Army JTAC training--the way ahead.As the Army transforms, one of the key challenges will be to train and qualify a core of Soldiers to employ joint surface-to-surface and air-to-surface supporting fires. These personnel will be integral to the Army's new modular organizations and must be skilled in delivering artillery, naval surface fire support Fire provided by Navy surface gun and missile systems in support of a unit or units. Also called NSFS. See also fire support. (NSFS NSFS Naval Surface Fire Support
NSFS Name System File System
NSFS Nullsoft Full Screen
NSFS Nist Smart File System ), attack helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft "Airplane" and "Aeroplane" redirect here. For other uses, see Airplane (disambiguation).
A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. , the latter providing close air support (CAS).
As the Chief of Staff of the Army stated in the white paper, "An Army at War--A Campaign Quality Army with a Joint and Expeditionary ex·pe·di·tion·ar·y
1. Relating to or constituting an expedition.
2. Sent on or designed for military operations abroad: the French expeditionary force in Indochina.
Adj. 1. Mindset mind·set or mind-set
1. A fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person's responses to and interpretations of situations.
2. An inclination or a habit. " (March 2004). "All of our modular solutions depend on enabling even our smallest combat formations to leverage joint fires Fires produced during the employment of forces from two or more components in coordinated action toward a common objective. See also fires. through ... 'joint effects control teams.' To facilitate more effective employment of close air support in a noncontiguous battlespace, we need universal standards for observation, designation and target acquisition."
Effective 3 September 2003 with the publishing of Joint Publication (JP) 309.3 Tactics. Techniques and Procedures (TTP TTP (thymidine triphosphate): see thymine. ) for Close Air Support, the joint community codified cod·i·fy
tr.v. cod·i·fied, cod·i·fy·ing, cod·i·fies
1. To reduce to a code: codify laws.
2. To arrange or systematize. the requirements for an individual to direct the actions of combat aircraft engaged in CAS and other air operations. This position, called a "joint terminal attack controller A qualified (certified) Service member who, from a forward position, directs the action of combat aircraft engaged in close air support and other offensive air operations. A qualified and current joint terminal attack controller will be recognized across the Department of Defense as ," or JTAC JTAC Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (UK)
JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller
JTAC Joint Tactical Air Controller
JTAC Joint Technical Advisory Committee
JTAC Joint Tactical Augmentation Cell , was created to standardize the certification and qualification process for terminal attack controllers to ensure a common capability across the services. The Army needs to develop Soldiers who, from a forward position, can deliver joint indirect fires and direct the actions of joint combat aircraft The Joint Combat Aircraft (JCA) is the official designation of the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence used for the F-35 Lightning II, formerly the Joint Strike Fighter, and the result of the Joint Strike Fighter competition. engaged in operations in close proximity to friendly forces.
The training and development requirements set forth in JP 3-09.3 and the soon-to-be-signed JTAC Memorandum of Agreement A memorandum of agreement (MOA) or cooperative agreement is a document written between parties to cooperatively work together on an agreed upon project or meet an agreed upon objective. The purpose of an MOA is to have a written understanding of the agreement between parties. (MOA moa (mō`ə) [Maori], common name for an extinct flightless bird of New Zealand related to the kiwi, the emu, the cassowary, and the ostrich. The various species ranged in size from that of a turkey to the 10-ft (3-m) Dinornis giganteus. ) between the Army and Air Force are clear: a JTAC candidate must complete the service academic and practical training requirements of a core JTAC curriculum and undergo a comprehensive evaluation.
To begin training Army JTACs, we will have to leverage one of the established JTAC schools: the Air Ground Operations School (AGOS) at Nellis AFB AFB
AFB Acid-fast bacillus, also 1. Aflatoxin B 2. Aorto-femoral bypass , Nevada; Expeditionary Warfare Expeditionary warfare is used to describe the organistion of a nations military to fight abroad, especially when deployed to fight away from its established bases at home or abroad. Training Group Atlantic Fleet A number of countries currently have or previously had an Atlantic Fleet in their navies.
1. Biology Living or able to live both on land and in water.
2. Able to operate both on land and in water: amphibious tanks.
3. Base, Virginia; USMC Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Pacific Fleet (EWTGPAC EWTGPAC Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Pacific ) at Coronado Naval Amphibious Base, California; and the Naval Strike Air Warfare air warfare
Military operations conducted by airplanes, helicopters, or other aircraft against aircraft or targets on the ground and in the water. Air warfare did not become important until World War I (1914–18). Center (NSAWC NSAWC Naval Strike Air Warfare Center ) at Fallon Naval Air Station A Naval Air Station is an airbase of the United States Navy. Such bases are used to house Naval Aviation squadrons and support commands. List of Functioning US Naval Air Stations
The Army must establish a standardization program, build an Army JTAC curriculum, identify the Army candidates to become JTACs, equip Army JTACs and provide resources to the school that will train Army JTACs. This article addresses those requirements for creating a core of Army JTACs--which is the way ahead.
Army JTAC Standardization Program. Before the Army qualifies its first JTAC, we must have a document that establishes the regulatory requirements for Army JTACs. At a minimum, it must address personnel entry qualifications; content and maintenance of individual JTAC training records; the certification, qualification, currency and proficiency training to attain and maintain JTAC status; and the process to be certified as a JTAC instructor. The document must be similar to the "Air Force Instruction 13-112 Terminal Attack Controller Training Program" to ensure consistency of JTAC training and development cross the services and provide the appropriate policies and responsibilities to enable Army JTAC training.
Army JTAC Curriculum. The curriculums at the four established school-houses train personnel who are already familiar with CAS operations and the terminal control of CAS aircraft. These are Air Force enlisted terminal attack controllers Tactical air party member who assists in mission planning and provides final control of close air support aircraft in support of ground forces. Also called ETAC. See also close air support; mission; terminal. (ETACs) and special tactics team personnel; Marine Corps flight officers serving as ground forward air controllers (FACs); Navy Sea, Air and Land (SEAL) personnel; and Air Force. Navy and Marine Corps forward air controllers (airborne), called FAC FAC - Functional Array Calculator. An APL-like language, but purely functional and lazy. It allows infinite arrays.
["FAC: A Functional APL Language", H.-C. Tu and A.J. Perlis, IEEE Trans Soft Eng 3(1):36-45 (Jan 1986)]. (As).
Currently, none of these curriculums are sufficient to qualify Army JTAC to serve as a terminal air controller. We must create a new curriculum to supplement the Army JTAC candidate's knowledge in the CAS mission area.
Terminal Attack Controller's Course (TACC TACC Total Allowable Commercial Catch (fisheries management)
TACC Tanker/Airlift Control Center
TACC Texas Association of Community Colleges (Austin, Texas)
TACC Tracking and Control Center ). This three-week course at AGOS provides academic and hands-on instruction to Air Force JTAC candidates. The training consists of classroom instruction on service doctrine, the theater air-ground system (TAGS), CAS mission planning and control, integrated combat airspace command and control, aircraft capabilities and limitations, weapons effects, suppression of enemy air defenses That activity which neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades surface-based enemy air defenses by destructive and/or disruptive means. Also called SEAD. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare. (SEAD SEAD Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses
SEAD Salzburg Experimental Academy of Dance (Salzburg, Austria)
SEAD Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector (routing protocol)
SEAD Seneca Army Depot ) and other subjects. It also provides simulation training in terminal control, as well as a minimum of four live, graded controls at the National Training center (NTC NTC Notice
NTC National Training Center
NTC National Telecommunications Commission
NTC National Transport Commission (Australia)
NTC Negative Temperature Coefficient
NTC Naval Training Center ), Fort Irwin, California.
But TACC is only one part of a three-part training regimen for Air Force JTACs. Air Force JTAC candidates progress from Initial Qualification Training (home station and TACC) through Mission Qualification Training (home station) to Combat Mission Ready status. The Air Force JTAC receives his home station training under the supervision of a terminal air control instructor (TAC-I) during both Initial and Mission Qualification Training in accordance with the tasks listed in "Air Force Instruction 13-112" (See Figure 1 on Page 52). The Air Force JTAC eventually is rated as Combat Mission Ready when he passes a formal performance evaluation Performance evaluation
The assessment of a manager's results, which involves, first, determining whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return conducted by a TAC-I and is signed off on by the JTAC's unit commander signs.
Army JTAC Qualification Course (JTACQC). TACC provides an excellent core of instruction for the eventual qualification of an Army JTAC. With the addition of two weeks of training, TACC can provide the foundation for a JTACQC.
The Army Joint Support Team-Nellis has developed a plan to train Army JTACs at AGOS (see Figure 2 on Page 53). This proposal has four phases: Phase I Initial Certification Training, Phase II Certification Training, Phase III Noun 1. phase III - a large clinical trial of a treatment or drug that in phase I and phase II has been shown to be efficacious with tolerable side effects; after successful conclusion of these clinical trials it will receive formal approval from the FDA Advanced Certification Training and Phase IV Mission Qualification Evaluation. In accordance with the proposal, the Army JTAC will be fully mission qualified after he completes the training and passes a formal performance evaluation by a TAC-I, as "signed off" by the Army JTAC's unit commander.
* Phase I Initial Certification Training certifies an Army JTAC in basic controller duties and validates his ability to serve as an Army JTAC. The training consists of five days of introductory academics at AGOS on the tasks listed in Figure 2 as well as supervised simulated CAS controls provided by a TAC-I. Completing Phase I to standard is mandatory for advancing to Phase II. This first week of training provides the knowledge base required for TACC in Phase II.
* Phase II Certification Training consists of the three-week TACC at AGOS. This teaches the Army JTAC the joint mission tasks associated with the CAS mission area and provides the fundamentals for planning and executing CAS operations. This phase uses the indirect fire and forward air control trainer (I-FACT) simulator to provide hands-on training in calls-for-fire and terminal control procedures. It also includes four supervised live controls at the NTC. Successful completion of Phase II is mandatory for Phase III.
* Phase III Advanced Certification Training certifies an individual as an Army JTAC. It consists of one week of advanced classroom instruction and field academics coupled with additional supervised and graded live and simulated terminal attack control missions conducted at AGOS and the NTC.
It focuses on CAS practical exercises (PEs) using I-FACT. The PEs are comprehensive training on CAS planning, coordination and execution and designed to have Army JTAC candidates demonstrate the correct TTP for various types of CAS controls. The PEs also allow the Army JTAC candidate to rehearse a mission before conducting it live.
In addition to the advanced PEs, the Army JTAC candidates conduct eight supervised live controls using both fixed-and rotary-wing aircraft ro·ta·ry-wing aircraft
A rotorcraft. in all three control types.
* Phase IV Mission Qualification Evaluation at home station are conducted by Air Force TAC-Is from the local Air Force air support operations squadron (ASOS ASOS Automated Surface Observing System
ASOS As Seen on Screen (fashion clothing site)
ASOS Air Support Operations Squadron (USAF)
ASOS A Saucerful of Secrets (Pink Floyd album) ) until the Army can qualify TAC-Is (takes two or more years). In the absence of a standardization and evaluation capability within the Army, Army JTACs will depend on Air Force TAC-Is to provide any additional training as part of the local "top off" and eventual rating as fully mission qualified.
After the Army JTAC candidate completes a unit training program developed in conjunction with the local ASOS, the ASOS' standardization and qualification section administers the formal performance evaluation and provides the Army JTAC's commander a recommendation that as to whether or not he should sign off that the Army JTAC is fully mission qualified.
At this point, if the commander signs off, then the candidate is an Army JTAC, fully qualified to perform unsupervised terminal attack control of CAS missions.
Army JTAC Personnel. The Army must identify the personnel to perform the terminal control function. The Army Joint Support Team-Nellis recommends that the Army use an already established military occupational specialty A Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) is a job classification in use in the United States Army and Marine Corps. The occupational specialty system uses a system of letters and numbers to identify general and specific jobs of military personnel. (MOS (1) (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) See MOSFET.
(2) (Mean Opinion Score) The quality of a digitized voice line. It is a subjective measurement that is derived entirely by people listening to the calls and scoring the results from ). The logical choice is the FA 13F Fire Support Specialist. Already trained in delivering artillery and naval surface fires, 13Fs have the requisite base of knowledge and, more importantly, are best located on the battlefield to control CAS.
However, because we will not "grow". Army JTACs out of 13F basic training and through their initial utilization tours, we have to establish minimum entry standards to offset the Soldiers' lack of experience in the CAS mission area.
The Army Joint Support Team-Nellis has developed proposed standards for individuals to become Army JTAC candidates. Unit commanders designate 13Fs or specified 18 series (special operations Operations conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to achieve military, diplomatic, informational, and/or economic objectives employing military capabilities for which there is no broad conventional force requirement. ) for entry into Phase I JTAC training who are at least staff sergeant staff sergeant
a. Abbr. SSG A noncommissioned rank in the U.S. Army that is above sergeant and below sergeant first class.
b. Abbr. SSgt A noncommissioned rank in the U.S. (or above) and serving in an operational company, battalion, brigade or regiment, to include Ranger and Special Operations Forces Those Active and Reserve Component forces of the Military Services designated by the Secretary of Defense and specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called SOF. (SOF SOF
sound on film ), or an organization that provides direct support to ground maneuver forces. The individual must have a minimum of 48 months of operational experience in his duty MOS and have served a minimum of 12 months as a company fire support NCO NCO
NCO noncommissioned officer
NCO n abbr (Mil) (= noncommissioned officer) → Uffz. (FSNCO FSNCO Flight Safety Non-Commissioned Officer ), combat observation lasing team (COLT) chief or as a member of an operational detachment alpha (OD-A). In addition, the 13F JTAC candidate must have a minimum of a Secret clearance, normal color vision Color vision
The ability to discriminate light on the basis of wavelength composition. It is found in humans, in other primates, and in certain species of birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects. , vision correctable to 20/20, a General Test (GT) score of at least 105 and an English comprehension of Level III or higher.
Once the Army JTAC candidate completes Phase II of the JTAC training, he must serve in a JTAC-coded position with a minimum of two years' retainability.
If the Army creates a "universal observer" who provides targeting information and terminal guidance rather than terminal control, then the optimum progression would be from universal observer to JTAC, if the universal observer meets the minimum entry requirements.
Equipping the Army JTAC. Performing the CAS control mission will require more than just an FM radio. The Army JTAC will need a communications suite that provides both voice and data in UHF (Ultra High Frequency) The range of electromagnetic frequencies from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. In the U.S., analog television has used UHF channels 52 to 69 in the 700 MHz band. , VHF (Very High Frequency) The range of electromagnetic frequencies from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. , HF plus satellite communications (SATCOM (SATellite COMmunication) Refers to the field of communications via satellite. ). He will need target acquisition, marking and coordinate generation capabilities and interoperable information management tools that will expedite and increase the accuracy of air power and maintain situational awareness Situation awareness or situational awareness  (SA) is the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in .
Although the Army is lagging in determining what equipment is required, both the Air Force and Marine Corps have equipment proposals the Army could leverage. In the end, if the Army wants to develop JTACs, then it will have to commit to providing the appropriate equipment for the mission.
Army Resource Support for AGOS. The Army will have to dedicate personnel and other resources to conduct Army JTAC training at AGOS. The small contingent of Army personnel in Army Joint Support Team-Nellis at AGOS (three instructors) are not qualified as TAC-Is.
With a student-to-teacher ratio of 3:1, AGOS can train 12 Air Force JTACs per course. For AGOS to increase the throughput of both Army and Air Force JTACs from 12 to 24 (assuming the Air Force continues to train 12 JTACs and the Army trains 12) the Army will have to provide, at a minimum, four additional instructors. With the addition of four 13F30/40s who would be trained as JTACs and, with a waiver from the Commander of Joint Force Command (JFCOM JFCOM Joint Forces Command (formerly ACOM change effective 1 Oct 99) ), qualified as TAC-Is, AGOS could sustain the student-to-teacher ratio and meet the student training requirements in less than six months.
For an Army JTAC to leave AGOS certified after Phase III, the JTAC candidate must conduct 12 live, graded controls successfully. As defined in the pending JTAC MOA, a "control" consists of at least one aircraft attacking a surface target. The control begins with a CAS briefing (9-line is the JP 3-09.3 standard) from a JTAC and ends with either an actual or simulated weapons release or an abort (1) To exit a function or application without saving any data that has been changed.
(2) To stop a transmission.
(programming) abort - To terminate a program or process abnormally and usually suddenly, with or without diagnostic information. on the final attack run. No more than two controls can be counted per CAS briefing per target.
Based on Air Force Instruction 13-112's definition of "controls," AGOS currently counts one 9-line briefing as one control, regardless of the number of aircraft attacking the target on the same briefing. The JTAC MOA's definition could effectively double the number of controls for JTAC students for every two or more aircraft attacking per 9-line briefing.
Using the 13-112's definition and based on the average number of controls provided by two aircraft attacking per 9-line briefing and the average control attrition per TACC student. AGOS currently must provide 17 aircraft, or 34 sorties, for every 10 students to achieve four successful controls.
Applying the more lenient JTAC MOA criteria for a control and based on the same number of aircraft per 9-line briefing and JTAC student control attrition, AGOS would have to provide nine aircraft, or 18 sorties, for every 10 students to achieve four successful controls.
But even applying the more lenient control definition, the total number of sorties available still is insufficient to certify Army JTACs in the required 12 controls. The additional week of training for Army JTACs would allow them to use existing sorties and help offset the delta, but in the end, AGOS will need additional resources for this training proposal to work.
An important component of this training proposal is our ability to leverage Army aviation to help train JTACs at AGOS. Although the Army doesn't conduct CAS operations with its rotary-wing fleet, it does perform close combat attack (CCA (1) (Common Cryptographic Architecture) Cryptography software from IBM for MVS and DOS applications.
(2) (Compatible Communications A ) operations using the same established procedures, e.g., the 9-line brief. If we want Army aircrews to be able to receive a 9-line from any JTAC on the battlefield and conduct attacks consistent with that information and, at the same time, develop JTACs (Army or Air Force) who can direct the actions of rotary-wing aircraft from a forward position, then logic dictates we train those personnel at the same time. Using Army rotary-wing aircraft to train JTACs provides resources for AGOS to train Army JTACs and develops more capable Air Force JTACs--a win-win situation for both services.
With the addition of four AH-64s or OH-58Ds helicopters to AGOS training, we not only would meet the requirements for training Army JTACs, but also provide joint synergy to better train Army aircrews and Air Force JTACS.
If we used Army rotary-wing aircraft for four of the 12 required controls, a JTAC candidate would only require eight fixed-wing controls. Eight fixed wing controls means AGOS would need 104 controls, which equates to about 18 flights of two aircraft, or 36 sorties. That is roughly the equivalent of what AGOS currently receives.
However, for this proposal to work, we must adjust the JTAC MOA to mandate a minimum of eight fixed-wing controls and four rotary-wing controls (vice the 12 fixed-wing controls) for certification.
This change remains consistent with the proposed JTAC MOA's "Joint Mission Task List" for providing terminal air control for CAS missions: "Control day/night/adverse weather CAS missions fixed- and/or rotary-wing in support of the ground maneuver plan" (Duty Area 7. Subparagraphs 7.1 and 7.2). More importantly, this proposal falls within the intent of the JTAC MOA's creation of a common standard for training JTACs across all services.
In an environment where the US armed services The Constitution authorizes Congress to raise, support, and regulate armed services for the national defense. The President of the United States is commander in chief of all the branches of the services and has ultimate control over most military matters. are seeking joint interdependence, the training program for JTACs could serve as a model. Ultimately, if we want to train Army JTACs at AGOS, the Army will have to reach into it rotary-wing fleet to make the training happen.
There is no joint mission area more contentions than CAS, so the expectation exists that many who read this article will disagree vehemently. However, for those who find issue, or for that matter, for those who agree, the intent of this article is to show just one way ahead for developing Soldiers who can safely and effectively employ joint surface-to-surface and air-to-surface supporting fires for the ground force.
Warfare is changing rapidly, and we must understand that jointness is the future. As Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld stated in his testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee The term Armed Services Committee could refer to:
In the end, Army JTACs only will supplement, not eliminate, the requirement for Air Force air power experts--Air Force air liaison officers The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. An air liaison officer is usually an aeronautically rated officer. Also called ALO. See also liaison. (ALOs) and ETACs. These personnel will remain the cornerstone for planning and executing CAS in support of the ground commander's scheme of maneuver Description of how arrayed forces will accomplish the commander's intent. It is the central expression of the commander's concept for operations and governs the design of supporting plans or annexes. .
However, fully mission capable Army JTACs will provide the Army an additional capability as well as increase the overall effectiveness of the tactical air control party A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft. Also called TACP. (TACP TACP Tactical Command Post
TACP Technical Analysis of Cost Proposal
TACP Tactical Air Control Party/Post
TACP Theater Ammunition Control Point
TACP Theater Air Control Party
TACP Technology Assessment and Control Plan
TACP Tetramine Copper Perchlorate ) and air power in general.
Training Item Phase I Phase II 1. CAS Mission Preparation a. Mission Planning B 3c b. ATO Information B 3c c. Weather B 3c d. Range Procedures B 3c e. Equipment Preparation B 3c f. Airspace Requirements B 3c 2. Target Analysis a. Target Suitability B 3c b. Identification B 3c c. Description B 3c 3. Aircraft Weapons and Tactics a. Air to Ground Weapons and Effects B C b. CAS Aircraft Capabilities and Tactics B C 4. Ground to Air Threats B C 5. Mission Coordination a. S2 B 3c b. S3 B 3c c. FSE/NGF LNO B 3c d. Aviation LNO B 3c e. ADA LNO B 3c f. Ground Commander B 3c g. Other Agencies B 3c 6. CAS Integration a. Ground Maneuver 1b 3c b. Surface Fire Support 1b 3c c. Localized SEAD 1b 3c d. Attack Helicopters A 3c e. JSTARS 1b 3c f. Joint/Combined [C.sup.2] Integration A B g. ISR Integration (UAV and Rivet) A B h. SOF Operations A B i. ADA and IADS 1b 3c 7. Develop CAS Briefing a. 5/6/9/15-Line Brief Requirements 1b 3c b. Additional Remarks 1b 3c 8. Initial Contact B 3c a. FAC(A)/TAC Interface A b b. Mission Check-In 1a 3c 9. Marking B C a. Target with Indirect Fire A B b. Target with Laser A B c. Target with IR Systems A 2b d. Friendly Locations B 3c 10. Final Attack Control B 3c a. Day 1a 3c b. Night-Visual 3c c. Night System Aided 3c d. Night-NVD 3c e. Ordnance Selection and Adjustment 1a 3c (Live Mission) f. Clearance (Dry or Live) 1a 3c g. Abort Procedures 1a 3c h. Minimum Safe Distances A C i. Attack Headings/Angles 1a 3c 11. Post Attack Procedures 1a 3c 12. TAC a. TAC Mission #1 1a 2b b. TAC Mission #2 1a 2b c. TAC Mission #3 1a 2b d. TAC Mission #4 2b 3c Legend: ADA = Air Defense Artillery ATO = Air Tasking Order [C.sup.2] = Command and Control FAC(A) = Forward Air Controller Airborne FSE = Fire Support Element IADS = Integrated Air Defense System IR = Infrared ISR = Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance JSTARS = Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System LNO = Liaison Officer NGF = Naval Gunfire NVD = Night-Vision Device SEAD = Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses SOF = Special Operations Forces UAV = Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Standard Level Value The Individual- 1 Needs to be told or shown how to do most of the task. (Limited) Task 2 Needs help only on the hardest parts. (Partially Proficient) Performance 3 Needs only spot checks of completed work. (Competent) 4 Can tell or show others how to do the task. (Highly Proficient) a Can name parts, tools and simple facts about the task. (Nomenclature) Task b Can determine step-by-step procedures for doing the task. (Procedures) Knowledge c Can identify why and when the task must be done and why each step is needed. (Principles) d Can predict, isolate and resolve problems about the task. (Advance Theory) A Can identify basic facts and terms about the subject. (Facts) Subject B Can identify relationships of basic facts and state general principles about the subject. (Principles) Knowledge C Can analyze facts and principles and draw conclusions about the subject. (Analysis) D Can evaluate conditions and make proper decisions about the subject. (Evaluation) Figure 1: Air Force JTACs receive Mission Qualification Training on these tasks (to the standards indicated) at home station under the supervision of a TAC instructor. (Taken from Table 2.1 of the "Air Force Instruction 13-112 Terminal Attack Controller Training Program.") 1 Week 3 Weeks 1 Week Army JTAC Qualification Course Air Force Terminal Attack Controller Course (TACC) Phase I Phase II Phase III Initial Certification Certification Training Advanced Certification Training Training * Introduction to JP * Theater Air Ground * CAS Mission Planning 3-09.3 System * Joint * MDMP * Artillery Call-For-Fire OperationalGraphics * Communications * JSEAD * Terminal Control Systems * Radio Procedures * J-Laser -Day/Night/Adverse Weather * GPS Operations * Artillery -Fixed-& Cali-For-Fire Rotary-Wing/AC-130 Training * Hand-Held Targeting * Advanced Aircraft -Laser/CDW Devices Capabilities * Fixed- and * Advanced Aircraft -JAAT Rotary-WingAircraft Weapons Capabilities * CAS Mission Planning * Live/Simulated CAS Controls * Aircraft Weapons * Terminal Control * CAS Mission * Live/Simulated CAS Planning Controls * Simulated CAS Controls (Supervised) Written Exam 2 Written Exams and 1 Evaluation Evaluation Legend: CDW = Coordinate Dependent Weapon GPS = Global Positioning System JAAT = Joint Air Attack Team J-Laser = Joint Laser JP 3-09.3 = Joint Pub 3-09.3 Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for CAS JSEAD = Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses MDMP = Military Decision-Making Process Figure 2: Proposed Five-Week Training Program for Army JTACs.
By Lieutenant Colonel Steven P. Milliron. AV
Lieutenant Colonel Steven P. Milliron, Army Aviation (AV), is the Commandant of the Army Joint Support Team-Nellis, the Army Liaison Officer to the Air Force Air-Ground Operations School (AGOS) at Nellis AFB, Nevada. He is responsible for the Army academics that support AGOS' Terminal Attack Controller Course (TACC), Air Liaison Officer Qualification Course and the Joint Firepower Course. His previous assignments include serving as the Executive Officer of the 6th Cavalry Brigade and S3 of the 3d Squadron, 6th Cavalry, both in Korea. He commanded three troops: D Troop, 3d Squadron, 1st Cavalry at Fort Polk Fort Polk, U.S. army post, 200,000 acres (80,937 hectares), SW La.; est. 1941 and named for the Rev. Leonidas Polk. It is a major army warm-weather training center. , Louisiana, and D and F Troops in the 2d Squadron, 1st Cavalry, Fort Hood Fort Hood, U.S. army post, 209,000 acres (84,580 hectares), central Tex., near Killeen; est. 1942 on the site of old Fort Gates and named for Confederate Gen. John Hood. It is one of the army's largest installations and a major employer of the area. , Texas. He is a graduate of the Command and General Staff College The Command and General Staff College (C&GSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a United States Army facility that functions as a graduate school for U.S. military leaders. It was originally established in 1881 as a school for infantry and cavalry. at Fort Leavenworth Fort Leavenworth (lĕv`ənwûrth'), U.S. military post, 6,000 acres (2,430 hectares), on the Missouri River, NE Kans., NW of Leavenworth; est. 1827 by Col. Henry Leavenworth to protect travelers on the Santa Fe Trail. The oldest U.S. , Kansas.