Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis Definition
Cryptosporidiosis refers to infection by the sporeforming protozoan known as Cryptosporidia. Protozoa are a group of parasites that infect the human intestine, and include the better known Giardia. to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.
Cryptosporidium cryptosporidium (krĭp'tōspərĭd`ēəm), genus of protozoans having at least four species; they are waterborne parasites that cause the disease cryptosporidiosis. spp. are protozoan protozoan (prō'təzō`ən), informal term for the unicellular heterotrophs of the kingdom Protista. Protozoans comprise a large, diverse assortment of microscopic or near-microscopic organisms that live as single cells or in simple parasites transmited by the fecal-oral route that cause prolonged diarrhea. Only 2 reports describe outbreaks associated with apple cider (1,2), and none have been associated with ozonated cider. In October 2003, a northeast Ohio health department identified 12 local residents with laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis; 11 had drunk a locally produced, ozonated apple cider (cider A) in the 2 weeks before illness. The cider was embargoed on October 24, and we initiated an investigation by using epidemiologic and molecular techniques to determine the cause and extent of the outbreak and the role played by the cider and ozonation.
We defined a probable case as a northeast Ohio resident with otherwise unexplained diarrhea for [greater than or equal to] 3 days from September 1 to November 30, 2003, and a laboratory-confirmed case as a person with diarrhea and a positive Cryptosporidium laboratory result. Case finding encompassed interviewing persons with diarrhea who came to local health departments and emergency rooms and participants of school outings at which cider A was served. We then conducted 2 epidemiologic studies in which questionnaires showed exposures classically associated with Cryptosporidium transmission such as food, drinking and recreational water, person-to-person contact, animals, and travel.
Study 1 compared laboratory-confirmed case-patients and 2 controls (persons without diarrhea, abdominal pain, or vomiting) per case matched
on age and county of residence and identified through random-digit dialing. Additionally, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of school children (study 2) who attended field trips at which cider A was served.
Stool samples from case-patients were screened by wet preparation and tested for Cryptosporidium by using an immunofluorescent assay Immunofluorescent assay (IFA)
A blood test sometimes used to confirm ELISA results instead of using the Western blotting. In an IFA test, HIV antigen is mixed with a fluorescent compound and then with a sample of the patient's blood. (Meridian Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia DFA DFA - Deterministic Finite-state Automaton. See Finite State Machine. kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH, USA). Identification of Cryptosporidium in these samples was attempted by using 2 methods: 1) genotyping isolates by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP PCR-RFLP Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism ) analysis of the small subunit (SSU SSU Small Subunit
SSU Sonoma State University
SSU Savannah State University (Savannah, Georgia)
SSU Shawnee State University (Ohio)
SSU Salisbury State University ) rRNA gene (3,4) with subtyping by DNA sequence analysis of the GP60 gene (5), and 2) amplification of the SSU rRNA gene with genotype differentiation by a microsatellite See miniaturized satellite. marker (ML-l) (6, 7).
Cider samples were concentrated by centrifugation Centrifugation
A mechanical method of separating immiscible liquids or solids from liquids by the application of centrifugal force. This force can be very great, and separations which proceed slowly by gravity can be speeded up enormously in centrifugal , and water samples were concentrated by Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), independent agency of the U.S. government, with headquarters in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution, and radiation and to ensure the safe handling and method 1623 (8). Cryptosporidium genotyping was performed by using the same methods described for stool samples (4). Newly designed GP60 primers were used to subtype (programming) subtype - If S is a subtype of T then an expression of type S may be used anywhere that one of type T can and an implicit type conversion will be applied to convert it to type T. cider samples (9).
We identified 23 laboratory-confirmed and 121 probable case-patients with onset dates from September 3 to November 19, 2003 (Figure); the first cider-related case occurred September 22. The median patient age was 20 years (range 1-80). The median incubation period was 7 days (range 1-21), and median period of diarrhea was 7 days (range 3 52). Two patients were hospitalized and none died.
In study 1, we enrolled 19 laboratory-confirmed case-patients and 38 age-matched, community-based controls. Twelve of 19 case-patients, but 0 of 38 controls, had drunk cider A. Although the matched odds ratio (OR) for this association was incalculably high, the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 5.6. Although 3 other exposures were also associated with illness by univariate analysis (Table), only drinking cider A was associated with illness in a conditional logistic regression model that included all of these exposures (estimated OR 14.0, 95% CI 1.8 167).
In study 2, we enrolled 402 persons who participated in outings at which cider A was served. Thirty-three (10%) of the 329 persons who drank cider A became ill, while only 2 (3%) of 73 who did not drink cider A became ill (adjusted relative risk 4.7, 95% CI 1.2-18.1). Only drinking cider A remained significantly associated with illness in a multivariate logistic regression model that included 4 other exposures that increased risk in univariate analysis (estimated OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-26.6).
No employees from the orchard or the separate cider pressing facility reported diarrhea from September 1 to November 7, 2003 (date of interview). The water supply for both was negative for Cryptosporidium; employees used "few" dropped apples for cider production. During production, an ozonating apparatus (Golden Buffalo Company, Orange, CA, USA) was used to treat the cider, which was then stored in refrigerated tanks. Most cider was ozonated a second time, then sold in plastic jugs onsite and at nearby grocery stores. Remaining cider was sold through a tap in the orchard's store. In contrast to jugged cider, this cider was not reozonated.
We performed a Cryptosporidium PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction.
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on all 14 available samples from the laboratory-confirmed case-patients. Twelve (85.7%) of these were PCR positive; 11 of these 12 samples were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum and 1 as the cervine cer·vine
Relating to, resembling, or characteristic of deer.
[Latin cerv Cryptosporidium genotype (W4). Subtype identification of stool samples yielded 2 closely related C. parvum subtypes (IIaA15G2R G2R Got to Run 1 and IIaA17G2R1).
The remaining contents of a jug of cider A that a laboratory-confirmed case-patient had partially drunk were also positive by PCR for C. parvum subtype IIaA17G2R1. This case-patient's stool sample yielded the same subtype of C. parvum, as did 4 other case-patients' stool samples; all of these persons drank cider A in the 2 weeks before illness onset.
Our investigation strongly implicates cider A as the cause of this outbreak. The timing of cider A production closely paralleled the outbreak, and drinking cider A was the only predictor significantly associated with illness in both univariate and multivariate analyses of both epidemiologic studies. Furthermore, detection of C. parvum subtype IIaA17G2R1 from the sample of partially drunk cider A from a laboratory-confirmed case-patient provided further evidence of this link.
The 2 C. parvum subtypes found in this outbreak likely represent a common contamination source; both are common in cattle, and multiple subtypes are commonly found on farms (10). This outbreak highlights the need for continued development of molecular biologic methods because these techniques will be useful to identify and define future Cryptosporidium outbreaks and supplement epidemiologic associations.
An issue raised by this outbreak is the role of ozonation in the treatment of apple cider. New regulations (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point [HACCP HACCP
hazard analysis critical control points. ] standards) enacted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA FDA
Food and Drug Administration
n.pr See Food and Drug Administration.
n.pr the abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration. ) in 2001 (11) require juice manufacturers to demonstrate a 5-log reduction of "the most resistant microorganism microorganism /mi·cro·or·gan·ism/ (-or´gah-nizm) a microscopic organism; those of medical interest include bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. of public health significance" in their production process.
Because this is the third reported Cryptosporidium outbreak related to unpasteurized Adj. 1. unpasteurized - not having undergone pasteurization
unpasteurised apple cider (1,2), whatever sterilization procedure is used must be effective against Cryptosporidium. Although pasteurization pasteurization (păs'chrĭzā`shən, -rīzā`shən), partial sterilization of liquids such as milk, orange juice, wine, and beer, as well as cheese, to destroy kills Cryptosporidium oocysts (12), no data exist on the use of ozonation against Cryptosporidium in food or juice products, where turbidity turbidity /tur·bid·i·ty/ (ter-bid´i-te) cloudiness; disturbance of solids (sediment) in a solution, so that it is not clear.tur´bid
The cloudiness or lack of transparency of a solution. and low temperature render ozonation less effective (13,14). Furthermore, ozonation is difficult to standardize because effectiveness depends on contact time and concentration.
The consideration of ozonation is important because effective disinfection disinfection,
n the process of destroying pathogenic organisms or rendering them inert.
disinfection, full oral cavity,
n a procedure used to reduce active periodontal disease, usually completed within a certain short time frame. would have prevented the outbreak unless contamination occurred at the final step before distribution. Furthermore, of the 12 ill persons in the case-control study who drank cider A, 6 drank once-ozonated cider and 6 drank twice-ozonated cider, suggesting that even repeated ozonation was inadequate to kill Cryptosporidium. The failure of ozone could have been due to an inherent inadequacy for killing Cryptosporidium in apple cider or improper use; either possibility emphasizes the problems with ozonation in this setting and the need for further testing before its use is accepted.
Given the paucity of evidence supporting ozonation for apple cider disinfection or for killing Cryptosporidium in this product, and its apparent failure in this outbreak, the FDA issued an addendum to its HACCP rule (15). This addendum advises that juice makers should not use ozone in their manufacturing process unless they can prove a 5-log pathogen reduction through ozonation. To our knowledge, no studies have established this reduction to date.
We thank Ling Zhou and Jianlin Jiang for performing much of the molecular biological laboratory work and Paul DePasquale, Jane Dancy danc·y also danc·ey
adj. danc·i·er, danc·i·est Informal
Suitable for or inviting dancing; danceable: dancy music. , Susan Kovach, Cheryl Long, Betty Matecheck, and Christina R. Henning for assisting with the epidemiologic and environmental investigation.
Dr Blackburn is currently a clinical assistant professor of infectious diseases at Stanford University. He performed this work while an Epidemic Intelligence Service The Epidemic Intelligence Service is a program of the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Established in 1951 due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War, it has become a hands-on two-year postgraduate training program in epidemiology, with officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. . His research interests include cryptosporidiosis, schistosomiasis schistosomiasis (shĭs`təsōmī`əsĭs), bilharziasis, or snail fever, parasitic disease caused by blood flukes, trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma. , and strongyloidiasis strongyloidiasis /stron·gy·loi·di·a·sis/ (stron?ji-loi-di´ah-sis) infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. In the small intestine it causes mucosal ulceration and diarrhea. In the lungs it causes hemorrhaging. in refugee populations; angiostrongyliasis; and use of insecticide-treated bed nets to control malaria and lymphatic lymphatic /lym·phat·ic/ (lim-fat´ik)
1. pertaining to lymph or to a lymphatic vessel.
2. a lymphatic vessel.
adj. filariasis filariasis: see elephantiasis. .
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Overcast; threatening. CJ, Chalmers RM, Sulaiman I, Elwin K, et al. Three drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, Northern Ireland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:631-3.
(6.) Da Silva AJ, Bornay-Llinares FJ, Moura IN, Slemenda SB, Tuttle JL, Pieniazek NJ. Fast and reliable extraction of protozoan parasite DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
or deoxyribonucleic acid
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The scientific study of parasites and of parasitism. Parasitism is a subdivision of symbiosis and is defined as an intimate association between an organism (parasite) and another, larger species of organism (host) upon which the parasite is . 2000;120:237-44.
(8.) US Environmental Protection Agency. Method 1623: Cryptosporidium and Giardia Giardia /Gi·ar·dia/ (je-ahr´de-ah) a genus of flagellate protozoa parasitic in the intestinal tract of humans and other animals, which may cause giardiasis; G. lam´blia (G. intestina´lis) is the species found in humans. in water by filtration/IMS/FA. Publication no. EPA-821-R-99-006. Office of Water. Washington: The Agency; 1999.
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(15.) US Food and Drug Administration/CFSAN. Guidance for industry: recommendations to processors of apple juice or cider on the use of ozone for pathogen reduction purposes, 2004 Aug. [cited 2005 May 24]. Available from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/juicgu12.html
Brian G. Blackburn, * (1) Jacek M. Mazurek, * ([dagger]) (2) Michele Hlavsa, * ([double dagger]) Jean Park, * Matt Tillapaw, ([section]) MaryKay Parrish, ([dagger]) Ellen Salehi, ([dagger]) William Franks, ([section]) Elizabeth Koch, ([dagger]) Forrest Smith, ([dagger]) Lihua Xiao, * Michael Arrowood, * Vince Hill, * Alex da Silva, * Stephanie Johnston, * and Jeffrey L. Jones *
* Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ([dagger]) Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA; ([double dagger]) Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and ([section]) Stark County Health Department, Canton, Ohio, USA
(1) Current affiliation: Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine is affiliated with Stanford University and is located at Stanford University Medical Center in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and Menlo Park. , Stanford, California, USA
(2) Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
Address for correspondence: Brian G. Blackburn, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr, Grant Building, Room S-169, Stanford, CA 94305-5107, USA; fax: 650-723-3474; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table. Association of selected exposures to cryptosporidiosis from drinking of ozonated apple cider, Ohio, 2003 * Cases (n = 19), No. Exposure exposed/total (%) Drinking cider A 12/19 (63)# Eating apples from orchard A 4/19 (21)# Eating green onions 0/19 (0) Eating lettuce or garden salads 9/18 (50) Eating raw berries 0/19 (0) Drinking cider other than cider A 9/19 (47) Drinking unfiltered tap water at home 12/19 (63) Drinking well water at home 6/18 (33) Swimming in recreational water 1/19 (5) Household contact in day care 1/19 (5) Household contact with diarrhea 12/19 (63)# Travel >50 miles from home 7/19 (37) Contact with any animal 14/19 (74) Contact with cattle 6/19 (32)# Controls (n = 38), No. Exposure exposed/total (%) Drinking cider A 0/38 (0)# Eating apples from orchard A 0/38 (0)# Eating green onions 6/37 (16) Eating lettuce or garden salads 26/38 (68) Eating raw berries 9/38 (24) Drinking cider other than cider A 9/37 (24) Drinking unfiltered tap water at home 17/37 (46) Drinking well water at home 11/38 (29) Swimming in recreational water 7/38 (18) Household contact in day care 4/37 (11) Household contact with diarrhea 7/38 (18)# Travel >50 miles from home 12/38 (32) Contact with any animal 33/38 (87) Contact with cattle 3/38 (8)# Exposure MOR 95% CI Drinking cider A -- Lower limit 5.6# ([dagger]) Eating apples from orchard A -- Lower limit 1.3# ([dagger]) Eating green onions 0 -- Eating lettuce or garden salads 0.6 0.2-1.6 Eating raw berries 0 -- Drinking cider other than cider A 3.3 0.9-11.6 Drinking unfiltered tap water at home 2.3 0.7-8.1 Drinking well water at home 1.1 0.4-3.6 Swimming in recreational water 0.3 0.03-2.2 Household contact in day care 0.3 0.02-5.3 Household contact with diarrhea 5.3 1.5-18.4# Travel >50 miles from home 1.3 0.4-4.9 Contact with any animal 0.4 0.08-1.7 Contact with cattle 5.5 1.1-28.4# Note: Significant values are indicated with #. * MOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. Significant values are in boldface. ([dagger]) Exact one-sided 95% CI.