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A guide to graduate study in economics: ranking economics departments by fields of expertise.



1. Introduction

Each year, thousands of undergraduates apply for admission to graduate schools in economics intending to obtain a Ph.D. Many of these students have little idea on how to choose a graduate program, and many go to an undergraduate adviser looking for Looking for

In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with.
 advice. Prospective graduate students and their advisers have little published research to help them in the process of choosing what schools best match the undergraduate's skills and interests.

This study highlights many of the characteristics of departments that offer doctoral degrees in economics and provides information on both overall productivity and productivity by subject field. This research is significant for those looking to obtain a Ph.D. in economics because the choice of where to attend graduate school has been shown to be important in both academic and nonacademic job markets. Research into the careers of Ph.D. economists This is an alphabetical list of notable economists. Economists are experts in the science of economics. There is also a list of politicians and statesmen with economic training.  (Barbezat 1992; McMillen and Singell 1994; Stock and Alston There are several places in the world with the name Alston:
  • Alston, Cumbria
  • Alstonvale, Quebec, Canada
  • Alston, Georgia
  • Alston, Devon, UK
Alston is also a name, coming from Old_English and meaning from the old manor (or maybe
 2000; Siegfried Siegfried (sēg`frēd) or Sigurd (sĭg`ərd), great folk hero of early and medieval Germanic mythology.  and Stock 2004) consistently indicates that graduates from top-rated schools fare better in academic and nonacademic job markets than their peers from lower-ranked programs.

Based on the finding that the quality of the school influences outcomes in the job market, the best advice for those applying to graduate school in economics may simply be to apply to the best schools to which you will likely be admitted. Yet this advice is of little value for those who are unlikely to be admitted into a top program yet have a strong interest in one of the many subject fields of economics and a strong desire to pursue a particular field. This group of students is left getting advice from an undergraduate adviser who cannot be expected to know the strengths of economics departments across the country or to search the Web pages of all the programs that offer a Ph.D. looking for clues as to what school is the best match.

In this article, we provide information to undergraduate students and their advisers on the research strengths of 129 economics departments that offer Ph.D. degrees in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  and to identify schools that are ranked highly in the many different subject fields of economics. This article should also provide guidance to departments hiring new Ph.D. candidates within a specific field and to job candidates looking for information on potential academic employers.

This article differs from the many papers ranking the quality of economics departments by identifying the relative strength of all Ph.D. programs and by specifically providing information on all the major subject fields in economics. Although Tschirhart (1989) ranks departments in fields of expertise, only a limited set of fields is identified, and departments are ranked using data that are now over 20 years old. U.S. News and Worm Report (1) also provides a ranking of economics departments by field. Their ranking is based on survey responses of department chairs who were asked to rank all departments on a five-point scale. Department rankings by field can also be found on the EconPhd.net website (http://www.econphd.net). This site ranks departments by field, using publications in 63 highly ranked economics journals during the 1993-2003 period. The data we used as the basis for this article are more comprehensive and cover a larger time frame. We used all journals in which economists at the Ph.D.-granting institutions in the United States had published during a 20-year period. Our data set consists of publications in 254 journals over the 20-year period 1985-2004. This analysis provides by far the most detailed, complete ranking of departments by field in the literature.

In addition to simply identifying the top 20 schools in each field, other information, not found elsewhere, is provided on the relative importance of the field at the school and how the scholarly output is distributed across the department's faculty. To measure the concentration of faculty in a field, we calculate a Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI HHI Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (measure of market concentration)
HHI Heinrich Hertz Institut (Germany)
HHI Hilton Head Island
HHI Household Income
HHI Hyundai Heavy Industries Co, Ltd
). The HHI is particularly important for an undergraduate to consider. Planning to obtain a Ph.D. from a school in hopes of studying with a single person is a risky undertaking not only because the faculty member may move but also because any single faculty member can mentor Mentor, in Greek mythology
Mentor (mĕn`tər, –tôr'), in Greek mythology, friend of Odysseus and tutor of Telemachus.
 only a limited number of students.

We recognize that ranking departments is fraught fraught  
adj.
1. Filled with a specified element or elements; charged: an incident fraught with danger; an evening fraught with high drama.

2.
 with danger. Thursby Thursby is a village near Carlisle in north-western England. West of Thursby is the church of St Andrews, built in 1846. It was not the first church on the site; one existed since the 6th century.  (2000) has pointed out that using single measures of department productivity suggests differences between many departments that are meaningless, a finding we reiterate re·it·er·ate  
tr.v. re·it·er·at·ed, re·it·er·at·ing, re·it·er·ates
To say or do again or repeatedly. See Synonyms at repeat.



re·it
 when solely aggregate measures of performance are used. However, by providing detailed information on departments by field and by identifying the publication patterns of the faculty within the field, we are able to highlight some differences that aggregate measures gloss over Verb 1. gloss over - treat hurriedly or avoid dealing with properly
skate over, skimp over, slur over, smooth over

do by, treat, handle - interact in a certain way; "Do right by her"; "Treat him with caution, please"; "Handle the press reporters gently"
.

2. Methods

Similar to Tschirhart (1989), the data-gathering stage consists of four basic steps: (i) identifying all Ph.D.-granting institutions in economics as of the 2004 spring semester se·mes·ter  
n.
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.



[German, from Latin (cursus) s
, (2) (ii) identifying all tenure-track ten·ure-track
adj.
Of or relating to a teaching or research position at a college or university that can lead to a tenured position.
 or tenured ten·ured  
adj.
Having tenure: tenured civil servants; tenured faculty.

Adj. 1. tenured
 faculty as of the 2004 spring semester, (iii) acquiring a list of faculty publications, and (iv) determining the quality of each publication.

To identify the universities offering doctoral degrees in economics, we used the website maintained by the University of Albany Albany, town, Australia
Albany (ăl`bənē), town (1996 pop. 14,590), Western Australia, SW Australia. It is a port on Princess Royal Harbour of King George Sound. The town has woolen mills and fish canneries.
. (3) This site contained a list of all economics departments with Ph.D. programs at American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  and Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma.  universities and was verified ver·i·fy  
tr.v. ver·i·fied, ver·i·fy·ing, ver·i·fies
1. To prove the truth of by presentation of evidence or testimony; substantiate.

2.
 with Peterson's Peterson’s, founded in 1966, is an American company offering personalized solutions for education and career achievement. They offer a wide range of live, print, and online products and services including test preparation, school searches, financial aid searches, career  Guide to Graduate Schools. (4) Based on this, we identified 129 programs located in the United States that offered doctoral degrees in economics as of the spring of 2004.

The second step, identifying all tenure-track or tenured faculty for each university, was accomplished by accessing economics department Web sites. A slight shortcoming short·com·ing  
n.
A deficiency; a flaw.


shortcoming
Noun

a fault or weakness

Noun 1.
 of this approach is that faculty lists are highly dependent on whether a department maintains and updates their faculty lists. Removing faculty members without any publications resulted in over 2600 faculty names. In the few cases where faculty appeared on multiple department websites, we included the faculty member in the department where he or she had a permanent and current affiliation affiliation (fil´ēā´sh . We recognize that there are some faculty who are members of a department other than economics (e.g., the Department of Managerial Economics managerial economics

Application of economic principles to decision making in business firms or other management units. The basic concepts are drawn from microeconomic theory, but new tools of analysis have been added.
 and Decision Sciences at Northwestern University Northwestern University, mainly at Evanston, Ill.; coeducational; chartered 1851, opened 1855 by Methodists. In 1873 it absorbed Evanston College for Ladies. ) yet contribute to the education of graduate students and are productive in the field of economics. Determining who these faculty are and the extent to which they are involved in the economics department made it impractical im·prac·ti·cal  
adj.
1. Unwise to implement or maintain in practice: Refloating the sunken ship proved impractical because of the great expense.

2.
 to include them in the analysis.

The third step focused on acquiring journal publications for each faculty member listed in the Journal of Economic Literature database Econlit. The database was queried for the publications of tenure-track faculty identified by the 129 departments. Faculty were dropped from the analysis if Econlit indicated that they had no published articles. This study focused on articles published between 1985 and 2004. Over this time period, Econlit cataloged over 38,000 publications of faculty who were employed in Ph.D. economics programs as of the spring of 2004. (5) Further, Econlit provided four essential pieces of information that would be needed for analysis: (i) article source, (ii) page numbers, (iii) number of authors, and (iv) Journal of Economic Literature subject codes. The article source would be needed in order to assess the quality of the article. The credit each author received for a publication was weighted by the number of authors and page length. The greater the number of coauthors, the less credit assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
 to each coauthor co·au·thor or co-au·thor  
n.
A collaborating or joint author.

tr.v. co·au·thored, co·au·thor·ing, co·au·thors
To be a collaborating or joint author of: "He and a colleague . . .
, and the greater the length of the article, the greater the credit assigned to each coauthor. (6) The subject codes would be needed to sort articles by a field of expertise.

The final step was assigning as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
 a quality index, [Q.sub.j], to each journal. We used both the impact factors published in the 2004 Social Science Citation Index Science Citation Index (SCI ®) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) in 1960, which is now owned by Thomson Scientific.  (SSCI SSCI Social Sciences Citation Index (Thompson Scientific)
SSCI Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
SSCI Steel Service Center Institute (Cleveland, Ohio)
SSCI Self Service Check-In
SSCI Scientific Systems Co.
 scores) and rankings based on "citations per character in 1990" for articles published between 1985 and 1989 (JEL scores) proposed by Laband and Piette (1994). (7) Many publications contained at least one or both an SSCI and a JEL score. There were 107 journals containing both an SSCI and a JEL score. There were an additional 131 with only an SSCI score and an additional 16 with only a JEL score. Thus, the total number of journals indexed in the SSCI that we used in our analysis was 238, and the total number of journals indexed in the JEL that we used in our analysis was 123. Publications that had neither an SSCI nor a JEL score were dropped from the analysis. It should be noted that although the SSCI indexes 172 journals in the economics discipline, we use all publications identified by Econlit and indexed in the SSCI, even if outside the economics discipline, in calculating productivity.

Following Tschirhart (1989), articles were adjusted by number of authors and page length. The first step consisted of dividing the number of pages of article i, [pages.sub.i], by the number of authors (n), thus ensuring that each author received 1/n credit times the number of pages. The second step consisted of taking the value from the first step ([pages.sub.i] divided by n) and dividing it by the average length of all articles from the same journal j ([[bar.p].sub.j]). The weighting that each coauthor of article i in publication j, [W.sub.ij], receives is given by

[W.sub.ij] = [pages.sub.i]/[n.sub.i]/[[bar.p].sub.j]

The quality, [Q.sub.j], of each article was then multiplied mul·ti·ply 1  
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies

v.tr.
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.

2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on.
 by [W.sub.ij], yielding a productivity value, [P.sub.ij], indicating the weighted quality assigned to each article assigned to the author. These weighted productivity values were summed by individual and then by school. The results presented in this study are based primarily on the SSCI scores because of the broader coverage of the SSCI and because the SSCI includes many of the newer journals that began publication after 1985.

In preparing to rank schools by subject fields, the JEL classification system was used. (8) The JEL classification system consists of 18 different subject fields. We eliminated one subject field, M (business administration and business economics, marketing, and accounting). The remaining 17 subject fields are listed in Table 1. The subject field with the greatest number of faculty publications was D, microeconomics microeconomics

Study of the economic behaviour of individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of total production and income among them. It considers individuals both as suppliers of land, labour, and capital and as the ultimate consumers of the final
, and the field with the least number of faculty publications was JEL code B, methodology and history of economic thought.

3. Results

After gathering and cleaning the data and making the previously mentioned calculations, rankings are computed. The results are presented in Tables 2 and 3.

The second column of Table 2 provides the overall productivity rank of all 129 departments. This ranking was computed by summing [P.sub.ij] for each university, with the top university having the greatest overall productivity sum. Although it is similar to rankings found in Graves Graves  

A region of southwest France in the Garonne River valley. The area is known for its fine table wines.

Noun 1. Graves - English writer known for his interest in mythology and in the classics (1895-1985)
, Marchand Marchand is a frequent surname in France and in Quebec (French word for merchant)

The surname may refer to:
  • Albert Gallatin Marchand (1811 - 1848), a Democratic member of the U.S.
, and Thompson Thompson, city, Canada
Thompson, city (1991 pop. 14,977), central Man., Canada, on the Burntwood River. A mining town, it developed after large nickel deposits were discovered in the area in 1956.
 (1982) and Dusansky and Vernon Vernon, city, Canada
Vernon, city (1991 pop. 23,514), S British Columbia, Canada, near the north end of Okanagan Lake. The center of a fruit-growing and dairying area, it has packing and dehydrating plants.
 (1998), some differences are apparent. These differences can be attributed to the difference in time periods analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
, the inclusion of all articles listed in Econlit rather than a subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original. , and the use of the SSCI for the quality index.

The third column in Table 2, "Z-Score Z-Score

A statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) a data point is from the mean of a data set. In a more financial sense, Z-score is the output from a credit-strength test that gauges the likelihood of bankruptcy.
," indicates the number of standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
 the school's productivity rank is above or below the mean productivity rank. Only 44 of the 129 schools have a positive Z-score, indicating that the distribution of overall productivity is skewed skewed

curve of a usually unimodal distribution with one tail drawn out more than the other and the median will lie above or below the mean.

skewed Epidemiology adjective Referring to an asymmetrical distribution of a population or of data
 to the right. A noticeable feature of this skewness Skewness

A statistical term used to describe a situation's asymmetry in relation to a normal distribution.

Notes:
A positive skew describes a distribution favoring the right tail, whereas a negative skew describes a distribution favoring the left tail.
 is that distinction between schools diminishes as the rank declines. For example, the top-ranked school, Harvard Harvard, town (1990 pop. 12,329), Worcester co., E central Mass.; inc. 1732. A Shaker house and cemetery, a Native American museum, and a Harvard observatory are there. , has a Z-score of 5.08, and the fifth-ranked school, Yale, has a Z-score of 2.18, a substantial difference. However, as we move lower in the rankings, the 70th-ranked school, the University of Massachusetts The system includes UMass Amherst, UMass Boston, UMass Dartmouth (affiliated with Cape Cod Community College), UMass Lowell, and the UMass Medical School. It also has an online school called UMassOnline. , has a Z-score of -0.43, and the 80th-ranked school, the University of Delaware [3] The student body at the University of Delaware is largely an undergraduate population. Delaware students have a great deal of access to work and internship opportunities. , has a Z-score of -0.50, a very small difference. The ordinal (mathematics) ordinal - An isomorphism class of well-ordered sets.  rankings presented in much of the literature that ranks economics departments miss the fact that below a relatively small group of top programs, the differences in aggregate productivity become fairly small.

The fourth column of Table 2, "Per Faculty Rank," shows how each school ranks when their total productivity sum is divided by the number of publishing faculty within the department; it represents the average productivity of publishing faculty in a department and may be the best indicator Indicator

Anything used to predict future financial or economic trends.

Notes:
In the context of technical analysis, an indicator is a mathematical calculation based on a securities price and/or volume. The result is used to predict future prices.
 of the quality of the faculty for potential graduate students. For example, the California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology, at Pasadena, Calif.; originally for men, became coeducational in 1970; founded 1891 as Throop Polytechnic Institute; called Throop College of Technology, 1913–20.  has an overall rank of 38 and an average rank of 7, suggesting that the lower overall rank of the department is greatly influenced by the smaller size of the department and not due to the productivity of each publishing faculty member. A student attending this institution would likely obtain an education from "top 10" faculty even though the relatively small department size dampens the overall productivity ranking. The fifth column of Table 2 indicates the overall productivity ranking of departments based on the journal rankings Static Journal Ranking
Journal ranking is widely used in academic circles in the evaluation of a journal's impact. Although there are several websites that release rankings of journals in specific areas of research, their audiences have only static access to ranking reports.
 of Laband and Piette (1994) that appeared in the Journal of Economic Literature. Notice that rankings using the SSCI or those calculated by Laband and Piette (1994) identify the same top 10 schools, and there is only one difference in the top 20 schools.

The sixth column of Table 2, "Top Field," indicates each department's best subject field. Top field was determined by summing each department's productivity for each JEL category, using the first JEL code identified by the author as a guide and then choosing the subject field with the highest sum. The seventh column of Table 2 shows the HHI for each school. The HHI is typically used to measure the degree of market concentration for a particular industry. In this study, the HHI provides information on how concentrated the research is among the number of faculty publishing in the department. The HHI is found by squaring the faculty member's share of the department's total productivity and then summing the results:

HHI = [n.summation summation n. the final argument of an attorney at the close of a trial in which he/she attempts to convince the judge and/or jury of the virtues of the client's case. (See: closing argument)  over (i=1)] [s.sup.2.sub.i]

where s represents the productivity share of the ith faculty member. Values for the index can range from 0 to 1, depending on the distribution of publication patterns across the faculty at the school. A value of 1.0 indicates that all the publications result from a single individual, and a value of 0 implies (logic) implies - (=> or a thin right arrow) A binary Boolean function and logical connective. A => B is true unless A is true and B is false. The truth table is

A B | A => B ----+------- F F | T F T | T T F | F T T | T

It is surprising at first that A =>
 that the publications are spread equally among the faculty in the area. (9)

The eighth column of Table 2, "Field Strength Index," demonstrates how well each department does in its top field relative to the department that is the number one rank in that particular field. For example, Harvard's top field is financial economics, and it is the top-ranked department in financial economics; hence, Harvard has a field strength index of 1.0. Princeton Princeton, borough (1990 pop. 12,016) and surrounding township (1990 pop. 13,198), Mercer co., W central N.J.; settled late 1600s, borough inc. 1813, township est. 1838. A leading education center, it is the seat of Princeton Univ.  University's top field is microeconomics (JEL code D), although its field strength index in microeconomics is 0.88, indicating that it produces 88% of the research of the top-ranked school in the microeconomics category. (10) It is important to note that some universities may not offer a field in their top field (see footnotes for Table 2). Finally, the last column of Table 2, "Average Ph.D. Graduates (2002-2007)," provides information on the size of each program, and is included to provide additional information to potential applicants. (11) A significant portion of graduate education is obtained from one's classmates Classmates can refer to either:
  • Classmates.com, a social networking website.
  • Classmates (film), a 2006 Malayalam blockbuster directed by Lal Jose, starring Prithviraj, Jayasurya, Indragith, Sunil, Jagathy, Kavya Madhavan, Balachandra Menon, ...
. As such, this figure provides information regarding the activity level of the graduate education within a department. A department may have many productive scholars but may not be as actively engaged in its graduate education.

Table 3 identifies the field rankings for each of the 129 departments using the first JEL code identified by the author. All articles were assigned to a field on the basis of the assumption that the first JEL code listed represents the primary subject field of the article. Once an article was categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
, the productivity value for each article, [P.sub.ij], was summed by subject and university, yielding a total productivity score within a particular field for a particular department. While this information is useful to potential graduate students and others, it should be noted that not all fields are offered at each university. Thus, potential graduate students should confirm that a field of interest is available at a particular university before applying.

Table 4 identifies the top 20 schools in each field. This table also identifies the number of faculty in each school who publish in the field regardless of where they publish or whether the journal is listed in the SSCI. Table 4 also shows the HHI for each of the top 20 schools in the field. For example, referring to Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University, at Pittsburgh, Pa.; est. 1967 through the merger of the Carnegie Institute of Technology (founded 1900, opened 1905) and the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research (founded 1913). , the value for the HHI in general economics and teaching (JEL subject code A) is 0.18, whereas for Cornell University Cornell University, mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D.  the HHI is 1.0. At Carnegie Carnegie (kärnĕg`ē, kär`nəgē), borough (1990 pop. 9,278), Allegheny co., SW Pa., an industrial suburb of Pittsburgh; inc. 1894. A steel town, it has coal mines and plants that make chemicals and electrical equipment.  Mellon, publication in this field is spread out among the eight members of the faculty who publish in this area. At Cornell Cornell

named after New York State Veterinary College at Cornell University, NY, USA.


Cornell alternative-month accelerated lambing system
enables each ewe to lamb three times in every 2 years.
, however, all the publications listed in SSCI are attributed to a single faculty member. (Although at Cornell, three people have published in this area, only one person has published in journals listed in the SSCI.) As another example, for JEL subject code I (health, education, and welfare), Stanford University Stanford University, at Stanford, Calif.; coeducational; chartered 1885, opened 1891 as Leland Stanford Junior Univ. (still the legal name). The original campus was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. David Starr Jordan was its first president.  has nine faculty members who have published in this area and an HHI of 0.63. Michigan State University Michigan State University, at East Lansing; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855. It opened in 1857 as Michigan Agricultural College, the first state agricultural college.  is ranked slightly lower than Stanford and has 10 faculty publishing in the area with an HHI of 0.16. If a student wishes to pursue a graduate degree in economics at Stanford University with an emphasis in health, education, and welfare, he or she should realize that the scholarly activity in this area at Stanford is concentrated in a few of the nine people who publish in the area, while at Michigan State University, the publications are more evenly distributed across the faculty in this area.

The fifth column in Table 4, "Importance Index," demonstrates the importance of a particular field for a department relative to its overall productivity. The importance index simply divides a department's productivity score for a particular field by the department's overall productivity score. Refer to Princeton University Princeton University, at Princeton, N.J.; coeducational; chartered 1746, opened 1747, rechartered 1748, called the College of New Jersey until 1896. Schools and Research Facilities
, which ranks as the top department in JEL subject codes B and F, methodology and history of economic thought and international economics, respectively. For methodology and history of economic thought, Princeton has an importance index of 2%, and for international economics, Princeton has an importance index of 12%. This indicates that methodology and history of economic thought is more likely a spillover spill·o·ver  
n.
1. The act or an instance of spilling over.

2. An amount or quantity spilled over.

3. A side effect arising from or as if from an unpredicted source:
 category and not the primary focus of the department's overall research agenda.

4. Conclusion

The primary objective of this article is to provide information to undergraduate students and to their advisers on the research strengths of 129 economics doctoral programs in the United States. We provide both total and average, or per capita [Latin, By the heads or polls.] A term used in the Descent and Distribution of the estate of one who dies without a will. It means to share and share alike according to the number of individuals. , research productivity measures for publishing faculty and identify schools that are highly ranked in the many different subject fields of economics.

A noticeable feature of our total productivity rankings is that the distinction between schools diminishes as their rank declines. The data demonstrate that per capita and total productivity measures result in differences in quality rankings, where total productivity is influenced by both the number of publishing faculty and the productivity of each faculty member. Students searching for graduate schools may benefit from considering both the average quality of the faculty and the total quality of the department.

For students who have a strong interest in a specific subject field of economics, we identify the schools that may best fit with the student's desires. As a cautionary note, we provide HHI measures that alert students to the possibility that some departments may have a top reputation in a subject field due to having a single, very influential faculty member.

Although this information should be helpful to students applying to graduate school, applicants should be mindful mind·ful  
adj.
Attentive; heedful: always mindful of family responsibilities. See Synonyms at careful.



mind
 of several things. First, one should apply to many different Ph.D. programs. The loss from a redundant Repetitive. See redundancy.  application is much smaller than the loss of not applying to a place that could become one's best offer (or maybe help to get a better deal elsewhere). Second, although a student will benefit by attending a university ranked highly in his or her preferred field, a major consideration should still be the overall quality of the department. There are several benefits of attending a highly ranked school: (i) a student often learns a lot from his or her classmates, who perhaps are better students; (ii) students may change their preferences during their studies, and our study shows that highly ranked departments overall are strong in many fields; and (iii) students may be more successful in their job search if they graduated from a department that is highly ranked overall. While this article can be a useful tool to start with, when actually choosing between competing offers, prospective students should check out department websites and relevant curricula vital themselves. (12)

Finally, our work shows that many top-ranked programs based on total productivity measures are able to provide an education that is broad in nature and that gives access to many of the subject fields of economics. For students who are interested in a specific subject field, attending a traditionally top-ranked program will likely not limit the student's ability to conduct future research in an applied discipline. At the same time, however, for students who will not attend a top-ranked school based on total productivity measures, they will likely attend a program with actively publishing faculty, and if they choose their programs correctly, it will still be possible to obtain a top-ranked education in one of the subfields of economics.

Assistance in data gathering was provided by Adrienne Adrienne is the French feminine form of the male name Adrien.

Adrienne may refer to:
  • Adrienne, a character in Suikoden IV
 Strong.

Received January January: see month.  2007; accepted August 2007.

References

Barbezat, Debra A. 1992. The market for new Ph.D. economists. Journal of Economic Education 23:262-76.

Dusansky, Richard Ri·chard   , Joseph Henri Maurice Known as "Rocket." 1921-2000.

Canadian hockey player. A right wing for the Montreal Canadiens (1942-1960), he led his team to eight Stanley Cup championships and was the first player to score 50 goals in a
, and Clayton Clayton, city (1990 pop. 13,874), seat of St. Louis co., E central Mo., a suburb of St. Louis; inc. 1919. Developed in the 1960s, it has high-rise office buildings, hotels, and shopping centers; several major firms are headquartered there.  J. Vernon. 1998. Rankings of U.S. economics departments. Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:157-70.

Graves, Philip Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea
Philip, d. A.D. 34, tetrarch of Ituraea, son of Herod the Great. He was perhaps the ablest of the Herod dynasty. He is mentioned in the Gospel of St. Luke.
 E., James James, person in the Bible
James, in the Gospel of St. Luke, kinsman of St. Jude. The original does not specify the relationship.
James, rivers, United States
James.
 R. Marchand, and Randel Thompson. 1982. Economics departmental rankings: Research incentives, constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.

["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)].
, and efficiency. American Economic Review 5:1131-41.

Journal of Economic Literature. 1991. Classification system: Old and new categories. Journal of Economic Literature 29:xviii-xxviii.

Laband, David N., and Michael Michael, archangel
Michael (mī`kəl) [Heb.,=who is like God?], archangel prominent in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions. In the Bible and early Jewish literature, Michael is one of the angels of God's presence.
 J. Piette. 1994. The relative impacts of economics journals: 1970-1990. Journal of Economic Literature 32:640-66.

McMillen, Daniel Daniel, book of the Bible
Daniel, book of the Bible. It combines "court" tales, perhaps originating from the 6th cent. B.C., and a series of apocalyptic visions arising from the time of the Maccabean emergency (167–164 B.C.
 P., and Larry Lar´ry

n. 1. Same as Lorry, or Lorrie.
 D. Singell, Jr. 1994. Gender differences in first jobs for economists. Southern Economic Journal 60:701-14.

Siegfried, John J., and Wendy Wendy is a female name which may be used as a short form for Gwendolyn, or in its own right. Its popularity is attributed to the character Wendy Darling from the children's play and novel Peter Pan, by J.M. Barrie. The character Wendy was inspired by a real girl.  Stock. 2004. The labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience  for new Ph.D. economists in 2002. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 94:272-85.

Stock, Wendy, and Richard M. Alston. 2000. The effect of graduate program rank on success in the job market. Journal of Economic Education 31:389-401.

Thursby, Jerry Jer·ry  
n. pl. Jer·ries Chiefly British Slang
A German, especially a German soldier.



[Alteration of German.
 G. 2000. What do we say about ourselves and what does it mean? Yet another look at economics department research. Journal of Economic Literature 38:383-404.

Tschirhart, John. 1989. Ranking economics departments in areas of expertise. Journal of Economic Education 20:199-222.

Therese C. Grijalva Grijalva (grēhäl`vä), river, c.400 mi (640 km) long, rising in SW Guatemala and flowing NW into S Mexico and N through Chiapas and Tabasco states to the Gulf of Campeche. It is navigable for c.60 mi (100 km) upstream.  * and Clifford Clif·ford   , Clark McAdams 1906-1998.

American lawyer and politician who, as chief counsel (1946-1950) to President Harry S. Truman, influenced U.S. foreign policy. During the Vietnam War he served as U.S. secretary of defense (1968-1969).
 Nowell Nowell
Noun

same as Noel

Nowell Noel
 ([dagger])

* Department of Economics, Weber State University Weber State University is a public university located in the city of Ogden in Weber County, Utah, USA. History
Weber State University was founded by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as the Weber Stake Academy in 1889; like Weber County and the Weber River,
, Ogden Ogden, city, United States
Ogden, city (1990 pop. 63,909), seat of Weber co., N Utah, at the confluence of the Ogden and Weber rivers; inc. 1851. Aerospace industries and Hill Air Force Base are the major employers.
, UT 84408-3807, USA; E-mail tgrijalva@weber Weber, river, United States
Weber (wē`bər), river, c.125 mi (200 km) long, rising in the Uinta Mts., N central Utah, and flowing north and northwest to join the Ogden River at Ogden. The combined stream flows to the Great Salt Lake.
.edu See .edu.

(networking) edu - ("education") The top-level domain for educational establishments in the USA (and some other countries). E.g. "mit.edu". The UK equivalent is "ac.uk".
; corresponding author.

([dagger]) Department of Economics. Weber State University, Ogden, UT 84408-3807, USA: E-mail cnowell@weber.edu.

(1) Available at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/grad/rankings/ phdhum/phdhumindex_brief.php (July July: see month.  2007).

(2) Departments offering doctorates in agricultural economics Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock - a discipline known as agronomics. Agronomics was a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage.  were not included in the analysis.

(3) Available at http://www.albany.edu/econ/eco_phds.html (July 2007).

(4) Available at http://www.petersons.com/graduate_home.asp?path=gr.home (July 2007).

(5) Coauthors listed as "et al." rather than by name in Econlit are not identified specifically by Econlit.

(6) Articles with four or more authors or in articles where coauthors are not specifically identified (i.e., et al.) are treated as having four authors.

(7) An alternative to using impact factors is to use total citations per journal per year. We chose to use impact factors to be consistent with past research (e.g., see Tschirhart 1989).

(8) In 1991, JEL modified mod·i·fy  
v. mod·i·fied, mod·i·fy·ing, mod·i·fies

v.tr.
1. To change in form or character; alter.

2.
 its classification system. We followed the JEL recommendations in mapping pre- pre- word element [L.], before (in time or space).

pre-
pref.
1. Earlier; before; prior to: prenatal.

2.
1991 subject codes to post- post- word element [L.], after; behind.

post-
pref.
1. After; later: postpartum.

2. Behind; posterior to: postaxial.
1991 subject codes (Journal of Economic Literature 1991).

(9) It should be noted that in the case of an HHI of 1.0, more than one faculty member may publish in this area, yet because other faculty members' publications may not be indexed in the SSCI, they are not recognized in our data as contributing to the department's research productivity.

(10) The field strength index measures only the department's relative productivity in its top field. It is possible that a department has a higher field strength rating in a field other than its top field.

(11) These data were acquired by calling and e-mailing the graduate advisers or the department administrators at each university. In some cases, multiple attempts were made to contact the department and acquire this information.

(12) We thank an anonymous Nameless. See anonymous post and anonymous Web surfing.  referee A judicial officer who presides over civil hearings but usually does not have the authority or power to render judgment.

Referees are usually appointed by a judge in the district in which the judge presides.
 for pointing out these cautionary notes.
Table 1. The JEL Classification System for Journal Articles

Codes Beginning
with the Letter   Description

A                 General economics and teaching
B                 Methodology and history of economic thought
C                 Mathematical and quantitative methods
D                 Microeconomics
E                 Macroeconomics and monetary policy
F                 International economics
G                 Financial economics
H                 Public economics
I                 Health, education, and welfare
J                 Labor and demographic economics
K                 Law and economics
L                 Industrial organization
N                 Economic history
O                 Economic development, technological change,
                    and growth
P                 Economic systems
Q                 Agricultural and natural resource economics
R                 Urban, rural, and regional economics

Table 2. Overall Rankings for Ph.D.-Granting Institutions in Economics

                             Overall
                           Productivity     Z-Score      Per Faculty
School                     Rank (SSCI)       (SSCI)      Rank (SSCI)

Harvard U                        1            5.08            1
UC Berkeley                      2            4.09            4
Princeton U                      3            3.79            3
MIT                              4            3.29            2
Yale U                           5            2.18           11
U Michigan                       6            1.92           18
New York U                       7            1.92            8
UCLA                             8            1.76           16
Stanford U                       9            1.75           13
U Chicago                       10            1.50            5
Columbia U                      11            1.48            9
Northwestern U                  12            1.43           12
UC San Diego                    13            1.35            6
U Wisconsin, Madison            14            1.08           10
Boston U                        15            0.93           22
U Pennsylvania                  16            0.91           15
Ohio State U                    17            0.84           28
Michigan State U                18            0.83           49
Cornell U                       19            0.64           23
U Virginia                      20            0.52           17
U Maryland, College Park        21            0.49           27
U Illinois, Urbana              22            0.46           38
Carnegie Mellon U               23            0.45           41
Duke U                          24            0.44           31
UC Davis                        25            0.44           25
U Southern California           26            0.43           19
U Texas, Austin                 27            0.38           24
Brown U                         28            0.38           29
U Minnesota                     29            0.37           20
North Carolina State U          30            0.37           58
Iowa State U                    31            0.35           59
Vanderbilt U                    32            0.35           35
Johns Hopkins U                 33            0.24           14
Syracuse U                      34            0.24           53
Pennsylvania State U            35            0.24           43
Georgetown U                    36            0.22           40
Boston College                  37            0.15           26
California Inst Tech            38            0.09            7
U of Rochester                  39            0.09           21
UNC, Chapel Hill                40            0.08           48
George Mason U                  41            0.08           55
U Colorado, Boulder             42            0.05           56
UC Santa Cruz                   43            0.01           30
City University of
  New York (CUNY)               44            0.00           98
U Washington                    45           -0.04           50
U Illinois, Chicago             46           -0.04           34
Arizona State U                 47           -0.07           57
Rice U                          48           -0.08           36
Texas A&M U                     49           -0.09           60
Georgia State U                 50           -0.12           69
UC Santa Barbara                51           -0.12           63
Florida State U                 52           -0.14           61
Indiana U                       53           -0.19           46
George Washington U             54           -0.22           75
Rutgers U                       55           -0.22           70
UC Riverside                    56           -0.23           44
U Oregon                        57           -0.25           54
U Houston                       58           -0.26           72
U Pittsburgh                    59           -0.26           68
U Iowa                          60           -0.28           52
U Wyoming                       61           -0.30           32
U Arizona                       62           -0.32           51
U Kentucky                      63           -0.34           45
U Florida                       64           -0.35           64
Southern Methodist U            65           -0.36           62
Clemson U                       66           -0.37           73
Purdue U                        67           -0.39           76
U Connecticut                   68           -0.41           89
Washington U, St. Louis         69           -0.41           67
U Massachusetts, Amherst        70           -0.43           85
Emory U                         71           -0.43           66
UC Irvine                       72           -0.44           81
U South Carolina                73           -0.44           39
U Georgia                       74           -0.46           65
Virginia Tech                   75           -0.47           74
U Albany                        76           -0.47           71
SUNY Binghamton                 77           -0.48           77
Wayne State U                   78           -0.49           47
U Wisconsin, Milwaukee          79           -0.49           95
U Delaware                      80           -0.50          101
American U                      81           -0.52          102
U Missouri, Columbia            82           -0.53           78
U Kansas                        83           -0.54           93
RPI                             84           -0.54           33
SUNY Buffalo                    85           -0.54           83
U Nebraska, Lincoln             86           -0.55           84
Florida International U         87           -0.57           92
U Notre Dame                    88           -0.57           42
U Alabama                       89           -0.59           96
U Oklahoma                      90           -0.60           97
Brandeis U                      91           -0.61           37
Louisiana State U               92           -0.62           80
SUNY Stony Brook                93           -0.62           91
Oregon State U                  94           -0.63           86
Lehigh U                        95           -0.64           99
U Miami                         96           -0.64           79
Auburn U                        97           -0.64           90
New School U                    98           -0.64           87
Washington State U              99           -0.65           88
Tulane U (e)                   100           -0.65          104
Oklahoma State U               101           -0.66          105
Southern Illinois U,
  Carbondale                   102           -0.67           94
Northern Illinois U            103           -0.67          100
West Virginia U                104           -0.68          112
U New Orleans                  105           -0.68          114
Colorado State U               106           -0.68          117
U Tennessee, Knoxville         107           -0.69          107
U Hawaii, Manoa                108           -0.69          116
U Utah                         109           -0.69          124
U Arkansas                     110           -0.70          108
Western Michigan U             111           -0.70          120
Temple U                       112           -0.71          125
U New Mexico                   113           -0.71          113
U Mississippi                  114           -0.71          111
Kansas State U                 115           -0.71          115
Fordham U                      116           -0.72          109
U Rhode Island                 117           -0.72          103
U New Hampshire                118           -0.73          122
Utah State U                   119           -0.73          128
Northeastern U                 120           -0.74          118
Claremont Graduate U           121           -0.74           82
U Missouri, Kansas City        122           -0.74          106
Clark U                        123           -0.75          110
Portland State U               124           -0.76          121
Middle Tennessee State         125           -0.76          126
Colorado School of Mines       126           -0.76          123
Texas Tech U                   127           -0.80          119
Suffolk U                      128           -0.81          127
Howard U                       129           -0.81          129

                             Overall
                           Productivity    Top Field         HHI
School                      Rank (JEL)       (SSCI)         (SSCI)

Harvard U                        1             G             0.03
UC Berkeley                      3             D             0.03
Princeton U                      2             D             0.04
MIT                              4             J             0.05
Yale U                           5             C             0.07
U Michigan                       7             J             0.03
New York U                       9             D             0.04
UCLA                             6             D             0.04
Stanford U                       8             D             0.04
U Chicago                       10             D             0.05
Columbia U                      11             F             0.09
Northwestern U                  12             C             0.06
UC San Diego                    13             C             0.05
U Wisconsin, Madison            14             C             0.06
Boston U                        15             J             0.05
U Pennsylvania                  17             J             0.07
Ohio State U                    16             D             0.05
Michigan State U                19             J             0.08
Cornell U                       22             D             0.06
U Virginia                      18             D             0.08
U Maryland, College Park        20             H             0.05
U Illinois, Urbana              24             C             0.05
Carnegie Mellon U               25             G             0.05
Duke U                          23             C             0.06
UC Davis                        29             F             0.06
U Southern California           32             D             0.11
U Texas, Austin                 26             J             0.08
Brown U                         27             0             0.06
U Minnesota                     28             D             0.07
North Carolina State U          30             Q             0.06
Iowa State U                    21             Q             0.04
Vanderbilt U                    31             E             0.06
Johns Hopkins U                 33             D             0.11
Syracuse U                      37             J             0.05
Pennsylvania State U            39             D             0.05
Georgetown U                    40             E             0.07
Boston College                  34             D             0.10
California Inst Tech            38             D             0.13
U of Rochester                  36             D             0.10
UNC, Chapel Hill                41             J             0.09
George Mason U                  35             D             0.06
U Colorado, Boulder             43             F             0.06
UC Santa Cruz                   44             F             0.10
City University of
  New York (CUNY)               47             J             0.04
U Washington                    46             E             0.12
U Illinois, Chicago             50             J             0.10
Arizona State U                 42             C             0.07
Rice U                          51             C             0.10
Texas A&M U                     45             C             0.06
Georgia State U                 48             J             0.08
UC Santa Barbara                52             D             0.07
Florida State U                 49             J             0.08
Indiana U                       54             E             0.09
George Washington U             57             F             0.06
Rutgers U                       55             F             0.07
UC Riverside                    56             D             0.12
U Oregon                        53             F             0.09
U Houston                       59             J             0.07
U Pittsburgh                    63             C             0.07
U Iowa                          58             C             0.11
U Wyoming                       68             Q             0.14
U Arizona                       66             D             0.10
U Kentucky                      61             H             0.16
U Florida                       60             C             0.09
Southern Methodist U            65             D             0.09
Clemson U                       64             J             0.09
Purdue U                        62             D             0.10
U Connecticut                   71             R             0.11
Washington U, St. Louis         69             D             0.15
U Massachusetts, Amherst        73             J             0.09
Emory U                         67             D             0.14
UC Irvine                       77             D             0.07
U South Carolina                74             J             0.24
U Georgia                       72             E             0.11
Virginia Tech                   78             D             0.09
U Albany                        80             J             0.13
SUNY Binghamton                 70             Q             0.16
Wayne State U                   75             R             0.23
U Wisconsin, Milwaukee          79             J             0.15
U Delaware                      76             E             0.09
American U                      81             J             0.09
U Missouri, Columbia            83             J             0.10
U Kansas                        85             C             0.14
RPI                             94             O (c)         0.20
SUNY Buffalo                    86             R             0.19
U Nebraska, Lincoln             82             A             0.13
Florida International U         93             F             0.15
U Notre Dame                    84             G (c)         0.23
U Alabama                       87             C (c)         0.14
U Oklahoma                      88             D             0.13
Brandeis U                      89             E             0.42
Louisiana State U               90             J             0.13
SUNY Stony Brook                96             D             0.14
Oregon State U                  95             D (d)         0.19
Lehigh U                        97             J             0.11
U Miami                         91             J             0.27
Auburn U                        92             L             0.14
New School U                   104             E             0.22
Washington State U             105             L             0.20
Tulane U (e)                    99             Q             0.12
Oklahoma State U               103             R             0.15
Southern Illinois U,
  Carbondale                   100             C (c)         0.15
Northern Illinois U            102             J             0.17
West Virginia U                101             H             0.16
U New Orleans                  109             G             0.13
Colorado State U               106             R             0.14
U Tennessee, Knoxville         110             H             0.10
U Hawaii, Manoa                114             Q             0.13
U Utah                         107             J             0.11
U Arkansas                     112             D             0.10
Western Michigan U             116             J             0.17
Temple U                       108             J             0.15
U New Mexico                   117             Q             0.08
U Mississippi                   98             C             0.13
Kansas State U                 119             L             0.17
Fordham U                      118             C             0.15
U Rhode Island                 115             Q             0.28
U New Hampshire                121             J (cd)        0.20
Utah State U                   113             Q             0.17
Northeastern U                 120             L             0.10
Claremont Graduate U           124             F             0.25
U Missouri, Kansas City        111             E             0.23
Clark U                        123             F             0.30
Portland State U               122             J (cf)        0.25
Middle Tennessee State         125             J             0.18
Colorado School of Mines       127             Q             0.26
Texas Tech U                   126             1             0.28
Suffolk U                      129             L             0.55
Howard U                       128             F             0.29

                                            Average
                                             Ph.D.
                              Field        Graduates
                             Strength     (2002-2007)
School                     Index (SSCI)       (a)

Harvard U                      1               31
UC Berkeley                    1               23
Princeton U                    0.88            19
MIT                            1               21
Yale U                         1               18
U Michigan                     0.74             9
New York U                     0.72            10
UCLA                           0.51            23
Stanford U                     0.63            20
U Chicago                      0.58            36
Columbia U                     0.85            11
Northwestern U                 0.54            22
UC San Diego                   0.65            13
U Wisconsin, Madison           0.51            17
Boston U                       0.45            13
U Pennsylvania                 0.50            12
Ohio State U                   0.39            15
Michigan State U               0.58            12
Cornell U                      0.28            10
U Virginia                     0.34             9
U Maryland, College Park       0.54            25
U Illinois, Urbana             0.23            12
Carnegie Mellon U              0.45             5 (b)
Duke U                         0.16            10
UC Davis                       0.38             7
U Southern California          0.38             7
U Texas, Austin                0.41            10
Brown U                        0.41             7
U Minnesota                    0.34            13
North Carolina State U         0.95             9
Iowa State U                   1                7
Vanderbilt U                   0.18             6
Johns Hopkins U                0.37             8
Syracuse U                     0.31             6
Pennsylvania State U           0.23            12
Georgetown U                   0.20             7
Boston College                 0.29             8
California Inst Tech           0.46             4
U of Rochester                 0.30            12
UNC, Chapel Hill               0.31            12
George Mason U                 0.28            15
U Colorado, Boulder            0.31            10
UC Santa Cruz                  0.31             7
City University of
  New York (CUNY)              0.32             9
U Washington                   0.20            14
U Illinois, Chicago            0.31             5
Arizona State U                0.13             2
Rice U                         0.21             5
Texas A&M U                    0.20             9
Georgia State U                0.27            11
UC Santa Barbara               0.13            10
Florida State U                0.22             4
Indiana U                      0.14             6
George Washington U            0.14             4
Rutgers U                      0.14             3
UC Riverside                   0.19             5
U Oregon                       0.15             6
U Houston                      0.20             6 (b)
U Pittsburgh                   0.15             7
U Iowa                         0.16             4
U Wyoming                      0.45             3
U Arizona                      0.15             6
U Kentucky                     0.42             5
U Florida                      0.06             6
Southern Methodist U           0.12             3
Clemson U                      0.13             7
Purdue U                       0.10             8
U Connecticut                  0.46             5
Washington U, St. Louis        0.18             8
U Massachusetts, Amherst       0.12             8
Emory U                        0.07             4
UC Irvine                      0.06            10
U South Carolina               0.33             7
U Georgia                      0.07             3
Virginia Tech                  0.10             4
U Albany                       0.12             5
SUNY Binghamton                0.18             4
Wayne State U                  0.55             4
U Wisconsin, Milwaukee         0.16             6
U Delaware                     0.05             6
American U                     0.07             7
U Missouri, Columbia           0.10             7
U Kansas                       0.06             3
RPI                            0.11             2 (b)
SUNY Buffalo                   0.41             2
U Nebraska, Lincoln            0.88             2
Florida International U        0.15            12
U Notre Dame                   0.04             5
U Alabama                      0.05             5
U Oklahoma                     0.07             5
Brandeis U                     0.11             2
Louisiana State U              0.06            13
SUNY Stony Brook               0.11            10
Oregon State U                 0.07             5
Lehigh U                       0.04             3
U Miami                        0.09             2
Auburn U                       0.11             2
New School U                   0.08            12
Washington State U             0.10            10
Tulane U (e)                   0.07        Suspended
Oklahoma State U               0.36             5
Southern Illinois U,
  Carbondale                   0.03             6
Northern Illinois U            0.13             2
West Virginia U                0.06             8
U New Orleans                  0.06             3
Colorado State U               0.15             4
U Tennessee, Knoxville         0.12             5
U Hawaii, Manoa                0.06             6
U Utah                         0.06            10
U Arkansas                     0.02             1
Western Michigan U             0.06             4
Temple U                       0.03             3 (b)
U New Mexico                   0.11             5
U Mississippi                  0.03             4
Kansas State U                 0.08             4
Fordham U                      0.05             8
U Rhode Island                 0.21             4
U New Hampshire                0.04             2
Utah State U                   0.15             3
Northeastern U                 0.16       New program
Claremont Graduate U           0.04            10
U Missouri, Kansas City        0.05            18
Clark U                        0.04             4
Portland State U               0.03             0 (f)
Middle Tennessee State         0.04             3
Colorado School of Mines       0.10             3
Texas Tech U                   0.05             6
Suffolk U                      0.02       New program
Howard U                       0.01             1 (b)

(a) This column of data represents the average number (rounded up) of
doctorates granted by each university in the past five years and was
acquired by calling each university. It should be noted that these
data provide no information regarding retention rates. While multiple
attempts were made to contact several universities, we were unable to
acquire this information for some departments; as such, NA (not
available) is used to represent these instances.

(b) This information was obtained by counting and then averaging the
number of doctoral dissertations listed in the December 2004, 2005,
and 2006 issues of the Journal of Economic Literature.

(c) The top field at this school is not an offered field. The top
offered field for the following schools is RPI, Q; U Notre Dame, F;
U Alabama, E; Southern Illinois U at Carbondale, F; U of New
Hampshire, D; and Portland State U, O. U of Notre Dame offers a field
in E, which may be closely related to G. At U of Alabama, the Ph.D.
in economics is offered out of the Business School, where a Ph.D. in
applied statistics is available. U of New Hampshire offers a field in
1, which may be closely related to J.

(d) School may or may not offer a field in microeconomic theory (D)
but does offer multiple fields in applied microeconomics.

(e) At the time of this writing, Tulane U had suspended its Ph.D.
program because of Hurricane Katrina.

(f) Portland State U does not offer a Ph.D. in economics. The
university offers doctoral degrees in urban studies and systems
science, both of which offer an emphasis in economics.

Table 3. Field Rankings (based on first-listed
JEL code for publications) (a)

                                 THE JEL Classification System
                                      for Journal Articles

School                        A      B      C      D      E      F

American U                   49     32     70    105     78     56
Arizona State U              58     77     34     40     30     34
Auburn U                     35     51     86     87    117      *
Boston College               69     72     35     23     29     22
Boston U                      *     56     14     19     11     29
Brandeis U                    *      *    110    120     34    116
Brown U                      51     68     28     38     48     37
California Inst Tech         48     35     15     11     87     78
Carnegie Mellon U             2     17     38     33     26     66
City U of New York           76     24     90     72     47     52
Claremont Graduate U         90     76      *    110    112     67
Clark U                       *     *.      *      *    121     62
Clemson U                    25     67    103     66     84     71
Colorado School of Mines      *      *      *    126      *      *
Colorado State U             82     18    122    108     96     85
Columbia U                   18      6     37     20      6      3
Cornell U                    17     58     17     24     37     41
Duke U                       37     10     27     39     31     19
Emory U                      21     82     62     63     44     46
Florida International U       *     83     82    102     77     25
Florida State U              70     43     81     62     50     70
Fordham U                     *     87     64    125     86     68
George Mason U                9      3     40     25     79     99
George Washington U          42     73     67     70     58     30
Georgetown U                  *      *     48     46     20     18
Georgia State U              14     16     68     65    104     97
Harvard U                    15      7      5      3      1      2
Howard U                      *      *    118    127    118    103
Indiana U                     5      *     53     53     28     43
Iowa State U                 30      *     44     31     62     51
Johns Hopkins U              24      9     39     15     13     79
Kansas State U                *     79    114    109     67    115
Lehigh U                     33     46     93     88    102     77
Louisiana State U            79      *     87     95     71     89
MIT                           6      5      3      5      4     38
Michigan State U             32     26     23     44     72     21
Middle Tennessee State        *     47    117    124    119     83
New School U                  *     41    111    113     41     84
New York U                   16      4      9      4      7     14
North Carolina State U       39      *     32     52     36     63
Northeastern U               50     42      *    128    108    113
Northern Illinois U           *      *    119     97    110    110
Northwestern U               34     37      4     10      5     36
Ohio State U                 47     57     13     13     17     23
Oklahoma State U             81     38    104    115    115     92
Oregon State U               74     59     79     67    125    114
Pennsylvania State U         67     11     21     28     40     32
Portland State U             78     49    116    116     89    118
Princeton U                  12      1      7      2      2      1
Purdue U                     13      *     69     49     65     45
RPI                          55     71     88    106    114    117
Rice U                        *      *     19     35     60    109
Rutgers U                    89      *     61     57     46     28
S. Illinois U, Carbondale     *     45     75     81     92     60
Southern Methodist U          *     75     41     47     68     47
Stanford U                   26     21     18      6     14      9
Suffolk U                     *      *     95    123      *    120
SUNY Binghamton               *     63     63     77     98      *
SUNY Buffalo                  *     53     83     78    105    111
SUNY Stony Brook              *      *     91     50    109      *
Syracuse U                   27     44     49     42     66     42
Temple U                      *     55    109     91    111    102
Texas A&M U                  29      *     20     37     73     76
Texas Tech U                 91     80    121    119    103      *
Tulane U                      *      *     99    104      *     75
U Alabama                    45     48     58     76     55     69
U Albany                      *     60     57     68     75     48
U Arizona                    85     74     45     41    122      *
U Arkansas                    *      *     89     89    106    100
UC Berkeley                   4      2      8      1      3      4
UC Davis                     41     19     43     32     15      8
UC Irvine                     *     23     66     69     59     82
UC Los Angeles               28     84     10      9      8      6
UC Riverside                  *     81     33     34     64     73
UC San Diego                 40     70      2     26     12     13
UC Santa Barbara             56      *     47     45     49     90
UC Santa Cruz                73     29     65     55     24     11
U Chicago                    10     14     56      7     25     26
U Colorado, Boulder          86     52     77     59     82     12
U Connecticut                92     65     84     73     85     94
U Delaware                   54      *     98     86     53    105
U Florida                    38      *     50     74     69     40
U Georgia                    71     64     76     75     42     81
U Hawaii, Manoa               *      *     96    100     99     64
U Houston                    62     39     59     61     83     24
U Illinois, Chicago          23     15     85     71     57     88
U Illinois, Urbana           63     27     16     29     32     39
U Iowa                        *      *     29     84     27     55
U Kansas                     36     34     54     82     61     96
U Kentucky                   61     78     92     83     63     61
U Maryland, College Park     88     86     36     30     35     10
U Mass, Amherst              64     33    101     85     70     50
U Miami                       *      *     80    111    123     59
U Michigan                   19     61     25     17      9      7
U Minnesota                   *     12     55     16     16     31
U Mississippi                68      *     78     90     81    121
U Missouri, Columbia         84      *     60    101     45     91
U Missouri, Kansas City       *     13    123    122     54      *
U Nebraska, Lincoln           3     20     97    103     74     95
U New Hampshire               *     22    112     96    120    101
U New Mexico                 65      *    120    112    101     93
U New Orleans                 *      *    100     92    107     87
UNC, Chapel Hill             20     66     24     58     56     54
U Notre Dame                  *      *     74     79     52     49
U Oklahoma                   66      *    107     64     80     80
U Oregon                      7      *     52     54     43     27
U Pennsylvania               52     36     11     12     23     15
U Pittsburgh                  *      *     30     48     38     65
U Rhode Island               44      *    105    114      *      *
U Rochester                  22     25     31     21     19     33
U South Carolina             60      *     94    118     91     58
U Southern California        72     30     12     14     51     57
U Tennessee, Knoxville        *      *    106    117     97     72
U Texas, Austin              11     85     26     27     39     44
U Utah                        *     40    113    121    100    107
U Virginia                    1      *     22     18     33     16
U Washington                 59      *     51     56     21     17
U Wisconsin, Madison         43     69      6     22     18      5
U Wisconsin, Milwaukee       75      *    102     93     93     53
U Wyoming                    53      *     73     60     90    108
Utah State U                 46      *    115    107    124    112
Vanderbilt U                  8     28     42     43     22     20
Virginia Tech                31     31     46     51     88    104
Washington State U           77      *      *     80    113    106
Washington U, St. Louis      83     50     71     36     76    119
Wayne State U                 *     62     72     94     94     74
West Virginia U              80      *    108     98     95     86
Western Michigan U           87     54      *     99    116     98
Yale U                       57      8      1      8     10     35

                                  THE JEL Classification System
                                      for Journal Articles

School                        G      H      I      J      K      L

American U                   88     77     60     64     63     73
Arizona State U              32     94     35     37     53     99
Auburn U                     78     71     65     95     57     38
Boston College               53     38     41     67      *     59
Boston U                     24     12     15     10     12     10
Brandeis U                   54    121    106    110     59     77
Brown U                      50     28     32     15     75    103
California Inst Tech         21     32      *     92     28     41
Carnegie Mellon U             3     18     24     98      *     30
City U of New York           19     43      5     18     41     55
Claremont Graduate U         95     78      *    120      *    126
Clark U                     116      *      *    113      *     82
Clemson U                    52     55     33     41     15     48
Colorado School of Mines      *      *      *    127      *     63
Colorado State U             84     84     90    111     80     93
Columbia U                   12      9     22     49     18     11
Cornell U                    16     13      6     24     48     54
Duke U                       15     23     17     60     27     12
Emory U                      57     65    100    115     13     85
Florida International U     114    110     73    118      *    100
Florida State U              55     34     54     25      9     51
Fordham U                    79      *     95    121      *    123
George Mason U               39     25     92     55     11     57
George Washington U          33     31     37     58     39     33
Georgetown U                 26     33     78     57      *     17
Georgia State U              82     11     47     23     60     96
Harvard U                     1      3      1      2      2      6
Howard U                      *    105      *    119      *      *
Indiana U                    70     41     30     82     79    121
Iowa State U                 43     52     58     39     65     35
Johns Hopkins U              61     37     11     30      *     52
Kansas State U              118    106     99     78      *     53
Lehigh U                    121     85     51     86      *    104
Louisiana State U            83     73     42     69      *    106
MIT                           5      2      4      1      8      2
Michigan State U             25     10     12      6     66     23
Middle Tennessee State       99      *     83     79      *    124
New School U                 74    120      *     96      *    107
New York U                    8     27     27     17     69     16
North Carolina State U       40     51     44     29     56     25
Northeastern U              109      *      *    126     73     27
Northern Illinois U          87     81     82     42     81    114
Northwestern U               58     30     20     13      *      7
Ohio State U                 10     59     13     22     31     24
Oklahoma State U             93     92     85    109     74     92
Oregon State U              106     96     69    114      *     40
Pennsylvania State U         66     70     70     47     37     36
Portland State U              *    119     87    101      *    105
Princeton U                   2     14      2      4      6     20
Purdue U                     56     95     88     84      *     34
RPI                           *     90     64     77      *     56
Rice U                       44      6     77     72      *     71
Rutgers U                    37     53     94     80     40     50
S. Illinois U, Carbondale   117    112    103    124     49    112
Southern Methodist U         80     39     55     93      *     66
Stanford U                    9     15      8     14     33      5
Suffolk U                   103    115    101    122      *     95
SUNY Binghamton              81    107    107     54     54     74
SUNY Buffalo                 98     93     56    105     14     78
SUNY Stony Brook            105    117    102     56     42     97
Syracuse U                   30      7     25     20     68    102
Temple U                    101     80     80     90     35     98
Texas A&M U                  63     26     57     46     29     44
Texas Tech U                111    104      *     75      *    117
Tulane U                     89     83      *    107      *     64
U Alabama                    97     79      *    108     19     94
U Albany                     75     61     61     43      *      *
U Arizona                   119     91      *     33     62     28
U Arkansas                   85    116      *    100     32     87
UC Berkeley                   7      4     16      3      1      1
UC Davis                     45     29     98     52      *     14
UC Irvine                    60     75     75     62      *     91
UC Los Angeles               18     45      *      7     30      3
UC Riverside                123     42     50     97     71     70
UC San Diego                  6     16      *     26      5     21
UC Santa Barbara             17     21     45     81     38     29
UC Santa Cruz                27     58      *     34     24     49
U Chicago                     4     19     14      8      7      4
U Colorado, Boulder         104     24     46     36     77     31
U Connecticut                71     87     59     66      4     75
U Delaware                   67     86     36     74      *     45
U Florida                    77     36     23     70     50     43
U Georgia                    41     44     66     85     43     60
U Hawaii, Manoa               *    109      *    112      *     84
U Houston                    65     82     40     28     51     62
U Illinois, Chicago         102     60      7     19     55    113
U Illinois, Urbana           11     22     39     38     44     15
U Iowa                       34     74     62     76      *     61
U Kansas                     62      *    104     87     22     89
U Kentucky                   92      8     26     73     82    101
U Maryland, College Park     42      5     10     50     23     26
U Mass, Amherst              59    100     48     45      *     90
U Miami                      94    101     43     59      *      *
U Michigan                   14      1      3      5     10      8
U Minnesota                  28     48     21     48     61     46
U Mississippi                91     88     86    117     72     79
U Missouri, Columbia         73      *     72     53      *     67
U Missouri, Kansas City     122    118      *    106      *    116
U Nebraska, Lincoln         113     76     89     99     76     72
U New Hampshire               *     97     79     83      *    120
U New Mexico                115    102     63    102      *     81
U New Orleans                31    103      *    125      *    108
UNC, Chapel Hill             22     35     31     21     36     58
U Notre Dame                 38    108     76      *     34    110
U Oklahoma                   86     89    109     61      *     76
U Oregon                     49     64     52     65      *     65
U Pennsylvania               47     56      9      9     58     37
U Pittsburgh                 64     72     93    104     26     83
U Rhode Island              112    113     97      *      *    119
U Rochester                  46     67     91     51     70    122
U South Carolina             96     62     49     16      *    115
U Southern California        51     47     34     31     52     13
U Tennessee, Knoxville      100     49    108    103     67    109
U Texas, Austin              36     20     38     11     64     39
U Utah                      110      *     67     71      *     88
U Virginia                   29     50     29     32     21      9
U Washington                 23     69    110     40     25     68
U Wisconsin, Madison         20     17     19     27     17     19
U Wisconsin, Milwaukee       90    114     81     35     78     47
U Wyoming                    35     68      *    123     46     22
Utah State U                120    111     96    116      *    125
Vanderbilt U                 48     40     28     44      3     32
Virginia Tech                69     63     84     94     47     80
Washington State U           72     99     53     91      *     42
Washington U, St. Louis      76     57     74     63      *    111
Wayne State U               107     46     68     88     20     69
West Virginia U              68     66    105     89     45     86
Western Michigan U          108     98     71     68      *    118
Yale U                       13     54     18     12     16     18

                              THE JEL Classification System
                                 for Journal Articles

School                        N      O      P      Q      R

American U                   56     46     41     74      *
Arizona State U              83     25      6     99     94
Auburn U                     79    120      *    107     52
Boston College               84     50      *     91      5
Boston U                     33     26     52     33     71
Brandeis U                   40     87     17     44      *
Brown U                      57      7     11     18     29
California Inst Tech         41    103      *     52      *
Carnegie Mellon U            54     53     48     56     55
City U of New York           23     56     14    102     87
Claremont Graduate U         63     71     57    113      *
Clark U                      34     97      *     68     96
Clemson U                    42     57     76     87     59
Colorado School of Mines      *    123      *     29      *
Colorado State U             73    116     25     83     38
Columbia U                   13      8      3     26     26
Cornell U                    75     10     24     46     35
Duke U                       37     13     82     64     76
Emory U                       *     49      *     50     97
Florida International U      26     38     55     79      *
Florida State U              50     60     72     35      7
Fordham U                     *     94      *      *      *
George Mason U               52     66     43     47     79
George Washington U          69     28     42     27     77
Georgetown U                  *     27      *      9     69
Georgia State U              64     84     46     20      8
Harvard U                     2      1      2      4      2
Howard U                      *      *      *    112      *
Indiana U                    77     30     27     38     68
Iowa State U                  *     22     40      1     33
Johns Hopkins U               *     64      *     40     60
Kansas State U                *    118      *    114     88
Lehigh U                     25     82     31     72     82
Louisiana State U            86     89      *    106     50
MIT                           4      5     13      7      4
Michigan State U             71     18     26     61     67
Middle Tennessee State        *     98      *     98      *
New School U                  *     40     47      *    101
New York U                   20      4     22     34     32
North Carolina State U       27     80     39      2     44
Northeastern U               67     92      *      *      *
Northern Illinois U           *     99      *    117     80
Northwestern U               16     16     74     90     45
Ohio State U                 18     42     29     85     31
Oklahoma State U             81     73      *     58     19
Oregon State U               87     90      *     57     86
Pennsylvania State U          *     17     21     48     18
Portland State U              *     91     59     62    102
Princeton U                   7      6     12     21     10
Purdue U                      *    111     65     22    103
RPI                          76     24      *     14     42
Rice U                        *    100      *     65     43
Rutgers U                     8     48     67     17     73
S. Illinois U, Carbondale    70     65     64     59      *
Southern Methodist U         78     61      *     24     70
Stanford U                    6     12     10     11     21
Suffolk U                    61    121      *     93      *
SUNY Binghamton              19     95      *     10     56
SUNY Buffalo                  *     55     35    100     15
SUNY Stony Brook             65     96      *      *     81
Syracuse U                   74     45     79     39      3
Temple U                      *    114     54    104     61
Texas A&M U                  46     54     28     84     74
Texas Tech U                  *      *      *    118      *
Tulane U                     38     85      *     36     48
U Alabama                    89    101     81     82     98
U Albany                      *     81      *      *      *
U Arizona                     9     68      *     75      *
U Arkansas                    *     77     50     60     83
UC Berkeley                   1      2      1     30      6
UC Davis                      5     41      8     70     64
UC Irvine                    30     39     18     80     92
UC Los Angeles               10      3     30     92     72
UC Riverside                 72     79      *     81     16
UC San Diego                 90     35     32     16     11
UC Santa Barbara              *     86      *      6    100
UC Santa Cruz                48     29     58     89    104
U Chicago                     *     11      9     67     46
U Colorado, Boulder          11     44     75     12     14
U Connecticut                44     70     78     15     12
U Delaware                   15    107     63    110     36
U Florida                    51     52     73    109     30
U Georgia                    47    122      *     63     91
U Hawaii, Manoa              49     59     66     41     58
U Houston                    55     83     56    116     23
U Illinois, Chicago          12    104     44     88      1
U Illinois, Urbana           32     19     20     37     13
U Iowa                        *     69      *     69     66
U Kansas                     28    117      *     43     54
U Kentucky                   45     78     51     86     17
U Maryland, College Park     29     20      4     28     57
U Mass, Amherst              43     31     33     31     62
U Miami                       *     58      *     73      *
U Michigan                   17     15      5     51     39
U Minnesota                  66     14     49     66     24
U Mississippi                53      *      *     94      *
U Missouri, Columbia          *     75      *    105     49
U Missouri, Kansas City       *      *     45      *      *
U Nebraska, Lincoln          80    105     62     49     53
U New Hampshire               *     88      *     76     93
U New Mexico                  *      *      *     23     99
U New Orleans                 *    119      *      *     25
UNC, Chapel Hill             35     74     23     77      *
U Notre Dame                 82     62      *     97    105
U Oklahoma                   88     63     68      *     78
U Oregon                     85    110      *     32     47
U Pennsylvania                *     36     83     53     95
U Pittsburgh                  *     93      7     95     28
U Rhode Island                *      *      *      8      *
U Rochester                  39     47      *    101     89
U South Carolina             60     76      *      *     84
U Southern California        24     34     16     45     37
U Tennessee, Knoxville        *    115     36     78     65
U Texas, Austin              36     37      *     25     34
U Utah                       31     72     53     71      *
U Virginia                   22     32     38     54     22
U Washington                 59     21     71     55     63
U Wisconsin, Madison          *     23     61     19     40
U Wisconsin, Milwaukee        *     51     80     96     51
U Wyoming                     *     43      *      3      *
Utah State U                  *    113     60     13     75
Vanderbilt U                  3     33     37    108     27
Virginia Tech                68     67     34    103     85
Washington State U            *    109     69      4      2
Washington U, St. Louis      21    106     77      *     20
Wayne State U                 *    108      *      *      9
West Virginia U              62    112     70    111     41
Western Michigan U           58    102     15    115     90
Yale U                       14      9     19      5      *

(a) * indicates a research productivity
score of zero for a particular field.

Table 4. Subject Field Rankings for
Ph.D.-Granting Institutions in Economics

                             Category    Number of
                             Ranking     Publishing          Importance
School                         SSCI       Faculty     HHI      Index

JEL category A: General economics and teaching
U Virginia                      1            4        0.47      0.06
Carnegie Mellon U               2            8        0.18      0.06
U Nebraska, Lincoln             3            6        0.77      0.29
UC Berkeley                     4           10        0.30      0.02
Indiana U                       5            5        0.80      0.12
MIT                             6            6        0.40      0.01
U Oregon                        7            6        0.24      0.10
Vanderbilt U                    8            5        0.98      0.04
George Mason U                  9           12        0.26      0.06
U Chicago                      10            2        0.53      0.02
U Texas, Austin                11            5        0.51      0.04
Princeton U                    12            5        0.33      0.01
Purdue U                       13            6        0.65      0.09
Georgia State U                14            4        0.66      0.05
Harvard U                      15            9        0.24      0.01
New York U                     16            2        0.73      0.01
Cornell U                      17            3        1.00      0.02
Columbia U                     18            3        0.85      0.01
U Michigan                     19            4        0.80      0.01
UNC, Chapel Hill               20            6        0.40      0.03

JEL category B. Methodology and history of economic thought
Princeton U                     1            9        0.23      0.02
UC Berkeley                     2            9        0.30      0.01
George Mason U                  3           14        0.38      0.07
New York U                      4            4        0.84      0.02
MIT                             5            3        0.46      0.01
Columbia U                      6            2        1.00      0.01
Harvard U                       7            6        0.38      0.00
Yale U                          8            3        0.92      0.01
Johns Hopkins U                 9            2        1.00      0.02
Duke U                         10            6        0.35      0.02
Pennsylvania State U           11            1        1.00      0.02
U Minnesota                    12            4        0.43      0.02
U Missouri, Kansas City        13            4        0.37      0.24
U Chicago                      14            5        0.33      0.01
U Illinois at Chicago          15            3        0.94      0.02
Georgia State U                16            1        1.00      0.03
Carnegie Mellon U              17            5        0.31      0.01
Colorado State U               18            4        0.53      0.11
UC Davis                       19            3        0.52      0.01
U Nebraska, Lincoln            20            2        0.80      0.06

JEL category C: Mathematical and quantitative methods
Yale U                          1           20        0.34      0.35
UC San Diego                    2           17        0.11      0.30
MIT                             3           18        0.18      0.12
Northwestern U                  4           18        0.18      0.25
Harvard U                       5           19        0.16      0.08
U Wisconsin, Madison            6           16        0.18      0.26
Princeton U                     7           24        0.09      0.09
UC Berkeley                     8           22        0.13      0.09
New York U                      9           21        0.10      0.16
UCLA                           10           23        0.12      0.13
U Pennsylvania                 11           17        0.13      0.18
U Southern California          12           10        0.18      0.22
Ohio State U                   13           16        0.29      0.15
Boston U                       14           15        0.24      0.13
California Inst Tech           15           11        0.26      0.25
U Illinois, Urbana             16           18        0.14      0.17
Cornell U                      17           13        0.17      0.16
Stanford U                     18           19        0.09      0.09
Rice U                         19           11        0.18      0.28
Texas A&M U                    20           14        0.17      0.27

JEL category D: Microeconomics
UC Berkeley                     1           35        0.06      0.17
Princeton U                     2           28        0.07      0.15
Harvard U                       3           28        0.07      0.10
New York U                      4           25        0.08      0.23
MIT                             5           21        0.09      0.13
Stanford U                      6           25        0.10      0.22
U Chicago                       7           24        0.09      0.21
Yale U                          8           28        0.07      0.17
UCLA                            9           26        0.11      0.17
Northwestern U                 10           22        0.11      0.18
California Inst Tech           11           11        0.19      0.42
U Pennsylvania                 12           15        0.10      0.21
Ohio State U                   13           18        0.14      0.21
U Southern California          14           16        0.18      0.26
Johns Hopkins U                15            9        0.27      0.29
U Minnesota                    16           15        0.12      0.26
U Michigan                     17           27        0.07      0.11
U Virginia                     18           13        0.15      0.20
Boston U                       19           17        0.11      0.15
Columbia U                     20           19        0.19      0.11

JEL category E. Macroeconomics and monetary policy
Harvard U                       1           25        0.08      0.12
Princeton U                     2           20        0.12      0.15
UC Berkeley                     3           18        0.17      0.11
MIT                             4           12        0.24      0.11
Northwestern U                  5           10        0.21      0.16
Columbia U                      6           15        0.19      0.15
New York U                      7           16        0.12      0.13
UCLA                            8           15        0.12      0.11
U Michigan                      9           19        0.09      0.09
Yale U                         10           16        0.18      0.09
Boston U                       11           11        0.22      0.13
UC San Diego                   12           13        0.25      0.10
Johns Hopkins U                13            7        0.42      0.19
Stanford U                     14           11        0.17      0.08
UC Davis                       15           13        0.13      0.16
U Minnesota                    16           12        0.13      0.16
Ohio State U                   17           10        0.30      0.11
U Wisconsin, Madison           18           11        0.18      0.09
U Rochester                    19            6        0.26      0.19
Georgetown U                   20           12        0.22      0.17

JEL category F: International economics
Princeton U                     1           13        0.17      0.12
Harvard U                       2           19        0.16      0.09
Columbia U                      3           16        0.12      0.22
UC Berkeley                     4           16        0.39      0.08
U Wisconsin, Madison            5            9        0.24      0.16
UCLA                            6           15        0.22      0.10
U Michigan                      7           20        0.15      0.09
UC Davis                        8            9        0.46      0.19
Stanford U                      9           14        0.35      0.08
U Maryland, College Park       10            7        0.38      0.15
UC Santa Cruz                  11           12        0.21      0.24
U Colorado, Boulder            12           13        0.27      0.23
UC San Diego                   13            9        0.31      0.08
New York U                     14           13        0.26      0.06
U Pennsylvania                 15            7        0.40      0.10
U Virginia                     16            6        0.35      0.11
U Washington                   17            9        0.35      0.18
Georgetown U                   18           13        0.13      0.16
Duke U                         19           11        0.18      0.11
Vanderbilt U                   20           12        0.24      0.12

JEL category G: Financial economics
Harvard U                       1           22        0.16      0.15
Princeton U                     2           26        0.12      0.11
Carnegie Mellon U               3           19        0.12      0.33
U Chicago                       4           14        0.16      0.15
MIT                             5           16        0.18      0.07
UC San Diego                    6           11        0.26      0.10
UC Berkeley                     7           20        0.11      0.04
New York U                      8           11        0.16      0.07
Stanford U                      9           10        0.18      0.06
Ohio State U                   10           11        0.22      0.09
U Illinois, Urbana             11           14        0.21      0.10
Columbia U                     12           11        0.26      0.05
Yale U                         13           15        0.22      0.04
U Michigan                     14           16        0.11      0.04
Duke U                         15            9        0.18      0.09
Cornell U                      16           11        0.43      0.08
UC Santa Barbara               17           12        0.35      0.15
UCLA                           18           17        0.11      0.04
City U of New York (CUNY)      19           15        0.23      0.12
U Wisconsin, Madison           20            7        0.28      0.05

JEL category H: Public economics
U Michigan                      1           19        0.24      0.14
MIT                             2           14        0.21      0.08
Harvard U                       3           17        0.16      0.05
UC Berkeley                     4           20        0.19      0.06
U Maryland, College Park        5           11        0.16      0.15
Rice U                          6            6        0.32      0.24
Syracuse U                      7           18        0.10      0.16
U Kentucky                      8            9        0.46      0.31
Columbia U                      9           14        0.16      0.07
Michigan State U               10           10        0.45      0.10
Georgia State U                11           15        0.16      0.21
Boston U                       12            9        0.28      0.08
Cornell U                      13           13        0.13      0.08
Princeton U                    14           16        0.13      0.02
Stanford U                     15           15        0.14      0.05
UC San Diego                   16           11        0.36      0.05
U Wisconsin, Madison           17           10        0.54      0.05
Carnegie Mellon U              18           13        0.18      0.08
U Chicago                      19            6        0.29      0.04
U Texas, Austin                20           10        0.29      0.08

JEL category I: Health, education, and welfare
Harvard U                       1           15        0.20      0.07
Princeton U                     2           11        0.20      0.06
U Michigan                      3           18        0.26      0.10
MIT                             4           14        0.20      0.05
City U of New York (CUNY)       5           11        0.22      0.17
Cornell U                       6            7        0.29      0.09
U Illinois, Chicago             7            9        0.33      0.16
Stanford U                      8            9        0.63      0.05
U Pennsylvania                  9            7        0.30      0.07
U Maryland, College Park       10            9        0.17      0.08
Johns Hopkins U                11            8        0.32      0.10
Michigan State U               12           10        0.16      0.07
Ohio State U                   13            9        0.30      0.06
U Chicago                      14            8        0.27      0.04
Boston U                       15            7        0.44      0.05
UC Berkeley                    16           15        0.12      0.02
Duke U                         17            7        0.50      0.07
Yale U                         18           10        0.17      0.03
U Wisconsin, Madison           19            6        0.48      0.05
Northwestern U                 20            6        0.23      0.04

JEL category J: Labor and demographic economics
MIT                             1           19        0.12      0.15
Harvard U                       2           17        0.13      0.10
UC Berkeley                     3           22        0.23      0.12
Princeton U                     4           20        0.14      0.12
U Michigan                      5           23        0.08      0.19
Michigan State U                6           13        0.45      0.27
UCLA                            7           20        0.09      0.14
U Chicago                       8           13        0.13      0.15
U Pennsylvania                  9           15        0.16      0.22
Boston U                       10           15        0.13      0.18
U Texas, Austin                11            6        0.45      0.23
Yale U                         12           18        0.15      0.10
Northwestern U                 13           13        0.32      0.11
Stanford U                     14           15        0.13      0.10
Brown U                        15           11        0.11      0.20
U South Carolina               16            6        0.46      0.60
New York U                     17           17        0.11      0.08
City U of New York (CUNY)      18           15        0.13      0.27
U Illinois, Chicago            19           11        0.25      0.27
Syracuse U                     20           16        0.12      0.21

JEL category K: Law and economics
UC Berkeley                     1            9        0.25      0.02
Harvard U                       2            4        0.35      0.01
Vanderbilt U                    3            2        0.57      0.07
U Connecticut                   4            4        0.45      0.14
UC San Diego                    5            2        0.93      0.03
Princeton U                     6            8        0.17      0.01
U Chicago                       7            4        0.47      0.02
MIT                             8            5        0.34      0.01
Florida State U                 9            7        0.28      0.06
U Michigan                     10            4        0.72      0.01
George Mason U                 11            9        0.30      0.04
Boston U                       12            4        0.40      0.02
Emory U                        13            4        0.42      0.08
SUNY Buffalo                   14            2        0.75      0.12
Clemson U                      15            3        0.77      0.06
Yale U                         16            6        0.29      0.01
U Wisconsin, Madison           17            2        0.65      0.01
Columbia U                     18            5        0.24      0.01
U Alabama                      19            4        0.32      0.09
Wayne State U                  20            2        0.53      0.07

JEL category L: Industrial organization
UC Berkeley                     1           26        0.07      0.09
MIT                             2           16        0.16      0.09
UCLA                            3           20        0.16      0.13
U Chicago                       4           17        0.10      0.11
Stanford U                      5           20        0.11      0.11
Harvard U                       6           19        0.14      0.04
Northwestern U                  7            9        0.22      0.09
U Michigan                      8           13        0.16      0.05
U Virginia                      9            6        0.23      0.10
Boston U                       10           15        0.14      0.08
Columbia U                     11            7        0.23      0.06
Duke U                         12           11        0.21      0.11
U Southern California          13           11        0.55      0.11
UC Davis                       14           13        0.14      0.10
U Illinois, Urbana             15           16        0.28      0.09
New York U                     16           14        0.14      0.04
Georgetown U                   17           12        0.18      0.11
Yale U                         18           15        0.15      0.04
U Wisconsin, Madison           19            9        0.18      0.05
Princeton U                    20            9        0.16      0.02

JEL category N: Economic history
UC Berkeley                     1            8        0.25      0.03
Harvard U                       2           10        0.34      0.02
Vanderbilt U                    3            7        0.32      0.09
MIT                             4            3        0.43      0.02
UC Davis                        5            6        0.30      0.08
Stanford U                      6            5        0.39      0.03
Princeton U                     7            6        0.46      0.01
Rutgers U                       8            4        0.35      0.10
U Arizona                       9            4        0.33      0.12
UCLA                           10           10        0.20      0.02
U Colorado, Boulder            11            4        0.48      0.05
U Illinois, Chicago            12            6        0.56      0.05
Columbia U                     13            7        0.28      0.02
Yale U                         14            5        0.39      0.01
U Delaware                     15            2        0.81      0.13
Northwestern U                 16            5        0.32      0.02
U Michigan                     17            5        0.47      0.01
Ohio State U                   18            6        0.31      0.02
SUNY Binghamton                19            3        0.63      0.11
New York U                     20            2        0.52      0.01

JEL category O: Economic development, technological change, and growth
Harvard U                       1           22        0.08      0.09
UC Berkeley                     2           23        0.12      0.08
UCLA                            3           20        0.14      0.11
New York U                      4           15        0.17      0.10
MIT                             5           13        0.33      0.06
Princeton U                     6           16        0.11      0.05
Brown U                         7           12        0.20      0.20
Columbia U                      8           17        0.19      0.09
Yale U                          9           15        0.13      0.06
Cornell U                      10           13        0.11      0.11
U Chicago                      11            4        0.61      0.06
Stanford U                     12           15        0.13      0.05
Duke U                         13           11        0.18      0.10
U Minnesota                    14            8        0.21      0.11
U Michigan                     15           16        0.21      0.04
Northwestern U                 16            8        0.28      0.05
Pennsylvania State U           17           11        0.32      0.11
Michigan State U               18           10        0.45      0.07
U Illinois, Urbana             19           14        0.19      0.06
U Maryland, College Park       20            9        0.24      0.06

JEL category P: Economic systems
UC Berkeley                     1            5        0.40      0.03
Harvard U                       2            7        0.26      0.02
Columbia U                      3            9        0.37      0.04
U Maryland, College Park        4            2        0.87      0.06
U Michigan                      5            6        0.65      0.03
Arizona State U                 6            2        0.92      0.07
U Pittsburgh                    7            4        0.34      0.10
UC Davis                        8            2        0.66      0.04
U Chicago                       9            3        0.63      0.02
Stanford U                     10            3        0.44      0.02
Brown U                        11            3        0.86      0.04
Princeton U                    12            5        0.24      0.01
MIT                            13            4        0.65      0.01
City U of New York (CUNY)      14            3        0.38      0.04
Western Michigan U             15            1        1.00      0.20
U Southern California          16            5        0.79      0.02
Brandeis U                     17            1        1.00      0.12
UC Irvine                      18            6        0.87      0.06
Yale U                         19            5        0.28      0.01
U Illinois, Urbana             20            2        0.96      0.02

JEL category Q: Agricultural and natural resource economics
Iowa State U                    1           29        0.07      0.36
North Carolina State U          2           24        0.12      0.34
U Wyoming                       3            9        0.27      0.35
Harvard U                       4            6        0.39      0.02
Yale U                          5            6        0.39      0.04
UC Santa Barbara                6            7        0.32      0.14
MIT                             7            7        0.21      0.02
U Rhode Island                  8            8        0.24      0.76
Georgetown U                    9            3        0.95      0.08
SUNY Binghamton                10            4        0.34      0.22
Stanford U                     11            9        0.30      0.03
U Colorado, Boulder            12            7        0.22      0.08
Utah State U                   13           14        0.15      0.56
RPI                            14            3        0.54      0.21
U Connecticut                  15            3        0.65      0.14
UC San Diego                   16            6        0.30      0.03
Rutgers U                      17            1        1.00      0.09
Brown U                        18            6        0.22      0.04
U Wisconsin, Madison           19            6        0.31      0.03
Geargia State U                20            5        0.29      0.07

JEL category R: Urban, rural, and regional economics
U Illinois, Chicago             1            5        0.42      0.21
Harvard U                       2           11        0.27      0.02
Syracuse U                      3            7        0.29      0.14
MIT                             4            7        0.21      0.03
Boston College                  5            6        0.54      0.13
UC Berkeley                     6            6        0.50      0.02
Florida State U                 7           11        0.43      0.15
Georgia State U                 8            8        0.52      0.13
Wayne State U                   9            2        0.60      0.29
Princeton U                    10            7        0.38      0.02
UC San Diego                   11            8        0.23      0.04
U Connecticut                  12            5        0.39      0.18
U Illinois, Urbana             13            5        0.33      0.05
U Colorado, Boulder            14            8        0.18      0.09
SUNY Buffalo                   15            2        0.94      0.25
UC Riverside                   16            5        0.48      0.12
U Kentucky                     17            5        0.29      0.13
Pennsylvania State U           18            2        0.80      0.06
Oklahoma State U               19            3        0.45      0.35
Washington U, St. Louis        20            3        0.51      0.13
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Comment:A guide to graduate study in economics: ranking economics departments by fields of expertise.
Author:Grijalva, Therese C.; Nowell, Clifford
Publication:Southern Economic Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2008
Words:12904
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