New species and new records of Platygastrinae and Sceliotrachelinae from Togo (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

Leptacis trilineata sp. n.

Figs 39-42

Etymology: From Latin tres (three) and linea (lines); in reference to the three distinct lines of setae on mesoscutum.

Diagnosis: A middle-sized species with distinct hyperoccipital carina; female A4 fully 3.0x as long as wide, 1.3x as long as A3 and 1.2x as long as A5; A8-A9 each about 1.3x as long as wide; mesoscutum with three longitudinal rows of setae; fore wing 3.7x as long as wide, with marginal cilia nearly 0.3x width of wing; scutellum with a thin spine as long as propodeum; female metasoma 0.85x as long as rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.1 mm. Body unevenly reddish brown, lower half of head yellowish brown, and scutellum lighter brown; A1-A6, mandibles, tegulae and legs including coxae light brownish yellow, A7-A10 dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 39) 1.8x as wide as long, 1.1x as wide as mesosoma, smooth except for faint traces of transverse reticulation on lower half of frons; hyperoccipital carina distinct and complete. OOL slightly shorter than diameter of lateral ocellus. Eyes bare. Head in frontal view 1.1x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 40) with A1 shorter than height of head (14:15), 1.4x as long as distance between inner orbits. Mesosoma 1.95x as long as wide, 1.25x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth, each with only about 10 fine setae, most of them along upper margin. Mesoscutum with setae only just inside tegulae and in three distinct, parallel longitudinal rows: two complete ones near imaginary notaulic courses, one along middle but only present in anterior two-thirds; disc smooth, without notauli; hind margin with a very inconspicuous, small prolongation medially, at each side with about six short setae at anterior margin of two small scuto-scutellar grooves which contain more short setae. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 41) almost smooth, rather densely setose, with a thin, straight spine reaching end of propodeal carinae. Metapleuron smooth and bare over most of surface, with dense white pilosity along hind margin. Propodeal carinae high, light brown, fused. Fore wing very slightly longer than entire body (about 67:65), 3.7x as long as wide, weakly infuscated, with fine and very dense microtrichia; marginal cilia nearly 0.3x width of wing (5:18). Hind wing 11.4x as long as wide; length of marginal cilia equal to width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 42) 0.85x as long as head and mesosoma combined, slightly longer than mesosoma (30:29), and about as wide. T1 swollen in most of anterior half, smooth behind, medially bare, with a longitudinal row of setosity on each side. T2 with two distinct tufts of pubescence basally to 0.15 of length. T3-T6 with weak reticulation along hind margin, having some very inconspicuous setae.

[FIGURES 39-42 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species is most similar to L. papei Buhl, 2011, and it runs to that species in Buhl's (20116) key, but L. papei has A4 fully 4.0x as long as wide, 1.7x as long as A3, mesoscutum evenly setose, mesopleuron with wrinkles in upper third, and fore wing only 3.2x as long as wide and with unusually thick microtrichia.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, NE of Badou, at creek Okpabe (07[degrees]35'19"N 00[degrees]07'17"E), 20.iv.2008, 370 m, creek bank in remains of secondary rainforest, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis tschirnhausiana sp. n.

Fig. 43

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: A most characteristic species on account of slender body with mesosoma twice as long as wide and female metasoma 1.3-1.4x as long as rest of body; scutellar spine very small.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.0-1.1 mm. Black; A1-A2, mandibles and legs including coxae light brownish; apex of hind femora and last segment of all tarsi slightly darkened; A3-A10 and tegulae dark brownish. Head from above (Fig. 43) 1.75x as wide as long, 1.15x as wide as mesosoma, distinctly reticulate-coriaceous, above antennal insertions transversely so; hyperoccipital carina rather conspicuous and complete. OOL shorter than diameter of lateral ocellus. Eyes with very few, inconspicuous setae. Head in frontal view 1.05x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 43) with A1 slightly more than 0.9x as long as height of head, 1.6x as long as distance between inner obits; A2 1.15x as long as A3-A4 combined; A4 one and two-thirds as long as A3, about as long as A5; A6 slightly smaller than A2; A7-A10 forming a clava; A7 1.75x as long as wide; A8-A9 each about as long as wide. Mesosoma (Fig. 43) 2.0x as long as wide, 1.3x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum distinctly reticulate-coriaceous (not longitudinally so), in upper 0.6 smooth in slightly less than posterior half. Mesoscutum slightly unevenly and moderately densely setose, finely and almost uniformly reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; hind margin straight in front of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves absent. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum sculptured and setose much as mesoscutum, with a very small, slightly translucent spine without lamella below. Metapleuron smooth, bare in most of anterior half, the rest with white pilosity which is dense in less than posterior half. Propodeal carinae translucent, fused, only diverging at extreme apex. Fore wing slightly surpassing tip of metasoma, fully 0.8x as long as entire body, 3.5x as long as wide, weakly infuscated, with dense and moderately robust microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.2x width of wing. Hind wing about 10x as long as wide; marginal cilia very slightly shorter than width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 43) 1.3-1.4x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.8x as wide as mesosoma, 1.3x as wide as high. T1 mostly smooth, towards sides sparsely setose, with a weak, transverse depression having a few short crenulae just anterior of midlength of tergite. T2 antero-medially with a distinctly pubescent, slightly transverse depression, which is a little less than half as long as T1. T2 otherwise smooth, except for traces of microsculpture along hind margin. T3-T4 with weak reticulation, T5 almost smooth, T6 smooth. Apical tergites with a few very inconspicuous setae inserted in shallow punctures.

Comparison: This species fits badly into Buhl's (20116) key; among Afrotropical Leptacis species, only L. udzungwensis Buhl, 2010, has the female metasoma longer (and that species has e.g. A8-A9 elongate, and scutellar spine stronger than in L. tschirnhausiana); in the rest of the described species it is distinctly shorter.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Manma-Kope N of Gbadi Nkougna, SE of Badou (07[degrees]27'02"N 00[degrees]41'59"E), 25.iv.2008, 660 m, plantation (coffee, oilpalm,Acacia), swept above sawdust, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratype: 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Otandjobo near Zogbegan (SE of Badou), at river Otandjoboli (07[degrees]34'42"N 00[degrees]41'37"E), 21.iv.2008, 500 m, at river, swept, cocoa plantation, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis udzungwensis Buhl, 2010

Leptacis udzungwensis: Buhl 2010: 39.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Zogbegan, village part Zogbegan-Carriere (SE of Badou), at creek Elebe, V-shaped valley near cocoa plantation downstream of village (07[degrees]34'50"N 00[degrees]40'03"E), 20-25.iv.2008, 650 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Hitherto only known from the holotype (Tanzania).

Genus Platygaster Latreille, 1809

Isorhombus Forster, 1856: 107.

Hypocampsis Forster, 1856: 108.

Polygnotus Forster, 1856: 108.

Coelopelta Ashmead, 1893: 263.

Aneuron Brues, 1910: 49.

Triplatygaster Kieffer, 1913b: 178.

Misocyclops Kieffer, 1914: 362.

Parepimeces Kieffer, 1926: 563.

Platygaster: Latreille 1809: 31. Type species: Scelio ruficornis Latreille, 1805, by monotypy.

Platygaster danyiensis sp. n.

Figs 44, 45

Etymology: Named after the type locality, the Danyi plateau.

Diagnosis: A species slightly more than 1 mm long with head rounded, finely transversely reticulate-striate behind; female A9 1.15x as long as wide; mesosoma 1.15x as high as wide with evenly convex scutellum; notauli absent; female metasoma 1.4-1.5x as long as rest of body, 2.2x as wide as high, T2 striated in basal foveae to 0.4 of length, medially to 0.2.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.05-1.30 mm. Black; A1, mandibles and legs including coxae yellowish brown; A2-A10, tegulae and last segment of tarsi dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 45) 2.0x as wide as long, 1.35x as wide as mesosoma; occiput finely transversely reticulate-striate, slightly margined in front but without a distinct hyperoccipital carina among the fine striation; vertex finely transversely striated behind ocelli, rest faintly reticulate-coriaceous (not transversely so); frons in upper half smooth, in lower half with very weak, oblique reticulation. OOL = 1.6 LOL. Head in frontal view 1.25x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 44) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, about as long as distance between inner orbits; A9 1.15x as long as wide. Mesosoma (Fig. 45) 1.6x as long as wide, 1.15x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum longitudinally reticulate-coriaceous in about anterior 0.4, the rest smooth. Mesoscutum with few setae, most of them along imaginary notaulic courses and sides; disc smooth, with slight rugosity along sides and at anterior ends of imaginary notaulic courses; notauli absent; mid lobe posteriorly blunt, slightly prolonged to base of scutellum, brownish here, at each side with dense, whitish setae over scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron in upper third with about five weak longitudinal wrinkles, the rest smooth. Scutellum with only a few setae except along sides, and smooth. Metapleuron with pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae very slightly diverging, area between them distinctly transverse and shiny. Fore wing reaching base or apex of T6, 2.95x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.09x width of wing. Hind wing 6.3x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia 0.3x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 45) 1.4-1.5x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.85x as wide as mesosoma, 2.2x as wide as high. 2nd sternite without convexity. T1 with six even, longitudinal carinae. T2 longitudinally striated in narrow basal foveae to almost 0.4 length of tergite, medially with fine striation to 0.2 of length, rest of tergite as well as the following tergites smooth, only T6 with a few spots of fine microsculpture. Apical tergites with a few setae in shallow punctures: about six around midlength on each of T3-T4, about five along each side on each of T5-T6. Comparison: This species is most similar to South African P applanata Buhl, 2001, and it runs to this species in Buhl's (20116) key to Afrotropical species of Platygaster, but P. applanata has mesosoma fully 1.1x as wide as high and a less convex scutellum, fore wings only 2.6x as long as wide and with sparse setae, and female metasoma hardly 1.1x as long as rest of body, only 1.8x as wide as high, with T2 striated to 0.4 of entire width.

[FIGURE 43 OMITTED]

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, road from Atigba to Danyi-Apeyeme, at a tributary creek of river Danyi (07[degrees]11'04"N 00[degrees]41'31"E), 14.iv.2008, 710 m, creek bank and below shrubs and bamboo, plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratype: 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Dzogbegan, Monastiere de l'Ascension, at river/ creek Danyi (07[degrees]14'30"N 00[degrees]40'45"E), 14.iv.2008, 725 m, abandoned plantation ground with three dominant plants (Eleusine indica, Rhynchelytrum repens, Cyperus sp.), swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

[FIGURES 44-45 OMITTED]

Platygaster kwamgumiensis Buhl, 2011

Fig. 46

Platygaster kwamgumiensis: Buhl 20116: 99, 101.

Material examined: 2[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Kodjo-Kope N of Badou, at creek Djodji (07[degrees]38'56"N 00[degrees]35'43"E), 24.iv.2008, cocoa and oilpalm plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

These specimens differ from the holotype P kwamgumiensis only in having head 1.3x as wide as mesosoma, LOL = 1.33 OOL, and because of slight differences in antennal measuments. The characteristic dorsal view of mesosoma is illustrated in Fig. 46.

Platygaster liga sp. n.

Figs 47-50

Etymology: Named in honour of Latvian artist Liga Pukite (Mainz).

[FIGURE 46 OMITTED]

Diagnosis: A small species with head nearly 1.4x as wide as mesosoma, without hyperoccipital carina, transversely reticulate-coriaceous behind, entire frons finely obliquely striated; female A9 very slightly longer than wide; notauli faintly indicated in posterior half of mesoscutum, mid lobe just reaching base of scutellum, this being evenly convex; fore wing 2.85x as long as wide; female metasoma only 0.8x as long as rest of body, T1 with two strong and complete carinae, T2 striated in and between basal foveae to 0.5.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.80 mm. Dark brown, T1 reddish brown; A1-A6, mandibles, tegulae and legs including coxae light yellowish brown; A7-A10 and last segment of tarsi darkened. Head from above (Fig. 47) 2.2x as wide as long, almost 1.4x as wide as mesosoma, rounded behind; occiput dull, transversely finely reticulate-coriaceous; vertex shiny, between ocelli with transverse reticulation, laterally unevenly reticulate-coriaceous; frons obliquely finely reticulate-striate all over. OOL = 1.5 LOL. Head in frontal view almost 1.4x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 48) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, shorter than distance between inner orbits (11:12); A9 very slightly longer than wide (hardly 1.1x). Mesosoma 1.4x as long as wide, 1.1x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum longitudinally finely reticulate-coriaceous except along narrow margins. Mesoscutum weakly reticulate-coriaceous, becoming almost smooth in posterior third and inside tegulae, with very few setae; notauli faintly indicated in about posterior half, well separated behind; mid lobe slightly prolonged to base of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves each with only two fine setae. Mesopleuron smooth except for 3-4 short, weak longitudinal wrinkles just below tegula. Scutellum (Fig. 49) very sparsely setose, smooth, evenly convex. Metapleuron dull, with pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae parallel; area between them slightly transverse, smooth and shiny. Fore wing 0.8x as long as entire body, 2.85x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.08x width of wing. Hind wing 6.4x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia one-third of the width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 50) about 0.8x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.85x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with several short longitudinal carinae along anterior margin (in at most anterior third), but with only two strong and complete longitudinal carinae. T2 striated in and between basal foveae to about half of its length. Apical tergites with faint traces of reticulation, and each tergite, except the bare T3, having eight shallow punctures with setae.

[FIGURES 47-50 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species runs to P. malaisei Buhl, 2005, in Buhl's (20116) key, but that species is larger and has head only 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, OOL:LOL=6:5, fore wing only 2.2x as long as wide, and metasoma as long as rest of body with T1 evenly crenulated and T2 only very shortly striated medially.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, S of Ahassome near river/brook Mono, NW of Tado (NW of Tohoun) (07on'12MN 01[degrees]28'54"E until 07o11'12MN 01[degrees]32'14"E), 7.iv.2008, 95 m, teak forest (Tectona grandis) and path to river bank with Cyperaceae, Icacinaceae, Tridax procumbens (L.), partly swampy ground, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Platygaster lobata sp. n.

Figs 51-54

Etymology: Derived from Latin lobus (lobe); in reference to the characteristic long mid lobe of mesoscutum.

Diagnosis: Female A9 1.15x as long as wide; notauli absent; mid lobe of mesoscutum extended over anterior 0.4 of scutellum; propodeal carinae strongly diverging; female metasoma slightly longer than rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.9 mm. Dark reddish brown with blackish head, A1-A5, mandibles and legs rather uniformly yellowish brown, last segment of all tarsi slightly darkened; A6-A10 dark reddish brown. Head from above (Fig. 51) 2.2x as wide as long, 1.25x as wide as mesosoma, rather dull due to very fine reticulate microsculpture; occiput also with weak, semi-circular transverse striation over most of width; vertex and frons without other sculpture (vertex with a few transverse elements postero-medially); occiput margined anteriorly but without a distinct carina. OOL=LOL. Head in frontal view 1.25x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 52) with A1 0.85x as long as height of head, longer than distance between (measured at midlength of frons) inner orbits (about 12:11); A9 about 1.15x as long as wide. Mesosoma 1.4x as long as wide, 1.05x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth, with sparse setation over most of surface. Mesoscutum bare along middle, the rest with sparse and slightly unevenly distributed setae; disc with very fine microsculpture, almost smooth all over; notauli absent; hind margin with a wide prolongation medially, covering anterior 0.4 of scutellum, at each side with about seven long setae over scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 53) with only a few setae, at level of mesoscutum, evenly sloping down from end of mesoscutal prolongation. Metapleuron with pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae short, markedly diverging; area between them smooth, as long as the width between carinae at their anterior end. Fore wing hardly surpassing tip of metasoma, 0.7x as long as entire body, 2.5x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; length of marginal cilia 0.08x width of wing. Hind wing 5.7x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia nearly 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 54) slightly longer than head and mesosoma combined (28:27), 0.9x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with weak longitudinal crenulation and three slightly more prominent longitudinal carinae. T2 with weak longitudinal striation in basal foveae to 0.4x length of tergite, between basal foveae are four longitudinal carinae reaching hardly 0.2 length of tergite. T3-T6 almost smooth, each with a transverse row of setae inserted in shallow punctures: six on each of T3-T4, eight on each of T5-T6.

[FIGURES 51-54 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species is somewhat similar to P sonnei Buhl, 2011, and P tricarinata sp. n., because of the prolonged mid lobe of mesoscutum. It runs to P sonnei in Buhl's (2011b) key, but that species has A5 distinctly shorter and narrower than A4 (in P lobata, A5 is fully as long and as wide as A4), A9 as wide as long, propodeal carinae parallel, less elongate wings with sparse microtrichia, and metasoma only 0.9x as long as rest of body, as wide as mesosoma, with slightly longer striation on base of T2. P tricarinata has A9 as wide as long, longer notauli, shorter prolongation over base of scutellum, and parallel propodeal carinae. Cf. also description of P tricarinata below.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Akloa, at creek Domi coming from the Cascades d'Akloa (07[degrees]30'46"N 00[degrees]36'36"E), 22.iv.2008, 280 m, cocoa and avocado plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Platygaster otandjoboliensis sp. n.

Figs 55-58

Etymology: Named after the Otandjoboli river at the type locality.

Diagnosis: Head almost 1.4x as wide as mesosoma, hyperoccipital carina weak but complete; female A4 and A9 each as long as wide; scutellum evenly convex, sparsely setose; female metasoma 0.8x as long as rest of body, striated to 0.4 of length, medially to 0.25.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.0 mm. Black; A1-A5, mandibles and legs including coxae mediumdark brown; trochanters, apical half of fore femora, most of fore tibiae, base of mid and hind tibiae, and segments 1-4 of all tarsi light brown; A6-A10 blackish brown. Head from above (Fig. 55) 2.1x as wide as long, almost 1.4x as wide as mesosoma (22:16); occiput almost smooth, with traces of weak transverse wrinkling and about 20 seta-implantations on central part of occiput (behind ocellar area); hyperoccipital carina weak but complete; vertex finely reticulate (not transversely so), with three weak and incomplete transverse carinae just in front of hyperoccipital carina; frons with weak reticulate sculpture, in lower two-thirds becoming fan-like out from a smoother impressed midline, with transverse wrinkles just above antennal insertions. Eyes virtually bare. OOL = 1.1 LOL. Head in frontal view 1.1x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 56) with A1 0.85x as long as height of head, shorter than distance between inner orbits (13:14); A9 as long as wide. Mesosoma slightly more than 1.4x as long as wide (23:16), 1.15x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth, with sparse, long setae (approximately 20). Mesoscutum smooth, with few setae, most of them situated laterally and along imaginary notaulic courses; notauli restrictively evident at hind margin; mid lobe posteriorly blunt, slightly but distinctly extended to base of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves each with about seven long setae. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 57) evenly convex, smooth, sparsely setose. Metapleuron reticulate, with moderately dense pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae parallel, well separated, in area between them very slightly transverse. Fore wing 0.8x as long as entire body, 2.4x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; length of marginal cilia 0.07x width of wing. Hind wing 5.3x as long as wide, with two hamuli; length of marginal cilia 0.25x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 58) 0.8x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.9x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with seven longitudinal carinae, three of them (the two lateral ones and the medial one) slightly more strongly developed than the rest. T2 with two basal foveae which are finely striated to 0.4x length of tergite, between foveae striated to 0.25 of length. T3-T5 smooth, with setae inserted in rather deep punctures: 10 on each of T3-T4, 12 on T5. T6 with fine rugosity and 10 setae in punctures that are not quite as deep.

[FIGURES 55-58 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species runs to P. nigeriana Buhl, 2004, or P. terco Sundholm, 1970, in Buhl's (20116) key, but both these species have the head only 1.2x as wide as mesosoma; the first-mentioned species also has longer basal flagellar segments, a more setose and lower scutellum and longer and more pointed metasoma than P otandjoboliensis. P terco also has more slender antennae and LOL more than twice as long as OOL.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Otandjobo near Zogbegan (SE of Badou), at river Otandjoboli (07[degrees]34'42"N 00041'37mE), 21.iv.2008, 500 m, at river, swept, cocoa plantation, M. von Tschinhaus.

Platygaster planivertex sp. n.

Figs 59, 60

Etymology: Derived from Latin plana (flat) as well as vertex (top of head); in reference to the characteristic flattened vertex.

[FIGURES 59-60 OMITTED]

Diagnosis: Head characteristically flat above, with vertex projecting over eyes; female A8-A9 each hardly longer than wide.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.90-1.20 mm. Black, T1 medium brown; A1-A6 and legs including coxae yellowish brown; mandibles, tegulae, A7-A10 and last segment of tarsi medium-dark brown. Head from above 2.15x as wide as long, fully 1.25x as wide as mesosoma (23:18); occiput transversely finely striated just around opening of neck, antero-medially with fine and dense oblique striation, towards sides finely and densely longitudinally striated; hyperoccipital carina absent; vertex behind ocelli transversely finely reticulatestriated, the rest reticulate-coriaceous (at most slightly transversely so); frons in about upper half smooth, along eyes weakly transversely reticulate-coriaceous, in lower half distinctly and transversely reticulate-striate. OOL = 1.6 LOL. Head in frontal view (Fig. 59) fully 1.25x as wide as high (23: 18), characteristically flat above with vertex extended over eyes, angular there. Antenna with A1 0.9x as long as height of head, longer than distance between inner orbits (16:15); A2 0.9x as long as A3-A4 combined; A4 1.6x as long as wide, about 1.15x as long as A5; A6-A10 forming a clava, A8-A9 each hardly noticeably longer than wide. Mesosoma (Fig. 60) 1.5x as long as wide, slightly more than 1.1x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum distinctly reticulate-striated longitudinally, smooth in large upper hind corners. Mesoscutum with very few setae, smooth except for slight rugosity along margins, anteriorly and along notauli, this being weak, not present in anterior 0.3; mid lobe posteriorly blunt, hardly extended but reaching base of scutellum, at each side with about seven moderately long setae over scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum evenly convex, smooth and bare along middle, towards sides moderately densely setose. Metapleuron with pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae divergent, area between carinae about as long as its posterior width. Fore wing 0.85x as long as entire body, 2.7x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.12x width of wing. Hind wing 6.2x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 60) about 0.9x the length of head and mesosoma combined, 0.8x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with a transverse depression around midlength, with fine longitudinal crenulation in front of it, smooth behind it. T2 without striation, in anterior 0.35 with two elongate basal foveae and a few setae, the following tergites also almost smooth, with setae in rather shallow punctures: four on T4, eight on T5, and about six on T6.

Comparison: Similar to P. hedayati Buhl, 2010, from Tanzania in respect of head shape but with more transverse head, much shorter antennae, smoother T2, and lighter-coloured body appendages.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, road from Atigba to Danyi-Apeyeme, at a tributary creek of river Danyi (07[degrees]11'04"N 00[degrees]41'31"E), 14.iv.2008, 710 m, creek bank and below shrubs and bamboo, plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Platygaster subanguliceps sp. n.

Figs 61, 62

Etymology: Derived from Latin sub (almost), angulus (angle) and cephalus (head); in reference to the characteristically shaped head which is almost angled,

Diagnosis: Head fully 1.5x as wide as mesosoma, 2.4x as wide as long, unusually narrowed towards mouth, outer upper margin of eyes more or less angled; female A9 1.5x as long as wide; mesosoma 1.4x as long as wide; female metasoma 0.85x as long as rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.1 mm. Black; mandibles, propodeal carinae and area between these, and T1 dark reddish brown; A1-A5 and legs including coxae light brownish yellow; A6-A10 medium dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 61) 2.4x as wide as long, fully 1.5x as wide as mesosoma; occiput finely and half-circularly reticulate-striated, with two longitudinal crenulae postero-medially; hyperoccipital carina absent but anterior part of occiput and posterior part of vertex with fine transverse striation and carinae, rest of vertex finely and weakly reticulate-coriaceous (not transversely so); most of frons faintly and transversely reticulate-striated, with a few more obvious transverse wrinkles just above antennal insertions. LOL half as long as OOL. Head in frontal view (Fig. 62) slightly more than 1.4x as wide as high, unusually narrowed towards mouth, outer upper margin of eyes almost angled. Antenna with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, 0.9x as long as distance between inner orbits; A2 as long as A3 -A4 combined, A4 1.5x as long as A3; A9 1.5x as long as wide. Mesosoma (Fig. 61) 1.4x as long as wide, 1.05x as high as wide.Sides of pronotum with very faint rugosity in upper anterior part, in about lower 0.6 having distinct longitudinal microstriation, smooth along wide hind and upper margins. Mesoscutum with few setae, most of them near margins and along imaginary notaulic courses; disc smooth, towards sides and anteriorly faintly reticulate-coriaceous; notauli poorly visible in at most, posterior one-third; mid lobe blunt behind, slightly projecting to base of scutellum, at each side with about eight long setae over scutoscutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum evenly convex, slightly above level of mesoscutum, smooth, with sparse setae towards sides. Metapleuron almost smooth, with moderately dense pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae very slightly divergent, area between them slightly transverse, smooth and shiny. Fore wing 0.85x as long as entire body, 2.5x as long as wide, almost clear, with moderately fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.09x width of wing. Hind wing 5.75x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia almost 0.4x width of wing (3:8). Metasoma about 0.85x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.9x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with two moderately strong longitudinal carinae, and having four weaker ones between them. T2 striated in basal foveae to about half of length, medially to 0.15 of length. T3-T6 smooth, with setae inserted in moderately deep punctures (about eight on each of T4-T6).

[FIGURES 61-62 OMITTED]

Comparison: The head of the paratype is less angular in frontal view than in the holotype. This species runs to P polaszeki Buhl, 2004, in Buhl's (2011b) key, but that species has head only 1.1x as wide as mesosoma, only twice as wide as long, without an angled eye margin, more elongate wings, and a less striated T2 than P subanguliceps. The head shape of P subanguliceps is somewhat similar to that of P oculata Buhl, 2004, from Uganda, but that species has head only twice as wide as long and female A9 hardly longer than wide.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, E of Ounabe at the border between Pref D'Amou and Pref de Wawa, NW of Temedja, NW of Atakpame, at creek Ofe (07[degrees]32'35"N 00[degrees]59'59"E), 19.iv.2008, 705 m, remains of secondary rainforest at creek with coffee plantation, dense understorey, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratype: 1[female] same data as holotype.

Platygaster tricarinata sp. n.

Figs 63-65

Etymology: Derived from Latin tres (three) and carina (keel); in reference to the three, usually distinct, carinae on the base of T2.

Diagnosis: A rather small species with head fully 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, occiput finely striated over whole width, without a hyperoccipital carina; female as well as male A9 as wide as long; notauli absent or weak, only present in posterior half; mid lobe broadly and slightly projecting over base of scutellum, this being low and evenly sloping; propodeal carinae parallel; female metasoma 0.85x as long as rest of body; T2 striated to 0.45 of length, medially with three more or less distinct longitudinal carinae to almost 0.3x length of tergite; legs partly darkened.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.7-1.0 mm. Black; A1-A2, mandibles and legs medium-dark brown with trochanters, most of fore tibiae, basal half of mid and hind tibiae, and segments 1-4 of all tarsi light brown; A3-A10 dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 63) 2.05x as wide as long, fully 1.2x as wide as mesosoma; occiput finely but distinctly semi-circularly striated over whole width on a smooth background, slightly margined anteriorly but without a distinct carina; vertex laterally smooth, finely and transversely reticulate-striate between ocelli; frons smooth in most of upper half, rest with fine oblique striation, smoother towards middle, with transverse striation just above antennal insertions. OOL and LOL about equal. Head in frontal view 1.25x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 65) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, 0.95x as long as distance between inner orbits; A9 as wide as long. Mesosoma (Figs 63 and 64) 1.3x as long as wide, 1.1x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth, with sparse setation over most of surface. Mesoscutum rather sparsely and evenly setose, smooth except for weak microsculpture at anterior ends of notaulic courses; notauli weak, fading out in anterior half, sometimes entirely absent; mid lobe broad behind, slightly but distinctly prolonged over base of scutellum, at each side with about 4-7 long setae over scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum more densely setose than mesoscutum, at level thereof, smooth, evenly sloping behind. Metapleuron with pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae short, parallel; much of the transverse area between them smooth. Fore wing 0.8x as long as entire body, 2.4x as long as wide, surpassing tip of metasoma by a distance equal to two-thirds of the length of T2, faintly yellowish, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.07x width of wing. Hind wing 6.0x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma 0.85x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.85x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with five rather even longitudinal carinae on central area. T2 with two finely striated basal foveae reaching 0.45x length of tergite, between basal foveae with three longitudinal carinae to almost 0.3 length of tergite. T3-T6 smooth, each with a transverse row of setae inserted in shallow punctures (about six on each of T3-T4 and eight on each of T5-T6).

[FIGURES 63-64 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 65 OMITTED]

Male.

Body length 0.70-0.75 mm. A4 inconspicuously widened; A8-A9 each about as long as wide. Metasoma about 0.8x as long as head and mesosoma combined.

Comparison: Generally similar to P lobata sp. n. (see above). The most important characters separating the two species are length of mid lobe over scutellum and conformation of propodeal carinae. P tricarinata could run to two species in Buhl's (2011b) key. However, P malaisei Buhl, 2005, has a more transverse head, mid lobe of mesoscutum shorter, propodeal carinae slightly divergent, and female metasoma as long as rest of body. P baezi Buhl, 2003, has a more convex scutellum with shorter mid lobe (and a very different conformation of male antennae).

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Akloa, at creek Domi coming from the Cascades d'Akloa (07[degrees]30'46"N 00[degrees]36'36"E), 22.iv.2008, 280 m, cocoa and avocado plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 3[female] 2[male] Region des Plateaux, N of Kessibo-Wawa, at the border to Ghana (N of Badou), at river Wawa (07[degrees]42'11"N 00[degrees]35'26"E), 24.iv.2008, 180 m, forest understorey, cocoa plantation sun-exposed vegetable fields, some Cyperaceae, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Atigba (07[degrees]09'52"N 00[degrees]41'33"E), 14.iv.2008, 775 m, remains of secondary rainforest, underwood, forest plantation, road side with much Sida acuta, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Anonoe, at brook Okpabe (07[degrees]33'40"N 00[degrees]36'10"E), 22.iv.2008, 280 m, swept along bank and in cocoa plantation. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Platygaster tschirnhausi sp. n.

Figs 66-69

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: Head 2.25x as wide as long, rather strongly striated behind, with an inconspicuous hyperoccipital carina among the striae; female A3 not longer than wide, A4 slightly less than twice as long as wide, A5 very slightly longer than wide, A7-A9 each at most as long as wide; notauli absent; mid lobe in front of scutellum short; scutellum distinctly and evenly convex; female metasoma 0.9x as long as rest of body; T2 striated for half of its length, medially to hardly 0.2.

[FIGURES 66-69 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.05 mm. Black, tegulae and T1 with dark brownish tint; A1-A6 and legs yellowish brown; A7-A10, mandibles, coxae and last segment of tarsi darker, medium-dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 66) 2.25x as wide as long, fully 1.25x as wide as mesosoma; occiput rather markedly, half-circularly striated all over, with an inconspicuous hyperoccipital carina mixed with the striation; vertex finely reticulatecoriaceous, with weak transverse striation behind ocelli and a few weak transverse wrinkles lateral to ocelli; frons smooth in most of upper half, with faint transverse reticulation along inner orbits, in lower half finely and obliquely reticulate all over, only very few wrinkles just above antennal insertions transverse. OOL = 1.25 LOL. Head in frontal view fully 1.3x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 67) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, shorter than distance between inner orbits (13:14); A9 about as long as wide. Mesosoma almost 1.4x as long as wide, fully 1.05x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth, with rugosity only in upper anterior corner and having scattered setae. Mesoscutum bare along middle, towards sides sparsely setose, smooth, with slight rugosity only at anterior ends of imaginary notaulic courses; notauli absent; hind margin medially very slightly pointed to base of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves narrow, each covered by about eight moderately strong setae. Mesopleuron with 4-5 distinct longitudinal wrinkles in upper 0.3, the rest smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 68) evenly convex, smooth, bare along middle, rather densely setose towards sides. Metapleuron with pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae parallel; area between them hardly wider than long, smooth. Fore wing 0.8x as long as entire body, 2.3x as long as wide, faintly infuscated and with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.1x width of wing. Hind wing 5.6x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia hardly 0.3x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 69) 0.9x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.9x as wide as mesosoma. T1 with numerous, rather even longitudinal carinae. T2 finely striated from basal foveae to half of length, medially to hardly 0.2 of length, rest of tergite as well as following tergites smooth; apical tergites with setae inserted in shallow punctures (about 12 on each of T3-T5, 10 on T6).

Comparison: Runs to P. baezi Buhl, 2003, in Buhl's (2011b) key, but P. baezi has head only twice as wide as long, about 1.1x as wide as mesosoma, occiput less markedly striated, frons transversely striated, most of sides of pronotum finely reticulate-striate, T1 lighter and body appendages more darkly coloured than in P tschirnhausi. If a hyperoccipital carina is considered to be present, P tschirnhausi runs to P nigeriana Buhl, 2004, in the key mentioned above, but that species has the occiput mostly smooth, basal flagellar segments more elongate, and scutellum lower than in P tschirnhausi.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Atigba (07[degrees]09'52"N 00[degrees]41'33"E), 14.iv.2008, 775 m, remains of secondary rainforest, underwood, forest plantation, road side with much Sida acuta, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Synopeas Forster, 1856

Sactogaster Forster, 1856: 108.

Ectadius Forster, 1856: 108.

Polymecus Forster, 1856: 144.

Dolichotrypes Crawford & Bradley, 1911: 124.

Haustagaster Szabo, 1979: 178.

Synopeas: Forster 1856: 108. Type species: Synopeas inermis Thomson, 1859; designated by Muesebeck & Walkley (1951).

Synopeas basipubens sp. n.

Figs 70, 71

Etymology: From Latin basis andpubescens (covered with hairs basally); in reference to the unusually strongly pubescent junction of T1-T2.

Diagnosis: Female A5 distinctly longer and wider than A4; notauli absent; scutellum much below level of mesoscutum, with a short tooth; female metasoma 1.1x as long as rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.1-1.4 mm. Black, A1-A6 and legs light brown; A7-A10, mandibles and coxae dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 70) 1.75x as wide as long, 1.3x times as wide as mesosoma, dull, finely reticulate-coriaceous, in lower half of frons with weak transverse elements; hyperoccipital carina absent, head smoothly rounded, but margin just behind eyes sometimes slightly spinose in dorsal view. LOL = 1.75 OOL. Head in frontal view 1.15x as wide as high. Antenna with A1 0.8x as long as height ofhead, longer than distance between inner orbits (14:13); A2 slightly longer than A3-A4 combined; A4 about 1.75x as long as A3 and 1.75x as long as wide; A5 distinctly wider than A4 and 1.2-1.6x as long; A6 small; A7-A10 forming a clava, A9 1.2-1.4x as wide as long. Mesosoma (Figs 70-71) 1.9x as long as wide, 1.3x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum finely reticulate-coriaceous (not longitudinally so), smooth along wide hind margin. Mesoscutum evenly and rather sparsely setose, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous except postero-medially; notauli absent; hind margin medially with a transverse, blunt and slightly brownish prolongation over base of scutellum, having dense whitish setosity at each side. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum dull and bare medially, densely setose towards sides, with a distinct, short tooth with a translucent lamella below. Metapleuron smooth, with long whitish pilosity except along narrow anterior and upper margins. Propodeal carinae dark and fused. Fore wing 0.7x as long as entire body, just reaching tip of metasoma, 2.75x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia absent. Hind wing 6.1x as long as wide; marginal cilia about 0.25x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 71) 1.1x as long as head and mesosoma combined, slightly wider than mesosoma (16:15), 1.25x as wide as high. T2 smooth, except for a few short longitudinal crenulae behind the large basal tufts of pubescence. T3-T5 almost smooth, T6 dull towards sides, but apical tergites with numerous deep punctures: about 18 in one transverse row on T3, approximately 22 more scattered on T4, about 26 scattered on T5, about 16 on T6.

[FIGURES 70-71 OMITTED]

Male.

Body length 0.9-1.0 mm. Antenna with preapical antennal segments each about as long as wide; flagellar pubescence short. Metasoma 0.80-0.95x as long as head and mesosoma combined.

Comparison: There is a graded series of specimens towards "strongly developed" ones with a more spinose margin behind eyes, longer and wider A5 and more transverse A8-A9. This species runs to S. dentilamellatum Buhl, 2011, in Buhl's (2011b) key to Afrotropical species of Synopeas, but that species has more slender preapical female antennal segments, scutellum at level of mesoscutum, female metasoma more flattened, is less pubescent anteriorly, and apical tergites are more sculptured.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region du Centre, Montagne Gabongala, Foret du Mont Balat (Balam) between Diguina and Gassi Gassi, NW of Diguina Konta (08[degrees]11'47"N 00[degrees]55'19"E), 28.iv.2008, 440 m, sparsely forested mountain slope and top of mountain range (above the mountain foot with the above coordinates) with dry forest, fire-influenced ground, violet flowers of Kaemperia aethiopica (Schweinf.) Benth., within herb stratum, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 1[female] Region des Plateaux, main road between Agbanon and Agote, at brook Tomezuitoe (07[degrees]15'53"N 00[degrees]47'51"E) 15.iv.2008, 360 m, brook bank at teak forest (Tectonagrandis), shady cocoa plantation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Anonoe, at creek Okpabe (07[degrees]33'40"N 00[degrees]36'10"E), 22.iv.2o08, 280 m, swept along bank and in cocoa plantation; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, N of Ayagba, at river Kpelekoun (07[degrees]46'13"N 00[degrees]47'48"E), 23.iv.2008, 340 m, grass and shrubs along river, swept; 6[male] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Atigba (07[degrees]09'52"N 00[degrees]41'33"E), 14.iv.2008, 775 m, remains of secondary rainforest, underwood, forest plantation, road side with much Sida acuta, swept; 2[female] Region des Plateaux, Ouvetseve near Kpele Ele (07[degrees]21'27"N 00[degrees]51'12"E), 15.iv.2008, 345 m, creek bank within forest, diverse herb vegetation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Abriwa-Nko, about 5 km N of Badou, at creek Egnulu-Agbadja (07[degrees]37'18"N 00[degrees]36'13"E), 24.iv.2008, 310 m, swept in cocoa and avocado plantation. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Synopeas ciliarissimum Buhl, 2011

Synopeas ciliarissimum: Buhl 20116: 108, 112.

Material examined: 1[male] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, N of Kessibo-Wawa, at the border to Ghana (N of Badou), at river Wawa (07[degrees]42'11"N 00[degrees]35'26"E), 24.iv.2008, 180 m, forest understorey, cocoa plantation and sun-exposed vegetable fields, some Cyperaceae, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Synopeas dentilamellatum Buhl, 2011

Synopeas dentilamellatum: Buhl 2011b: 108, 113.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Foret d'Amakpave NE of Amakpave (NE of Game) (06[degrees]48'47"N 01[degrees]11'21"E), 6.iv.2008, 115-130 m, teak forest (Tectona grandis) with much Panicum maximum and Portulacaceae, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Cascades de Yo NW of Yo (NW of Kpalime), edge of road N13 (06[degrees]57'05"N 00[degrees]35'51"E), 17.iv.2008, 370 m, secondary rainforest remains, banana and cocoa, bank vegetation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Abriwa-Nko, about 5 km N of Badou, at creek Egnulu-Agbadja (07[degrees]37'18"N 00[degrees]36'13"E), 24.iv.2008, 310 m, swept in cocoa and avocado plantation. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Synopeas dorsale Buhl, 2011

Fig. 72

Synopeas dorsale: Buhl 2011b:109, 114.

Material examined: 3[female] 1[male] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, N of Kessibo-Wawa, at the border to Ghana (N of Badou), at river Wawa (07[degrees]42'11"N 00[degrees]35'26"E), 24.iv.2008, 180 m, forest understorey, cocoa plantation and sun-exposed vegetable fields, some Cyperaceae, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Slightly smaller than the type material from Tanzania ([female] 0.70-0.85 mm, [male] 0.70 mm). The material from Togo differs in a few details from the type material. e.g. in the head being 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, fore wings without marginal cilia, and female metasoma only 1.3x as wide as high. The characteristic mesoscutum of this species is illustrated in Fig. 72.

Synopeas meieri sp. n.

Figs 73-76

Etymology: Named after the dipterologist Dr Rudolf Meier, who first brought me in contact with Dr von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: A small species with head 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, with a distinct hyperoccipital carina; female A4 1.3x as long as A5, A9 1.3x as wide as long; scutellum ending in a tiny, low lamella; female metasoma about as long as rest of body, 1.2x as wide as high.

[FIGURE 72 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.80-0.95 mm. Head black, meso- and metasoma dark brown; A1-A6, mandibles and legs including coxae yellowish brown; A7-A10 dark brown. Head from above (Figs 73-74) 1.9x as wide as long, 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, dull, finely reticulate-coriaceous, on occiput slightly transversely so; hyperoccipital carina distinct and complete but not well developed. OOL hardly as long as diameter of lateral ocellus; LOL=3 OOL. Head in frontal view 1.15x as wide as high. Antenna with A1 0.85x as long as height of head, longer than distance between inner orbits (11:9); A2 about as long as A3-A4 combined; A4 almost twice as long as A3, 1.3x as long as A5; A9 about 1.3x as wide as long. Mesosoma (Figs 73-74) 1.45x as long as wide, 1.1x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum faintly reticulate-coriaceous (not longitudinally so) in upper half, smooth below and along hind margin. Mesoscutum rather sparsely but evenly setose, finely reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; mid lobe medially with a distinct smooth, flat, slightly brownish prolongation to base of scutellum; the wide scuto-scutellar grooves with dense white setation. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 75) densely setose all over, slightly raised along middle, ending behind in a tiny, low, oblique lamella. Metapleuron smooth, with long and dense whitish pilosity, except along narrow anterior margin. Propodeal carinae rounded, light brownish and translucent, fused. Fore wing slightly surpassing tip of metasoma, 0.75x as long as entire body, 2.6x as long as wide, clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia absent. Hind wing 6.6x as long as wide; marginal cilia 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma (Figs 74 and 76) slightly shorter (22:24) to very slightly longer (28:27) than head and mesosoma combined, 0.9x as wide as mesosoma, 1.2x as wide as high. T1 and base of T2 with strong whitish pubescence. T2 smooth except for weak reticulation along narrow hind margin. T3-T6 distinctly reticulate-coriaceous all over, only apex of T6 smooth; apical tergites with very few, inconspicuous setae.

[FIGURES 73-76 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species runs to S. mazumbaiense Buhl, 2011, or to S. goengeti Buhl, 1997, in Buhl's (2011b) key, but S. mazumbaiense is larger (at least 1.2 mm), with head hardly as wide as mesosoma, and metasoma down-curved at apex. S. goengeti has head only 1.6x as wide as long, a weak and incomplete hyperoccipital carina, and metasoma less elongate, wider than mesosoma.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, road from Atigba to Danyi-Apeyeme, at a tributary creek of river Danyi (07[degrees]11'04"N 00[degrees]41'31"E), 14.iv.2008, 710 m, creek bank and below shrubs and bamboo, plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 2[female] Region des Plateaux, Otandjobo near Zogbegan (SE of Badou), at river Otandjoboli (07[degrees]34'42"N 0o[degrees]41'37"E), 21.iv.2008, 500 m, at river, swept, cocoa plantation; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Klabe-Azafi, at river Gonobe (07[degrees]36'00"N 00[degrees]43'21"E), 21.iv.2008, 485 m, remains of secondary rainforest at river, rotting oranges, grass along road, swept. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Synopeas tanzanianum Buhl, 2010

Synopeas tanzanianum: Buhl 2010: 45.

Material examined: 1[male] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Kpele-Govie Mlate N of Adeta, Auberge "Yougone"(07[degrees]08'33"N 00[degrees]43'57"E), 14-15.iv.2008, 285 m, F. Menzel & M. von Tschirnhaus.

Description of the hitherto unknown male: Body length 1.8 mm. Antenna with A4 as long as A2-A3 combined, 2.15x as long as wide, angularly dilated at midlength on inner side; A5 half as long as A4; A6 1.6x as long as A5; A7-A9 almost equal, each very slightly longer and wider than A6, 2.5x as long as wide; A10 1.55x as long as A9; flagellar pubescence 0.6x width of segments. Mesopleuron with fine longitudinal striation in upper third. Metasoma 1.15x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 3.2x as long as wide. T3-T7 combined slightly longer than T1-T2 combined (about 30:28). Otherwise morphologically the same as female.

Synopeas togoense sp. n.

Figs 77-80

Etymology: Named after the type locality country, Togo.

Diagnosis: A rather small species with female A4 hardly more than half as long as A5; A9 1.5x as wide as long; notauli absent; scutellum with a strong spine, slightly surpassing hind margin of propodeum; female metasoma 0.85x as long as rest of body, 1.25x as wide as high.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.9 mm. Black, A1-A6, mandibles and legs including coxae light brownish. Head from above (Fig. 77) 1.8x as wide as long, 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, finely but distinctly reticulate-coriaceous (not transversely so); hyperoccipital carina weak and incomplete. Eyes with numerous short setae. LOL=3 OOL. Head in frontal view 1.15x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 78) with A1 0.65x as long as height of head, very slightly longer than distance between inner orbits; A5 as long as A3-A4 combined; A9 1.5x as wide as long. Mesosoma 1.5x as long as wide, 1.2x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth, only slightly reticulate-coriaceous in upper anterior corner. Mesoscutum bare along middle, the rest evenly and moderately densely setose, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous, smooth just in front of scutellum; notauli absent; hind margin straight over entire width in front of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves small, each with only two inconspicuous setae. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 79) bare along middle, towards sides moderately densely setose, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous, in dorsal view narrowed in straight lines into a strong, dark spine, hind margin of scutellum including lower edge of spine slightly translucent. Metapleuron smooth, in anterior half with sparse pilosity, in posterior half with very dense and erect whitish pilosity. Propodeal carinae dark brown, fused. Fore wing 0.9x as long as entire body, overreaching tip of metasoma by a distance equal to 1.5x combined length of T3-T6, 2.5x as long as wide, with faint yellowish tint and fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia absent. Hind wing 6.1x as long as wide; marginal cilia about 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 80) 0.85x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 1.2x as long as mesosoma and slightly wider (15:14), 1.25x as wide as high. T2 smooth. T3-T 5 smooth, with weak reticulate microsculpture along hind margins, T6 with such sculpture all over. T3-T6 with setae inserted in shallow punctures (about 2 setae on T3, 10 on T4, 8 on T5, 6 on T6).

[FIGURES 77-80 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species runs to S. semihyalinum Buhl, 2011, in Buhl's (20116) key, but that species has more slender antennae, conformation of scutellum very different with a much smaller scutellar tooth, rather long marginal cilia on fore wings, and longer and more flattened metasoma.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region du Centre, Tentkro SE of Yegue (SW of Blitta), at creek Koflo (08[degrees]05'20"N 00[degrees]45'5iME), 28.iv.2008, 530 m, remains of secondary rainforest, mainly swept above fresh sawdust in shade, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Synopeas tschirnhausi sp. n.

Figs 81-84

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: A most characteristic species of the genus on account of pointed eyes; head in frontal view only very slightly wider than high.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.1 mm. Black, mandibles and coxae hardly lighter, A1-A6 and legs more or less light brownish, A1 blackish in basal 0.25; A7-A10 dark brownish. Head from above 1.85x as wide as long, 1.3 x as wide as mesosoma, finely and uniformly reticulatecoriaceous (not transversely so), without hyperoccipital carina. LOL=5 OOL. Upper outer corner of eye pointed. Head in frontal view (Fig. 81) very slightly wider than high (24:23). Antenna (Fig. 82) with A1 0.6x as long as height of head, as long as distance between inner orbits. Mesosoma 1.4x as long as wide, 1.1x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum finely reticulate-coriaceous, smooth in lower third and along hind margin. Mesoscutum evenly and moderately densely setose, uniformly and finely reticulatecoriaceous; notauli short and poorly evident at hind margin; mid lobe slightly and bluntly prolonged to base of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves rather narrow, each with about seven long setae. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 83) slightly and evenly convex, almost smooth, sparsely setose along middle, densely so laterally, without modification behind. Metapleuron smooth, in anterior 0.4 with very sparse pilosity, denser behind. Propodeal carinae high, dark, rounded, fused. Fore wing 0.85x as long as entire body, 2.2x as long as wide, clear, in apical half with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia extremely short. Hind wing 5.4x as long as wide; marginal cilia one-third the width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 84) two-thirds as long as head and mesosoma combined, about as long as mesosoma and slightly wider (19:18), 1.3x as wide as high. T1 with a few longitudinal crenulae. T2-T5 smooth, each with a narrow transverse stripe of reticulate microsculpture at hind margin, T6 with such sculpture all over. Apical tergites with a few inconspicuous setae in shallow punctures (eight on T5, fewer on the rest).

[FIGURES 81-84 OMITTED]

Comparison: In respect of unusual shape of head, somewhat similar to S. acutanguliceps Buhl, 2011, but that species has the head in frontal view 1.4x as wide as high and eyes not pointed.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, 1 km downstream of Totame (07[degrees]35'21"N 00[degrees]37'55"E), 20.iv.2008, 590 m, mountain slope with scattered forest trees and dense ground vegetation, rotting fruits of avocado, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Synopeas (Sactogaster) ventricosum Buhl, 1997

Synopeas ventricosus: Buhl 1997: 449.

Material examined: 15 TOGO, Region des Plateaux, main road between Agbanon and Agote, at brook Tomezuitoe (7[degrees]15'53"N 0[degrees]47'51ME), 15.iv.2008, 360 m, brook bank at teak forest (Tectona grandis), shady cocoa plantation, swept; 15 Region des Plateaux, Ouvetseve near Kpele Ele (07[degrees]2E27"N 00[degrees]5E12"E), 15.iv.2008, 345 m, creek bank within forest, diverse herb vegetation, swept. Both M. von Tschirnhaus.

I can find no difference between the abovementioned two specimens and the type material of S. ventricosum from the Bismarck Archipelago and the Philippines. Further material of S. ventricosum from Sri Lanka was examined as well. Species of the subgenus Sactogaster are generally very similar globally, but several platygastrid species of other genera are also supposed to have a more or less cosmopolitan distribution (perhaps spread as a result of human agricultural activities).

Synopeas watsoni sp. n.

Figs 85-88

Etymology: Named in honour of the eminent South African biologist Lyall Watson (1939-2008).

Diagnosis: A small species, with head uniformly isodiametrically reticulate-coriaceous; female A4-A5 of equal length; A9 fully 1.5x as wide as long; notauli absent; scutellum in lateral view slightly below level of mesoscutum and only slightly pointed behind; fore wing 2.5-2.7x as long as wide; female metasoma shorter than mesosoma, 1.5x as long as wide and 1.4x as wide as high.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.7-0.8 mm. Black, A1-A6 and legs light brownish, coxae, last segment of tarsi and sometimes apical 0.4 of hind tibiae slightly darker; A7-A10, mandibles and tegulae dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 85) 1.8-1.9x as wide as long, 1.15x as wide as mesosoma, dull, distinctly and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous (not transversely so); hyperoccipital carina distinct and complete. OOL equal to diameter of lateral ocellus; LOL=3 OOL. Head in frontal view 1.15x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 86) with A1 0.75x as long as height of head, 1.0-1.1x as long as distance between inner orbits; A9 about 1.55x as wide as long. Mesosoma 1.5x as long as wide, 1.15x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum reticulate-coriaceous, smooth in lower half and along wide hind margin. Mesoscutum evenly and moderately densely setose, finely and uniformly reticulatecoriaceous, without notauli; hind margin medially slightly pointed to base of scutellum, at each side with 5-6 long setae over scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 87) sculptured much as mesoscutum but more densely setose, slightly pointed behind but without a distinct tooth, dark brown here as are propodeal carinae, these being high and fused. Metapleuron with whitish pilosity all over (sparse in anterior 0.4). Fore wing clear, 2.5-2.7x as long as wide, 0.9x as long as entire body, surpassing tip of metasoma by a distance equal to length of T2, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia absent. Hind wing 6.8x as long as wide; marginal cilia slightly less than half the width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 88) hardly 0.9x as long as mesosoma, and 0.9x as wide, 1.4x as wide as high. T2 with a weak, medial longitudinal depression between the two tufts of pubescence, otherwise smooth. T3-T6 with reticulate microsculpture and a few inconspicuous setae inserted in shallow punctures (eight on each of T5-T6, fewer on T3-T4).

Male.

Body length 0.65 mm. Antenna with A4 inconspicuously widened towards apex; A7-A10 forming a clava, A8-A9 each about 1.2x as wide as long; flagellar pubescence only slightly more conspicuous than in female. Metasoma 0.8-0.9x as long as mesosoma.

Comparison: This species does not fit well into Buhl's (20116) key. It is most similar to S. fibigeri Buhl, 2011, but S. fibigeri has meshes on occiput slightly transverse and more distinct than on rest of head, which in frontal view is 1.25x as wide as high. Moreover, S. fibigeri has slightly longer OOL and slightly more elongate flagellar segments than S. watsoni, more extensive sculptured sides of pronotum, notauli evident posteriorly, scutellum at level of mesoscutum and having a stronger tooth, propodeal carinae slightly separated, fore wing only 2.35x as long as wide, longer than body, pubescence at base of metasoma hardly 0.25x as long as T1-T2 combined (in S. watsoni fully one-third of the length of T1-T2 combined), and it is lighter in colour than S. watsoni. Cf. also Buhl (2011a).

[FIGURE 85-88 OMITTED]

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, main road between Agbanon and Agote, at creek Tomezuitoe (07[degrees]15'53"N 00o47'51ME), 15.iv.2008, 360 m, creek bank at teak forest (Tectona grandis), shady cocoa plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 1[female] 2[male] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Atigba (07[degrees]09'52"N 00[degrees]41'33ME), 14.iv.2008, 775 m, remains of secondary rainforest, underwood, forest plantation, road side with much Sida acuta Burm. F., swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

CONCLUSIONS

When similar species are recorded or described from widely separated localities, it is always a problem to determine whether they belong to the same species or to ones that look slightly different. In the present paper, new species such as Amblyaspis tschirnhausi, Fidiobia tschirnhausi, Inostemma tschirnhausi and Synopeas watsoni are rather similar to already known species described from Tanzania or South Africa. On the other hand, supposed species described earlier and now recorded from Togo, such as Aceroteta africana, Euxestonotus deimos, Leptacis acanthia and L. fusiformis, differ slightly from the type material from East and South Africa. Furthermore, species such as Acerotella tshirnhausi, Ceratacis afrotropica and Leptacis cf. mitratus are rather similar to species known from other biogeographical regions. A third group of species, such as Euxestonotus lissogastrus, Leptacis cylindrica, L. elongaticeps and Synopeas tschirnhausi, are very distinct on a world faunal basis. For all taxa, only further alpha taxonomic work, especially on material from intermediate geographic areas, can elucidate true relationships. Much fundamental research on the biodiversity, from collecting and determination to comparison and description of species, still has to be done before a more complete picture is obtained. Because of the uncertainties of intraspecific variation, many of the Togo specimens in the material at hand remain identified to the generic level only. As Bartlett et al. (1999) reason, regional comparisons (faunal list of named species) built up over a long period of time may ultimately be the most important measures of shared diversity. I reiterate my conclusion from Buhl (2011b), namely that there seems to be no substitute for alpha taxonomy, i.e. accurate taxonomic description of species, if the goal is just a reasonable understanding of the biodiversity of a poorly studied, diverse group such as Afrotropical platygastrids. However, only detailed investigation of the biology of each supposed species can ultimately reveal their true limits. Of course, the study of platygastrids is still very far from reaching this goal. As Kunz (2012) remarks, even with regard to birds (Aves), it would be easy to defend estimates other than the currently agreed upon number of about 9000 bird species on Earth, resulting in alternative estimates of as many as 27000 species. "The number depends entirely on the weight given to particular delimiting criteria." This uncertainty is naturally far greater in respect of the tiny parasitoid wasps, among which many species are known only from a few dried specimens.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am very grateful to Dr. Michael von Tschirnhaus (Bielefeld) for offering me the material.

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Peter Neerup Buhl

Troldhojvej 3, DK-3310 0lsted, Denmark; pnbuhl@hotmail.com

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