providing financial resources to pursue this project.
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