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Flemish versus Netherlandish: a discourse of nationalism.

"At the beginning of Netherlandish painting stands, looming and A mysterious, the Ghent Altarpiece altarpiece

Painting, relief, sculpture, screen, or decorated wall standing on or behind an altar in a Christian church. The images depict holy personages, saints, and biblical subjects.
 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].(1) The "mystery" of which Max J. Friedlander speaks in his 1921 book on the altarpiece is usually taken to be its enigmatic authorship and its seemingly divergent parts, issues that have baffled generations of scholars attempting to determine the role of Jan and/or Hubert van Eyck Hubert van Eyck (also Huybrecht van Eyck) (c. 1366–1426) was a Flemish painter and older brother of Jan van Eyck.

The date of his birth and the records of his progress are lost amidst the ruins of the earlier civilization of the valley of the Meuse.
 in the history of Flemish painting Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century. Flanders delivered the leading painters in Northern Europe and attracted many promising young painters from neighbouring countries. . But the serene surface of the altarpiece also hides a modern mystery having to do with national rather than artistic identity. When Friedlander penned these words on the Ghent Altarpiece, its twelve panels had just been reunited "Reunited" was a #1 hit in the United States in 1979 by the Washington, D.C.-based group Peaches & Herb.

Preceded by
"Heart of Glass" by Blondie Billboard Hot 100 number one single
May 5 1979 Succeeded by
"Hot Stuff" by Donna Summer
 after more than a century of continuous dispersals across regional and national boundaries. The perceived crisis in the work's artistic identity may have thus resulted from a very real crisis in its modern identity and ownership.

These events in the post-history of the Ghent Altarpiece form an important chapter in the historiography historiography

Writing of history, especially that based on the critical examination of sources and the synthesis of chosen particulars from those sources into a narrative that will stand the test of critical methods.
 of fifteenth-century Flemish art Flemish art

Art of the 15th to early 17th century in Flanders. The precursors of the Flemish school were located in Dijon, the first capital of the dukes of Burgundy, who established a powerful Flemish-Burgundian political alliance that lasted from 1363 to 1482.
, various aspects of which have been investigated in some detail by such scholars as Suzanne Sulzberger and Francis Haskell Francis Haskell (born 1928, died January 18 2000, Oxford) was an English art historian, whose writings placed emphasis on the social history of art.

He read history at King's College, Cambridge and became a Fellow there in 1954.
.(2) The inter-relationship of scholarship and nationalism is a key piece in this historiographical puzzle but has yet to be fully explored. By following the physical movements of the Ghent Altarpiece, I will demonstrate in this essay how scholarship on Flemish painting became intertwined with efforts at national identity-building in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Europe. These developments are quite visibly played out on the level of terminology. Although most art historians today speak of Eyckian art under the general heading "Northern Renaissance The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. Before 1450 the Italian Renaissance had almost no influence outside Italy. ," scholars of previous generations debated whether van Eyck and his contemporaries should be more properly known as "Flemish" or "Netherlandish."(3) For the purposes of this essay, I have chosen to employ the term "Flemish painting" to refer to panel painting produced in and around the fifteenth-century region of Flanders, in present-day Belgium. Although this choice may seem to place me on one side of the terminological debate that I describe, I use this term knowing that, like others, it is an arbitrary definition, one that comes with pre-ascribed meanings and values. My difficulty in settling on a term speaks to the heart of the issues discussed in this essay. Indeed, the terminological confusion facing today's student of fifteenth-century Northern painting testifies to the fir-reaching implications of nationalism for the study of Jan van Eyck and his contemporaries.

The scholarly and terminological debates surrounding Eyckian art are bound up with the biographies of the works of art themselves. Perhaps the most dramatic "life history" is that of the Ghent Altarpiece.(4) In addition to falling prey to fires, thefts, and multiple restorations, the altarpiece was caught in a web of nationalistic intrigue beginning in the late eighteenth century.(5) During the Napoleonic wars Napoleonic Wars, 1803–15, the wars waged by or against France under Napoleon I. For a discussion of them see under Napoleon I.
Napoleonic Wars

(1799–1815) Series of wars that ranged France against shifting alliances of European powers.
, its four central panels were confiscated con·fis·cate  
tr.v. con·fis·cat·ed, con·fis·cat·ing, con·fis·cates
1. To seize (private property) for the public treasury.

2. To seize by or as if by authority. See Synonyms at appropriate.

 by the French Republic and exhibited in the Revolutionary Louvre Louvre (l`vrə), foremost French museum of art, located in Paris. The building was a royal fortress and palace built by Philip II in the late 12th cent. .(6) They were returned in triumph to Ghent after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, but the celebrations over the repatriation Repatriation

The process of converting a foreign currency into the currency of one's own country.

If you are American, converting British Pounds back to U.S. dollars is an example of repatriation.
 of the altarpiece were cut short the following year. Acting on an apparently long-standing desire of the fabric fund of St. Bavo's Cathedral where the altarpiece was housed, the churchwardens sold the wings (minus the panels of Adam and Eve Adam and Eve

In the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions, the parents of the human race. Genesis gives two versions of their creation. In the first, God creates “male and female in his own image” on the sixth day.
) to Brussels art dealer L.J. van Nieuwenhuys in 1816. It seems that, for the churchwardens at least, the wings were "irrelevant" to the four central panels depicting God the Father, John the Baptist John the Baptist

prophet who baptized crowds and preached Christ’s coming. [N.T.: Matthew 3:1–13]

See : Baptism

John the Baptist

head presented as gift to Salome. [N.T.: Mark 6:25–28]

See : Decapitation
, the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary: see Mary.

Virgin Mary

immaculately conceived; mother of Jesus Christ. [N.T.: Matthew 1:18–25; 12:46–50; Luke 1:26–56; 11:27–28; John 2; 19:25–27]

See : Purity
, and the Adoration adoration,
n a prayer of worship and praise.
 of the Lamb; it was only after the sale that the legality of the churchwardens' actions were questioned by the city of Ghent and that the plight of the Ghent Altarpiece came to the attention of the Belgian public. By this point, van Nieuwenhuys had sold the wings to English timber merchant Edward Solly Edward Walter Solly (7 May 1882 - 12 February 1966) was an English cricketer who played eight first-class games for Worcestershire as a professional between 1903 and 1907. , who in turn sold them as part of a larger collection to the Prussian government. Once in Berlin, they were exhibited in the "Old Museum" (sometimes called the Berlin Museum), whose collections were transferred to the Kaiser Friedrich Museum upon its foundation in 1904. The Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles was the agreement negotiated during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that ended World War I and imposed disarmament, reparations, and territorial changes on the defeated Germany.  dictated the wings' return to Belgium, along with various other goods such as livestock, coal, and ships, in 1919.(7)

The two wings depicting Adam and Eve followed an equally dramatic but more obscure trajectory. Indeed, it is difficult to trace many events surrounding these panels, perhaps because of scholarly efforts to erase a particularly embarrassing episode in the history of the altarpiece. Sometime around the French Revolution, the panels of Adam and Eve were removed from public view and stored in the cathedral's archive room, where interested scholars were able to obtain limited access to them.(8) Whether this move can be attributed to the 1781 visit of Emperor Joseph II, who reportedly found the panels offensive, is uncertain,(9) although it seems that Adam and Eve were deemed in some sense inappropriate to the four central panels. There appears to have been a drastic change of heart during the nineteenth century, however. In 1861, the Belgian government persuaded St. Bavo's Cathedral to sell these panels to the Brussels Museum, partly in exchange for copies of the wings of the Ghent Altarpiece painted by Michael Coxcie Michael Coxcie (Mechelen 1499–March 5, 1592) was a Flemish painter who studied under Bernard van Orley, who probably induced him to visit the Italian peninsula. (Coxcie is sometimes spelled Coxie, such as in the Mechelen street devoted to the painter).  in 1559. But because Coxcie had not painted copies of the Adam and Eve panels, Belgian painter Victor Lagye provided copies of them in 1864, which are still displayed, although unlabeled, in St. Bayo's Cathedral [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]. The new Adam and Eve appeared decorously dec·o·rous  
Characterized by or exhibiting decorum; proper: decorous behavior.

[From Latin dec
 clothed clothe  
tr.v. clothed or clad , cloth·ing, clothes
1. To put clothes on; dress.

2. To provide clothes for.

3. To cover as if with clothing.
 in hair tunics, the "modifications dhsignees par le consell de fabrique,"(10) which gives some credence to the story that the original panels were considered indecent.

In 1865, the Ghent Altarpiece was "reconstituted" at St. Bavo's Cathedral with the four original central panels, Coxcie's copies of six wings, and Lagye's "improved" copies of Adam and Eve. This reconstitution, however, was as illusory il·lu·so·ry  
Produced by, based on, or having the nature of an illusion; deceptive: "Secret activities offer presidents the alluring but often illusory promise that they can achieve foreign policy goals without the
 as the paintings themselves, for the altarpiece had become a mere pastiche pastiche (păstēsh`, pä–), work of art that combines themes and styles from various sources in such a way as to appear obviously derivative.  of original and copied panels. Somewhat ironically, the Berlin Museum, which possessed six of the original wings of the Ghent Altarpiece, acquired Coxcie's panels of the Adoration of the Lamb and God the Father in 1823, giving the museum its own near-complete pastiche of the altarpiece (Coxcie's panels depicting the Virgin and John the Baptist went to the Pinakothek in Bavaria). The completeness of Ghent's version aside, who is to say which museum possessed the "real" Ghent Altarpiece? The traditional art historical values of unity and authenticity played little role in these museums' competing attempts to reconstitute re·con·sti·tute  
tr.v. re·con·sti·tut·ed, re·con·sti·tut·ing, re·con·sti·tutes
1. To provide with a new structure: The parks commission has been reconstituted.

 Jan van Eyck's early masterpiece.

As these events show, nineteenth-century reactions to the Ghent Altarpiece among the scholarly and public communities of Belgium were at best ambivalent, rather than uniformly or even primarily enthusiastic. This surprising fact challenges the universal reverence accorded Jan van Eyck and Flemish painting today. What, then, lies behind the dispersion of the altarpiece and the seemingly precarious status of Flemish painting during this time? One issue might be, as Haskell addressed, the fluctuating status of Flemish painting between "medieval" and "Renaissance," the end of one tradition or the beginning of another.(11) I believe, however, that the national status of Eyckian art was also at stake, particularly in Belgium. Indeed, the events surrounding the Ghent Altarpiece raise a number of perplexing per·plex  
tr.v. per·plexed, per·plex·ing, per·plex·es
1. To confuse or trouble with uncertainty or doubt. See Synonyms at puzzle.

2. To make confusedly intricate; complicate.
 questions regarding Belgium's attitude toward its artistic ancestors. Why, for example, was Ghent so easily satisfied with a pastiche of the altarpiece in 1865? From whence whence  
1. From where; from what place: Whence came this traveler?

2. From what origin or source: Whence comes this splendid feast?

 sprang Brussels's sudden interest in the Adam and Eve panels, which had remained hidden for so long? And, perhaps even more troubling, what lies behind Belgium's role in the altarpiece's gradual dismemberment dismemberment /dis·mem·ber·ment/ (dis-mem´ber-ment) amputation of a limb or a portion of it.


amputation of a limb or a portion of it.
 in the nineteenth century? A behind-the-scenes look at these events indicates that they were driven not by disregard for Jan's work, but by confusion and conflict regarding its role in defining the nation of Belgium.

The modern state of Belgium was formed in 1830, when it seceded from the Netherlands, and the new nation's efforts to develop a strong national identity were not always successful. From the start, Belgium was accused, by some of its own citizens as well as outsiders, of being an artificial creation, more the product of international diplomacy than natural development. Belgium's lack of a common language and history of independence, two important signifiers of nationalism, were further factors that prevented acceptance of the new nation.(12) According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 one Belgian historian of the Revolution, "in Belgium, there are parties and provinces, but no nation. Like a tent erected for one night, the new monarchy, after sheltering us from the tempest Refers to external electromagnetic radiation from data processing equipment and the security measures used to prevent them. Almost all electronic equipment emanates signals into free space or surrounding conductive objects such as metal cabinets, wires and pipes. , will disappear without a trace."(13) Although the monarchy did not disappear into the night, the tempest continued as definitions of Belgian nationalism Belgian nationalism (or Belgicistic nationalism; Dutch: Belgicisme; French: Belgicanisme) defines an ideology that favours a strong centralized government, with less or no autonomy for the Flemish Community, French Community of Belgium, the  underwent several metamorphoses This article is about the poem. For other uses, see Metamorphoses (disambiguation).

The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a narrative poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world, drawing from Greek and Roman mythological
 over the course of a century.(14) The most popular definition was that of historian Henri Pirenne Henri Pirenne (December 23 1862, Verviers - October 25 1935, Uccle) was a leading Belgian historian. He also became prominent in the non-violent resistance to the Germans who occupied Belgium in World War I. , who around the turn of the century defined a Belgian identity located not in racial origins, languages, or national borders, but in the civilisation commune commune, in medieval history
commune (kôm`yn), in medieval history, collective institution that developed in continental Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire.
 of the Belgian people.(15) Despite Pirenne's confident declaration, it remained unclear how or whether Belgian identity was manifested in the Flemish panel paintings that the nation inherited. This is evidenced by the selling of the wings of the Ghent Altarpiece, which took place before the Belgian Revolution This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. For the 2006 television hoax, see Flemish Secession hoax.

The Belgian Revolution
, demonstrating the lack of consensus over the status of Belgium's cultural heritage.

The Belgian population was further divided by linguistic duality Duality (physics)

The state of having two natures, which is often applied in physics. The classic example is wave-particle duality. The elementary constituents of nature—electrons, quarks, photons, gravitons, and so on—behave in some respects
. French was the only official language of Belgium until 1898, but the province of Flanders was and remains predominantly Dutch-speaking. The government's long-time refusal to acknowledge Dutch through language reform led to hostilities between Flanders and the French-speaking region of Wallonia. These hostilities gave rise to the "Flemish movement The Flemish Movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and for protection of the Flemish culture. ," which began as a literary/cultural organization and later became a political movement that fought primarily for legal rights of the Dutch language Dutch language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Also called Netherlandish, it is spoken by about 15 million inhabitants of the Netherlands, where it is the national ? The Flemish movement attained a victory with the 1898 "Equality Law" that made Dutch an official language of Belgium, but Dutch did not become the only official administrative language of Flanders until 1921, the year after the wings of the Ghent Altarpiece returned to Belgium. (Further language reforms followed in the 1930s and again in the 1960s.)

The Flemish movement affected nearly all levels of political and cultural life in Belgium in the mid-nineteenth century, including the fortunes of the Ghent Altarpiece. After receiving a new-found admiration following the 1816 sale of the wings, the altarpiece became an object of contention between Belgium's competing political, civic, and linguistic identities. The same fate befell Jan van Eyck's Van der Paele Madonna, Hans Memling's St. Christopher St. Christopher

medal to protect travelers. [Christian Hist.: NCE, 552]

See : Protection
 Altarpiece ("Moreel triptych"), and Gerard David's Judgment of Cambyses, three works that had also been confiscated from Belgian collections by the French Republic and later returned. One particularly volatile issue surrounding these works was that of local versus national ownership of Belgium's artistic heritage. The mid-nineteenth century witnessed continuous struggles for control between the Belgian government and the Commission Royale des Monuments in Brussels on one side, and the local administrations of Ghent and Bruges on the other, over the conservation of these panels.(17) Leveraging for control of the returned paintings by van Eyck, Memling, and David, the Minister of the Interior claimed in 1874 that "the Bruges authorities are merely temporary trustees of these works, which are national property."(18) The following year, the Academie des Beaux-Arts of Bruges countered: "as to our rights of ownership of the three panels that were taken to Paris under the French government, we believe that it would be superfluous su·per·flu·ous  
Being beyond what is required or sufficient.

[Middle English, from Old French superflueux, from Latin superfluus, from superfluere, to overflow :
 to defend them. [These panels] were painted in Bruges In Bruges is an English mobster Dark comedy/Suspense Thriller from Oscar-winning director Martin McDonagh (who is both director and writer of the film) starring Colin Farrell, Brendan Gleeson and Ralph Fiennes.  for specific locations, commissioned by known persons, with a special destination."(19) The status of these paintings as repatriated objects undoubtedly heightened questions of ownership; their return to Belgium was a political triumph on which both local and, after 1830, national factions wished to capitalize. The acquisition of Ghent's Adam and Eve panels by Brussels in 1861 was a major coup in this struggle between the national and local governments. (The victory, however, was only temporary, for Brussels returned the panels to Ghent upon the arrival of the remaining wings from Germany in 1920.)

Owning the Adam and Eve panels also added to the cultural prestige of Brussels, which competed with other cities for the status of artistic capital of Belgium. While some of these rivalries centered around the promotion of contemporary art,(20) the old Flemish masters were equally important in establishing a city's cultural value. Most of the major Belgian cities could boast a connection to at least one of these fifteenth-century artists, but Bruges remained secure in its status as the recognized "home" of the Flemish masters, probably in large part because it retained its fifteenth-century flavor (a fact that still draws throngs of visitors to Bruges today). Indeed, although Belgium itself was sometimes satirized as a place to pass through in nineteenthcentury travel literature,(21) William Wordsworth immortalized Bruges as a "haven of medievalism me·di·e·val·ism also me·di·ae·val·ism  
1. The spirit or the body of beliefs, customs, or practices of the Middle Ages.

2. Devotion to or acceptance of the ideas of the Middle Ages.

" in his 1820 sonnet sonnet, poem of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, restricted to a definite rhyme scheme. There are two prominent types: the Italian, or Petrarchan, sonnet, composed of an octave and a sestet (rhyming abbaabba cdecde  "The Spirit of Antiquity."(22) These sentiments were echoed some thirty years later when the French historian and archivist ARCHIVIST. One to whose care the archives have been confided.  Leon de Laborde remarked, "when you leave your inn in Tournai, Ghent, Haarlem, in all these old Flemish and Dutch cities, but above all in Bruges, you are struck by a sort of vertigo vertigo (vûr`tĭgō), sensations of moving in space or of objects moving about a person and the resultant difficulty in maintaining equilibrium. , so much does nature deceive TO DECEIVE. To induce another either by words or actions, to take that for true which is not so. Wolff, Inst. Nat. Sec. 356.  you into believing you are in front of a van Eyck painting."(23) These kinds of sentiments may have been at least partly responsible for the success of the 1902 Bruges exhibition of Flemish painting entitled "Les Primitifs flamands et l'art ancien."(24) This exhibition, the impetus of much scholarly and public enthusiasm about Flemish art, included the three paintings by Memling, David, and van Eyck that had been confiscated and returned by the French Republic, as well as the Adam and Eve panels from the Ghent Altarpiece. Holding the exhibition in Bruges, and in one of the city's most prominent neo-Gothic buildings, allowed visitors to view these emotionally-charged paintings in their "original" context in a very tangible way.(25)

Not surprisingly, the popular medieval charm of Bruges prompted the envy of neighboring neigh·bor  
1. One who lives near or next to another.

2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.

3. A fellow human.

4. Used as a form of familiar address.

 Belgian cities. The author of one latenineteenth-century guidebook to Antwerp, for example, lamented the loss of his city's more "primitive" side: "Bruges has honorably restored the style that characterized this city in the epoch of her splendor; why should we not further imitate this fine example in Antwerp?"(26) These cultural competitions provide another context in which to view Brussels's acquisition of the Adam and Eve panels from the Ghent Altarpiece. Although Bruges's claim to the Flemish masters was implicit in Adj. 1. implicit in - in the nature of something though not readily apparent; "shortcomings inherent in our approach"; "an underlying meaning"
underlying, inherent
 the very fabric of the city, Brussels countered by engendering a discourse on origins in acquiring Ghent's "first parents," the literal and figurative fig·u·ra·tive  
a. Based on or making use of figures of speech; metaphorical: figurative language.

b. Containing many figures of speech; ornate.

This article refers to the Star Trek race, and not a Convention with the same name in the in the role-playing game.

The Progenitors were a race of fictional beings in the Star Trek Universe created by Gene Roddenberry.
 of the entire Flemish school.

The dispersal of the Ghent Altarpiece did not stop with Brussels's acquisition of Adam and Eve. Belgium's artistic rivalties also created the occasion for an intellectual dismemberment of the altarpiece among scholars who were divided over the role of Hubert van Eyck in its creation. In 1933, art historian Emile Renders put forth the theory, in Hubert van Eyck, personnage de legende, that Hubert was an invention of sixteenth-century humanists and rhetoricians which was maintained by contemporary Ghent scholars in order to glorify their city at the expense of Bruges.(27) One of his main targets was Ghent historian Georges Hulin de Loo, whom Renders made the subject of one of his chapters; one of Renders' reviewers even remarked that his book could be easily read as an attempt to discredit TO DISCREDIT, practice, evidence. To deprive one of credit or confidence.
     2. In general, a party may discredit a witness called by the opposite party, who testifies against him, by proving that his character is such as not to entitle him to credit or
 Hulin.(28) Renders set Hulin de Loo's arguments against those of German historian Max J. Friedlander (an anti-Hubertian), which seems an ironic strategy given the struggles between Germany and Belgium to retain physical and intellectual control over the Ghent Altarpiece (explored in greater depth below). It seems that for Renders, who himself hailed from Bruges, an alliance with the German scholarly tradition was preferable to one with the city of Ghent. These kinds of civic debates may help to explain why Belgian scholars preferred the title L'agneau mystique mys·tique  
An aura of heightened value, interest, or meaning surrounding something, arising from attitudes and beliefs that impute special power or mystery to it: the cowboy mystique; the mystique of existentialism.
 to the more popular title, "the Ghent Altarpiece." While German scholars were apt to use the latter title, the adoption of the iconographical term L'agneau mystique by Belgian scholars appears to have reflected a tacit agreement to avoid ascribing local ownership to the altarpiece.(29)

Belgium's cultural and linguistic rivalries thus played a significant role in the dispersal and attempted reconstitution of the Ghent Altarpiece. Although a visitor to Ghent after 1865 could see a reconstructed "pastiche," the "real" Ghent Altarpiece was divided for sixty years among three institutions: the central panels remained in Flemish territory in St. Bavo's Cathedral in Ghent, Adam and Eve resided in the Franco-Flemish Brussels Museum, and the remaining wings were in the Berlin Museum in Germany. A victim of nationalist conflict, the altarpiece, usually regarded as the "supreme symbol of Flemish art,"(30) emerges instead as a symbol of the fragmentation of Belgian identity. The physical and intellectual dispersion of the Ghent Altarpiece seems ironic in hindsight, given the revered role it was to play in scholarship on early European panel painting, and this irony is heightened by Belgium's role in its dismemberment. The irony was acutely felt by many Belgians themselves, especially the organizers of the 1902 Bruges exhibition, who were unable to reunite re·u·nite  
tr. & intr.v. re·u·nit·ed, re·u·nit·ing, re·u·nites
To bring or come together again.


[-niting, -nited
 all the panels of the altarpiece for the occasion (the altarpiece being represented only by the panels of Adam and Eve).(31) One exhibition catalogue An exhibition catalogue is a printed list of what is on show in an art or other exhibition. It may range in scale from a single printed sheet to a lavish hardcover "coffee-table book".  bemoaned, "must we abandon all hope of seeing the twenty panels of the van Eycks's altarpiece reunited in Bruges?"(32)

The Bruges exhibition formed part of the concerted efforts of Belgian intellectual leaders to repair the rifts in their nation's identity by underscoring the unity of the Belgian tradition, both past and present. The Flemish masters were called in to aid this enterprise and to support popular theories of a centuries-old Belgian civilization. One such theory was proposed by Pirenne, the father of Belgian nationalism, who wrote that the longstanding unity of the Belgian people resulted from a unique fusion of the Latin and Germanic races.(33) References to Pirenne's "formula" for Belgian identity occasionally resurfaced in art historical writings. In his study of Flemish painting, for example, Hippolyte Fierens-Gevaert stressed the unity of Belgian art across the centuries; his statement that Hubert and Jan van Eyck were "des Belges d'avant la lettre, des Belges suivant la formule moderne mo·derne  
Striving to be modern in appearance or style but lacking taste or refinement; pretentious.

[French, modern, from Old French; see modern.]

Adj. 1.
"(34) brings to mind Pirenne's theory of Latin-Germanic fusion, even though Fierens-Gevaert placed greater emphasis on the Latin side of this formula. Art historians also employed more traditional criteria to determine the significance of the Flemish masters to Belgium. Georges Hulin de Loo, for example, attempted to fill the documentary and biographical gaps in the history of fifteenth-century Flemish painting, knowledge of which, he lamented, lagged far behind that of the contemporary Italian schools.(35) The issue of style was also important. Although the stark realism of the Adam and Eve figures from the Ghent Altarpiece had once been cause for some concern, such naturalism naturalism, in art
naturalism, in art, a tendency toward strict adherence to the physical appearance of nature and rejection of ideal forms. Artists as diverse as Velázquez, J. F. Millet, and Monet, have followed naturalistic principles.
 came to be highly regarded and was even perceived to be a national characteristic. Fierens-Gevaert, for example, wrote of the "'national' aspirations of our masters, their technical merits, their special knowledge of forms, space, and light."(36) While these scholarly claims were doubtlessly intended to foster a needed pride in past, they may have also represented attempts to intellectually rectify or mask present losses - in particular, the loss of Belgium's cultural heritage that had been scattered to other nations (in addition to the dispersion of the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait The Arnolfini Portrait, is a painting in oils on oak panel executed by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck in 1434. Among other titles, it is also known as "The Arnolfini Wedding", "The Arnolfini Marriage", "The Arnolfini Double Portrait  was bought by the London National Gallery following the Napoleonic wars).

The changing dynamics of Belgian nationalism are perhaps best seen in the problematics of scholarly terminology. Given Belgium's tumultuous history and new, precarious status in the nineteenth century, what were scholars to call those fifteenth-century artists to which the nation was heir? In the nineteenth century, terminology fluctuated between such designations as "ecole de Bruges" and "ancienne ecole neerlandaise." After the turn of the century, however, the nearly unanimous choice among Belgian scholars was the expression, "Primitifs flamands," which was canonized can·on·ize  
tr.v. can·on·ized, can·on·iz·ing, can·on·iz·es
1. To declare (a deceased person) to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such.

2. To include in the biblical canon.

 by the title of the 1902 Bruges exhibition.(37) While use of the term "primitive" for van Eyck and his contemporaries is itself a problematic issue,(38) my concern here is with the implications of their designation as "Flemish" rather than "Netherlandish." "Flemish," on the one hand, may have had some historical validity, given the importance of regional identity in the early modern period. Writing in 1550, for example, Vasari discussed the contributions of van Eyck and his contemporaries under the heading, "Di diversi Artefici Fiamminghi."(39) But the term had further, nationalistic connotations: the fact that many Belgians referred to their second language as "Flemish" rather than "Dutch" throughout the nineteenth century indicates that this term stood to some degree for Belgium's newfound new·found  
Recently discovered: a newfound pastime.

Adj. 1. newfound - newly discovered; "his newfound aggressiveness"; "Hudson pointed his ship down the coast of the newfound sea"
 autonomy from the Netherlands.(40) "Flemish" was, therefore, a patriotic and synecdochic syn·ec·do·che  
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin
 term, standing for the nation of Belgium itself. It is ironic, however, that Belgian historians celebrated the "Flemishness" of Eyckian art not in the Flemish language Flemish language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Generally regarded as the Belgian variant of Dutch (see Dutch language) rather than as a separate tongue, Flemish is , but primarily in its rival language, French. Clearly, Belgium's linguistic duality was still an issue, despite patriotic sentiments. This linguistic duality may also help to explain why the term "Belgian art" never became a viable expression for fifteenth-century painting, despite some attempts to promote its usage.(41) Classifications for early and pre-modern artistic productions are often based on philology phi·lol·o·gy  
1. Literary study or classical scholarship.

2. See historical linguistics.

[Middle English philologie, from Latin philologia, love of learning
.(42) Thus, even though Belgium was a humanistic term in use during the fifteenth century,(43) the absence of a Belgian language may have rendered such terminology problematic for the art of this period. Too, the reluctance to adopt this term may be partly indicative of the continuing uncertainties of what it meant to be "Belgian," particularly in the years following the Revolution of 1830.

Belgium's linguistic and national dynamics had far-reaching implications for future scholarship on Flemish painting. This impact can be ascertained by shifting the focus from within Belgium to outside its borders, where scholars in the neighboring countries of France and Germany exhibited a keen interest in the Flemish artistic tradition. To these "foreign" scholars, Belgium's internal conflicts - its regional and linguistic clashes, lack of a clearly formulated identity, and seeming equivocations toward its artistic heritage - signaled the weakness of Belgian nationalism and raised doubts as to the legitimacy of Belgian claims to the Flemish masters. The door was thereby left open for the appropriation of Flemish art for other national traditions. Political factors, such as Belgium's policy of neutrality before the first World War, undoubtedly contributed to this development. The co-optation of Belgium's artistic tradition by France and Germany, for example, might be seen as an intellectual extension of these countries' plans for Belgian annexation preceding and during the war.(44) These cultural and political clashes wrenched the "Primitives" from the uncertain hands of Belgian nationalism and placed them at the center of a continuing cultural debate, North versus South, or the Germanic tradition versus the Latin. It was not immediately clear to which tradition Flemish painting belonged, given Belgium's bilingualism and history of subjection to both French and Germanic rulers. Scholars on both sides of the debate thus displayed a dazzling array of conflicting "evidence" to sway the jury, while Belgium's voice was often lost amid the louder cries of its neighbors.

German and French art historians redrew Belgium's national boundaries according to linguistics, geography, and race in their attempts to assimilate Flemish painting into their own past and present cultural traditions. Given the language controversies surrounding the Flemish movement, it is not surprising that many French art historians were apt to rely on socio-linguistic evidence to support their claims. For example, French historian Henri Bouchot, author of a commentary to the 1904 exhibition, "Les Primitifs francais," capitalized on Belgium's franco-flemish culture by emphasizing that French social mores prevailed in the fifteenth-century French territories, including the Burgundian ducal du·cal  
Of or relating to a duke or duchy: a ducal estate.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin duc
 provinces. In fact, he argued for the French identity of the Burgundian court, in opposition to Pirenne's assertion of a distinctively Belgian identity in fifteenth-century Burgundy.(45) In his attempts to demonstrate the dependency of Flemish painting on that of France, Bouchot went so far as to question the very existence of Flemish hero Jan van Eyck, citing the L'agneau as one example of how no panel by either Hubert or Jan could be securely attested by documentation.(46) Reactions to these assertive claims reveal further rifts in Belgian identity. Hulin de Loo, who would later face the attacks of Bruges scholar Emile Renders over the existence of Jan's brother, Hubert, defended the existence of Jan van Eyck himself as he reclaimed the primacy of Flemish over French art.(47) Other Belgian scholars, however, adopted Bouchot's point of view, partly in an attempt to downplay down·play  
tr.v. down·played, down·play·ing, down·plays
To minimize the significance of; play down: downplayed the bad news.

Verb 1.
 the burgeoning theory of the Germanic origins of Eyckian art.(48)

Ultimately, however, it was this Germanic theory of Eyckian art, and the German art historical tradition in general, that left the most lasting mark on future scholarship. Indeed, Sulzberger and Haskell have already traced the "rediscovery Noun 1. rediscovery - the act of discovering again
discovery, find, uncovering - the act of discovering something

rediscovery nredescubrimiento 
" of the Flemish painters This is an incomplete list of Flemish painters, with place and date of birth and death and painting style. Painters from later than 1830 belong in the List of Belgian painters.
See also: Flemish painting.
See also: .
 to German soil, where the renewed celebration of medieval Germanic culture characterized the Romantic movement.(49) Friedrich Schlegel is often credited with jump-starting this "rediscovery," recording many of his influential observations on Flemish painting in the epistolary e·pis·to·lar·y  
1. Of or associated with letters or the writing of letters.

2. Being in the form of a letter: epistolary exchanges.

 accounts of his travels to Belgium and France. In 1802, he visited Paris and admired the Ghent Altarpiece when it was exhibited in Napoleon's Louvre. "The rigidity, the Egyptian grandeur of these holy figures [the panels of God the Father, the Virgin and John the Baptist], straight and severe, that seem to appear out of far distant times," he wrote, "call forth an intimate reverence and draw us strongly towards them like incomprehensible monuments of a distant past, larger and sterner."(50) Despite what he took to be their orientalizing character, Schlegel explicitly defined the distant past of these figures as German throughout the rest of his description. He placed van Eyck under the heading "altdeutschen Gemalden" and connected him to the early Cologne school of painting, while maintaining that this school flourished almost two centuries before van Eyck.(51) As Sulzberger and Haskell have pointed out, Schlegel's Netherlandish-Cologne connection became a widely accepted theory in certain circles, in part because it buttressed but·tress  
1. A structure, usually brick or stone, built against a wall for support or reinforcement.

2. Something resembling a buttress, as:
a. The flared base of certain tree trunks.

 his claims for a Germanic tradition that was distinct from and superior to the Latin, or Italian tradition.(52) To be sure, recent and contemporary scholars still recognize the connections between the art of Flanders and Cologne;(53) this relationship, however, seems to have had special currency within the context of the German "rediscovery" of Northern art. Schlegel thus placed the Ghent Altarpiece and Flemish painting in general squarely within the Germanic-Latin debates for perhaps the first time. It is typical of the irony that characterizes the altarpiece's history that its "Germanness" was "discovered" while it was in French territory.

Despite the immediate success of Schlegel's German-Netherlandish theory of Eyckian art, the most important proponent One who offers or proposes.

A proponent is a person who comes forward with an a item or an idea. A proponent supports an issue or advocates a cause, such as a proponent of a will.

PROPONENT, eccl. law.
 of his ideas came about a century later in the figure of Max J. Friedlander, who served as curator and director of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin and is best known for his fourteen-volume corpus, Early Netherlandish Painting Early Netherlandish painting[1] is a term art historians use to designate the work of a group of painters who were active primarily in the Low Countries in the 15th and early 16th centuries, approximately the period starting with Van Eyck and ending with Gerard David. . Although he has not received as much critical reevaluation as his successor Erwin Panofsky Noun 1. Erwin Panofsky - art historian (1892-1968)
, Friedlander was instrumental in shaping many modern conceptions of Northern art. His skills in connoisseurship are well known,(54) but his writings also form a significant part of the nationalistic heritage of scholarship on Flemish art. Friedlander's nationalistic theories are in a sense a revival of Schlegel's, although there are some important differences between the two scholars. While the Cologne school was important to Schlegel, it does not figure as prominently in Friedlander's work, perhaps because other scholars had since made a closer and more nuanced study of the relationship between Flemish and German art.(55) However, Friedlander maintained what is arguably ar·gu·a·ble  
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.

2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law.
 the core of Schlegel's commentary - the use of Jan in service of the Germanic versus Latin debate.

Friedlander's most overtly national and racial analyses are found in his 1916 book, From van Eyck to Bruegel, the precursor to his larger corpus of the following decades. The book consists of chapters devoted to the major Flemish artists, much like his later volumes, but opens with a chapter entitled "The Geography of Netherlandish Art" in which Friedlander expounded his theories on the racial derivation derivation, in grammar: see inflection.  of the Flemish painters. Although he reassured the reader that the individual genius of artists such as Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden Rogier van der Weyden, also known as Rogier de le Pasture (1399/1400 – June 18, 1464) is, on a par with Jan van Eyck, considered as the greatest exponent of the school of Early Netherlandish painting.  transcended purely racial qualities, he also made the sweeping statement that "in the fifteenth century the Netherlands were more of an entity with a uniform culture and the Germanic essence, blended it is true with Latin elements from France and Burgundy, flowed through the entire land."(56) Indeed, the very mark of superiority of Flemish painting - its impulse to observe nature - was to be regarded as its Germanic heritage according to Friedlander.(57) Friedlander's correlation of race and artistic expression in the art of the Flemish masters might be placed in the larger context of German art historical and anthropological debates about cultural differences and evolution that have recently been examined by Claire Farago and Mitchell Schwarzer.(58) However, we should also recall that a little over a decade later, as examined above, Fierens-Gevaert wrote about the specifically Belgian quality of the Flemish painters' "special knowledge of forms, space and light." Flemish realism thus became a particularly contested quality across the board, as it were, since it was claimed as a national characteristic by both Belgian and German scholars.

Despite Friedlander's emphasis on a uniform Germanic culture in the fifteenth-century Netherlands, racial tension marks his comparison of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, the primary players in the first chapter of From van Eyck to Bruegel. Jan van Eyck, whose birthplace had been identified as Maaseyck (on the border between present-day Belgium and Germany) was the uncontested hero of Friedlander's Germanic Netherlands. Rogier van der Weyden, however, was more problematic because he hailed from Tournai, a French-speaking city. On the one hand, Friedlander was quick to point out that, during Rogier's Italian voyage in ca. 1450, his personal and essentially Netherlandish style remained "untouched by the breath of foreign air."(59) Although Friedlander emphasized that Rogier was immune to Southern influence partly because he was simply set in his ways by the time of the voyage, this statement also serves to perpetuate the oft-repeated topos to·pos  
n. pl. to·poi
A traditional theme or motif; a literary convention.

[Greek, short for (koinos) topos, (common)place.]

Noun 1.
 that artistic influence flowed only from North to South during the fifteenth century.(60) Despite Rogier's supposed faithfulness to Northern styles, Friedlander identified him as a primary player in the stylistic collision of the Germanic and Latin temperaments: "it would be tempting to regard the contrast between Jan van Eyck, who came from the East, and Rogier, who came from the South, as a conflict between the German and the Latin temperament with the towns of Flanders providing the battleground. Round about 1450 the battle seems to be going in Rogier's favor."(61) Friedlander's use of martial imagery suggests the uneasiness he felt in dealing with the racially diverse makeup of Belgium,(62) and in this sentiment he stands in distinct opposition to Belgian historians such as Pirenne who had sought to underscore The underscore character (_) is often used to make file, field and variable names more readable when blank spaces are not allowed. For example, NOVEL_1A.DOC, FIRST_NAME and Start_Routine.

(character) underscore - _, ASCII 95.
 the unity of the Latin and Germanic traditions.

Other German art historians also asserted, with varying degrees of emphasis, the Germanic origins and character of Eyckian art;(63) their Teutonic adoption of van Eyck represents a tendency among some German scholars to appropriate Netherlandish models for nationalistic ends. Historian Harold James Harold James may refer to:
  • Harold James (historian) (born 1956)
  • Harold James (archer)
  • Harold James (basketball coach), former Oklahoma A&M basketball coach
 notes that this kind of appropriation was common in the construction of German national identity: "In the nineteenth and for most of the twentieth century, Germany was a political territory in which institutions failed to give any true stability and continuity. Germans looked to foreign models for inspiration, and attempted to assimilate these in a theory of Germanness."(64) James cites Friedrich Schiller's 1788 history of the Dutch revolt The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire.  as one example of a Netherlandish model coopted for Germany.(65) Perhaps an even more infamous example comes from the art historical field, however. In the late nineteenth century, Julius Langbehn Julius Langbehn was a German conservative art historian. Work
  • Rembrandt als Erzieher, 1890
  • 40 Lieder von einem Deutschen, 1891 (Sammlung von Gedichten)
  • Dürer als Führer
, in his book, Rembrandt als Erzieher, posited Rembrandt as the quintessential quin·tes·sen·tial  
Of, relating to, or having the nature of a quintessence; being the most typical: "Liszt was the quintessential romantic" Musical Heritage Review.
 German artist who was to lead Germany back to its cultural roots (although Langbehn was arguing primarily from the perspective of northwestern Germany, the geographical area sometimes called Niederdeutschland).(66) While Friedlander never went quite so far, Netherlandish art and culture represented Germanic superiority to him as well. In introducing seventeenth-century Dutch landscape painting in his 1947 book on genre painting genre painting

Painting of scenes from everyday life, of ordinary people at work or play, depicted in a realistic manner. In the 18th century, the term was used derogatorily to describe painters specializing in one type of picture, such as flowers, animals, or middle-class
, for example, he wrote: "the Dutch soul has roused itself and wards off everything foreign with quiet self-confidence. Protestantism holds its own against the "universal" Church, the Germanic element against the southern."(67) Regarding individual artists, Friedlander, like others, noted the Dutch origins of such painters as Dieric Bouts and Geertgen tot Sint Jans Geertgen tot Sint Jans (gārt`gən tôt sĭnt yäns), fl. latter half of 15th cent., Dutch painter. Geertgen is the earliest painter of record in Haarlem. ,(68) although Jan van Eyck clearly embodied to him the pinnacle of the Netherlands' kinship with Germany. The presence of six wings of the Ghent Altarpiece in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin, where Friedlander worked, must have served him as a constant visual reminder of these ties. Friedlander, incidentally, was not the only German for whom these ties were strong, for the bust of Jan van Eyck forms part of the portrait series of Germanic heroes erected at the Walhalla monument near Regensburg for Ludwig I in 183042. In his description of the portrait series, King Ludwig praised Jan's stylistic innovations and called him "der groste niederdeutsche, in Manchem aller deutschen, Maler."(69)

Germany's defeat in World War I introduced new complexities to Friedlander's writings on art and nationalism. One change wrought by the war was a tangible one: the wings of the Ghent Altarpiece were removed from the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in 1920 and returned to Belgium by order of the Treaty of Versailles. One year after their removal, Friedlander published a book on the altarpiece, Der genter Altar der Bruder van Eyck. The prologue pro·logue also pro·log  
1. An introduction or preface, especially a poem recited to introduce a play.

2. An introduction or introductory chapter, as to a novel.

3. An introductory act, event, or period.
 functions as a memorial to the altarpiece-turned-Kriegsziel, which suggests that the book itself may have been written at least partly in response to the wings' departure from Germany. In the prologue, Friedlander bemoaned the loss of the wings primarily on technical and scholarly grounds. The Berlin Museum, he claimed, presented far better viewing conditions than St. Bavo's Cathedral - the altarpiece's original location to which the wings returned - and consequently had inspired a century of scholarship (including his own, one must think) on these panels. But the prologue speaks an emotional and visual language as well: its distinctive outline is reminiscent of an altarpiece, its tapering Tapering
Gradually reducing the amount of a drug when stopping it abruptly would cause unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.

Mentioned in: Narcotics

 toward the bottom recalling a predella predella (prĕdĕl`lä), Italian term for a painted panel, usually small, belonging to a series of panels at the bottom of an altarpiece. The form was used mainly in Italy from the 13th to the 16th cent.  such as the one the Ghent Altarpiece may have originally possessed [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED].(70) Although the prologue visually attempts to reconstitute the altarpiece, the last lines of text express the reality that it was a "fur Deutschland verlorenen Werkes."(71)

It was probably the outcome of the war that also led Friedlander to temper some of his previous claims regarding nationalistic conflict. These subtle changes in rhetoric become evident in comparing portions of Friedlander's 1916 book with his fourteen-volume corpus, Early Netherlandish Painting, which was published from 1924 to 1937. For example, in volume two of Early Netherlandish Painting, Friedlander observed that to describe Jan and Rogier as proponents of two different races, which was precisely what he had done (albeit cautiously) in 1916, was zu naiv,(72) and he transferred their antithesis antithesis (ăntĭth`ĭsĭs), a figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences within a balanced grammatical structure. Parallelism of expression serves to emphasize opposition of ideas.  to the stylistic realm, citing Jan's warmth, aroma, and joy versus Rogier's dramatic tension and moral grandeur.(73) This stylistic analysis may not be as neutral as it appears, however. Many of the phrases Friedlander used to describe Jan's work (such as "warmth" and "sense of closeness to nature") evoke his realistic style, which, as we have seen, was viewed as a national characteristic by both Belgian and German scholars (recall Friedlander's statement that Flemish naturalism was a Germanic heritage). Friedlander further noted that stylistically Rogier and Jan were "rooted in altogether different soil," a metaphor that recalls his earlier statements about their differing racial origins.(74) This new rhetoric, clothed in the poetic and "impressionistic im·pres·sion·is·tic  
1. Of, relating to, or practicing impressionism.

2. Of, relating to, or predicated on impression as opposed to reason or fact: impressionistic memories of early childhood.
" imagery admired by Friedlander's successors Julius Held and Erwin Panofsky,(75) would thus seem to mask old sentiments about nationalistic conflict between Jan and Rogier.

Other of Friedlander's statements confirm that, although he may have omitted metaphors of conflict and conquest in his later volumes, he did not renounce TO RENOUNCE. To give up a right; for example, an executor may renounce the right of administering the estate of the testator; a widow the right to administer to her intestate husband's estate.
 his views on national identity. He retained his earlier claim that the artistic genius of Flemish artists was a heritage of Lower Germany,(76) and he even strengthened his definition of Jan van Eyck's identity by referring to him as Deutschen rather than germanische.(77) Unlike some German scholars who later sought to distance themselves from their homeland,(78) Friedlander himself seems to have retained his national identity during his period of exile and emigration emigration: see immigration; migration. . Although forced to flee the Third Reich Third Reich

Official designation for the Nazi Party's regime in Germany from January 1933 to May 1945. The name reflects Adolf Hitler's conception of his expansionist regime—which he predicted would last 1,000 years—as the presumed successor of the Holy Roman
 in 1936, he remained in "Germanic" territory by immigrating to Holland(79) rather than joining many of his colleagues in the "intellectual migration" to America.(80) Friedlander spent the remainder of his life in Amsterdam, where he kept in close contact with the Kaiser Friedrich Museum and other Berlin art institutions and completed the final three volumes of Early Netherlandish Painting.(81)

Perhaps Friedlander's most lasting legacy to future scholarship was the term, "Early Netherlandish Painting," the English translation of the titles of his two major studies on Flemish painting. Given Friedlander's belief in the Netherlands' kinship with Germany, it is not surprising that this title was hardly neutral, but carried nationalistic associations. What is perhaps more surprising is that with few exceptions German scholars came to use this title exclusively, as a glance at the bibliography of Panofsky's Early Netherlandish Painting of 1953 confirms. Panofsky himself was the most influential heir to Friedlander's terminology,(82) and it is especially interesting to note that he retained his precursor's title despite the fact that in the text of his book he usually referred to Jan van Eyck and his contemporaries as "Flemish" or "the great Flemings."(83) I believe that this seeming contradiction in terms Noun 1. contradiction in terms - (logic) a statement that is necessarily false; "the statement `he is brave and he is not brave' is a contradiction"

logic - the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
 is significant, for as I have tried to show throughout this essay, titles provide layers of meaning, often political or national in character, that signify beyond their accompanying texts.(84) Thus, despite Panofsky's fluctuating terminology, his use of the title "Netherlandish" provides his book with a distinctly nationalistic frame of reference.(85) I believe that this also holds true for those German scholars who do not necessarily endorse all of Friedlander's nationalistic views in their narratives, but who retain the title "Netherlandish" for their works.

Friedlander's definition of Eyckian art as "Netherlandish" must be seen as a vehement rejection of the term used by Belgian and French historians, "Flemish Primitives." Haskell may be correct in noting that Friedlander was uninterested in whether the Flemish painters should be known as "primitives,"(86) but he reacted strongly against their designation as "Flemish." His objection was based in part on geographical reasoning. Friedlander correctly recognized, for example, that this term "setzt einen Tell fur das Ganze" (earlier we noted its synechdochic nature),(87) and he pointed out that many of these supposedly "Flemish" artists actually came from southern counties other than Flanders. He further discussed several artists who were born or who worked in regions in the Northern Netherlands, such as Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Albert van Ouwater Albert van Ouwater (c. 1410/1415 – 1475) was one of the earliest panel painters in the Northern Netherlands, soon after the discovery of the art of oil painting by Jan van Eyck. , and Gerard David Gerard David (c. 1460, Oudewater – August 13th 1523, Bruges) was an early Dutch Renaissance artist known for his brilliant use of color. Life
He was born in Oudewater, now located in Utrecht.
. Because some of these Northern artists never worked substantially if at all in Flanders, one can understand Friedlander's hesitation to employ the term "Flemish" to describe them; in fact, he often attempted to single out the particularly "Dutch" qualities of their work.(88)

Aside from its claims to greater historical accuracy, the term "Netherlandish" allowed Friedlander to manipulate modern geography. The definition of Jan van Eyck as a "Netherlandish" painter places him stylistically and nationally in the same category as Dutch artists This is a list of Dutch artists.
  • John Boxtel, Sculpture, Woodcarving, architectural drafting, design and building
  • Martin Sjardijn, paintings, digital art, conceptual art, art in outer space
  • Tjibbe Joustra, paintings, videoart, graphic design, soundscapes
 such as Geertgen and Rembrandt and thus reinforces the perceived link that existed between Germanic and Netherlandish culture. The last sentence of Friedliinder's From van Eyck to Bruegel explicitly makes this link: "to place [Bruegel] alongside Jan van Eyck and Rembrandt is to emphasize what is essential in the course of Netherlandish painting."(89) This statement, and the term "Netherlandish" in general, secures the Germanic heritage of Eyckian art and at the same time denies van Eyck a place in Belgian history, thereby erasing the political and cultural autonomy that Belgian scholars had sought to establish through their own choice of title, "Flemish Primitives."

The crux Crux (krks) [Lat.,=cross], small but brilliant southern constellation whose four most prominent members form a Latin cross, the famous Southern Cross.  of Friedlander's argument on classification revolves around a discourse of origins rather than geography. Although Friedlander recognized the international character and fluid boundaries of fifteenth-century Flanders, he did so primarily in order to deny this region a significant role in the artistic production that took place there. "If then what we might call the consumers [of art produced in Flanders] were by no means pure Flemish," he wrote, "the producers were still less so. Of the masters who set the course for Bruges art hardly one was of Flemish origin."(90) Friedlander thus defined identity as principally a function of racial origins. Belgian scholars, as we saw, rejected this equation in their own definition of nationalism, and indeed, it seems to contradict Friedlander's previous statement about internationalism in·ter·na·tion·al·ism  
1. The condition or quality of being international in character, principles, concern, or attitude.

2. A policy or practice of cooperation among nations, especially in politics and economic matters.
. Can racial origins serve as the primary criterion for identity in a region that was, by Friedlander's own admission, marked by continual movement across its borders? The mobility of fifteenth-century artists is one factor that challenges Friedlander's theory of origins; many of those artists whom Friedlander identified as "national Dutch" moved to and remained in Flanders, while van Eyck, although not born in Flanders, became firmly attached to the ducal retinue, even purchasing land in Bruges and paying annual taxes to the city from 1432.(91) In an era of such great itineracy i·tin·er·an·cy   also i·tin·er·a·cy
n. pl. i·tin·er·an·cies
A state or system of itinerating, especially in the role or office of public speaker, minister, or judge.
, in which artists were often called to different locations by courtly court·ly  
adj. court·li·er, court·li·est
1. Suitable for a royal court; stately: courtly furniture and pictures.

2. Elegant; refined: courtly manners.
 or economic considerations, identity may not have been categorically equated with birthplace. Perhaps Friedlander's own feelings of nationalism led him to believe that an artist such as van Eyck could not possibly take on a new identity upon settling in his adopted city.

These terminological conundrums are exacerbated by the dearth of documents that mention "nationality" with regard to fifteenth-century Northern artists. Although national identity in terms of modern nation-states is not of course at issue, it proves equally difficult to determine the construction of fifteenth-century identity with regard to other criteria, such as region or birthplace. Of the many contemporary references to Jan van Eyck, for example, none are very helpful in reconstructing what his regional, civic or group identity might have been. Italian commentators such as Cyriacus of Ancona often identified Jan according to the region of Flanders or his adopted city, Bruges.(92) In 1456, however, Bartolomeo Fazio referred to Jan as "Iohannes Gallicus," probably alluding to Caesar's De Bello Gallico and thereby transforming the French territories into a humanist site.(93) Against these Italian references, the archival documents of the dukes of Burgundy avoid any mention of Jan's adopted city or region, usually referring to him as "Johannes de Heick, varlet de chambre et paintre de mon dit DIT

 Seigneur."(94) From the sixteenth century, we have at least one mention of both "Flemish" and (in a manner of speaking) "Netherlandish" to describe Jan: in his Lives of the Artists Vasari consistently referred to Jan and his successors as "Flemings," while in 1517 Antonio de Beatis called him a master from "Magna Alta" (i.e., Germania Inferior Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's southern and western Netherlands, and Nordrhein-Westfalen left of the Rhine. The principal settlements of the province were Castra Vetera and Colonia Ulpia Traiana , or the Low Countries).(95) This sketchy array of references, some of them much later than Jan's own time, confirms the accuracy of neither "Flemish" nor "Netherlandish" as the proper description of Jan's national or regional identity. Friedlander was aware of these contemporary references to van Eyck, for he cited most of them (along with some others) in volume one of Early Netherlandish Painting.(96) He did not, however, cite any in defense of his own choice of terminology.

We must conclude, then, that these conflicts in modern terminology point not to historical accuracy, but to nineteenth and twentiethcentury definitions of nationalism. Friedlander could not define van Eyck as a Flemish artist because, in his view, Flanders was tainted taint  
v. taint·ed, taint·ing, taints
1. To affect with or as if with a disease.

2. To affect with decay or putrefaction; spoil. See Synonyms at contaminate.

 with Latin culture while the Netherlands remained wholly Germanic. Because France was viewed as one of the primary repositories of Latin culture, Friedlander's terminology should be seen more as an attempt to diminish French claims to Belgian art than as a direct conflict with Belgium itself. The competing terminology demonstrates the complexity of European national identities and relationships around the turn of the century. Behind each term lies the desire to forge some associations while erasing others - "Flemish" came to stand for Belgian autonomy from the Netherlands, while "Netherlandish" expressed a perceived link with Germany.(97) Just as the 1919 Treaty of Versailles demanded the physical reparation Compensation for an injury; redress for a wrong inflicted.

The losing countries in a war often must pay damages to the victors for the economic harm that the losing countries inflicted during wartime. These damages are commonly called military reparations.
 of works of art, here we see that art historical classifications were equally subject to political and cultural manipulation.

Early twentieth-century scholarship thus viewed panel painting in Flanders largely in terms of conflict: that of "Flemish versus Netherlandish," or the Latin tradition versus the Germanic. This conflict contributed to one of the most pervasive divisions in the historiography of art, the polarization between North and South that has been reinscribed in art historical discourses since the early twentieth century. In his influential 1915 study, Principles of Art The principles of art are a set of rules or guidelines to keep in mind when considering the impact of a piece of artwork. They are combined with the elements of art in the production of art.  History, for example, Heinrich Wolfflin set out to investigate stylistic change in "Renaissance" and "Baroque" art, but against his own thesis claimed that "there is a definite type of Italian or Germanic imagination which asserts itself, always the same in all centuries."(98) The same kinds of assertions mark later scholarship on Northern European art. Panofsky framed his Early Netherlandish Painting of 1953 in terms of "The Polarization of European Fifteenth-Century Painting in Italy and the Lowlands" and often engaged in the same kind of nationalistic rhetoric as did Friedlander.(99) More recently, Svetlana Alpers, in The Art of Describing, expressed the need to distinguish between a Southern and an essentially Northern way of "picturing."(100) A1pers's defense of Northern art is evidence of its perceived inferiority to Italian art Italian art, works of art produced in the geographic region that now constitutes the nation of Italy. Italian art has engendered great public interest and involvement, resulting in the consistent production of monumental and spectacular works. . Although she points out that this view dates to Michelangelo's infamous condemnation of Flemish art in the sixteenth century, the continuing emphasis on the national differences between Northern and Southern pictorial traditions merely reinscribes the schisms that inevitably give rise to such judgments.

Although the North-South polarization fed off the Germanic-Latin debates, it simplified them as well. The term "Northern Renaissance Art," for example, engulfs Flemish, Netherlandish, and French art under one large umbrella, thus taking for granted the existence of a well-defined "Northern tradition" that can be contrasted to that of the South.(101) In so doing, the larger North-South controversy bypasses conflicts among the Northern countries themselves, not to mention regional divisions within these countries. According to most of the scholars discussed in this essay, however, there was no single "Northern tradition' at all. As we saw, France was classified as part of the Latin tradition, while the art of Belgium was the site of a tug-of-war between the Latin and Germanic cultures. Rather than participating in a preexisting pre·ex·ist or pre-ex·ist  
v. pre·ex·ist·ed, pre·ex·ist·ing, pre·ex·ists
To exist before (something); precede: Dinosaurs preexisted humans.

 unified tradition, scholarship on Flemish painting developed in the context of the rise of individual Northern nationalities, and the North's struggle for self-definition may have partly contributed to the perceived inferiority of Northern as compared to Italian art. One manifestation of this ultimately damaging struggle is the fluctuating terminology for Flemish painting. The lack of a consistent classification of Flemish art projected a message of its unimportance,(102) leaving modern scholarship in a persistent quandary as to the most appropriate term for the art of fifteenth-century Flanders and the organizations formed to study it.(103)

Contemporary scholars have inherited these terminological problems and accompanying nationalistic baggage, although their approaches to these issues reflect the changing outlooks of their time and place. For example, to many late twentieth-century American scholars, Flanders seems a genuinely international site, where Flemish, German and Netherlandish artists mingled with French dukes and Italian merchants. Penny Howell Jolly, for example, suggests that Jan van Eyck took an Italian pilgrimage for duke Philip the Good Philip the Good, 1396–1467, duke of Burgundy (1419–67); son of Duke John the Fearless. After his father was murdered (1419) at a meeting with the dauphin (later King Charles VII of France), Philip formed an alliance with King Henry V of England. , during which he saw the miraculous Annunciation Annunciation
dove and lily

pictured with Virgin and Gabriel. [Christian Iconography: Brewer Dictionary, 645]


Mary’s old cousin; bears John the Baptist. [N.T.
 in Santa Annunziata in Florence.(104) Jolly claims that this fresco fresco (frĕs`kō) [Ital.,=fresh], in its pure form the art of painting upon damp, fresh, lime plaster. In Renaissance Italy it was called buon fresco to distinguish it from fresco secco,  was a source for Jan in his own Ghent Annunciation - as well as for Italian artists such as Fra Angelico Fra Angelico, (c. 1395 – February 18 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter, referred to in Vasari's Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".  - and thus she does away with the common scholarly topos that artistic "influence" went only one way in the fifteenth century, from North to South. Jolly presents the Ghent Altarpiece as an object of the exchange of ideas across the "great divide" of North and South, and her voice harks back to Belgian scholars like Pirenne who celebrated the fusion of the Latin and Germanic traditions. In a similar vein, Linda Seidel sei·del  
A beer mug.

[German, from Middle High German sdel, from Latin situla, bucket.]

Noun 1.
, in her recent study on Jan's Arnolfini Portrait, explores the theme of women and marriage as a dialogue between this work and contemporary Italian productions such as cassone cassone (käs-sô`nā), the Italian term for chest or coffer, usually a bridal or dower chest, highly ornate and given prominence in the home.  panels.(105) As these examples show, contemporary scholarship has begun to reshape the field of Flemish art by defining works of art as the products of interactions across geographical boundaries. Such a perspective, which I embrace in my own engagement with Flemish art, is, of course, not without its own assumptions regarding the formulation of nationalism and identity.

Whatever one's views regarding the physical boundaries of Flemish art, it is clear that art is formed across temporal boundaries as well. Indeed, the modern re-creations of fifteenth-century art examined above show that scholars are constantly engaged in creative leaps through time. The impacts of these re-creations are long-lasting. For example, although we can now view the Ghent Altarpiece in its more or less "original" state and location in St. Bavo's Cathedral, it retains the memory of its earlier dispersals and nationalistic redefinitions. By referring to the altarpiece by its popular title, by classifying it as "Flemish," "Netherlandish," or simply "Northern," and by accepting or rejecting the persistent view that it is not quite "unified," we continue to engage the nationalistic heritage bestowed by our scholarly ancestors. In taking up where they left off, we leave our own legacy by either reinforcing earlier classifications or placing the altarpiece within a broader, perhaps "international" context. Whichever path we choose, national sentiments are always with us, and, as Keith Moxey recently emphasized, they have a place within our scholarly writing Scholarly writing is the genre of writing used in colleges and universities by students and professors to report and share knowledge. Characteristics
It consists of certain conventions that can vary between disciplines, but always involves:
.(106) Understanding the nationalism of our scholarly precursors is thus more than an historiographic exercise: such knowledge not only informs us about the origins of our field, but deepens our engagement with works of art and allows us to see from whence emerge our own perspectives.


An earlier version of this papaer was presented at tha annual meeting of the College Art Association of America, January 1995. I would like to thank Katherine Crawford Luber and Joel Snyder for their suggestions on drafts of the paper, and I am especially indebted to Linda Seidel for her generosity and insight.

1 Friedlander, 1921, prologue: "Am Eingange zur niederlandischen Malerei steht ragend und ratselvoll der Genter Altar."

2 Sulzberger; Haskell, chap. 15, "Huizinga and the 'Flemish Renaissance.'"

3 The history of the term "Northern Renaissance' is an important issue that I cannot explore here (but see Haskell, 431-95).

4 In tracing the events in the post-history of the Ghent Altarpiece, I am guided by Arjun Appadurai's argument, 3-63, that objects of value, including works of art, have social lives and biographies, and that it is only by following an object's trajectory that we can more fully grasp its meaning to those who value it.

5 For the following events surrounding the Ghent Altarpiece, see Les primitifs flamands, 2:4045, on the confiscation confiscation

In law, the act of seizing property without compensation and submitting it to the public treasury. Illegal items such as narcotics or firearms, or profits from the sale of illegal items, may be confiscated by the police. Additionally, government action (e.g.
 and return of the panels by the French Republic and the sale of 1816; and 57-58, on the acquisition of the Adam and Eve panels by the Brussels Museum. See also van den Gheyn, 28-35.

6 On the plunder TO PLUNDER. The capture of personal property on land by a public enemy, with a view of making it his own. The property so captured is called plunder. See Booty; Prize.  of works of an in Belgium by the Revolutionary campaigns, see Gould, 30-40; McClellan, 114-16.

7 The Treaties of Peace, 1919-1923, 1:149.

8 The French archivist Leon de Laborde, 1:cxii-cxiii, n. 1, discussed the difficulty he had gaining admittance Admittance

The ratio of the current to the voltage in an alternating-current circuit. In terms of complex current I and voltage V, the admittance of a circuit is given by Eq. (1), and is related to the impedance of the circuit Z by Eq. (2).
 to see the Adam and Eve panels in 1847.

9 While most accounts of the Ghent Altarpiece reproduce this story, there is no definitive documentary proof that these panels were removed from public view before the French Revolution. See Les primitifs flamands, 2:40-41.

10 Ibid., 2:57.

11 Haskell, 431-95.

12 Stengers, 46-47.

13 Quoted in Hasquirt, 22: "En Belgique, il y a des partis et des provinces, et point de nation. Cornme une tente dressee pour une nuit, la monarchie nouvelle, apres nous avoir abrites contre la ternpete, disparaitra sans laisser de traces." All English translations of French quotations are my own.

14 Ibid., 21-88.

15 Pirenne, 1:viii-x.

16 On the Flemish Movement and language rifts in Belgium, see Kossmann, 171-73, 203-04, 254-58, 462-73, 536-37, 630-49; De Schryver, 25-29; Hermans, Vos and Wils, 139.

17 See the archival documents, official publications and literary sources printed in Lesprirnitifs flamands, 4:57-202 (and 19-23 for summary of restoration conflicts). For restorations of the Ghent Altarpiece, see ibid., 2:48-57.

18 Ibid., 4:106: "Cet etat de choses [obstacles to restoration] ne peut se prolonger sans engager gravement la responsabilite du gouvernement, d'autant plus qu'on pent soutenir avec fondement que les autorites brugeoises ne sont que les depositaires, a titre titre

 provisoire, de ces oeuvres qui sont une propriete nationale."

19 Ibid., 4:111: "Quant Quant

A person with numerical and computer skills who carries out quantitative analyses of companies.


A person who has strong skills in mathematics, engineering, or computer science, and who applies those skills to the securities
 a nos droits de propriete sur trois tableaux qui ont ete transportes a Paris sous le gouvernement francais, nons croyons qu'il serait superflu de les defendre. Ces tableaux proviennent de nos monuments communaux, eglises, hotel de ville et salle du Franc. Ils ont ete peints a Bruges pour des emplacements determines, commandes par des noms connus, avec une destination speciale."

20 For example, Brussels's Les XX Les XX was a group of twenty Belgian painters, designers and sculptors, formed in 1883 by the Brussels lawyer, publisher, and entrepreneur Octave Maus. For ten years these 'vingtistes', as they called themselves, held an annual exhibition of their art; each year twenty  versus Antwerp's art circle Als Ik Kan. See Belgian Art, 17-40, 71-80.

21 Buzard, 37 and n. 29.

22 Ibid., 178. The poem reads: "The Spirit of Antiqnity - enshrined / In sumptuous sump·tu·ous  
Of a size or splendor suggesting great expense; lavish: "He likes big meals, so I cook sumptuous ones" Anaïs Nin.
 buildings, vocal in sweet song, / In picture, speaking with heroic tongue, / And with devout solemnities entwined-/ Mounts to the seat of grace within the mind: / Hence Forms that glide with swan-like ease along, / Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng, / To an harmonious decency confined: / As if the streets were consecrated con·se·crate  
tr.v. con·se·crat·ed, con·se·crat·ing, con·se·crates
1. To declare or set apart as sacred: consecrate a church.

2. Christianity
 ground, / The city one vast temple, dedicate / To mutual respect in thought and deed; / To leisure, to forbearances sedate se·date
To administer a sedative to; calm or relieve by means of a sedative drug.
; / To social cares from jarring passions freed; / A deeper peace than that in deserts found!"

23 Laborde, l:xcvi-vii: "Quand vous sortez de votre auberge a Tournay, a Gand, a Haarlem, dans toute ces vieilles villes flamandes et hollandaises, mais par-dessus tout Tout

To promote a security in order to attract buyers.


To foster interest in a particular company or security. For example, a broker might tout a security to a client in the hope that the client will purchase the security.
 a Bruges, il vous prend une sorte de vertige, vous etes en face de la nature et vous croyez voir un tableau tab·leau  
n. pl. tab·leaux or tab·leaus
1. A vivid or graphic description: The movie was a tableau of a soldier's life.

 des van Eyck."

24 On this exhibition, see Haskell, 445-61.

25 Ibid., 446, 460.

26 Beeteme, viii: "Bruges a remis en honneur le style qui predominait chez chez  
At the home of; at or by.

[French, from Old French, from Latin casa, cottage, hut.]


at the home of [French]
 elle a l'epoque de sa splendeur, pourquoi n'imiterait-on pas davantage a Anvers ce bel exemple?"

27 Renders, especially chap. 4, "Les legendes constituant la tradition gantoise."

28 Faider, 1275-76.

29 As other scholars have noted, Jan van Eyck is far from the only Flemish painter whose work has been subject to civic and regional debates. For example, as Professor Ann Roberts (Lake Forest College The College's current Chair of the Board of Trustees is financier Peter G. Schiff, a graduate with the class of 1974. [2]

Lake Forest College is located at 555 North Sheridan Road, Lake Forest, IL 60045. U.S.A.
) kindly pointed out to me, the painter Jan Provoost Jan Provoost, or Jan Provost (Mons 1465–Bruges 1529) was a Flemish painter. He was one of the most famous Netherlandish painters of his generation, a prolific master who left his early workshop in Valenciennes to run two workshops, one in Bruges, where he was made a , who was from Mons Mons (môNs), Du. Bergen, commune (1991 pop. 91,726), capital of Hainaut prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. Located at the junction of the Canal du Centre and the Condé-Mons Canal, it is the processing and shipping center of  but moved to and worked in Bruges, has created some conflict among Belgian scholars because of his crossing of Belgium's linguistic border. Fry, 114, discusses another instance of Belgian local feelings regarding the identity of the Master of Flemalle. Thanks to my colleague Jennifer Spreitzer for urging me to consider the meaning behind the different titles for the Ghent Altarpiece.

30 Haskell, 449.

31 See ibid., 449.

32 Exposition des primitijs flarnands a Bruges, 10-11: "Faut-il ab andonner tout espoir de voir reunis a Bruges les vingt tableaux du retable retable (rē`tābəl), frame for decorative panels at the back of an altar in European churches. Retables, often sumptuously decorated in alabaster and gold, generally contained scenes from the Bible.  des freres Van Eyck?"

33 Pirenne, l:viii-xi.

34 Fierens-Gevaert, 1:78.

35 Hulin, 1902, xiii-xviii; idem, 1909, 202-05. Also see Hulin's other articles published in Burlington Magazine in the early twentieth century.

36 Fierens-Gevaert, l:viii: "Nous soulignerons cette unite - et l'on n'a pas encore tente l'entreprise pour l'ensemble de notre peinture-dans les aspirations 'nationales' de nos matres, leurs merites techniques, leur intelligence speciale des formes (language, music) Formes - An object-oriented language for music composition and synthesis, written in VLISP.

["Formes: Composition and Scheduling of Processes", X. Rodet & P. Cointe, Computer Music J 8(3):32-50 (Fall 1984)].
, de l'espace, de la lumiere."

37 This title represents a decisive change from the 1867 Bruges exhibition of Flemish painting, which had been entitled the "ancienne ecole neerlandaise" by W. H. James Weale. See Sulzberger, 20.

38 For some discussion of the problematics of this expression, see Haskell, 447-48. For the evolution of the term, see Sulzberger, 14-20.

39 Vasari, 3:659.

40 Gubin, 334-39. The "Flemish" language in Belgium was not officially termed "Dutch" until 1973. See documents 60 and 64 in Hermans, Vos and Wils.

41 For example, in tracing the commonalities between the fifteenth-century Flemish painters and modern Belgian artists, Poirier, 16, stated: "ce qu'on appelle par tradition 'la peinture flamande,' c'est 'la peinture belge.'"

42 As early as 1904, French historian Henri Bouchot recognized that the early "Ecoles d'Italie" were so called because the Italian territories possessed a unified Italian language Italian language, member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Romance languages). The official language of Italy and San Marino, and one of the official languages of Switzerland, Italian is spoken by about 58 , and he argued, 1904,(1) 1-2, for the existence of a medieval "Ecoles de France," which would include the Burgundian provinces, due to what he saw as the linguistic unity of the medieval French territories.

43 Bonenfant, 48-51.

44 See, for example, Kossmann, 525-27.

45 Bouchot, 1904,(1) 20, 79-82. On Bouchot, also see Haskell, 466.

46 Bouchot, 1904,(1) 16-18, 24-29, and chap. 8, "La question des Van Eyck."

47 See idem, 1904,(2) 169-78 for a summary of these arguments and an example of the conflicts between Bouchot and Hulin.

48 For example, Maeterlinck, 198-200; Poirier, 11-13.

49 See Haskell, 431-37; Sulzberger, 44-79.

50 Schlegel, 4:43-44: "Die agyptische Erhabenheit und Steifheit dieser geraden, strengen Gottergestalten, wie aus grauem Altertume, muss innige Ehrfurcht gebieten, und zieht uns bei allem abschreckenden Ernste eben so an, wie die unbegreiflichen Denkmale einer grossern und strengen Vorwelt." English translation by Faggin, 10.

51 Ibid., 4:135-52.

52 Haskell, 435; Sulzberger, 46-47, 54-56, 74-75.

53 In his essay for the 1974 exhibition Vor Stefan Lochner Stefan Lochner (1400 – 1451) was a German late Gothic painter.

His style, famous for its clean appearance, combined Gothic attention towards long flowing lines with brilliant colours with a Flemish influenced realism and attention to detail.
, for example, Wolfgang Stechow pointed out the "Netherlandish" qualities of one of Lochner's youthful works. Dirk De Vos De Vos. For persons thus named, use Vos. , 17-20, also noted that Hans Memling Hans Memling (Memlinc) (c. 1430 – 11 August, 1494) was an Early Netherlandish painter, born in Germany, who was the last major fifteenth century artist in the Netherlands, the successor to Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, whose tradition he continued with little  borrowed several compositional types from Cologne artists such as Lochner.

54 For evaluation of Friedlander as a connoisseur, see Held, as well as Panofsky's preface to the English translation of Early Netherlandish Painting, 1:9-13. My own discussion of Friedlander is not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of his critical thought, but an examination of one aspect of his treatment of Jan van Eyck and Flemish panel painting.

55 Haskell, 436-37. See Waagen, 169-72 and 174-81 for an example of early scholarship citing the differences between the German and Flemish schools.

56 Friedlander, 1965, 4: "Im 15. Jahrhundert sind die Niederlande eher ein Ganzes rnit einheitlicher Kultur, und die germanische Art, freilich von Nordfrankreich und Burgund her vermischt mit lateinischen Elementen, durchstromt das ganze Land." English translation by Kay, 1.

57 Ibid., 8.

58 See Farago, 77-81, and Schwarzer.

59 Friedlander, 1965, 25: "Gerade die Bemuhung, Motive sudlicher Altarkunst zu verarbeiten, wahrend die Typik und Gewohnheit der Formensprache von der fremden Luft nicht im geringsten bewegt wird, lasst die entschiedene Selbstsicherheit seines Wesens hervortreten." English translation by Kay, 22.

60 This topos was reiterated, among other scholars, by Panofsky, 8-9, in the first chapter of his 1953 study.

61 Friedlander, 1965, 7: "Ich furchte, es gibt kein wissenschaftlich befriedigendes Mittel, mit dem die Stammesart Rogiers festgestellt werden konnte, verlockend aber ist der Versuch, den Gegensatz zwischen Jan van Eyck, der vom Osten kam, und Rogier, der vom Suden kam, als einen Gegensatz germanischer mad lateinischer Art aufzufassen. Die flandrischen Stadte bieten den Kampfplatz. Um 1450 scheint sich der Sieg auf die Seite Rogiers zu neigen." English translation by Kay, 3-4.

62 As Luber pointed out, Panofsky also used metaphors of nationalist conflict in his Early Netherlandish Painting of 1953. Indeed, martial imagery seems to be especially common in studies on Flemish painting, including French as well as German scholarship. In describing the supposedly French identity of the Burgundian court, for example, French historian Bouchot, 1904,(1) 20, wrote, "Les habitudes francaises s'infiltrerent, prirent force de loi."

63 Burger, 11; Voll, 13.

64 James, 240.

65 Ibid., 28.

66 For example, Langbehn, 9, stated, "Wenn die Deutschen das vorzugsweise individuelle Volk sind, so kann auf kunstlerichem Gebiet ihnen auch nur der individuellste ihrer Kunstler als gelstiger Wegfuhrer dienen; denn ein solcher wird sie am ehesten auf sich selbst zuruckweisen. Unter allen deutschen Kunstlern aber ist der individuellste: Rembrandt." On Langbehn, see Stem, 97-180. I wish to thank Professor Reinhold Heller (University of Chicago) for discussing Langbehn's theories with me.

67 Friedlander, 1947, 108: "Die hollandische Seele ist wach geworden and stosst alles Fremde mit ruhigem Selbstbewusstsein ab. Das Protestantische setzt sich durch gegen die 'allgemeine' Kirche, das Germanische gegen das Sudliche." English translation by Hall, 88-89.

68 Friedlander, 1965, 29, 58.

69 Ludwig den Ersten von Bayern, 109. I am grateful to Professor Jeffrey Chipps Smith (University of Texas at Austin “University of Texas” redirects here. For other system schools, see University of Texas System.
The University of Texas at Austin (often referred to as The University of Texas, UT Austin, UT, or Texas
) for pointing out to me this surviving legacy of Jan's Germanic heritage.

70 For a description and proposed reconstruction of the predella, see Philip, 23, 25, 28, on structure and materials; 66-67, on iconography iconography (ī'kŏnŏg`rəfē) [Gr.,=image-drawing] or iconology [Gr.,=image-study], in art history, the study and interpretation of figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secular; ; and figs. 41-42.

71 Friedliinder, 1921, prologue.

72 Friedlander, 1924-37, 2:54: "Ehemals betrachtete man Jan van Eyck als den Vertreter Flanderns, Rogier als den Vertreter Brabants. Das war gar zu naiv." English translation by Norden, 2:32.

73 See ibid., 2: 45-47, 54, for Friedlander's stylistic comparisons of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden.

74 Ibid., 2:45: "Dennoch steht Rogier im Gegensatze zu Jan van Eyck dem Geist und der Form nach, wurzelt in anderer Erde." English translation by Norden, 2:28.

75 Held, 38 and Panofsky's preface preface to the English translation of Early Netherlandish Painting, 1:12-13.

76 Friedlander, 1924-37, 1:15.

77 Ibid., 1:137: "Dem Gotiker, dem Deutschen und dem Maler war der Reichtum des quellenden Lebens unermudlicher Nachbildung wurdig." Norden, 1:78, translates "Deutschen" as "Germanic" rather than the noun "German" and thereby glosses over what seems to be an important alteration in Friedlander's use of these terms.

78 See Landauer, 255-56.

79 For Friedlander's biography, see Winkler Winkler may refer to:
  • Winkler, Manitoba, a Canadian city
  • Winkler (novel), by Giles Coren
  • Winkler (crater), a crater on the Moon
  • Winkler (surname), people with the surname Winkler or Winckler
See also
, 161-67.

80 Eisler, 544-629.

81 Winkler, 167.

82 Seidel, 4, notes that Panofsky's title was an "implicit acknowledgment of Friedlaender's prior work," and she discusses other of Panofsky's borrowings from his predecessor (219, 221).

83 Although Panofsky, 313, remarked in passing that "South Netherlandish" is a more precise term than "Flemish" to describe these artists, he continued to use the term "Flemish" throughout his book.

84 For the interpretive structures that titles impose on works of art and literature, see Bann. I believe that the ability of titles to direct our interpretive focus, sometimes in directions that seem to diverge diverge - If a series of approximations to some value get progressively further from it then the series is said to diverge.

The reduction of some term under some evaluation strategy diverges if it does not reach a normal form after a finite number of reductions.
 from the work itself, is also operative in the classification and naming of art historical periods.

85 See Luber and Moxey, 1994 (65-78, "Panofsky's Melancolia") on Panofsky's nationalism, which is more complex than the title of his book would have us believe.

86 Haskell, 463.

87 Friedlander, 1965, 4: "Der Begriff 'flamisch' fur die habsburgischen Sudstaaten ist nicht korrekt und setzt einen Teil fur das Ganze." He went on to state, "Genau genommen, umfasst dieser geographische Begriff nur die belden Grafschaften Flandern, nicht aber den Hennegau, Luttich, Brabant und andere Teile, die an dem Kunstleben der nicht hollandischen Niederlande grosseren Anteil haben als Flandern." English translation by Kay, 1. This kind of statement became a topos for historians wishing to challenge the Flemish preeminence of Eyckian art. English historian Weale, 5-6, for example, used the same argument twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
 before Friedlander. The Belgian art historian Fierens-Gevaert, l:viii-ix, also recognized the arbitrariness of the term "Flemish," even as he employed it for the title of his book.

88 In vol. 5 of Early Netherlandish Painting, for example, Friedlander, 41-49, devoted a chapter to "Geertgen als ein Vertreter hollandischen Wesens," and in vol. 6, 102-13, he attempted to determine which aspects of Gerard David's work can be considered to be native "Dutch."

89 Friedlander, 1965, 151: "Und ihn [Bruegel] neben Jan van Eyck und Rembrandt stellen, heisst: das Wesentliche im Gange der niederlandischen Malkunst hervorheben." English translation by Kay, 141.

90 Ibid., 5: "Waren also sozusagen die Konsumenten durchaus nicht rein flamisch, so waren es die Produzenten noch weniger. Von den Meistern, die das Schicksal der Brugger Kunst bestimmten, ist kaum einer flamischer Herkunft." English translation by Kay, 2.

91 Seidel, 93.

92 In 1450, Cyriacus of Ancona referred to Jan as "the famous John of Bruges." See Faggin, 9.

93 Baxandall, 165-66. Although Baxandall, 8-20, discussed humanist terms for art historical and other concepts, he did not comment on Fazio's use of "Gaul."

94 See Laborde for the ducal expense accounts at Lille that mention Jan van Eyck.

95 Vasari, 3:659-66; Faggin, 9, 89.

96 These citations occur in Friedlander, 1924-37, 1:40-49, the chapter on the "biographical data" of Hubert and Jan van Eyck.

97 It might be questioned why, if the term "Netherlandish was so nationalistically charged for German scholars, these same scholars employ "Flemish" for other periods of Northern painting. Friedlander, for example, was quite willing to call Rubens a Flemish rather than a Netherlandish painter in his 1923 book on seventeenth-century Netherlandish painting. The reason, I suggest, is twofold. The seventeenth century already had a great cultural hero in Rembrandt, and thus the Flemish school was no longer needed to provide Germany with a cultural model for this period. And in classifying Rubens, there was simply not as much at stake as there was in defining van Eyck and his school. Although Rubens was highly regarded, Jan was the real "father" of modern painting, and his identity as a Netherlander was thus far more important in the construction of German national identity. The classification of Rubens as "Flemish" might therefore be seen as somewhat pejorative pejorative Medtalk Bad…real bad  vis-a-vis both Rembrandt and van Eyck and may represent another instance of cultural competition.

98 Wolfflin, 273: "Es gibt eine bestimmte Art yon italienischer oder von deutscher Vorstellungsweise, die sich gleichbleibend in allen Jahrhunderten behauptet." English translation by Hotringer, 235. On Wolfflin's racial categories, see Farago, 77-78.

99 See n.62 above. Landauer, especially 255-56, 260-61, 270-72, 279-80, reminds us, however, that national identity was a somewhat more ambivalent issue for Panofsky because of his immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important.  to America.

100 Alpers, especially xvii-xxvii.

101 I am thinking primarily of James Snyder's Northern Renaissance Art: Painting; Sculpture, the Graphic Arts graphic arts: see aquatint; drawing; drypoint; engraving; etching; illustration; linoleum block printing; lithography; mezzotint; niello; pastel; poster; silk-screen printing; silhouette; silverpoint; sketch; stencil; woodcut and wood engraving.  from 1350 to 1575, which discusses the art of France, the Netherlands and Germany over the course of two centuries. It is true that "Northern Renaissance Art" is not as hallowed hal·lowed  
1. Sanctified; consecrated: a hallowed cemetery.

2. Highly venerated; sacrosanct: our hallowed war heroes.
 a term as some in the field of art history. It is not included in the Art Bulletin's traditional listing of categories for dissertation titles (recently examined by Nelson, 29-30), and the art of this period is increasingly subsumed within more sweeping and seemingly neutral categories such as "Early Modern Period."

102 Sulzberger, 14.

103 See Silver. At another 1995 College Art Association session organized and chaired by Ann M. Roberts, the Historians of Netherlandish Art debated the most appropriate name for their society given these kinds of questions.

104 Jolly.

105 Seidel, 106-25, 206-18. Exploring the art of the Renaissance period in terms of cultural interaction rather than nationalist isolation is also the appeal that Claire Farago makes in her recent editorial project, Reframing reframing (rē·frāˑ·ming),
n the revisiting and reconstruction of a patient's view of an experience to imbue it with a different usually more positive meaning in the
 the Renaissance.

106 Moxey, 1995, especially 399-401.


Alpers, Svetlana Alpers, Svetlana (b. Leontief) (1936–  ) art historian; born in Cambridge, Mass. She studied at Radcliffe (B.A. 1957), and Harvard (Ph.D. 1965). . The Art of Describing: Dutch Art Dutch art, the art of the region that is now the Netherlands. As a distinct national style, this art dates from about the turn of the 17th cent., when the country emerged as a political entity and developed a clearly independent culture.  in the Seventeenth Century. Chicago, 1983

Appadurai, Arjun, ed. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge and New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
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n. 1. A metropolis.
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Fleming was first elected to the House of Commons in the 1945 general election as a Progressive Conservative candidate in the Toronto riding of Eglinton.
 and Bernard Bailyn Bernard Bailyn (b. 1922, Hartford, Connecticut) is an American historian, author, and professor specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History. He has been a professor at Harvard since 1953, and has won the Pulitzer Prize for History twice (in 1968 and 1987). , 544-629. Cambridge, MA, 1969.

Exposition des primitifs flamands a Bruges, 15 juin - 15 septembre 1902 Premiere section: tableaux. Coup d'oeil historique et enumeration 1. (mathematics) enumeration - A bijection with the natural numbers; a counted set.

Compare well-ordered.
2. (programming) enumeration - enumerated type.
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Marguerite. For French women thus named, use Margaret.
marguerite, in botany
marguerite: see daisy.
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(born Dec. 14, 1866, London, Eng.—died Sept. 9, 1934, London) British art critic and artist. He gave up a career in science to study art in Italy.
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-----. "Jacques Daret's Nativity Nativity
See also Christmas.

Neglectfulness (See CARELESSNESS.)

Nervousness (See INSECURITY.)


birthplace of Jesus. [N.T.
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In architecture, a sculpted ornament suspended from a vault or ceiling, especially an elongated boss (carved keystone) at the junction of the intersecting ribs of the fan vaulting associated with the English Perpendicular style.
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Movement in literary criticism and philosophy begun in France in the late 1960s. Drawing upon the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure, the anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss (
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the source of light for viewing an object.
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Publication:Renaissance Quarterly
Date:Mar 22, 1998
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