in the literature.
Clark, Stephen R. L. The Political Animal: Biology, Ethics, and Politics. New York: Routledge, 1999. $75 cloth, $24.99 paper. * The author considers how political theory is affected by humans' animal nature. Drawing both from biology and classical ethics, Clark describes how, for example, social bonds, domestic virtue, and environmentalism can influence human culture and political philosophy.
Denekins, Joke P. M., Herman Nys, and Hugo Stuer. "Sterilisation of Incompetent Mentally Handicapped Persons: A Model for Decision Making." Journal of Medical Ethics 25, no. 3 (1999): 237-41. * The authors develop guidelines for irreversible sterilization when patients are not competent to give informed consent. The multidisciplinary approach to decisionmaking they envision would include competence evaluation, assessment of hereditary factors and parenting capability, sexual education, and parent counseling. The authors support an individualized approach to decisionmaking rather than a legislative approach.
Dresser, Rebecca. "Public Advocacy and Allocation of Federal Funds for Biomedical Research." Milbank Quarterly 77, no.2 (1999): 257-74. * The author looks at the growing involvement of public advocacy groups in congressional hearings involving research fund allocation and offers an ethical analysis of current allocation procedures and the role of interest group advocates. After explaining the current National Institutes of Health guidelines and procedures for allocation and public representation, the author explores such issues as the appropriate role of special interest groups in a representative democracy and how their opinions should be used in prioritizing research for funding.
Hopkins, Patrick D., ed. Sex/Machine: Readings in Culture, Gender, and Technology. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1999. $49.95 cloth, $27.95 paper. * Contributors to this collection describe the intersection between cultural notions of gender and technology, from the Industrial Revolution to in vitro fertilization and cosmetic surgery, that accentuate or obscure ideas of gender. Topics cover the ethical, legal, and cultural issues in reproductive technology; enhancement technologies, especially as related to sexuality; and the philosophical underpinnings of cybertechnology.
Kegley, Jacquelyn Ann K, ed. Genetic Knowledge: Human Values and Responsibility. St. Paul, Minn.: Paragon House, 1999. $26.95 cloth, $16.95 paper. * This volume takes an interdisciplinary, multicultural look at ethical issues in genetics, drawing contributors from Western and non-Western cultures. Topics include the concepts of genetic disease and health, amniocentesis for sex selection in India, Islamic and Chinese perspectives on the relevance of Western genetic ethics, African and African-American perspectives on sickle-cell screening, and the legal and policy issues generated by genetic knowledge.
Kuczewski, Mark G., and Rosa Lynn B. Pinkus. An Ethics Casebook for Hospitals: Practical Approaches to Everyday Cases. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999. $23.95. * The authors have compiled thirty-one cases that call attention to issues in "everyday" hospital experiences, such as patient discharge, the role of the family, organizational issues, rehabilitation, end-of-life decisionmaking, and professionalism. Each case includes a description of language and issues, stakeholders' perspectives, possible outcomes, a commentary, and bibliography.
Kuczewski, Mark G., and Robyn S. Shapiro, eds. "Ethical, Legal, and Medical Issues in Caring for the Demented Elderly." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20, no. 1 (1999). * This issue is devoted to the complexities experienced by practitioners, patients, and families when dealing with demented elderly persons. Topics include pain assessment, surrogate decisionmaking, assessment of competence, involvement in research, and perspectives from Canadian law and the Hmong community.
Landman, Willem A., and Lesley D. Henley. "Equitable Rationing of Highly Specialised Health Care Services for Children: A Perspective from South Africa." Journal of Medical Ethics 25, no. 3 (1999): 224-29. * The authors explain that the moral foundations for health care in South Africa are based on the principles of equity and equality, and they propose adding prevention and nonabandonment. They argue that nonabandonment is especially important in specialized care involving children. Ultimately, the authors reject cost-effectiveness as a basis for rationing specialized services, opting instead for a "first come, first served" basis.
Norton, Fred. "Assisted Reproduction and the Frustration of Genetic Affinity: Interest, Injury, and Damages." New York University Law Review 74, no. 3 (1999): 793-843. * The author develops a legal analysis of "frustrated genetic affinity" cases, in which a genetic relationship between parents and children is not preserved through clinical negligence. To give an ethical context for the analysis, Norton explores motivations for utilizing assisted reproductive technology that preserves a genetic relationship. Norton analyzes the efficacy of wrongful pregnancy case law for understanding the legal issues in preserving parental interest in genetic affinity.
Orentlicher, David. "The Alleged Distinction between Euthanasia and the Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatment: Conceptually Incoherent and Impossible to Maintain." University of Illinois Law Review 1998, no. 3 (1998): 837-60. * The author builds on the work of Richard Epstein, agreeing with Epstein that euthanasia and termination of life-sustaining treatment should not be distinguished. Orentlicher examines patients' rights to terminal sedation and physician-assisted suicide and whether these rights imply a right to euthanasia.
Pantilat, Steven Z., Ann Alpers, and Robert M. Wachter. "A New Doctor in the House: Ethical Issues in Hospitalist Systems." JAMA 282 (1999): 171-74. * Hospitalist systems have the potential to compromise ethical values that are preserved in primary care relationships. The authors present two cases that illustrate how the discontinuity of care between primary care and hospitalist systems leads to ethical problems, specifically with respect to the duty to warn and patient autonomy. The authors emphasize the need for communication between primary care physicians and hospitalists and for the development of trust in hospitalist-patient relationships.
Prentice, Robert A. "Clinical Trial Results, Physicians, and Insider Trading." Journal of Legal Medicine 20, no. 2 (1999): 195-222. * The author provides a case study highlighting the legal and ethical implications of insider trading by physicians conducting clinical trials. While physicians who participate in such activities may not be held legally liable for their actions, insider trading involves ethical concerns about a financial conflict of interest. Prentice encourages the medical community to strengthen ethical codes concerning financial conflict of interest and to prohibit insider trading.
Proctor, Robert N. The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999. $29.95. * The author describes cancer research and the Nazi antismoking campaign, illustrating the moral complexity of the Nazi approach to public health. Although rooted in the Nazi ideology that led to genocide and human rights violations, Nazi research into diet; occupational hazards, including asbestos and radiation; and tobacco gave rise to public health measures and health values that are consonant with those of contemporary society.
Raymond, Diane. "`Fatal Practices': A Feminist Analysis of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia." Hypatia 14, no. 2 (1999): 1-25. * The author responds to Susan Wolf's feminist rejection of physician-assisted suicide policies. While Wolf argues that such policies do not attend to the interests and protection of vulnerable populations, Raymond offers alternative frameworks that permit assisted suicide but that are consistent with feminist values.
Robinson, John H., Roberta M. Berry, and Kevin McDonnell, eds. A Health Law Reader: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 1999. $60. * This text offers a bioethics-based approach to health law and policy. Beginning with chapters on the foundations of bioethics and traditional issues such as reproduction, human subjects research, organ transplantation, and end-of-life concerns, the text uses these bioethical issues to ground a discussion of health care delivery, financing, and quality.
Shelton, Wayne. "Can Virtue Be Taught?" Academic Medicine 74, no. 6 (1999): 671-74. * The author describes the concept of a "good doctor" and the challenges imposed by the current medical climate to becoming a good doctor. An Aristotelian theory of virtue can be helpful in thinking about the goals of medicine. Shelton claims that teaching virtue should be part of the medical mission and should be embodied by medical educators.
"Special Section: Organ Transplantation: Shaping Policy and Keeping Public Trust." Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8, no. 3 (1999): 269-350. * Focusing on allocation and procurement, this special section contains eight articles on the ethical and policy issues of organ transplantation. The section addresses such nontraditional topics as the role of bioethicists in the debate, the impact of live donation involving children on familial relationships, and humanistic care in transplants with adverse outcomes. It also offers analyses of current policies.
White, Mary Terrell. "Guidelines for IRB Review of International Collaborative Medical Research: A Proposal." Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27, no. 1 (1999): 87-94. * International collaborative research generates unique ethical issues that Western standards may inadequately address. The author develops guidelines for IRB review of cross-cultural research, balancing responsibility between IRBs from the host and sponsoring countries and using subject representatives to better assess cultural perspectives of the risk and ethical acceptability of research protocols.