An alternative vision of librarianship: James Danky and the sociocultural politics of collection development.
The work of James P. Danky, longtime librarian at the Wisconsin Historical Society The Wisconsin Historical Society is simultaneously a private membership and a state-funded organization whose purpose is to maintain, promote and spread knowledge relating to the history of North America, with an emphasis on the state of Wisconsin and the trans-Allegheny West. , is situated within the intellectual context of collection-development practices. Danky's belief in the value of alternative periodicals--and the lengths that he went to identify and acquire them--may be interpreted as a rejection of increasingly mechanical and generic ways to develop library collections. Reliance on centralized cen·tral·ize
v. cen·tral·ized, cen·tral·iz·ing, cen·tral·iz·es
1. To draw into or toward a center; consolidate.
2. selection procedures, approval plans, and serials vendors was not only tantamount tan·ta·mount
Equivalent in effect or value: a request tantamount to a demand.
[From obsolete tantamount, an equivalent, from Anglo-Norman to the "disintegration disintegration /dis·in·te·gra·tion/ (-in?ti-gra´shun)
1. the process of breaking up or decomposing.
2. of librarians as sources of expertise," but also structurally privileged books and serials from mainstream publishers. The biennial biennial, plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter. Alternative Library Literature (1982-2001), which Danky coedited with Sanford Berman Sanford Berman (b. October 6, 1933) is an outspoken, radical librarian (cataloger) known for promoting alternative viewpoints in librarianship and acting as a pro-active information conduit to other librarians around the world, mostly via public speaking, voluminous correspondence, , is compared with the annual Library Lit.--The Best of(1970-1990) to illuminate the way in which contrasting philosophical approaches to the selection of anthology articles may be interpreted as a microcosm mi·cro·cosm
A small, representative system having analogies to a larger system in constitution, configuration, or development: "He sees the auto industry as a microcosm of the U.S. of larger issues in collection development.
In the middle and late 1960s, three structurally intertwined events altered the practice of collection development in public and academic libraries in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Taken together, these events moved collection development away from the realm of what could be described as item "selection" on a title-by-title basis by subject specialists into the realm of item "purchasing" (Harris, 1970, p. 53). First, many large and midsized public libraries with multiple branches instituted the practice of centralized selection, whereby relatively low-paid paraprofessionals in consolidated acquisitions departments adhered to a demand-driven philosophy embodied in the phrase "Give 'Em What They Want," which had its origins at the Baltimore County (Maryland) Public Library (BCPL (language) BCPL - (Basic CPL) A British systems language developed by Richards in 1969 and descended from CPL (Combined Programming Language). BCPL is low-level, typeless and block-structured, and provides only one-dimensional arrays. ). Second, many academic libraries outsourced their monograph mon·o·graph
A scholarly piece of writing of essay or book length on a specific, often limited subject.
tr.v. mon·o·graphed, mon·o·graph·ing, mon·o·graphs
To write a monograph on. purchases to vendors who provided them with books through approval plans, defined as "an acquisitions method under which a library receives regular shipments of new titles selected by a dealer, based on a profile of library collection interests, with the right to return what it decides not to buy" (Nardini, 2003, p. 133). Third, academic and public libraries increasingly entrusted their periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily. purchases to serials vendors or subscription agents, thus avoiding direct contact with publishers of journals and magazines. As these changes became normative throughout the last three decades of the twentieth century, they contributed to a situation whereby alternative books and periodicals from small presses were not easily found in many American libraries American Libraries is the official publication of the American Library Association. Published monthly except for a combined July/August issue, it is distributed to all members of the organization. American Libraries is currently edited by Leonard Kniffel. .
Throughout his more than thirty-year career (1973-2007) at the Wisconsin Historical Society as an Order Librarian; Newspapers and Periodicals Librarian; Assistant Librarian for Research and Development; and founding codirector of the Center for the History of Print Culture in Modern America, James P. Danky looked askance a·skance also a·skant
1. With disapproval, suspicion, or distrust: "The area is so dirty that merchants report the tourists are looking askance" Chris Black. at the philosophies associated with serials vendors, monographic mon·o·graph
A scholarly piece of writing of essay or book length on a specific, often limited subject.
tr.v. mon·o·graphed, mon·o·graph·ing, mon·o·graphs
To write a monograph on. approval plans, and the "Give 'Em What They Want" approach, believing that they significantly impoverished the cumulated written record available at the nation's libraries by overlooking material that was not readily available through convenient channels. Danky's academic interests were primarily historical--an effort to extend, deepen, and thus problematize Prob´lem`a`tize
v. t. 1. To propose problems. the public's awareness of neglected historical sources that told a story that ran counter to received wisdom in many fields. As coeditor of volumes such as Women in Print: Essays on the Print Culture of American Women from the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Danky & Wiegand, 2006) ; African-American Newspapers and Periodicals: A National Bibliography (Danky & Hady, 1998); The German-American Radical Press: The Shaping of a Left Political Culture, 1850-1940 (Shore, Fones-Wolf, & Danky, 1992); and Native American Periodicals and Newspapers, 1828-1982: Bibliography, Publishing Record, and Holdings (Danky & Hady, 1984), he displayed meticulous scholarship and an abiding passion for opening new perspectives on American life and culture. But underlying his historical pursuits was the recognition that collecting contemporary alternative and small-press publications was key to providing an in-depth picture of current social, cultural, and political issues and debates (e.g., Campbell, Bowles, & Danky, 1984a, 1984b; Danky, 1974, 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1996a; Danky & Hennessy, 1986; Danky & Shore, 1982; Hady & Danky, 1979; Hunter & Danky, 1986). For him, these publications represented not only the cornerstone of any informed historical portrait of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century written in the future, but also the essence of librarianship, since they alone were capable of interrogating mainstream publications that comprised the bulk of materials available at libraries. In short, collecting alternative materials was the responsibility of all librarians if they wanted to give full meaning to concepts such as equality, diversity, and substantive neutrality. If only mainstream publications were collected, Danky felt, substantive neutrality was impossible because, while such publications ventured to the left or the right of conventional wisdom on any given topic, they never went beyond a safe middle range of opinion that represented a consensus status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. . Collecting alternative materials--those on the margins of accepted contemporary discourse--was therefore a necessary part of librarianship's commitment to substantive neutrality. It was difficult work that obligated ob·li·gate
tr.v. ob·li·gat·ed, ob·li·gat·ing, ob·li·gates
1. To bind, compel, or constrain by a social, legal, or moral tie. See Synonyms at force.
2. To cause to be grateful or indebted; oblige. librarians to look beyond serials vendors, approval plans, and BCPL-inspired rhetoric.
DEBATES IN LIBRARIANSHIP ABOUT COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT
Danky's views about collection development were grounded in the social activism of the 1960s and early 1970s. It was a time when "hundreds of American librarians and library school students became involved in championing socially related change in librarianship ... and in so doing brought the library profession into the social protest movements of the time" (Bundy & Stielow, 1987, p. 1). Discouraged with what they perceived as an ossified os·si·fy
v. os·si·fied, os·si·fy·ing, os·si·fies
1. To change into bone; become bony.
2. American Library Association American Library Association, founded 1876, organization whose purpose is to increase the usefulness of books through the improvement and extension of library services. (ALA) and with library leaders who retained "comfortable illusions" about the profession, many practitioners worked "to make good [librarianship's] intellectual freedom and other ethical commitments, to recognize and do something about the inequalities in [library] services, to withhold ... support from still segregated library associations International
The women's rights movement began in the nineteenth century with the demand by some women reformers for the right to vote, known as suffrage, and : 'Women librarians became aware of the wide spectrum of ideas being addressed by the women's movement women's movement: see feminism; woman suffrage.
Diverse social movement, largely based in the U.S., seeking equal rights and opportunities for women in their economic activities, personal lives, and politics. and began to discuss such issues as salaries, promotional opportunities, and sexism sex·ism
1. Discrimination based on gender, especially discrimination against women.
2. Attitudes, conditions, or behaviors that promote stereotyping of social roles based on gender. in library materials" (Cassell, 1987, p. 21). Other areas of focus were: serving minority populations and the disadvantaged; heightening height·en
v. height·ened, height·en·ing, height·ens
1. To raise or increase the quantity or degree of; intensify.
2. To make high or higher; raise.
v.intr. the relevancy of library education; and integrating library schools and the profession as a whole (Axam, 1987; Haro, 1987; Josey, 1987; Owens, 1987; Williams, 1987).
Some of these concerns were summarized in the "Friday the 13th Friday the 13th
regarded as unlucky day. [Western Folklore: Misc.]
See : Luck, Bad Manifesto," an outgrowth of the 1969 Institute on Library Service to the Black and Urban Poor, which stated that the priorities of public libraries were skewed skewed
curve of a usually unimodal distribution with one tail drawn out more than the other and the median will lie above or below the mean.
skewed Epidemiology adjective Referring to an asymmetrical distribution of a population or of data toward "the articulated needs and demands of the power structure and have not extended to the unarticulated un·ar·tic·u·lat·ed
a. Not articulated: our unarticulated fears.
b. Not carefully or thoroughly thought out.
2. Biology Not having joints or segments. needs of those outside the power structure" (qtd. in Bundy & Stielow, 1987, pp. 186-187). Librarians therefore needed to engage in "a philosophy of advocacy" on behalf of the excluded (qtd. in Bundy & Stielow, 1987, pp. 186-187). This mindset mind·set or mind-set
1. A fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person's responses to and interpretations of situations.
2. An inclination or a habit. animated the founders of the Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT SRRT Social Responsibilities Round Table (American Library Association)
SRRT Squannacook River Rail Trail (Massachusetts) ), which from its inception in 1969 saw itself as "the 'conscience of ALA' and as a pressure group within ALA" whose mission it was to engage the ALA in "intellectual confrontations" so as "to define the role of the library in society" (qtd. in Bundy & Stielow, 1987, p. 193). As Toni Samek (2001) shows, SRRT soon became "the largest ALA round table with 1013 members," an indication of widespread frustration with current practices of the ALA (p. 70).
Perhaps the most searing sear 1
v. seared, sear·ing, sears
1. To char, scorch, or burn the surface of with or as if with a hot instrument. See Synonyms at burn1.
2. confrontation was about intellectual freedom. If libraries were to better serve individuals outside the power structure, they should collect materials that reflected those hitherto excluded voices. Libraries could no longer afford to be neutral in a "hands-off liberalism" sort of way, since such neutrality was not substantive neutrality (Samek, 2001, p. 46). Intellectual freedom was therefore a collection-development issue. As Sanford Berman (1976) argued, if libraries wanted to be venues for "liberation"--the "single keyword or rubric RUBRIC, civil law. The title or inscription of any law or statute, because the copyists formerly drew and painted the title of laws and statutes rubro colore, in red letters. Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 8; Diet. do Juris. h.t. [that] encompasses the multitude of overlapping movements and ideas that within the past decade have forcefully emerged among blacks, students, Jews, teachers, Chicanos, women, the young, Asian-Americans, servicemen, Indians, ecophiliacs, still-colonized peoples, workers, the impoverished, homosexuals, and even some psychiatrists, athletes, retirees, sociologists, and librarians"--it was incumbent that collection-development specialists acquire materials that spoke to the various impulses for "liberation" (pp. 345-346).
Moreover, once acquired, these alternative materials should not fall prey to the traditional "condescending, curator-like, rubber-gloves-and-forceps-mentality" that consigned them to "glass cases" and "padlocked vaults," effectively relegating them to archival status in the same way that "intriguing cadavers [were] gathered and then pickled pick·led
1. Preserved in or treated with pickle.
2. Slang Intoxicated; drunk.
1. (of food) preserved in a pickling liquid
2. and frozen for later study by anatomists" (Berman, 1976, p. 346). Instead, they should be placed on "open shelves" because the "articles in Radical America, Women, and Tricontinental Magazine are just as fitting and citable for term papers and dissertations as material culled from Foreign Affairs foreign affairs
Affairs concerning international relations and national interests in foreign countries. , Time, and Business Week" (Berman, 1976, p. 346). Finally, libraries should avoid relying on the "pathetic" bibliographic data supplied by the Library of Congress or the Online Computer Library Center to catalog purchased alternative materials, since this data lacked "sufficient subject headings and other added entries"; failed "to adequately and helpfully indicate special features or content-elements not discernible dis·cern·i·ble
Perceptible, as by the faculty of vision or the intellect. See Synonyms at perceptible.
dis·cerni·bly adv. from the title alone"; and omitted "subject terms that faithfully and precisely express the content of the work in familiar, unbiased language" (Berman, 1982, p. 31).
Properly understood, collection development was a multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious concept that included the selection of items, their display, and appropriate cataloging. All these elements needed to be approached from a "dynamic, responsive" (Berman, 1976, p. 349) perspective the goal of which was substantive neutrality, which would meaningfully expand the conformist con·form·ist
A person who uncritically or habitually conforms to the customs, rules, or styles of a group.
Marked by conformity or convention: boundaries of what Alan Nadel (1995) referred to as "containment culture" (p. 4). Only in this way could libraries show that they had "opt[ed] for people, participation, compassion, and engagement" (Berman, 1976, p. 344)--the kind of values that informed Synergy, one of the first North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. publications devoted to alerting librarians about alternative-press books and magazines. Founded in 1967, Synergy not only excoriated librarians for being "passive" and soporific soporific /sop·o·rif·ic/ (sop?o-rif´ik) (so?po-rif´ik)
1. producing deep sleep.
2. hypnotic (2).
1. consumers in an "information marketplace" controlled by "big publishers" who only paid attention to "alternative press related topics" when they "sensed profit," but also informed them about how the tools that they ordinarily used to select books and magazines were "rear-view mirrors rear-view mirror
a mirror on a motor vehicle enabling the driver to see the traffic behind
rear-view mirror rear n (Aut) → rétroviseur m
" that had little connection with actual user interests (Samek, 2001, p. 47).
But the call for what Berman (1976) identified as "dynamic, responsive" libraries that gave priority "to the people" (p. 349) was interpreted by others in the 1960s in an entirely different way. This was particularly true when it came to collection development. For the BCPL, responsiveness was conceptualized as a "Give 'Em What They Want" approach, a philosophy that at first glance appeared to have much in common with Berman's prioritization of "the people," but when all was said and done turned out to be its antithesis antithesis (ăntĭth`ĭsĭs), a figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences within a balanced grammatical structure. Parallelism of expression serves to emphasize opposition of ideas. . As described by BCPL's senior administrators, Charlie Robinson Charles Henry Robinson (July 27, 1856 in Westerly, Rhode Island - May 18, 1913) was a 19th century Major League Baseball catcher during the 1884 & 1885 seasons. See also
1. Capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action.
2. Corrosive and bitingly trenchant; cutting. See Synonyms at sarcastic.
3. about libraries' responsibility to serve anyone else but middle-class users interested in "maintaining their lawns" and "heat pumps heat pump: see air conditioning.
Device for transferring heat from a substance or space at one temperature to another at a higher temperature. " (Pearl, 1996, pp. 136, 137). If such materials were what customers wanted, "what was the point of giving them what they didn't want?" such as "every book about the Vietnam War Vietnam War, conflict in Southeast Asia, primarily fought in South Vietnam between government forces aided by the United States and guerrilla forces aided by North Vietnam. ever published.... [which] sat on the shelf" or sleep-inducing "great literature" (Pearl, 1996, pp. 137, 138). Disdainfully dis·dain·ful
Expressive of disdain; scornful and contemptuous. See Synonyms at proud.
dis·dainful·ly adv. noting that "the library profession is full of closet social workers" who had studied impractical "philosophical issues" in graduate library degree programs, he also remarked that "libraries can't do anything about" such "quality-of-life issues" as "jobs, housing, and education," much like McDonald's can't do anything about "those people who can't afford its hamburgers" (Pearl, 1996, p. 138).
Because of the BCPL's emphasis on bestsellers, Robinson and Molz saw little need to retain collection-development specialists who were responsible for a specific subject area or branch library. Instead, they instituted centralized selection, which was carried out by paraprofessionals trained to perform rote rote 1
1. A memorizing process using routine or repetition, often without full attention or comprehension: learn by rote.
2. Mechanical routine. tasks at a "cost benefit" to the BCPL (Pearl, 1996, p. 138). Implicit in Adj. 1. implicit in - in the nature of something though not readily apparent; "shortcomings inherent in our approach"; "an underlying meaning"
underlying, inherent this procedural transformation was the notion that the selection of books was a simple one-size-fits-all mechanical procedure, since it involved ordering multiple copies of bestsellers and other popular books that received widespread attention in the mass media. And because selection was now an easy, deskilled task that did not require broad-based subject knowledge, it could also be remunerated re·mu·ner·ate
tr.v. re·mu·ner·at·ed, re·mu·ner·at·ing, re·mu·ner·ates
1. To pay (a person) a suitable equivalent in return for goods provided, services rendered, or losses incurred; recompense.
2. in such a way as to generate financial savings for the library system. Giving the people what they wanted had become a rationale for implementing a collection-development strategy for public libraries based on market imperatives. It was a far cry from providing the type of liberating lib·er·ate
tr.v. lib·er·at·ed, lib·er·at·ing, lib·er·ates
1. To set free, as from oppression, confinement, or foreign control.
2. Chemistry To release (a gas, for example) from combination. materials Berman had in mind.
LIBRARY VENDORS AND HOMOGENIZED ho·mog·e·nize
v. ho·mog·e·nized, ho·mog·e·niz·ing, ho·mog·e·niz·es
1. To make homogeneous.
a. To reduce to particles and disperse throughout a fluid.
Libraries' almost universal reliance on approval plans to purchase monographs reinforced the homogenizing tendencies set in motion by the "Give 'Em What They Want" ethos. Indeed, approval plans were justified in much the same terms as BCPL procedures: they not only assisted libraries "in containing operating costs operating costs npl → gastos mpl operacionales ," but they also "speed[ed] up and streamline[d] the acquisition of in-print titles in the interest of providing an improved service to ... users" (Abel, 1995, p. 47). As described by Richard Abel (1995), the originator of the approval-plan concept, the economic basis of approval plans rested on vendors and wholesalers obtaining sufficiently large In mathematics, the phrase sufficiently large is used in contexts such as:
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.
2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law. , approval plans were the beginning of outsourced collection-development work.
Because many alternative publishers could not generate "economies of scale" due to small print runs, unpredictable publication schedules, small advertising budgets, and lack of reviews in popular reviewing outlets (M. Eldredge, 1996, pp. 53-54), they could not afford to offer vendors discounts, let alone the type of appealing discount schedules that vendors needed to be profitable. Vendors were therefore reticent about buying nondiscounted books from alternative publishers because small-press titles, along with "highly specialized societal publications," were "a direct financial liability for an approval vendor to handle" (M. Eldredge, 1996, pp. 53, 54). Procuring hard-to-locate items from alternative publishers negatively affected the "increased efficiency" that vendors needed to remain profitable--the type of increased efficiency that came with the bureaucratic bu·reau·crat
1. An official of a bureaucracy.
2. An official who is rigidly devoted to the details of administrative procedure.
bu and "standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. procedures" characteristic of the "large publishing operations" that vendors preferred to deal with (M. Eldredge, 1996, p. 54, 53). If vendors did make an effort to supply alternative publications to libraries, high service charges were frequently added to the price libraries were asked to pay for these not-discounted-to-the-vendor titles so that vendors could cover their unit transaction costs Transaction Costs
Costs incurred when buying or selling securities. These include brokers' commissions and spreads (the difference between the price the dealer paid for a security and the price they can sell it). and show a profit. This was especially true of those vendors who preferred "each title to pay for itself rather than gamble on a high volume of trade titles" and those that adopted "cost-plus pricing Cost-plus pricing is a pricing method commonly used by firms. It is used primarily because it is easy to calculate and requires little information. There are several varieties, but the common thread in all of them is that you first calculate the cost of the product, then include an " (Miller, 1992, p. 22). When financially constrained con·strain
tr.v. con·strained, con·strain·ing, con·strains
1. To compel by physical, moral, or circumstantial force; oblige: felt constrained to object. See Synonyms at force.
2. libraries evaluated vendor performance at the end of a fiscal cycle or upon receipt of a shipment, it was logical that vendors would be questioned about high service charges for specific items. Libraries, after all, were interested in receiving the maximum discount possible from vendors on their overall orders. If a library's approval-plan profile included many alternative publishers, its overall discount on its purchases from the vendor was relatively low. In these circumstances, libraries rethought their "publisher mix" so as to receive "a deeper discount from the vendor," which ultimately meant expanding their profile "to include lots of books from publishers that give [the] vendor a 30 percent or 40 percent discount" (R. Anderson, 2004, p. 38). While rethinking "publisher mix" was financially beneficial for libraries, it nevertheless disproportionately affected nondiscounted titles published by alternative presses, which were usually the first to be eliminated in the interests of securing "a deeper discount."
As Charles Willett (1998) bluntly noted, academic libraries that put their faith in approval plans often failed to provide adequate coverage of alternative materials that challenged "conservative" and "authoritarian" policies, which in turn reinforced "a biased set of ideas in support of elite beliefs and goals" (p. 93). Instead, they invariably in·var·i·a·ble
Not changing or subject to change; constant.
in·vari·a·bil bought "the same general core collection" of books from vendors who dealt with "well-known" publishers (p. 93). If libraries wanted to ensure that their collections contained a substantial number of alternative materials, they had to bypass "mainstream distribution channels" and take time-consuming (and expensive) steps to systematically identify and order alternative publications (e.g., Minneapolis Community & Technical College, n.d.). As acquisitions budgets became tighter in the last decades of the twentieth century, only the most persistent libraries systematically collected monographs published by alternative presses (Lee, 2002), choosing instead to spend their budgets on what they perceived to be more reputable core items from mainstream presses. Even a strong supporter of approval plans such as Robert F. Nardini (2003) commented that one of the unresolved "objections" to them was that "vendor concentration on mainstream, profitable books would produce library collections that were too much alike, without the collective richness resulting from local selection in support of local needs" (p. 133). Summarizing her previous research, Anna H. Perrault (1999) observed that "there was an increase in homogeneity Homogeneity
The degree to which items are similar. in the acquisitions of the group of member libraries of the ARL ARL - ASSET Reuse Library [Association of Research Libraries] in 1989 from that of 1985" insofar in·so·far
To such an extent.
Adv. 1. insofar - to the degree or extent that; "insofar as it can be ascertained, the horse lung is comparable to that of man"; "so far as it is reasonably practical he should practice as "there was a decrease in foreign language acquisitions, a decrease in the percentage of unique titles to the total in many subject areas, and an increased concentration on core materials, indicating less diversity and more homogeneity in academic library collections in the future" (p. 51). Although a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be demonstrated between the growth of approval plans and the homogenization homogenization (həmŏj'ənəzā`shən), process in which a mixture is made uniform throughout. Generally this procedure involves reducing the size of the particles of one component of the mixture and dispersing them evenly of collections, the economic realities faced by vendors often worked against the sustained inclusion in approval plans of monographs published by alternative presses.
Just as the widespread adoption of monographic approval plans ensured low holding rates in libraries of alternative and small-press books, the increased reliance by libraries on serials vendors to purchase periodicals was not a positive development for their holdings of alternative journals and magazines. Because many publishers of alternative periodicals faced the same structural disadvantages as publishers of alternative monographs, their relationship with serials vendors paralleled the relationship of approval-plan vendors with publishers of alternative monographs. Alternative-periodical titles were difficult to procure, causing time-consuming inefficiencies for vendors. If serials vendors managed to procure these periodicals for libraries, they added high service charges to their non-discounted base prices, which did not endear en·dear
tr.v. en·deared, en·dear·ing, en·dears
To make beloved or very sympathetic: a couple whose kindness endeared them to friends. alternative periodicals to libraries caught in the throes throe
1. A severe pang or spasm of pain, as in childbirth. See Synonyms at pain.
2. throes A condition of agonizing struggle or trouble: a country in the throes of economic collapse. of persistent budget crises. When skyrocketing journal prices in the 1980s and 1990s decimated serials budgets, many academic libraries embarked on extensive journal cancellation projects. Journals were cut "by a set percentage ... across all disciplines" or according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. "likelihood of future use as predicted by ... objective criteria" (Gorman, 2003, p. 461). As a result, core journals with well-established reputations or large impact factors were retained while less-well-known journals were cut. These trends were not favorable to alternative periodicals. For example, using the list of 220 periodicals contained in the Alternative Press Index (API (Application Programming Interface) A language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a database management system (DBMS) or communications protocol. ), Rita A. Marinko and Kristin H. Gerhard (1998) examined "the holding rates of alternative press titles" (p. 363) in 104 ARL libraries in the United States. They found that 69 of these libraries had holding rates "below 40 percent" of API periodicals, and that "only thirty-seven [API] titles (17% of the total 220) were held by 70 percent or more of the libraries studied, whereas 139 of the 220 titles (63%) were held by less than 40 percent" of the applicable libraries (p. 368). Observing that titles categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as leftist/Marxist politics, gay and lesbian, labor, education, and ecology were "underrepresented un·der·rep·re·sent·ed
Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. " in ARL library holdings, they concluded that "alternative views" were often unable "to contribute to the democratic discussion" in American society (p. 370).
Marinko and Gerhard's (1998) findings suggest that, while the social activism of the 1960s and 1970s brought some gains on the question of alternative-press publications, librarianship's sense of professionalism--embodied in the traditional belief that they should be "providers of a neutral forum" in which all sides of a question were accorded a respectful hearing instead of advocates and "partakers of the struggle to save society from itself"--eventually triumphed (Peattie, 1987, p. 52). For all intents and purposes Adv. 1. for all intents and purposes - in every practical sense; "to all intents and purposes the case is closed"; "the rest are for all practical purposes useless"
for all practical purposes, to all intents and purposes , professionalism came to mean "hands-off liberalism" (Samek, 2001, p. 46). Many librarians accepted David Berninghausen's (1972) argument that SRRT-like advocacy on behalf of social and political issues such as "racial injustice and inequities," environmentalism environmentalism, movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. , and antimilitarism went beyond their professional mandate (p. 3675); that "divisions of opinion on [these] out-of-scope issues" were causing irreparable ir·rep·a·ra·ble
Impossible to repair, rectify, or amend: irreparable harm; irreparable damages.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin harm to librarianship as a whole and to the ALA in particular (p. 3676); and that there was little justification for attempts "by some librarians to try to 'educate the people' by giving them access only to publications judged 'correct' by librarians" (p. 3681). If the concept of intellectual freedom was to remain viable, Berninghausen explained, librarianship's central goal should be "to maintain balanced collections of facts and opinions and theories concerning all issues" (p. 3681). For him, neutrality was acceptable, but substantive neutrality was not. By the late 1970s, the ALA had co-opted SRRT, "incorporat[ing] and contain[ing] it within its institutional focus, bureaucracy, and organizational structure This article has no lead section.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written. " (Samek, 2001, p. 139) in a way that was reminiscent of what Herbert Marcuse Noun 1. Herbert Marcuse - United States political philosopher (born in Germany) concerned about the dehumanizing effects of capitalism and modern technology (1898-1979)
Marcuse in One Dimensional Man Dimensional Man (Joshua) is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics Universe who first appeared in Tomb of Dracula vol. 2 #2. He is an incubus and is currently serving as a member of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s Howling Commandos Monster Force. called "repressive tolerance Repressive Tolerance is the title of a 1965 essay by Herbert Marcuse. Today, the concept of repressive tolerance is largely referred to as co-optation. See also
In this environment, the purchase of alternative books and periodicals by libraries was viewed as an act of social advocacy that had little place within the traditional framework of intellectual freedom and professionalism. For collection-development specialists, this implied that their primary task was meeting short-term user needs, all within the context of cost containment cost containment,
n the features of a dental benefits program or of the administration of the program designed to reduce or eliminate certain charges to the plan. , streamlined operations, and speedy service. Reliance on a "Give 'Em What They Want" philosophy, approval plans, and serials vendors meshed perfectly with the idea of library professionalism as managerialism In the field of administration, observers can characterise as managerialism those systems where they perceive a preponderance or excess of managerial techniques, solutions and personnel. , a term used by education scholars to signify an emphasis on "productive efficiency" and "allocative efficiency Allocative efficiency is the market condition whereby resources are allocated in a way that maximizes the net benefit attained through their use. Allocative efficiency refers to a situation in which the limited resources of a country are allocated in accordance with the wishes of " in decision-making processes Presented below is a list of topics on decision-making and decision-making processes:
| width="" align="left" valign="top" |
| width="" align="left" valign="top" |
adj. thorn·i·er, thorn·i·est
1. Full of or covered with thorns.
3. Painfully controversial; vexatious: a thorny situation; thorny issues. issues from viewpoints that challenged conventional ways of thinking, collection-development specialists allocated scarce resources as productively and efficiently as possible in order to meet "explicit standards and measures of performance in quantitative terms" (Fitzsimons, 1999). It was both sad and ironic that one of the most important legacies of the 1960s for librarianship was convincing itself that the "Give 'Em What They Want" philosophy empowered people.
Given these developments, it was only a matter of time before a for-profit entity such as Library Systems & Services (LSSI LSSI Ley de Servicios de la Sociedad de la Información (Spainisn)
LSSI Lutheran Social Services of Illinois
LSSI Library Systems and Services Inc.
LSSI Lender Support Systems Inc.
LSSI Logistics Support Systems and Integration ), described as the "the first company to offer full outsourcing (or privatization privatization: see nationalization.
Transfer of government services or assets to the private sector. State-owned assets may be sold to private owners, or statutory restrictions on competition between privately and publicly owned , to some) of public libraries," appeared (Oder, 2004, p. 36). Contracted to manage about twenty financially tenuous tenuous Intensive care adjective Referring to a 'touch-and-go,' uncertain, or otherwise 'iffy' clinical situation public libraries in the United States by the middle of 2004 (Oder, 2004, p. 38), LSSI generated profits "by paying lower salaries and benefits, hiring fewer librarians, ... choosing less-educated employees" (p. 37), spending less on materials, and increasing the hours worked by volunteers (pp. 38-39). According to Vice President for Business Development Steve Coffman, its aim was to make libraries "more like bookstores" (Oder, 2004, p. 40), an approach that was not unfamiliar to one of the key members of LSSI's Advisory Board, Charlie Robinson, the originator of the "Give 'Em What They Want" philosophy (Oder, 2004, p. 39). Any pretense that collection development was an intellectual endeavor carefully conducted by knowledgeable subject specialists was gone, gradually eroded e·rode
v. e·rod·ed, e·rod·ing, e·rodes
1. To wear (something) away by or as if by abrasion: Waves eroded the shore.
2. To eat into; corrode. by the implacable im·plac·a·ble
Impossible to placate or appease: implacable foes; implacable suspicion.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin forces of deskilled centralized selection and approval plans. Libraries had indeed become "dynamic" and "responsive," as Berman had hoped, but they emphasized the economic aspects of that dynamic responsiveness instead of its sociocultural so·ci·o·cul·tur·al
Of or involving both social and cultural factors.
soci·o·cul and knowledge-building aspects.
THE REJECTION OF OUTSOURCED COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT
Danky (1994a) rejected the outsourced vision of librarianship, believing that it was an "ubiquitous" and tragic "abandonment of expertise" on the part of librarians (p. 3). Echoing the insights of Wayne A. Wiegand Wayne A. Wiegand (1946- ) is an American library historian, author, and academic.
He currently teaches at Florida State University, College of Information. Bibliography
1. Subordinate in capacity or function.
2. Obsequious; servile.
3. Useful as a means or an instrument; serving to promote an end. position, one where they deny their abilities [and] their power to affect their own professional world" and the community around them (p. 3). Librarians' reliance on centralized selection, approval plans, and serials vendors to develop collections was only the latest manifestation of the outsourcing process started by Dewey. Outsourcing robbed the librarian of subject-specific knowledge, resulting in a situation "where the librarian [who] knows about the materials in the collection has become something relegated to special collections In library science, special collections (often abbreviated to Spec. Coll. or S.C.) is the name applied to a specific repository within a library which stores materials of a "special" nature. , to rare books and other smaller, less central parts of library service" (Danky, 1994a, p. 3). It was understandable that librarians were given scant respect: they had been "socialized so·cial·ize
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. " not to "know books," but rather to "know how to apply the standards dictated by conventional canons that have been developed outside the profession" (Wiegand, 1986, p. 395) and to spend their time on managing and organizing collections using "new technology and improved methods of administration" (p. 397).
To help solve this problem, Danky asked future librarians to take it upon themselves to know "something, anything" by choosing their "own subject to become an expert on" (Danky, 1994a, p. 3). And once they had become experts--defined as being "steeped in the literature, know[ing] the trends, know[ing] the authors or creators of new works of value" and being able to "offer informed opinions"--they would invariably contribute to strengthening their libraries' "commitment" to an active "social role" (Danky, 1994a, p. 3). Librarians with in-depth subject expertise were therefore the building blocks of any library "where all ideas, regardless of form or source, can find a home and where the curious, or desperate, can [subsequently] find" those ideas (Danky, 1994a, p. 3).
Perhaps the most important consequence of subject expertise was that librarians were never satisfied with their current state of knowledge and constantly strove strove
Past tense of strive.
the past tense of strive
strove strive to discover new sources with which to expand and deepen their existing knowledge in the belief that "all ideas, regardless of form or source" should be available at libraries. Discovering new sources was exactly what Danky did during working trips to far-flung cities. In London, England, he scoured scour 1
v. scoured, scour·ing, scours
a. To clean, polish, or wash by scrubbing vigorously: scour a dirty oven.
b. numerous bookstores such as Compendium com·pen·di·um
n. pl. com·pen·di·ums or com·pen·di·a
1. A short, complete summary; an abstract.
2. A list or collection of various items. Books, New Beacon, Freedom Books, and Gay's the Word for alternative periodicals, enriching the Wisconsin Historical Society by more than two hundred rifles, including "British National Party
An amateur-produced magazine written for a subculture of enthusiasts devoted to a particular interest: a science fiction fanzine. " (Danky, 1991, p. 678). An even more compelling illustration of Danky's commitment was his experience in Miami during a visit in the mid-1990s. The Miami-Dade Public Library The Miami-Dade Public Library is a system of libraries in the greater City of Miami-Dade County South Florida metropolitan area, in the State of Florida. History
The Miami-Dade Public Library System traces its origin to the late nineteenth century. (MDPL MDPL Miami Design Preservation League
MDPL Mayville District Public Library (Michigan) ) claimed that it had taken great strides in bringing library services to diverse populations, but Danky, in the midst Adv. 1. in the midst - the middle or central part or point; "in the midst of the forest"; "could he walk out in the midst of his piece?"
midmost of compiling "a national bibliography of African-American newspapers and periodicals," discovered that the claim was exaggerated (Danky, 1998, p. 4). The small number of African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. periodicals at the central location of MDPL and the nonexistence non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non of Haitian American Haitian Americans are Americans of Haitian heritage or immigrants born in Haiti who achieve United States citizenship. The largest proportion of Haitians live in South Florida counties and cities such as New York, Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach. periodicals at an MDPL branch purportedly serving the Haitian American community was a revealing statement about the true extent of MDPL's "accomplishments" (Danky, 1998, p. 5). The dearth of Haitian American periodicals at the MDPL branch in question was all the more inexplicable in·ex·pli·ca·ble
Difficult or impossible to explain or account for.
in·expli·ca·bil insofar as Danky unearthed Unearthed is the name of a Triple J project to find and "dig up" (hence the name) hidden talent in regional Australia.
Unearthed has had three incarnations - they first visited each region of Australia where Triple J had a transmitter - 41 regions in all. no less than "27 new [Haitian American] titles" at a bookstore situated about "125 feet" past the MDPL branch and "a different mix of titles" at a "second bookstore, a mile or so away" (Danky, 1998, p. 5). Even more incomprehensible was that none of the titles he purchased was "held by an OCLC OCLC - Online Computer Library Center library" (Danky, 1998, p. 5). The physical distance Danky traveled to purchase these titles was small--125 feet and, subsequently, another mile. But the psychological, intellectual, and symbolic distance traveled was immense--a striking indicator of the distance between two different visions of collection development.
Danky's MDPL trip served as a touchstone touchstone
Black, silica-containing stone used in assaying to determine the purity of gold and silver. The metal to be assayed is rubbed on the touchstone, and then a sample of metal of known purity is rubbed on the stone right next to it. for his view that librarianship in general and collection development in particular had become deskilled: "We check off the books not recorded in the official financial records of a business; - usually used of payments made in cash to fraudulently avoid payment of taxes or of employment benefits.
See also: Book sent on centralized approval plans, replicate the cataloging others have done (frequently without the complete book in hand), and then answer our patrons' questions with information from commercial databases" (Danky, 1998, p. 6). MDPL showed him the end result of woefully woe·ful also wo·ful
1. Affected by or full of woe; mournful.
2. Causing or involving woe.
3. Deplorably bad or wretched: incomplete collection-development procedures relying on centralized selection, approval plans, and serials vendors: existing collection-development practices in libraries were too involved in promoting "the adoration adoration,
n a prayer of worship and praise. of the mainstream, the corporate mainstream" (Danky, 1998, p. 6). Not only were "radical/progressive/left titles" underrepresented, but so too were "conservative/traditional/right" journals such as The Liberty Lobby's Spotlight, the Phyllis Schlafly Report, and the Limbaugh Letter (Danky, 1998, p. 5). How else to explain collections consisting of "more and more of the usual stuff, stuff that doesn't address the burning questions in libraries or in the rest of society" (Danky, 1998, p. 7)? How else to explain that libraries order "hundreds of copies of books" just "because Random House announced it will spend $50,000 on hyping the new [John] Grisham or Mary Higgins Clark Mary Theresa Eleanor Higgins Clark Conheeney, best known as Mary Higgins Clark, (b December 24, 1927 in the Bronx, New York) is an American author of suspense novels. novel or Marcia Clark Marcia Rachel Clark (born 31 August 1953) was a prosecutor for the State of California, County of Los Angeles in the O.J. Simpson murder case along with Christopher Darden. memoir" (Berman, 1998, p. 8)? On the other hand, if collection development was undertaken by librarian-experts who possessed in-depth knowledge about specific subjects, they could identify numerous gaps in existing holdings and thus move collections beyond "the usual stuff" produced by "the corporate mainstream" to include items that grappled with "burning questions" in terms of "race, class, gender, or sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. " (Danky, 1998, p. 6).
ALTERNATIVE PERIODICALS AND "INCREASED UNDERSTANDING"
From its beginnings, Danky's career testified to the belief that the words "dynamic" and "responsive" should be construed in terms of sociocultural liberation based on subject-specific knowledge. These values were clearly on display when Danky began writing a column entitled "Alternative Periodicals" in Wilson Library Bulletin Wilson Library Bulletin was a professional journal published for librarians from 1914 to 1995 by the H. W. Wilson Company, Bronx. NY. It began as "The Wilson Bulletin" and published occasionally. (WLB WLB Weak-Side Linebacker (pro football)
WLB Buoy Tender, Seagoing (USCGC)
WLB Weapons Logbook
WLB Wireless Builder
WLB Wan Load Balancer
WLB Web Load Balance ). The column first appeared in May of 1975, and over the next two years it was published nine times, initially with Susan M. Bryl as coauthor and then with Michael Fox Michael Fox may refer to:
Not capable of being persuaded by entreaty; relentless: an inexorable opponent; a feeling of inexorable doom. See Synonyms at inflexible. result. Although the logical corollary corollary: see theorem. of this statement was left unsaid, it nevertheless imbued all of Danky's efforts: the central purpose of libraries was to increase understanding. No matter how difficult it was to get the materials that led to increased understanding, that effort must be made to ensure that points of view were broadened and that substantive neutrality was achieved.
Danky's statement that the "professional performance" of librarians would be improved by reading alternative periodicals should also be seen in the context of the appearance, in 1971, of the first annual volume of the Library Lit.--The Best of (LLTBO) series. The brainchild brain·child
An original idea or plan attributed to a person or group.
Informal an idea or plan produced by creative thought
Noun 1. of William A. (Bill) Katz, LLTBO reprinted what it considered to be the approximately thirty articles that exemplified "the best writing about libraries and related topics" from the previous calendar year (Katz & Schwartz, 1971, p. vi). Its last volume, edited by Jane Anne Hannigan, was published in 1992, marking the end of twenty-one annual editions containing 633 "best" articles (Hannigan, 1989, 1990, 1992; Katz, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988; Katz & Burgess, 1975; Katz & Gaherty, 1974; Katz & Klaessig, 1973; Katz & Schwartz, 1971; Katz & Weibel, 1982).
LLTBO came into existence to combat what Eric Moon For the South Korean singer and actor, see .
Eric Edward Moon (born 1923) is a librarian and editor who had a shaping influence on American librarianship in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, as editor of Library Journal called the "proliferation proliferation /pro·lif·er·a·tion/ (pro-lif?er-a´shun) the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells.prolif´erativeprolif´erous
n. " of "appalling" articles in the library press (Katz & Schwartz, 1971, p. vii; Moon, 1969, p. 4104). It was meant "to purify Purify - A debugging tool from Pure Software. by elimination," thereby providing a welcome "shortcut (1) In Windows, a shortcut is an icon that points to a program or data file. Shortcuts can be placed on the desktop or stored in other folders, and double clicking a shortcut is the same as double clicking the original file. for librarian, student and layman LAYMAN, eccl. law. One who is not an ecclesiastic nor a clergyman. " (Katz & Schwartz, 1971, p. vii), especially because "there are at least three times as many library periodicals in this country as we can afford or are necessary" (Moon, 1969, p. 4104). And while LLTBO was intended to be "the crystallization Crystallization
The formation of a solid from a solution, melt, vapor, or a different solid phase. Crystallization from solution is an important industrial operation because of the large number of materials marketed as crystalline particles. of all that is exciting and progressive in our profession" (Katz & Schwartz, 1971, p. vii), it selected its articles through a jury system, which meant that it was the result "of compromise, of give and take between the jurors and the need for an anthology of this type to be representative not only of the best, but of the field as a whole" (Katz & Gaherty, 1974, p. v).Juries typically included three to five individuals, yet over the course of the twenty-one LLTBO editions, there were only thirty-one jurors--a tight-knit circle of leading figures in the library world (Hannigan, 1992, pp. xv-xvi). In sum, LLTBO attempted to define a core collection of articles for librarianship that was "a painless pain·less
Free from complication or pain: a painless operation.
painless·ly adv. , even pleasant overview of libraries and librarianship" (Katz & Klaessig, 1973, p. v). It thus reflected Katz's (1980) advice in Collection Development: The Selection of Materials for Libraries that "a high degree of selectivity selectivity /se·lec·tiv·i·ty/ (se-lek-tiv´i-te) in pharmacology, the degree to which a dose of a drug produces the desired effect in relation to adverse effects.
1. " is mandatory when choosing serials (p. 184; qtd. from Texas A&M University Library System). Here he advocated the formation of a "core collection," which could primarily be determined by use studies, circulation statistics, citation studies, and inter-library loan data (Katz, 1980, pp. 188-191). Emphasis should not be "on casting a net to take in all the journals but on formulas that will allow the library to function with a minimal number of essential titles" (Katz, 1980, p. 181). From a structural perspective, Katz's words paralleled Richard Trueswell's (1969) 20/80 rule, which claimed that "approximately 20% of any library's collection could generate 80% of its overall circulation" (J. D. Eldredge, 1998, p. 496).
As shown in Table 1, of the 633 reprinted articles appearing in LLTBO, 267 articles (42.18 percent) originally appeared in the top 10 (core) journals from which LLTBO drew articles. In fact, just three journals--Library Journal, Wilson Library Bulletin, and School Library Journal--supplied 154 articles, or 24.33 percent of the total. As shown in Table 2, LLTBO drew on 169 journals for its 633 articles. Thirty journals, representing 17.75 percent of the total number of journals, each provided at least five articles, which cumulatively represented 63.35 percent (401 articles) of the total number of articles that appeared in LLTBO. Conversely, 88 journals, representing 52.07 percent of the total number of journals, provided one article apiece, which cumulatively represented 13.90 percent of the total number of articles that appeared in LLTBO. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , a relatively small core of journals supplied the bulk of the articles in LLTBO. And while the percentages adduced here do not meet Trueswell's (1969) ratio, they nevertheless follow Joseph Juran's 1954 observation--from which Trueswell likely derived his ratio--that "'a vital few' of any population or group often exert [a] disproportionately larger effect than the 'trivial many' in the same population or group" (J. D. Eldredge, 1998, p. 496; Juran, 1954).
For Danky, the many were anything but trivial; in fact, they were at the heart of things. The biennial Alternative Library Literature (ALL) was therefore conceived by Berman and Danky as a response to the selection philosophy animating an·i·mate
tr.v. an·i·mat·ed, an·i·mat·ing, an·i·mates
1. To give life to; fill with life.
2. To impart interest or zest to; enliven: LLTBO (Berman & Danky, 1984a, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002a). It functioned as an antianthology, a "deliberately unbalanced collection" that spanned the years 1982-2001 in ten volumes (Berman & Danky, 1984b, p. 1). Unlike LLTBO, ALL was proudly nonjuried, with articles "arbitrarily" chosen by Berman, Danky, and the recommendations of coworkers (Berman & Danky, 1984b, p. v). In its ten editions, ALL contained 613 articles: 562 reprinted articles from other periodicals and 51 original contributions. Articles were typically arranged in thematic sections such as "People/Work"; "Censorship/Human Rights"; "Service/Advocacy/Empowerment"; "Women"; and "Multiculturalism/Third World" (e.g., Berman & Danky, 1996, pp. v-vi). In nine of the ten ALL volumes, there was also a separate thematic section entitled "Alternatives," which provided insight into both the theory and practice of building strong collections of nonmainstream materials.
Berman and Danky did not claim that the selected articles were the best of library literature. Rather, articles in ALL dealt with topics "usually overlooked or minimized in standard library media"; as such, they "truly represent[ed] the major out-of-the-mainstream concerns, viewpoints, and creativity" with which all librarians should be familiar (Berman & Danky, 1984b, p. v). Readers should not just be presented with purified library literature, as in LLTBO. Such an approach was disingenuous dis·in·gen·u·ous
1. Not straightforward or candid; insincere or calculating: "an ambitious, disingenuous, philistine, and hypocritical operator, who ... exemplified ... , especially because "[c]onventional library literature describes a world that does not exist, one of conventional people working in standard-issue environments," where more attention is given to "personal aggrandizement ag·gran·dize
tr.v. ag·gran·dized, ag·gran·diz·ing, ag·gran·diz·es
1. To increase the scope of; extend.
2. To make greater in power, influence, stature, or reputation.
3. " than to "participatory democracy Participatory democracy is a process emphasizing the broad participation (decision making) of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems. While etymological roots imply that any democracy would rely on the participation of its citizens (the Greek demos " (Danky, 1994b, p. viii). In a library world "where ... jobs are increasingly deskilled and demeaning de·mean 1
tr.v. de·meaned, de·mean·ing, de·means
To conduct or behave (oneself) in a particular manner: demeaned themselves well in class. ," library workers should "turn back to a world of ideas" from "many places" (Danky, 1994b, p. viii; 1996b, p. viii). Only in this way could libraries assume real "value" for the "millions of people who are denied access to all other governmental institutions save prisons, welfare and asylums" (Danky, 1994b, p. viii). The diversity of sources from which ALL took its articles can thus be interpreted as a trenchant response to a "standard-issue" working environment where professionalism was equated with narrow specialization and the type of "restrictive procedures" (Danky, 1994b, p. viii, 1996b, p. viii) that ensured the domination of "corporate and conservative views of what librarianship is all about" (Berman & Danky, 2002b, p. 1).
As shown in Table 3, the top 10 journals from which ALL drew articles supplied 24.14 percent (148 articles) of its total contents of 613 articles, or 26.33 percent of its 562 previously printed articles. As shown in Table 4, ALL drew on 240 journals for its 562 previously printed articles. Twenty-seven journals, representing 11.25 percent of the total number of journals, each provided at least 5 articles, which cumulatively represented 45.20 percent (254 articles) of the total number of previously printed articles that appeared in ALL. On the other hand, 162 journals, representing 67.50 percent of the total number of journals, provided one article apiece, which cumulatively represented 28.83 percent (a plurality The opinion of an appellate court in which more justices join than in any concurring opinion.
The excess of votes cast for one candidate over those votes cast for any other candidate.
Appellate panels are made up of three or more justices. ) of the total number of previously printed articles that appeared in ALL. Compared with LLTBO, ALL drew on more journals for its reprinted articles (240 titles, as opposed to 169 titles for LLTBO) and took a significantly smaller percentage of its reprinted articles from a core set of journals (26.33 percent, as opposed to 42.18 percent for LLTBO). The percentage of articles that ALL reprinted from journals that supplied it with one article (28.83 percent) was more than twice as large as the percentage of articles that LLTBO reprinted from journals that supplied it with one article (13.90 percent). The titles alone of many of the 162 journals that were sourced only once by ALL bear witness to Berman and Danky's multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men view of librarianship: Adbusters, Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A Justice Watch, Black & Ethnic Minority Workers Group, Central America Central America, narrow, southernmost region (c.202,200 sq mi/523,698 sq km) of North America, linked to South America at Colombia. It separates the Caribbean from the Pacific. Connection, Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism humanism, philosophical and literary movement in which man and his capabilities are the central concern. The term was originally restricted to a point of view prevalent among thinkers in the Renaissance. , Human Rights Interest Reporter, Social Anarchism Social anarchism is an umbrella term used to differentiate two broad categories of anarchism, with the other being individualist anarchism. Where individualist forms of anarchism emphasize personal autonomy and the rational nature of human beings, social anarchism sees "individual , Tikkun, and Whole Earth Review.
In addition, other than Collection Building, there were no overlaps between the top ten journals sourced by LLTBO and ALL (Table 1 and Table 3). And, as shown in Table 5, the core titles that appeared most frequently in LLTBO hardly ever appeared in ALL, again with the exception of Collection Building. Viewed from another perspective, 38.55 percent of the articles appearing in LLTBO (244 articles) were taken from the twenty most prestigious journals as determined by directors of ARL libraries (Kohl & Davis, 1985, p. 42), while only 3.91 percent of the articles appearing in ALL (22 articles) were sourced from this same set of twenty prestigious journals (Table 6). Finally, seven of the top ten journals from which LLTBO drew its articles also appeared among the twenty most prestigious journals as determined by ARL directors, while none of the top ten journals from which ALL drew its articles appeared among this same set of twenty prestigious journals. The core titles used most frequently by LLTBO as sources of its "best" articles to a great extent mirrored the titles deemed most prestigious for tenure and promotion purposes by ARL library directors.
LLTBO and ALL were therefore two very different compendia com·pen·di·a
A plural of compendium. : the former sourced its articles from well-established and well-known journals; the latter went much further afield to encompass a wide range of alternative periodicals. Not only was ALL a new kind of anthology, it also provided a blueprint for the way that libraries should develop their collections of books and periodicals. If librarians included alternative publications in their libraries, the resulting collections would be richer than if they had been put together under the auspices of centralized selection, approval plans, and serials vendors. In ALL, Danky formalized for·mal·ize
tr.v. for·mal·ized, for·mal·iz·ing, for·mal·iz·es
1. To give a definite form or shape to.
a. To make formal.
b. what he had known for years: the "trivial many" were in fact the "useful many," something that Juran admitted almost forty years after his initial statement about the "trivial many" (J. D. Eldredge, 1998, p. 500). If librarians read ALL, their professional performance and general understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of librarianship would increase. Articles from alternative publications were therefore highly useful. Libraries that developed strong collections of alternative periodicals and books were similarly useful because such alternative publications increased the understanding of patrons about any given topic.
In some ways, Danky anticipated Chris Anderson's (2006) "Long Tail" thesis, which argued that continual focus by producers and retailers on the 20 percent of consumer goods consumer goods
Any tangible commodity purchased by households to satisfy their wants and needs. Consumer goods may be durable or nondurable. Durable goods (e.g., autos, furniture, and appliances) have a significant life span, often defined as three years or more, and (the "Short Head") that constituted 80 percent of demand ("and usually 100 percent of the profits" [p. 7]) led to a mainstream and "hit-driven" "lockstep lock·step
1. A way of marching in which the marchers follow each other as closely as possible.
2. A standardized procedure that is closely, often mindlessly followed.
Noun 1. culture" (p. 27) that disadvantaged individuals who wanted access to "the hidden majority" of choices lying "under the current waterline" (p. 26). This "hidden majority" of choices was termed the "Long Tail." Although demand for each of the items in the Long Tail was confined con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. to "a mass of niches," collectively those niches were a powerful cultural force that could produce profits for online retailers, especially those offering books, music, and films (C. Anderson, 2006, pp. 52-53, 5). And while the Long Tail "is indeed full of crap," "it's also full of works of refined brilliance and depth," a dual phenomenon necessitating sophisticated information filters that allow individuals to find suitable items (C. Anderson, 2006, p. 116). Because Anderson was writing about how online aggregators ("hybrid retailers" such as Amazon and "pure digital retailer[s]" (p. 90)) could benefit from a Long Tail economic model, he envisioned filters as "recommendations and search technologies" (p. 122).
Danky was convinced that libraries--the type of bricks-and-mortar entities that did not have the limitless space of large online aggregators--could also benefit by stocking Long Tail items, which in their case were alternative publications. Not only did these publications represent "the hidden majority," but they could also act as a much-needed counterweight coun·ter·weight
1. A weight used as a counterbalance.
2. A force or influence equally counteracting another.
coun to library collections that were becoming increasingly homogenized through the type of material they received from centralized selection departments that often worked closely with approval-plan and serials vendors. For Danky, the ideal filter was the librarian with vast subject-specific knowledge--someone who could enrich library collections by finding the "works of refined brilliance and depth" in the Long Tail. His work on ALL was an example of what was possible when the universe of possible choices was expanded such that the items at the furthest reaches of the Long Tail (e.g., the 162 journals from which ALL reprinted one article apiece) constituted a plurality of all included items. ALL was a model for how library-wide collection-development practices could be reinvented so that alternative publications would be significantly represented on library shelves.
Danky knew that it was pusillanimous to invoke time-honored collection-development principles such as "suitability of subject and style for intended audience," "reputation or significance of the author and publisher," "popular appeal," and "number and nature of requests from patrons," since these criteria frequently excluded publications produced by alternative presses (B. Anderson, 1999, p. 12). Similarly, it was folly to limit the range of materials made available to readers by defining a "best of" (or core) collection because definitions of "best" often excluded views that were radical and controversial, settling for the "painless" and "pleasant." Instead, items should be collected based on "insight into human and social conditions," "relevance to the experience and contributions of diverse populations," and "representation of a minority point of view" (B. Anderson, 1999, p. 12). Only then could a library aspire to aspire to
verb aim for, desire, pursue, hope for, long for, crave, seek out, wish for, dream about, yearn for, hunger for, hanker after, be eager for, set your heart on, set your sights on, be ambitious for "a collection that approaches comprehensiveness" (Atton, 1996, p. 18). Librarians should therefore consider alternative publications as an "inevitable" part of their collections because the alternative press, freed from the constraints imposed upon its mainstream counterparts to realize significant "commercial gain," can provide "interpretations of the world which we might not otherwise see" (Atton, 1996, p. 18).
As Danky's career attests, developing comprehensive collections was an arduous process that could not be outsourced to approval-plan and serials vendors, nor could it be performed in centralized selection departments where paraprofessionals mechanically bulk-ordered copies of bestsellers and other popular books. If outsourcing occurred in libraries, not only did it risk homogenizing collections, but it also doomed librarians to be non-experts in numerous subject fields--a troubling development for anyone wishing to bring "as wide a variety of viewpoints as possible into the library" so that "principles of fairness, of equity" apply (Danky, 1994b, p. 3). Instead, collection development must be undertaken by librarians who are subject experts and who are prepared to spend time identifying obscure, alternative, and controversial items that, once found and made available to patrons, are the best testimony of libraries' embrace of substantive neutrality. After all, approval-plan and serials vendors were businesses driven by the profit motive, not substantive neutrality. John R. Secor and Gary M. Shirk shirk
In Islam, idolatry and polytheism, both of which are regarded as heretical. The Qu'ran stresses that God does not share his powers with any partner (sharik) and warns that those who believe in idols will be harshly dealt with on the Day of Judgment. (2000), senior administrative officers at YBP YBP Yankee Book Peddler (Contoocook, New Hampshire)
YBP Years Before Present
YBP Young Black Professionals
YBP Yellow Bike Project
YBP Yellow Bird Project (Montreal, Canada)
YBP Yoga for Busy People Library Services, asserted that it is the goal of "full-service academic book vendors" (p. 106) in the 2000s and beyond to go "from razor-thin margins to five percent" pretax pre·tax
Existing before tax deductions: pretax income.
pretax adj [profit] → vor (Abzug der) Steuern profit, a level which "is considered minimally necessary for continued corporate vitality" (pp. 107). And, as pointed out by Dan Tonkery (2001), a wave of mergers among approval-plan and serials vendors in the late 1990s and early 2000s consolidated control of the library vendor marketplace in the hands of "fewer than 10 major companies" (p. 47). Because these companies are part of "major corporations" whose "management teams" must deliver ever-higher "shareholder value," they are "held to very demanding standards for measuring growth, ROI (Return On Investment) The monetary benefits derived from having spent money on developing or revising a system. In the IT world, there are more ways to compute ROI than Carter has liver pills (and for those of you who never heard of that expression, it means a lot). [return on investment], and profitability" (p. 50). For example, Crispin Davis, the Chief Executive Officer of Reed Elsevier, a major publisher of scholarly serials, stated in 2002 that one of his "key" priorities was to bring about "above-market revenue growth and double-digit earnings growth" after his company had acquired Harcourt General (qtd. in Black, 2006, p. 133).
In the 2000s, profitability meant "productive efficiency," especially for serials vendors. Many of them turned into Web-based full-text aggregators offering "product bundling Product bundling is a marketing strategy that involves offering several products for sale as one combined product. This strategy is very common in the software business (for example: bundle a word processor, a spreadsheet, and a database into a single office suite), and in the fast " (Covi & Cragin, 9004, p. 314) when libraries undertook a large-scale migration to electronic journals as a result of "patrons' preference for online access" and "budgetary constraints and reductions" caused by soaring print journal prices (Watson, 2005, p. 200). Yet full-text coverage of alternative publications remained low in many of the aggregated databases to which libraries subscribed, hovering hov·er
intr.v. hov·ered, hov·er·ing, hov·ers
1. To remain floating, suspended, or fluttering in the air: gulls hovering over the waves.
2. between 6 percent and 12.3 percent of API periodicals (LaFond, Van Ullen, & Irving, 2000). One reason for this was that electronic aggregators tried to make their bundles as attractive as possible for libraries (and as profitable for themselves) by concentrating on titles recommended by "standard sources" such as Magazines for Libraries, 'journals represented in important secondary databases, such as CINAHL CINAHL Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature , EconLit, ERIC, INSPEC INSPEC Information Service for Physics, Electronics, and Computing , MEDLINE The online medical database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) whose parent is the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. MEDLINE contains millions of articles from thousands of medical journals and publications. The consumer section of the site (http://medlineplus. , MLA MLA
Modern Language Association
MLA n abbr (BRIT POL) (= Member of the Legislative Assembly) → miembro de la asamblea legislativa
MLA (Brit International Bibliography, and PsychINFO" (Chambers & So, 2004, p. 186). Alternative publications did not comprise a large percentage of such "standard sources." As collection-development specialists devoted much of their time to facilitating access to bundled electronic resources packaged by aggregators, they diminished their libraries' "independence with regard to collections" (Covi & Cragin, 2004, p. 313). This change "decreased the power of subject specialists to enhance collections" (Covi & Cragin, 2004, p. 312). From one perspective, it was even difficult to call them "subject specialists" any more, since they were overwhelmed o·ver·whelm
tr.v. o·ver·whelmed, o·ver·whelm·ing, o·ver·whelms
1. To surge over and submerge; engulf: waves overwhelming the rocky shoreline.
a. with negotiating licensing arrangements and forming consortia in order to distribute the ever-increasing cost of access to online resources across many institutional budgets.
The loss of subject expertise among collection-development specialists worried Danky because he was convinced that extensive subject expertise was a vital prerequisite for informed collection development. The prevalence of electronic aggregators was another instance of outsourcing that prevented libraries from "think[ing] globally, collect[ing] locally" (Crohan, 2000, p. 374), thus impoverishing collections by restricting them to the kind of juried "best of" model found in LLTBO. Conversely, the nonjuried long-tail distribution model found in ALL was a stinging rejection of a collection-development approach in which only those items that gave "a painless, even pleasant overview" of a given topic were deemed worthy of inclusion in an anthology and, by extension, a library collection (Katz & Klaessig, 1973, p. v). For Danky, it was important to include what others might consider to be "inadequate, anti-intellectual, [and] downright distasteful documents" (Katz & Klaessig, 1973, p. vii). ALL was therefore an eloquent invitation to collection-development specialists to reorient Re`o´ri`ent
a. 1. Rising again.
The life reorient out of dust.
Verb 1. their practices so that they no longer conceptualized professional expertise in terms of excluding works based on artificial criteria, but in terms of including as much overlooked material as possible. Exclusionary practices were embodied by outsourcing, as manifested in centralized "Give 'Em What They Want" selection, approval plans, and serial vendors turned electronic aggregators. Inclusionary practices were symbolized by non-outsourced collection-development activities performed by librarians who had not abandoned their subject-specific expertise in the name of "productive efficiency" and "allocative efficiency," who deployed that expertise by purchasing hard-to-find (alternative) materials, and who understood that library collections containing alternative materials were the only ones that would lead to "increased understanding" and socio-cultural liberation. These were the kind of librarians who welcomed each issue of Counterpoise coun·ter·poise
1. A counterbalancing weight.
2. A force or influence that balances or equally counteracts another.
3. The state of being in equilibrium.
tr.v. , a journal founded in 1997 by Charles Willett, because of its ability to "concentrat[e] information" about alternative and hard-to-find materials in one place (Dilevko & Dali, 2004, p. 73). These were also the kind of librarians who strove to convince administrators to emulate the library at the Minneapolis Community & Technology College (MCTC MCTC Maryland Correctional Training Center
MCTC Military Corrective Training Centre (UK)
MCTC Model City Tax Code (Arizona)
MCTC Mankato Citizens Telephone Company (Minnesota) ), which allocated first 10 percent and later 15 percent of its materials budget to alternative-press resources (Eland eland (ē`lənd), large, spiral-horned African antelope, genus Taurotragus, found in brush country or open forest at the edge of grasslands. Elands live in small herds and are primarily browsers rather than grazers. , 2000; MCTC, n.d.).
Invoking the spirit of George Orwell's The Road to Wigan Pier Wigan Pier is the name given today to the area around the canal at the bottom of the Wigan flight of locks on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. It is a popular location for visitors and the local community in Wigan, England, situated just a few hundred yards , a book where Orwell "concluded enigmatically that we (meaning all of us) would solve the problem of poverty when we chose to" (Danky, 1996b, p. viii), Danky believed that it behooved each librarian to confront the lack of alternative publications in libraries with "initiative," "energy," and "tenacity" (Danky, 1996b, p. viii). Becoming an expert in "something, anything" was the first step in a process that would inevitably lead individual librarians to include alternative publications in their institutions. The more one knew about a topic, the more one realized how many gaps existed not only in one's knowledge of that topic, but also in the library collections that symbolized knowledge of that same topic. Alternative publications could help fill those numerous gaps.
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goes to Wizard of Oz to get brains. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]
See : Ignorance
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According to the UIP's website: .
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Juris Dilevko is an associate professor at the Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto Research at the University of Toronto has been responsible for the world's first electronic heart pacemaker, artificial larynx, single-lung transplant, nerve transplant, artificial pancreas, chemical laser, G-suit, the first practical electron microscope, the first cloning of T-cells, . He has published in journals such as Library Quarterly, Library &Information Science Research, and College & Research Libraries.
Table 1. Top Ten journals from Which the Library Lit.--The Best of Series (1970-1990) Drew Articles Number of articles drawn Journal from this journal Library Journal 77 Wilson Library Bulletin 39 School Library Journal 38 American binaries 26 College & Research Libraries 26 Collection Building 14 Special Libraries 13 Top of the News 13 Journal of Library History (Libraries & Culture) 11 Journal of Academic Librarianship 10 Total 267 Table 2. Frequency Distribution of Journals Represented in Library Lit.--The Best of Series (1970-1990) According to the Number of Previously Printed Articles Drawn from Individual Journals Number of journals from which Percent of this many journals articles with this Number of articles were drawn many articles 20 or more articles 5 2.96 Between 10 and 19 articles 5 2.96 Between 5 and 9 articles 20 11.83 Three or four articles 28 16.57 Two articles 23 13.61 One article 88 52.07 Total 169 100 Exact number Percent of of articles articles represented represented by percent by percent Number of articles of journals of journals 20 or more articles 206 32.54 Between 10 and 19 articles 61 9.64 Between 5 and 9 articles 134 21.17 Three or four articles 98 15.48 Two articles 46 7.27 One article 88 13.90 Total 633 100 Table 3. Top Ten journals from Which the Alternative Library Literature Series (1982-2001) Drew Articles Number of articles Journal drawn from this journal Collection Building 23 Counterpoise 22 Progressive Librarian 22 Women Library Workers (WLW) Journal 18 Librarians' Guild Communicator 16 Librarians at Liberty 10 The Unabashed Librarian 10 Journal of Youth Services in Libraries 9 Public Library Quarterly 9 Social Responsibilities Round Table 9 (SRRT) Newsletter/Resolutions Total 148 Table 4. Frequency Distribution of Journals Represented in the Alternative Library Literature Series (1982-2001) According to the Number of Previously Printed Articles Drawn from Individual Journals Number of journals from which Percent of this many journals articles with this Number of articles were drawn many articles 20 or more articles 3 1.25 Between 10 and 19 articles 4 1.67 Between 5 and 9 articles 20 8.33 Three or four articles 30 12.50 Two articles 21 8.75 One article 162 67.50 Total 240 100 Exact number Percent of of articles articles represented represented by percent by percent Number of articles of journals of journals 20 or more articles 67 11.92 Between 10 and 19 articles 54 9.61 Between 5 and 9 articles 133 23.67 Three or four articles 104 18.51 Two articles 42 7.47 One article 162 28.83 Total 562 100 * * Due to rounding. Table 5. Comparison of the Frequency with Which Specific Journals Are Represented in Library Lit.--The Best of Series (1970-1990) and the Alternative Library Literature Series (1982-2001) Number of articles Number of articles drawn from this drawn from this journal that appear journal that appear in in the Alternative Library Lit.--The Best Library Literature Journal of series (1970-1990) series (1982-2001) Library Journal 77 1 Wilson Library Bulletin 39 2 School Library, journal 38 1 American Libraries 26 1 College & Research 26 1 Libraries Collection Building 14 23 Special Libraries 13 1 Top of the Nevis 13 0 Journal of Library History (Libraries & 11 2 Culture) Journal of Academic Librarianship 10 0 Table 6. Relationship between Prestigious journals as Determined by Directors of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Institutions and the Frequency with Which Those Journals Appear in Library Lit.--The Best of Series (1970-1990) and the Alternative Library Literature Series (1982-2001) Number of articles drawn from this journal that Journal (drawn from the first appear in Library 20 journals listed in Table 1 Lit.--The Best of of Kohl & Davis, 1985) series (1970-1990) College & Research Libraries 26 Library Quarterly 6 Journal of Academic Librarianship 10 Library Resources &Technical Services 4 Library Trends 1 Information Technology & Libraries (Journal of Library Automation) 5 Journal of the American Society for Information Science 4 Library Journal 77 American Libraries 26 RQ 7 Special Libraries 13 Wilson Library Bulletin 39 Library & Information Science Research 1 Journal of Library History (Libraries & Culture) 11 Journal of Education for Librarianship 7 Collection Management 0 Library of Congress Quarterly Journal 3 Drexel Library Quarterly 3 Harvard Library Bulletin 0 Microform Review 1 Total (% of all reprinted articles in series) 244 (38.55) Number of articles drawn from this journal that appear Journal (drawn from the first in the Alternative 20 journals listed in Table 1 Library Literature of Kohl & Davis, 1985) series (1982-2001) College & Research Libraries 1 Library Quarterly 3 Journal of Academic Librarianship 0 Library Resources &Technical Services 0 Library Trends 3 Information Technology & Libraries (Journal of Library Automation) 1 Journal of the American Society for Information Science l Library Journal 1 American Libraries 1 RQ 4 Special Libraries 1 Wilson Library Bulletin 2 Library & Information Science Research 1 Journal of Library History (Libraries & Culture) 2 Journal of Education for Librarianship 1 Collection Management 0 Library of Congress Quarterly Journal 0 Drexel Library Quarterly 0 Harvard Library Bulletin 0 Microform Review 0 Total (% of all reprinted articles in series) 22 (3.91)