New species and new records of Platygastrinae and Sceliotrachelinae from Togo (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

INTRODUCTION

Members of Platygastridae are parasitoid wasps, especially of gall midges. These wasps are mostly very small (1-2 mm), black, and weakly shining with elbowed antennae that have a flagellum (at most 8 segments; sometimes fewer, especially in the subfamily Sceliotrachelinae). The wings of platygastrids most often lack venation, though they may have fringes of setae. The standard website for the group is that of Johnson (2014) and includes an annotated bibliography, while the latest printed World catalogue is that by Vlug (1995).

In my recent papers Buhl (2011a, b), I keyed most described species of the larger genera of Afrotropical Platygastridae s. str. and described a total of 52 new species from Tanzania. Below, 29 additional species new to science are described. New records from Togo of already known species are given as well, due to a generous gift of Togo material to me from Dr Michael von Tschirnhaus (University of Bielefeld, Germany). Several more species that are very similar or perhaps identical to known Central or South African species were amongst the material, indicating that many Afrotropical platygastid species are widely distributed. With publication of the present paper, a total of 248 Afrotropical species of Platygastrinae and Sceliotracheline have so far been described.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Standard abbreviations used: A1-A10 = antennal segments 1-10; OOL = distance between lateral ocellus and eye; LOL = distance between lateral and anterior ocelli, T1-T6 = tergites 1-6.

All the material, pinned on cardboard triangles, has been deposited in the collection of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (ZMUC).

TAXONOMY

Genus Acerotella Masner, 1964

Acerota auct. nec Forster, 1856 (no species).

Acerotella: Masner 1964: 148. Type species: Acerota evanescens Kieffer, 1914, by original designation.

Acerotella tschirnhausi sp. n.

Figs 1, 2

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: A small species with a strong, 3-segmented antennal clava in female, brightly coloured A1 and legs; notauli distinct in anterior half, absent in posterior half; female metasoma 1.2x as long as rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.85-1.00 mm. Black, A1 and legs including coxae light brownish; A2-A10, mandibles, tegulae and last segment of tarsi dark brown. Head from above 1.65 x as wide as long, hardly noticeably wider than mesosoma, rather dull reticulate-coriaceous, frons slightly smoother in lower half. OOL very short, lateral ocelli almost touching inner orbits. Head in frontal view 1.3x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 1) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, as long as distance between inner orbits. Mesosoma 1.25x as long as wide, 1.3x as wide as high. Sides of pronotum finely leathery except posteromedially. Mesoscutum with a few scattered setae, finely leathery, smooth in slightly more than posterior half except laterally; notauli distinct in about anterior half, absent in most of posterior half. Mesopleuron finely leathery almost all over, in upper half with about four short longitudinal wrinkles posteriorly. Scutellum finely leathery and with a few setae. Metapleuron dull coriaceous, with adpressed pilosity in slightly more than posterior half. Fore wing 0.75x as long as entire body, 2.45x as long as wide, reaching apex of metasoma approximately, and clear with fine and dense microtrichia; subcostal vein medium brown, 0.25x as long as wing; marginal cilia about 0.05x width of wing. Hind wing 6.3x as long as wide; marginal cilia slightly more than one-third the width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 2) 1.2x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.8x as wide as mesosoma. T1 dull, with four weak and short longitudinal crenulae around middle, along each side having a fine and complete longitudinal carina close to lateral margin. T2 longer than wide (16:13), smooth except for three slightly dull basal foveae which reach less than 0.2 of length. T3-T4 with very weak, T5 with stronger, and T6 with even stronger reticulate-coriaceous microsculpture. Apical tergites with setae inserted in shallow punctures (about four on T3, eight on each of T4 and T6, six on T5).

Comparison: Assigned to the "boter-group" sensu Masner (1980) because of conformation of antennae, but with shorter notauli, brighter-coloured body appendages and smaller body size than Palaearctic A. boter (Walker, 1838) and A. humilis (Kieffer, 1913), and Nearctic A. nearctica Masner, 1980. A. tschirnhausi is most similar to A. aldrovandii Buhl, 2002, from Panama, but that species has more slender basal flagellar segments and shorter metasoma than A. tschirnhausi.

[FIGURES 1-2 OMITTED]

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Abriwa-Nko, about 5 km N of Badou, at creek Egnulu-Agbadja (07[degrees]37'18"N 00[degrees]36'13"E), 24.iv.2008, 310 m, swept in cocoa and avocado plantation, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratype: 1[female] Region des Plateaux, N of Kessibo-Wawa, at the border to Ghana (N of Badou), at Wawa river (07[degrees]42'11"N 00[degrees]35'26"E), 24.iv.2008, 180 m, forest understorey, cocoa plantation and sun-exposed vegetable fields, some Cyperaceae, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Aceroteta Kozlov & Masner, 1977

Aceroteta: Kozlov & Masner 1977, in Kozlov 1977: 96. Type species: Aceroteta borealis Kozlov & Masner, 1977, by monotypy and original designation.

Aceroteta cf. africana Buhl, 2005

Aceroteta africana: Buhl 2005: 282.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Manma-Kope N of Gbadi Nkougna, SE of Badou (07[degrees]27'02"N 00[degrees]41'59"E), 25.iv.2008, 660 m, plantation (coffee, oilpalm, Acacia), swept above sawdust, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Remark: This specimen has basal flagellar segments shorter than in the unique holotype of A. africana from the Republic of South Africa, but that could be due to the small body size of the specimen from Togo (approx. 0.50 mm; the holotype is 0.85 mm long).

Genus Amblyaspis Forster, 1856

Amblyaspis: Forster 1856: 107. Type species: Platygaster tritici Walker, 1835, designated by Kieffer (1926).

Amblyaspis tschirnhausi sp. n.

Figs 3, 4

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: A small species with head distinctly wider than mesosoma, OOL = 1.3 LOL, distinct hyperoccipital carina, female A8-A9 each fully 1.1x as wide as long, A10 1.6x as long as wide, no notauli and nearly all setae on mesoscutum concentrated in four rows; T3-T4 each with four setae; basal antennal segments and legs including coxae brightly coloured.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.8-1.0 mm. Head black to medium brown, mesosoma blackish brown to medium brown, metasoma medium to light brown; A1-A4 (sometimes only A1-A2) and mandibles yellowish brown, legs including coxae pale yellowish brown; A5-A10 medium to dark brown. Head (Figs 3, 4) from above about twice as wide as long, slightly more than 1.1x as wide as mesosoma; occiput finely and very slightly transversely reticulate; hyperoccipital carina fine but distinct, more or less complete; vertex and frons with faint reticulation which is partly somewhat transverse. OOL = 1.3 LOL. Head in frontal view very slightly more than 1.1x as wide as high. Antenna with A1 about as long as height of head, 1.4x as long as distance between inner orbits. Mesosoma (Figs 3, 4) 1.4x as long as wide, hardly noticeably higher than wide. Sides of pronotum weakly reticulate-coriaceous, smooth along narrow hind margin. Mesoscutum weakly and uniformly reticulate, with setae almost only in a single line along imaginary notaulic courses and a single line laterally; notauli absent; hind margin medially with a distinct, transverse prolongation covering base of scutellum, at each side with about six setae above the small scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum densely covered by white setae typical for the genus. Metapleuron smooth, with sparse white pilosity, denser along lower and hind margins. Propodeal carinae parallel, very slightly separated. Fore wing about as long as entire body, 2.6x as long as wide, weakly infuscated, with dense and moderately strong microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.14x width of wing. Hind wing 8.6x as long as wide; marginal cilia 0.6x width of wing. Metasoma 0.9-1.0x as long as head and mesosoma combined, very slightly narrower than mesosoma. T1 with two short and rather weak longitudinal carinae, anteriorly smooth and swollen, posteriorly with a wide and smooth hind margin, along sides with rather dense and long white setae. T2 with two small basal foveae about 0.15 as long as tergite, between foveae with a longitudinal carina not longer than foveae, otherwise smooth. T3-T6 with dull reticulate-coriaceous microsculpture, each with four setae in shallow punctures, T5 sometimes with six setae.

[FIGURES 3-4 OMITTED]

Male.

Body length 0.9-1.2 mm. Antenna much as in A. iringensis Buhl, 2010, with A4 hardly widened and preapical antennal segments each about 1.5x as long as wide. Comparison: Similar to A. iringensis Buhl, 2010, but that species has head slightly less transverse, hardly wider than mesosoma, with OOL 1.7x as long as LOL, slightly more slender than female antennae, setae on mesoscutum scattered, and A. iringensis is distinctly darker than A. tschirnhausi. Furthermore, A. iringensis has six setae on T3-T4, four on T5.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Otandjobo near Zogbegan (SE of Badou), at river Otandjoboli (07[degrees]34'42"N 00[degrees]41'37"E), 21.iv.2008, 500 m, at river, swept, cocoa plantation, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 5[female] 5[male] same data as holotype; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Foret d'Asrama, road N 6.8 km ENE Tsagba, 24 km W Tohoun, forest station (07[degrees]00'09"N 01[degrees]23'57"E), 8.iv.2008, 130 m, forest path with secondary rainforest; 1[female] 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, road from Atigba to Danyi-Apeyeme, at a tributary creek of river Danyi (07[degrees]11'04"N 00[degrees]41'31"E), 14.iv.2008, 710 m, creek bank and below shrubs and bamboo, plantation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Amou Oblo, at base of Montagne des Fetiches (07[degrees]23'44"N 00[degrees]51'14"E), 15.iv.2008, 295-330 m, mountain slope with remains of secondary forest, cocoa plantation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Cascade de Kpime W of Huime (07[degrees]00'29"N 00[degrees]38'45"E), 16.iv.2008, 300 m, path to waterfall, road side, swept; 8[male] Region des Plateaux, NE of Badou, at creek Okpabe (07[degrees]35'19"N 00[degrees]07'17"E), 20.iv.2008, 370 m, creek bank in remains of secondary rainforest, swept; 5[female] 10[male] Region des Plateaux, Zogbegan, village part Zogbegan-Carriere (SE of Badou), at creek Elebe, V-shaped valley near cocoa plantation downstream of village (07[degrees]34'50"N 00[degrees]40'03"E), 20-25.iv.2008, 650 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept; 1[female] 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Soto, at river Owui (07[degrees]36'10"N 00[degrees]42'21"E), 21.iv.2008, 470 m, remains of secondary rainforest at river; 8[female] 20[male] Region des Plateaux, Abriwa-Nko, about 5 km N of Badou, at creek Egnulu-Agbadja (07[degrees]37'18"N 00[degrees]36'13"E), 24.iv.2008, 310 m, swept in cocoa and avocado plantation; 2[male] Region des Plateaux, Ouwe NW of Gbadi Nkougna (SE of Badou), at creek Ouwe (07[degrees]29'32"N 00[degrees]41'56"E), 25.iv.2008, 590 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Ceratacis Thomson, 1859

Ceratacis: Thomson 1859: 69. Type species: Ceratacis flavipes Thomson, 1859, by monotypy.

Ceratacis afrotropica sp. n.

Figs 5-9

Etymology: The name draws attention to the fact that this is the first described Afrotropical species of the genus.

Diagnosis: Female A4 long and widened, at its longest hardly shorter than the following three segments combined; scutellum much below mesoscutum, posteriorly with a tiny, upwards-directed tooth.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.75 mm. Black, tegulae and T1 dark brown; A1-A6, mandibles and legs including coxae light brownish yellow, A7-A10 slightly darkened. Head from above (Fig. 5) 1.9x as wide as long, wider than mesosoma (16:14), distinctly reticulate-coriaceous, on occiput and lower half of frons transversely so. Hyperoccipital carina distinct and complete. LOL = 1.4 OOL. Head in frontal view wider than high (16:14). Antenna (Fig. 6) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, 1.1x as long as distance between inner orbits. Mesosoma 1.4x as long as wide, 1.2 x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum faintly longitudinally reticulate along wide upper and anterior margins, smooth below and behind. Mesoscutum evenly covered by moderately dense setae, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; hind margin raised high above scutellum, medially with a brownish smooth, transverse, rounded prolongation, at each side narrowly brownish along hind margin and with dense whitish pubescence behind it. Mesopleuron finely longitudinally striated in about upper 0.4, the rest smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 7) triangular in dorsal view, along middle almost smooth and bare, towards sides dull and with a few setae, in lateral view with a tiny, upwards-directed tooth, scutellum below this tooth slightly brownish. Metapleuron smooth and bare, with pilosity along hind margin. Propodeal carinae brown, parallel; area between them about as long as wide, smooth. Fore wing hardly shorter than entire body, 2.4x as long as wide, faintly infuscated and with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia absent. Hind wing 7.8x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia 0.6x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 8) as long as mesosoma and 0.9x as wide. T1 with two strong longitudinal carinae. T2 with two short, slightly pubescent basal foveae, rest of tergite smooth except for reticulate microsculpture along narrow hind margin, T3-T6 with similar microsculpture over most of surface and a few very inconspicuous setae.

[FIGURES 5-9 OMITTED]

Male.

Body length 0.70 mm. Antenna (Fig. 9) with flagellar pubescence about half as long as width of segments; fore wing with sparse microtrichia, marginal cilia 0.12x width of wing; otherwise as in female.

Comparison: Distinct on account of shape of female antenna and of scutellum, but nevertheless approaching the morphology of e.g. Palaearctic C. cochleata (Walker, 1835).

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Lavie-Todji N of Huime, NE of Kpalime (07[degrees]01'16MN 00[degrees]39'41"E), 18.iv.2008, 560-575 m, remains of secondary rainforest, dense bank vegetation with much Anubias gigantea A. Chev. ex Hutch., swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratype: 1[male], same data as holotype.

Genus Euxestonotus Fouts, 1925

Eoxestonotus Debauche, 1947: 267.

Euxestonotus: Fouts 1925: 98. Type species: Platygaster error Fitch, 1861, by original designation.

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

Euxestonotus deimos Buhl, 1998

Euxestonotus deimos: Buhl 1998: 248.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, village Amakpave, river Haho at border between Region Maritime and Region des Plateaux, bridge of main road over Haho river (06[degrees]46'22"N 01[degrees]10'44"E), 80 m, 6.iv.2008, swept in Panicum maximum Jacq. and Zea mays L., M. von Tschirnhaus.

Remarks: This specimen differs from the holotype (from Ivory Coast) in having the mesoscutum smooth (except at anterior ends of notauli), antennae dark brown and legs generally medium brown.

Cylindrostonotus subg. n.

Etymology: The prefix is derived from Latin cylindrus (cylindric); in reference to the characteristic metasoma with one large cylinder of a tergite behind petiole. The end of the name is the last part of the name of the genus of which this subgenus is a part.

Type species: Euxestonotus lissogastrus sp. n.

Diagnosis: Differs from Euxestonotus s. str. in having female metasoma consisting of only two tergites, the petiole and a large fused one (approaching appearance of metasoma of Holocoeliella Huggert, 1981; but the latter has Platygaster-like mesosoma).

Euxestonotus (Cylindrostonotus) lissogastrus sp. n.

Fig. 10

Etymology: The specific name from a combination of Greek lisso (smooth), combined with the Latin gaster (ancient Greek gaster), i.e. the abdomen behind the petiole; in reference to the unusually smooth metasoma having no segmentation behind T1. Diagnosis: Sufficiently given above, in the diagnosis for the subgenus.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.05-1.50 mm. Black; A1-A2, mandibles and legs including coxae medium brown with trochanters, base and apex of femora, entire fore tibiae, basal two-thirds of mid and hind tibiae, and segments 1-4 of all tarsi light brown; A3-A10 dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 10) 2.0x as wide as long, 1.1x as wide as mesosoma; occiput rather weakly, transversely reticulate-coriaceous; hyperoccipital carina faintly evident; vertex finely reticulate-coriaceous laterally (not transversely so), between ocelli smooth and with weak transverse striae medially; frons smooth on mid area in upper half, finely reticulate here towards sides, in lower half with weak, oblique reticulate-coriaceous sculpture. Eyes bare. OOL:LOL=4:5. Head in frontal view 1.3x as wide as high. Antenna with A1 0.9x as long as height of head, longer than distance between inner orbits (14:12); A2 as long as A3-A4 combined; A4 twice as long as A3, hardly longer than wide; A5 about 1.25x as long as wide; A7-A10 forming a weak clava; A7 1.5x as long as A6; A9 1.5x as long as wide, as long as A10. Mesosoma (Fig. 10) nearly 1.5x as long as wide, 1.2x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth except for weak reticulate microsculpture in upper anterior part. Mesoscutum with sparse, scattered setae, smooth except for reticulation on slightly less than anterior half of mid lobe; notauli distinct and complete, almost parallel, in extreme posterior part slightly diverging; hind margin slightly concave; scuto-scutellar grooves absent. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum sparsely and evenly setose, smooth, exactly at level with mesoscutum, slightly sloping behind. Metapleuron smooth, with rather sparse pilosity all over. Propodeal carinae short, parallel; much of the transverse area between them smooth. Fore wing clear, almost reaching tip of metasoma, two-thirds as long as entire body, 2.5x as long as wide, with very sparse and inconspicuous microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.09x width of wing. Hind wing 6.4x as long as wide, with two hamuli; marginal cilia hardly 0.3x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 10) 1.3-1.5x as long as head and mesosoma combined, as wide as mesosoma, 1.3x as wide as high. T1 evenly covered by about ten longitudinal carinae. Rest of metasoma consisting of one large fused tergite, this having short longitudinal striae anteriorly, the longest lateral ones slightly shorter than T1, the medial ones hardly half as long as T1, rest of tergite smooth and bare.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Manma-Kope N of Gbadi Nkougna, SE of Badou (07[degrees]27'02"N 00[degrees]41'59"E), 25.iv.2008, 660 m, plantation (coffee, oilpalm,Acacia), swept above sawdust, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, road from Atigba to Danyi-Apeyeme, at a tributary creek of river Danyi (07[degrees]11'04"N 00[degrees]41'31"E), 14.iv.2008, 710 m, creek bank and below shrubs and bamboo, plantation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Dzogbegan, Monastiere de l'Ascension, at river/creek Danyi (07[degrees]14'30"N 00[degrees]40'45"E), 14.iv.2008, 725 m, abandoned plantation ground with 3 dominant plants (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb., Cyperus sp.), swept. Both M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Fidiobia Ashmead, 1894

Rosneta Brues, 1909: 157.

Triclavus Brethes, 1916: 411.

Fahringeria Kieffer, 1921: 68.

Platyllotropa Szelenyi, 1938: 126.

Fidiobia: Ashmead 1894: 170. Type species: Fidiobia flavipes Ashmead, 1894, by monotypy.

Fidiobia filicornis sp. n.

Figs 11, 12

Etymology: From Latinfilum (thread); in reference to the rather unusual (for the genus) non-clavate male antennae.

Diagnosis: Antennae of male filiform, 10-segmented; mesoscutum weakly sculptured, without notauli.

Description:

Male.

Body length 0.65 mm. Black, metasoma with brownish tint; A1-A2 and legs including coxae light brownish yellow; A3-A10, mandibles and tegulae dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 11) 2.0x as wide as long, hardly wider than mesosoma; occiput distinctly reticulate-coriaceous (hardly transversely so), slightly angled but without a carina; vertex finely transversely reticulate-striate posteriorly, rest faintly reticulate; frons with rather large, hardly transverse, weak meshes. OOL equal to shorter diameter of lateral ocellus; LOL=2.5 OOL. Head in frontal view 1.15x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 12) 10-segmented, with A1 two-thirds as long as height of head, as long as distance between inner orbits, A1 with only a narrow lamella at apex; A9 1.2x as wide as long; flagellar pubescence short. Mesosoma 1.25x as long as wide, 1.25x as wide as high. Sides of pronotum moderately strongly reticulate-coriaceous (not longitudinally so), smooth along hind margin. Mesoscutum with a few scattered setae, weakly reticulate-coriaceous in about anterior half and along sides, rest smooth; notauli absent. Mesopleuron in upper half with a few longitudinal carinae, rest smooth. Scutellum with only about 10 scattered setae, twice as wide as long, half as long as mesoscutum. Metapleuron smooth anteromedially, in lower 0.4 and along upper margin with whitish pilosity, also having a low whitish foamy rim along upper margin. Propodeal carinae low, whitish, parallel; area between them smooth, 1.5x as wide as long. Fore wing 0.95x as long as entire body, 2.6x as long as wide, faintly infuscated, with fine and dense microtrichia; submarginal vein light brown, one-third as long as wing; marginal cilia 0.07x width of wing. Hind wing 5.7x as long as wide; marginal cilia almost 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma 0.9x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.8x as wide as mesosoma. T1 smooth. T2 1.15x as wide as long, with two transverse and sculptured basal foveae in anterior 0.2, otherwise smooth. T3-T7 with at most weak traces of microsculpture. Apical tergites with fine setae inserted in shallow punctures: four on each of T3-T5, six on T6.

Comparison: A distinct Afrotropical species of the genus on account of conformation of antennae and mesoscutum.

Holotype: [male] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Cascade d'Ayome NE of Amlame (07[degrees]30'08"N 00[degrees]57'20"E), 13.iv.2008, 305-330 m, at shady creek bank in rock gorge, much Anubias gigantea, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Fidiobia semirufa sp. n.

Figs 13, 14

Etymology: From Latin semi and rufa, meaning "half-red"; in reference to the probably characteristic colour of this species.

Diagnosis: Antennae of male clavate, 9-segmented, with short A3 and A7-A8 distinctly transverse; mesoscutum reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; body brightly coloured.

Description:

Male.

Body length 0.55 mm. Body light reddish brown with vertex, mesoscutum except anteriorly, and a large mid part of T2 darkened, blackish; A1-A5 and legs including coxae pale yellowish, A6-A9 slightly more brownish. Head from above (Fig. 13) 2.3x as wide as long, as wide as mesosoma, dull, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous. OOL hardly half as long as LOL, about equal to longer diameter of lateral ocellus. Head in frontal view 1.2x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 14) with A1 0.7X as long as height of head, as long as distance between inner orbits; A3 distinctly widened. Mesosoma 1.15x as long as wide, 1.4x as wide as high, finely reticulate-coriaceous, strongest on mesoscutum, this (and scutellum) being evenly covered by sparse, white setae, without notauli. Scutellum much more finely sculptured than mesoscutum, 3.0x as wide as long, 0.35x as long as mesoscutum. Metapleuron with a white, foamy structure along margins (except the anterior one), dorsal areas of propodeum also covered by white, foamy structures. Fore wing almost clear, about as long as entire body, 2.65x as long as wide, with fine and dense microtrichia; submarginal vein pale, 0.18x as long as wing; marginal cilia 0.1x width of wing. Hind wing with marginal cilia 0.4x width of wing. Metasoma 0.9x as long as mesosoma, narrower than the latter (11:14), smooth. T2 1.1x as wide as long, with two whitish transverse basal foveae to about 0.15 of length.

[FIGURES 11-14 OMITTED]

Comparison: A characteristic Afrotropical species on account of shape of antennae in combination with colouration and lack of notauli. Most similar to F citri (Nixon, 1969) from Jamaica, but that species has distinctly more slender flagellar segments.

Holotype: [male] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Zogbegan, village part Zogbegan-Carriere (SE of Badou), at creek Elebe, V-shaped valley near cocoa plantation downstream of village (07[degrees]34'50"N 00[degrees]40'03"E), 20- 25. iv.2008, 650 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Fidiobia tschirnhausi sp. n.

Fig. 15

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: Mesoscutum strongly longitudinally striated over most of surface, without notauli; mesopleuron strongly longitudinally striated in upper half.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.55-0.90 mm. Black, T1 more or less dark brown; A1-A6 and legs including coxae light yellowish, tegulae and A7-A9 darker brown. Head from above (Fig. 15) 2.3x as wide as long, 1.1x as wide as mesosoma, strongly and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous (not transversely so), hyperoccipital carina absent. OOL very short, less than half as long as diameter of lateral ocellus. Head in frontal view 1.2x as wide as high. Antenna 9-segmented, with A1 two-thirds as long as height of head, 1.2x as long as shortest distance between inner orbits; A2 twice as long as A3, which is slightly elongate and as long as A4-A5 combined; A6 almost twice as wide as A4-A5 but only two-thirds as wide as A7 and less than half as long; A7-A9 large, forming clava, A7 1.15x as wide as long, 1.3-1.6x as long as the more transverse A8; A9 about two-thirds to three-fourths as long as A7-A8 combined. Mesosoma (Fig. 15) 1.1x as long as wide, 1.25x as wide as high. Sides of pronotum sculptured as head. Mesoscutum bare, strongly longitudinally striated, except along narrow lateral and anterior margins which are reticulate-coriaceous; notauli invisible. Mesopleuron strongly longitudinally striated in upper half over most of its length, smooth in lower half. Scutellum 2.6x as wide as long, strongly longitudinally striated all over (or with 12 distinct longitudinal carinae). Metapleuron smooth and bare antero-medially, along upper and lower margins and in posterior half with pilosity and having a white foamy structure. Metanotum and propodeum medially with a raised foamy whitish structure which in dorsal view is 1.2x as wide as long, slightly less than half as wide as scutellum (6:13), and as long. Fore wing 0.9x as long as entire body, 3.0x as long as wide, faintly infuscated, with fine and dense microtrichia; submarginal vein pale, slightly less than one-fifth as long as wing (9:48); marginal cilia absent. Hind wing 5.2x as long as wide; marginal cilia nearly 0.25 x width of wing. Metasoma hardly shorter than head and mesosoma combined (27:28), sometimes as long, slightly narrower than mesosoma (18:19). T1 medially with four weak longitudinal carinae, on each side of these having a small transverse spot of short pubescence. T2 1.1x as long as wide, smooth except for two basal foveae reaching 0.35 of the length of tergite, foveae basally very inconspicously pubescent. Apical tergites hidden beneath T2 except for apex of T6, which is smooth.

[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]

Male.

Body length 0.50-0.55 mm. Antennae very similar to those of female; A3 not longer than wide and on inner side slightly pointed towards apex; A4-A5 small, A6 1.5x as wide as these, 0.6x as long as A7 and 0.6x as wide; A7 about 1.5x as wide as long, A8 twice as wide as long, A9 as long as A7-A8 combined. Metasoma shorter than rest of body (15:17).

Comparison: Similar to F. zebra Buhl, 2010, from Tanzania but OOL shorter, and mesoscutum and mesopleuron more striated. The two species also differ as regards measurements of antennal segments (female A3 relatively shorter in F. zebra), and foamy structure on metanotum of F. zebra is twice as wide as long. In smaller specimens of F. tschirnhausi, OOL is about as long as ocellus, but they are still more sculptured than in F. zebra, and notauli are completely absent, in contrast to in F. zebra, which has striation on mesoscutum more irregular than in F. tschirnhausi, the lateral striae in F. zebra being more separated, indicating notauli. Cf. also Buhl (2010).

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Ouvetseve near Kpele Ele (07[degrees]21'27"N 00[degrees]51'12"E), 15.iv.2008, 345 m, creek bank within forest, diverse herb vegetation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 1[male] (as well as two additional specimens used for SEM) Region des Plateaux, Zogbegan, village part Zogbegan-Carriere (SE of Badou), at creek Elebe, V-shaped valley near cocoa plantation downstream of village (07[degrees]34'50"N 0o[degrees]40'03"E), 20-25.iv.2008, 650 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept; 1[male] Region des Plateaux, Ikavi-Kope, at river/brook Ekebe (07[degrees]36'10"N 00[degrees]44'31"E), 21.iv.2008, 535 m, brook, mud, dead wood, Anubias gigantea, adjacent to cocoa plantation, swept; 4[female] 26[male] Region des Plateaux, E of Ounabe at the border between Pref. D'Amou and Pref. de Wawa, NW of Temedja, NW of Atakpame, at creek Ofe (07[degrees]32'35"N 00[degrees]59'59"E), 19.iv.2008, 705 m, remains of secondary rainforest at creek with coffee plantation, dense understorey, swept. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Gastrotrypes Brues, 1922

Gastrotrypes: Brues 1922: 270. Type species: Gastrotrypes spatulatus Brues, 1922, by original designation.

Gastrotrypes spatulatus Brues, 1922

Gastrotrypes spatulatus: Brues 1922: 271.

Material examined: 2[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Ouwe NW of Gbadi Nkougna (SE of Badou), at creek Ouwe (07[degrees]29'32"N 00[degrees]41'56"E), 25.iv.2008, 590 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Mont Agou NE of Agou Gadzepe, SE of Kpalime (06[degrees]52'23"N 00[degrees]44'57"E), 17.iv.2008, 940-985 m, remains of secondary rainforest, downwards along road from mountain peak, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Manma-Kope N of Gbadi Nkougna, SE of Badou (07[degrees]27'02"N 00[degrees]41'59"E), 25.iv.2008, 660 m, plantation (coffee, oilpalm, Acacia), swept above sawdust. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Inostemma Haliday, 1833

Acerota Forster, 1856: 107.

Ceratopsilus Kieffer, 1913a: 462.

Brachinostemma Kieffer, 1916: 551.

Inocerota Szelenyi, 1939: 121.

Inostemma: Haliday 1833: 270. Type species: Psilus boscii Jurine, 1807, by monotypy.

Inostemma tschirnhausi sp. n.

Figs 16, 17

Etymology: Named after the collector, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Diagnosis: Head twice as wide as long, without excavation on vertex; female A1 with only a very narrow lamella, slightly longer than following six segments combined; female A4 very slightly longer than wide; horn of female T1 very slightly surpassing anterior margin of mesosoma.

Description:

Female.

[FIGURES 16-17 OMITTED]

Body length 1.0 mm. Black; antennae, mandibles, tegulae and legs including coxae dark brown; trochanters, most of fore tibiae, base and apex of mid and hind tibiae, and segments 1-4 of all tarsi light brown. Head from above (Fig. 16) 2.0x as wide as long, 1.2x as wide as mesosoma, almost uniformly reticulate-coriaceous with small meshes, transversely so just above antennal sockets; vertex not concave. LOL about twice as long as OOL. Head in frontal view 1.4x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 17) with A1 slightly longer than following six segments combined, 0.8x as long as height of head, 0.9x as long as distance between inner orbits; A3 1.5x as long as wide, A4 very slightly longer than wide. Mesosoma 1.3x as long as wide, slightly more than 1.1x as wide as high. Sides of pronotum reticulate-coriaceous, smoother antero-medially. Mesoscutum finely reticulate-coriaceous, with complete notauli which posteriorly are widened and sculptured. Scutellum flat and smooth. Fore wing whitish (not completely clear but colourless), almost reaching apex of metasoma, 2.5x as long as wide, with fine and dense microtrichia; subcostal vein medium brown, 0.3x length of wing; marginal cilia very short. Hind wing 5.0x as long as wide; marginal cilia 0.2x width of wing. Metasoma 1.25x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.9x as wide as mesosoma. Horn of T1 very slightly surpassing anterior margin of mesosoma, longitudinally striated dorsally and laterally. T2 slightly longer than wide (14:13), finely striated laterally in anterior half, smooth posteriorly. T3-T6 with fine microsculpture and setae, combined slightly shorter than T2 (13:14), T6 as long as wide.

Comparison: This species runs to I. nitidum Sundholm, 1970, in Buhl's (20116) key to Afrotropical Inostemma, but that species has vertex slightly excavated, A1 only as long as A2-A6 combined, fore wing 2.7x as long as wide, female metasoma as long as head and mesosoma combined, horn of T1 brown and dorsally smooth, and T6 1.5x as wide as long.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Kougnohou, at river Kpon (07[degrees]41'22MN 00[degrees]47'44"E), 23.iv.2008, 560 m, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Iphitrachelus Haliday, 1836

Iphitrachelus: Haliday in Walker 1836: 273. Type species: Iphitrachelus lar Haliday, 1836, by monotypy.

Iphitrachelus danielssoni Buhl, 2005

Iphitrachelus danielssoni: Buhl 2005: 284.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Zoumenou S of Zogbegan, SE of Badou, at creek Iviwou-Zato (07[degrees]30'54"N 00[degrees]40'54"E), 25.iv.2008, 670 m, cocoa and coffee plantation , ferns, Araceae, Zingiberaceae, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Genus Leptacis Forster, 1856

Xestonotus Forster, 1856: 107.

Miramblyaspis Dodd, 1914: 91.

Prosamblyaspis Kieffer, 1926: 561.

Axestonotus Kieffer, 1926: 625.

Anacoryphe Debauche, 1947: 274.

Mandraka Risbec, 1953: 343.

Leptacis: Forster 1856: 107. Type species: Ichneumon tipulae Kirby, 1798; designated by Ashmead (1893).

Leptacis acanthia Buhl, 2005

Leptacis acanthia: Buhl 2005: 284.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, main road between Agbanon and Agote, at creek Tomezuitoe (07[degrees]15'53"N 00[degrees]47'51"E), 15.iv.2008, 360 m, creek bank at teak forest (Tectona grandis L.), shady cocoa plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

This specimen differs from the South African type material only in minor details.

Leptacis africana Masner, 1960

Leptacis africana: Masner 1960: 11, 26.

Material examined: 1[male] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, main road between Agbanon and Agote, at creek Tomezuitoe (07[degrees]15'53"N 00[degrees]47'51"E), 15.iv.2008, 360 m, creek bank at teak forest (Tectona grandis L.), shady cocoa plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis athos Masner, 1960

Leptacis athos: Masner 1960: 9, 10, 15.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Akloa, at creek Domi coming from the Cascades d'Akloa (07[degrees]30'46"N 00[degrees]36'36"E), 22.iv.2008, 280 m, cocoa and avocado plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis bidentata Buhl, 2004

Leptacis bidentata: Buhl 2004: 334.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Ouwe NW of Gbadi Nkougna (SE of Badou), at creek Ouwe (07[degrees]29'32"N 00[degrees]41'56"E), 25.iv.2008, 590 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis bispinosa Buhl, 2005

Leptacis bispinosa: Buhl 2005: 285.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Kodjo-Kope N of Badou, at creek Djodji (07[degrees]38'56"N 00[degrees]35'43"E), 24.iv.2008, cocoa and oilpalm plantation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis cylindrica n. sp.

Fig. 18

Etymology: From Latin cylindrus (cylindric), in reference to the characteristic, rather cylindrical metasoma.

Diagnosis: Scutellum with one tiny translucent spine; female metasoma 1.25-1.30x as long as rest of body, with only one tergite behind the long T2.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.75-1.00 mm. Blackish, T1 medium brown, A1-A6 and legs including coxae light brown, A7-A10 and tegulae dark brown, A2 and A4-A6 sometimes darkened. Head from above (Fig. 18) 1.7-1.9x as wide as long, 1.20-1.25x as wide as mesosoma; occiput distinctly and transversely reticulate-coriaceous; hyperoccipital carina evident medially; vertex and frons distinctly and more or less irregularly reticulate-coriaceous, with rather large meshes. Eyes virtually bare. OOL equal to diameter of lateral ocellus; LOL about 4x as long as OOL. Head in frontal view 1.1x as wide as high. Antenna with A1 0.85-0.90x as long as height of head, 1.2-1.5x as long as distance between inner orbits; A2 slightly longer than A3-A4 combined, sometimes A3-A4 combined only 0.7x as long as A2; A4-A5 subequal, each only slightly longer than A3 and A6; A7 1.3-1.5x as long as wide; A8 1.00-1.33x as long as wide; A9 about as long as wide. Mesosoma (Fig. 18) 1.6-1.9x as long as wide, 1.25x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum reticulate-coriaceous (slightly longitudinally so), in upper 0.6 smooth in about posterior half. Mesoscutum evenly and moderately densely setose, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous; notauli absent (sometimes very faintly evident, visible from certain angles in about posterior 0.7); hind margin straight, covering front edge of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves diminutive, without conspicuous setae. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum sculptured and setose much as mesoscutum, with a tiny translucent spine. Metapleuron with pilosity over most of surface, but very sparse at anterior margin, sometimes bare in anterior 0.4. Propodeal carinae brownish, very close together. Fore wing 0.75-0.85x as long as entire body, 3.1-3.4x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia almost 0.3x width of wing. Hind wing 10-11x as long as wide; marginal cilia about as long as to slightly longer than width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 18) 1.25-1.30x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 0.7x as wide as mesosoma, 1.3x as wide as high. T1 with a transverse depression around midlength and several weak longitudinal carinae. T2 with a few crenulae in basal 0.1, rest of T2 as well as T3 smooth and bare, T2 4.5x as long as T3; T3 about 1.3x as long as wide, rest of tergites hidden or fused.

[FIGURE 18 OMITTED]

Comparison: Easily recognised on account of the combination of the two characters mentioned in the diagnosis. The Leptacis species of the Indonesian subgenus Cylindrotacis Buhl, 2008, also have only three visible tergites, but these species have two scutellar spines, one on each posterior corner of scutellum.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Manma-Kope N of Gbadi Nkougna, SE of Badou (07[degrees]27'02"N 00[degrees]41'59"E), 25.iv.2008, 660 m, plantation (coffee, oilpalm, Acacia), swept above sawdust, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 2[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, road from Atigba to Danyi-Apeyeme, at a tributary creek of river Danyi (07[degrees]11'04"N 00[degrees]41'31"E), 14.iv.2008, 710 m, creek bank and below shrubs and bamboo, plantation, swept; 2[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Dzogbegan, Monastiere de l'Ascension, at river/creek Danyi (07[degrees]14'30"N 00[degrees]40'45"E), 14.iv.2008, 725 m, abandoned plantation ground with three dominant plants (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb., Cyperus sp.), swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Plateau de Danyi, near Atigba (07[degrees]09'52"N 00[degrees]41'33"E), 14.iv.2008, 775 m, remains of secondary rainforest, underwood, forest plantation, road side with much Sida acuta Burm. F., swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Kpele Beme SW of Adagali (07[degrees]06'02"N 00[degrees]43'28"E), 290 m, 16.iv.2008, cultured land in a wide plain with Stachytarpheta indica Vahl (dominant weed) and grasses, swept. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis elongaticeps sp. n.

Figs 19-22

Etymology: from Latin elongare (elongate) and cephalicus (head); in reference to the characteristically narrow head.

Diagnosis: Head in frontal view as high as wide to slightly higher than wide, from above at most 1.6x as wide as long.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.70-0.95 mm. Black, T1 dark brownish; A1, mandibles and legs including coxae light brownish yellow, A2-A10 and tegulae medium to dark brown; in the paratype, A2-A6 are also light brownish, and thickened part of femora, of mid and hind tibiae, and last segment of tarsi faintly darkened. Head from above (Fig. 19) 1.5-1.6x as wide as long, wider than mesosoma (12:11); occiput transversely and moderately strongly reticulate-coriaceous, more weakly reticulate on vertex and frons, meshes becoming transverse on lower half of frons; hyperoccipital carina weakly developed, disappearing laterally. OOL shorter than diameter of lateral ocellus. Eyes bare. Head in frontal view higher than wide (13:12), in paratype only as high as wide. Antenna (Fig. 20) with A1 0.75-0.85x as long as height of head, 1.5x as long as distance between inner orbits; A9 1.2x as wide as long; A4 in holotype as long as A2, in the smaller paratype slightly shorter than A2. Mesosoma 1.8-1.9x as long as wide, 1.2x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum reticulate-coriaceous (not longitudinally so) in about one-third of length from entire anterior margin and up to lower third of hind margin, the rest smooth. Mesoscutum with sparse, scattered and inconspicuous setae, weakly reticulate-coriaceous, smoother postero-medially, and medially on lateral lobes; notauli faintly evident almost to anterior margin (invisible on the smaller paratype); mid lobe posteriorly blunt, slightly prolonged to base of scutellum; scuto-scutellar grooves triangular, each covered by three distinct, long setae. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 21) flat, dull, with a few setae, and having a short, brownish translucent spine. Metapleuron smooth and bare, with a small area of pilosity at hind margin. Propodeal carinae low, translucent, distinctly separated over whole length, very slightly diverging; area between them slightly longer than wide. Fore wing slightly surpassing tip of metasoma, 0.75-0.90x as long as entire body, 4.3x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and rather dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.5-0.6x width of wing. Hind wing 9.2x as long as wide; marginal cilia 1.6x the width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 22) about 1.1x as long as head and mesosoma combined, about as wide as mesosoma. T1 with three almost complete, well developed longitudinal carinae, the two lateral ones converging, tergite laterally with inconspicuous pubescence. T2 in anterior 0.1 with two basal foveae and a few longitudinal striae laterally of these, rest of tergite smooth. T3-T6 with reticulate microsculpture, almost without setae.

[FIGURES 19-22 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species runs to L. kryi Buhl, 2011, in Buhl's (20116) key to Afrotropical species of Leptacis, but that species has a more transverse head, more elongate antennal clava, mesosoma only 1.5x as long as wide, smoother sides of pronotum, less elongate wings, and shorter but more pointed metasoma. Cf. also Buhl (20116).

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, N of Kessibo-Wawa, at the border to Ghana (N of Badou), at river Wawa (07[degrees]42'11MN 00[degrees]35'26"E), 24.iv.2008, 180 m, forest understorey, cocoa plantation and sun-exposed vegetable fields, some Cyperaceae, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratype: 1[female] same data as holotype.

Leptacis fusiformis Buhl, 2005

Leptacis fusiformis: Buhl 2005: 287.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, NE of Badou, at creek Okpabe (07[degrees]35'19"N 00[degrees]07'17"E), 20.iv.2008, 370 m, creek bank in remains of secondary rainforest, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, AbriwaNko, about 5 km N of Badou, at creek Egnulu-Agbadja (07[degrees]37'18"N 00[degrees]36'13"E), 24.iv.2008, 310 m, swept in cocoa and avocado plantation. Both M. von Tschirnhaus.

Hitherto, known only from the holotype (Republic of South Africa). The specimens from Togo are smaller (about 0.7 mm) and have less slender antennae than the holotype, head about twice as wide as long, 1.3x as wide as mesosoma, fore wing 3.25x as long as wide, with marginal cilia 0.4x width of wing, and female metasoma slightly shorter than rest of body (20:21).

Leptacis leptoventris Buhl, 2010

Leptacis leptoventris: Buhl 2010: 36.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Zogbegan, village part Zogbegan-Carriere (SE of Badou), at creek Elebe, V-shaped valley near cocoa plantation (07[degrees]34'50"N 00[degrees]40'03"E), 20-25.iv.2008, 650 m, remains of secondary rainforest and dense bank vegetation, swept; 1[female] Region des Plateaux, Kougnohou, at river Kpon (07[degrees]4E22"N 00[degrees]47'44"E), 23.iv.2008, 560 m, swept. Both M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis microcera Buhl, 2003

Leptacis microcera: Buhl 2003: 27.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Ouvetseve near Kpele Ele (07[degrees]21'27"N 00[degrees]51'12"E), 15.iv.2008, 345 m, creek bank within forest, diverse herb vegetation, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis cf. mitratus Huggert, 1976

Leptacis mitratus: Huggert 1976: 224.

Material examined: 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Mont Agou NE of Agou (NE of Agou Gadzepe, SE of Kpalime), Kebo-Dalave (06[degrees]50'56"N 00[degrees]44'54"E), 17.iv.2008, 275 m, plantation (with banana, cocoa and mango) along small creek, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

L. mitratus was described from Zaire, but the present specimen from Togo seems more similar to the very closely related L. pteridis Buhl, 2002, from Borneo (due to conformation of A3-A4), although with a longer OOL than that species. Fore wings of the Togo specimen are intermediate in size (2.7x as long as wide) between those of the Borneo and Zaire material (2.5x as long as wide and "almost 3.0x as long as wide", respectively).

Leptacis nigrotrochanterica sp. n.

Figs 23-26

Etymology: From Latin niger and trochanter, meaning "black trochanters"; in reference to the trochanters which are contrastingly darker than rest of legs.

Diagnosis: A middle-sized species with hyperoccipital carina distinct but weak; female A4 about 1.5x as long as A3, very slightly more than twice as long as wide; A9 1.4x as long as wide; scutellar spine as long as propodeum and rather thick in lateral view; marginal cilia of fore wing 0.14x width of wing; female metasoma 0.8x as long as rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 1.1 mm. Shiny black, including coxae and trochanters; A1, mandibles and fore and mid legs light brownish; A2-A6 and apex of mid tibiae slightly darkened; hind legs medium brown with darkened apical third of tibiae; last segment of all tarsi slightly darkened, A7-A10 dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 23) 1.85x as wide as long, 1.2x as wide as mesosoma; occiput finely and slightly transversely reticulatecoriaceous; hyperoccipital carina distinct and nearly complete but weak; vertex and frons weakly reticulate-coriaceous, in lower half of frons distinctly transversely so. OOL hardly half as long as diameter of lateral ocellus. Eyes bare. Head in frontal view 1.2x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 24) with A1 0.83x as long as height of head, 1.25x as long as distance between inner orbits; A9 1.4x as long as wide. Mesosoma one and two-thirds as long as wide, 1.15x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum smooth except for very faint sculpture in upper anterior corner, with only about 10 inconspicuous setae close to margins. Mesoscutum with sparse, short, scattered inconspicuous setae, finely and uniformly reticulate-coriaceous; notauli absent; hind margin medially with a very small convexity, without setation above the triangular scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 25) with only a few setae, finely leathery; spine as long as propodeal carinae, brownish only at apex, without lamella. Metapleuron smooth, bare only medially along anterior margin, rest of surface with sparse pilosity. Propodeal carinae low, dark, parallel, well separated, area between them slightly longer than wide. Fore wing clear, 0.8x as long as body, 2.6x as long as wide, with fine and very sparse microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.14x width of wing. Hind wing 7.5x as long as wide; marginal cilia two-thirds the width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 26) 0.8x as long as head and mesosoma combined, hardly longer than mesosoma (30:29) and 1.1x as wide.

[FIGURES 23-26 OMITTED]

T1 with three rather robust longitudinal carinae, laterally slightly pubescent and with a few long setae. T2 1.1x as long as wide, with two slightly pubescent basal foveae to 0.1 of length, having a few longitudinal striae on the outer slopes of foveae, otherwise smooth. T3-T5 each with a transverse stripe of rugosity, T6 reticulate-coriaceous all over. Apical tergites with fine setae inserted in shallow punctures (very few on T3-T4, 12 on T5).

Comparison: This species runs to L. papei Buhl, 2011, in Buhl's (20116) key, but that species has more slender antennae, a longer and thinner scutellar spine, and longer marginal cilia of wings. Cf. also Buhl (20116).

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Cascade d'Ayome NE of Amlame (07[degrees]30'08"N 00[degrees]57'20"E), 13.iv.2008, 305-330 m, at shady creek bank in rock gorge, much Anubiasgigantea, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis pronotata Buhl, 2011

Leptacis pronotata: Buhl 2011b: 80, 93.

Material examined: 15 TOGO, Region des Plateaux, Klabe-Azafi, at river Gonobe (07[degrees]36'00"N 00[degrees]43'21"E), 21.iv.2008, 485 m, remains of secondary rainforest at river, rotting oranges, grass along road, swept; 25 Region des Plateaux, E of Ounabe at the border between Pref. D'Amou and Pref. de Wawa, NW of Temedja, NW of Atakpame, at creek Ofe (07[degrees]32'35"N 00[degrees]59'59"E), 19.iv.2008, 705 m, remains of secondary rainforest at creek with coffee plantation, dense understorey, swept; 25 Region des Plateaux, Abriwa-Nko, about 5 km N of Badou, at creek Egnulu-Agbadja (07[degrees]37'18"N 00[degrees]36'13"E), 24.iv.2008, 310 m, swept in cocoa and avocado plantation. All M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis quadrilineata sp. n.

Figs 27-30

Etymology: From Latin quattuor and linea, "four lines"; in reference to the distinct four lines formed by setae on the mesoscutum.

Diagnosis: A small species with weak hyperoccipital carina; female A4 very slightly elongate, only slightly longer than A3 and shorter than A5; A9 1.2x as long as wide; mesoscutum with setae forming four distinct longitudinal lines; scutellum with a very small tooth; female metasoma 0.9x as long as rest of body.

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.55 mm. Blackish; A1, tegulae and legs including coxae light brown, mandibles and A2-A10 darker brown. Head from above (F ig. 27) twice as wide as long, 1.25x as wide as mesosoma; occiput and hind part of vertex transversely reticulate-coriaceous, rest of vertex and frons weakly reticulate with rather large meshes (at most slightly transverse); hyperoccipital carina weak. Eyes bare. OOL slightly shorter than diameter of lateral ocellus. Head in frontal view 1.15x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 28) with A1 0.75x as long as height of head, as long as distance between inner orbits; A9 1.2x as long as wide. Mesosoma 1.5x as long as wide, 1.3x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum faintly leathery in less than anterior half, rest smooth. Mesoscutum with setae forming four distinct longitudinal lines: two along imaginary notaulic courses and one along each side, otherwise bare, weakly reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; hind margin narrowly brownish, very slightly convex, with three setae at each side. Scuto-scutellar grooves invisible. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 29) rather densely setose, slightly smoother than mesoscutum, in dorsal view slightly elongate, Amblyaspis-like, in lateral view with a very small, brownish tooth behind, without lamella. Metapleuron smooth, with pilosity only posteriorly. Propodeal carinae moderately high, translucent, very close together. Fore wing 1.1x as long as entire body, 3.3x as long as wide, almost clear, with fine and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia fully 0.4x width of wing. Hind wing 12.5x as long as wide; marginal cilia 1.5x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 30) 0.9x as long as head and mesosoma combined, nearly 1.1x as wide as mesosoma. T1 raised anteriorly, behind with two weak longitudinal carinae, inconspicuously setose. T2 with two very weak basal foveae which have a few inconspicuous setae at their base, T2 otherwise smooth. T3-T6 with reticulate sculpture, apex of T6 smooth; apical tergites at most with very few, inconspicuous setae.

[FIGURES 27-30 OMITTED]

Comparison: This species runs to L. microcera Buhl, 2003, in Buhl's (2011b) key, but that species has more elongate basal flagellar segments, mesosoma 1.7x as long as wide, scattered setae on mesoscutum, a much stronger scutellar spine, and fore wing with scattered, long microtrichia.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, Ouwe NW of Gbadi Nkougna (SE of Badou), at creek Ouwe (07[degrees]29'32"N 00[degrees]4F56"E), 25.iv.2008, 590 m, remains of secondary rainforest, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis sensillosa sp. n.

Figs 31-34

Etymology: Derived from the Latin sensillum; in reference to the unusually distinct sensillae on antennal club.

Diagnosis: A small species with weak hyperoccipital carina; A3-A4 small, about equal, each very slightly longer than wide, combined 0.75x as long as A2; antennal clava with strong sensillae; A9 slightly transverse; scutellar spine thin, half as long as propodeum; female metasoma at most 0.9x as long as rest of body.

[FIGURES 31-34 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.65-0.75 mm. Black, T1 sometimes brown; A1-A3, mandibles and legs including coxae light brownish yellow; A4-A10 and tegulae dark brown. Head from above (Fig. 31) 1.85-2.00x as wide as long, 1.3x as wide as mesosoma, distinctly reticulate-coriaceous (only in one specimen transversely so); hyperoccipital carina incomplete and inconspicuous but vertex raised and angled. OOL equal to shorter diameter of lateral ocellus. Eyes with at most sparse and very short setae. Head in frontal view (Fig. 33) wider than high (13:12). Antenna (Fig. 34) with A1 0.75-0.85x as long as height of head, 1.1-1.2x as long as distance between inner orbits; A3-A4 small, about equal, each very slightly longer than wide, combined 0.75x as long as A2; A5 about 1.25x as long as A4; A9 very slightly transverse; antennal clava with unusually distinct sensillae. Mesosoma about 1.7x as long as wide, 1.2x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum reticulate-coriaceous (in one specimen slightly longitudinally so), smooth

along wide hind margin. Mesoscutum with sparse, evenly scattered setae, uniformly reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; hind margin straight, slightly brownish, covering scuto-scutellar grooves, with only two setae laterally above scutellar margins on each side. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 32) sculptured almost as mesoscutum, slightly more densely setose than this, with a thin, short, more or less brownish spine without lamella. Metapleuron smooth, bare medially only in anterior 0.25, and bare in about anterior half just inside upper and lower margins. Propodeal carinae translucent light brownish, fused. Fore wing hardly shorter than entire body, 3.15-3.30x as long as wide, faintly infuscated, with moderately fine (slightly thickened) and dense microtrichia; marginal cilia 0.3-0.4x width of wing. Hind wing 11.3-12.0x as long as wide; marginal cilia 1.60-1.75x width of wing. Metasoma 0.8-0.9x as long as head and mesosoma combined, 1.05-1.15x as long as mesosoma, and as wide. T1 smooth and bare medially between the two moderately prominent longitudinal carinae, at each side with short, dense pubescence, continuing on ventral side and on the two small basal foveae on T2, rest of T2 as well as apical tergites virtually smooth and bare except for faint reticulation on T6.

Variation: The single specimen mentioned as additional material differs from the rest mainly in having strongly transverse sculpture on occiput and frons, and it is smaller and lighter coloured than the type specimens, A1-A6, mandibles and legs including coxae being yellowish brown.

Comparison: L. sensillosa runs to L. pallidispina Buhl, 2005, in Buhl's (2011b) key, but that species has the head perfectly rounded, longer A3-A4, higher and thicker scutellar spine in lateral view, propodeum less sloping, and wings less elongate. L. microcera is somewhat similar to L. sensillosa, but the head is 1.3x as wide as high, frons almost smooth, antennae more slender, sides of pronotum smooth, scutellar spine higher and thicker, fore wing has scattered long microtrichia, and marginal cilia of hind wing are only slightly longer than width of wing.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, E of Ounabe at the border between Pref. D'Amou and Pref. de Wawa, NW of Temedja, NW of Atakpame, at creek Ofe (07[degrees]32'35"N 00[degrees]59'59"E), 19.iv.2008, 705 m, remains of secondary rainforest at creek with coffee plantation, dense understorey, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Paratypes: 2[female] same data as holotype. Additional material: 1[female] Region des Plateaux, N of Kessibo-Wawa, at the border to Ghana (N of Badou), at river Wawa (07[degrees]42'11"N 00[degrees]35'26"E), 24.iv.2008, 180 m, forest understorey, cocoa plantation and sun-exposed vegetable fields, some Cyperaceae, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis terricola Masner, 1960

Leptacis terricola: Masner 1960: 12, 25.

Material examined. 1[female] TOGO, Region des Plateaux, 1 km downstream of Totame (07[degrees]35'21"N 00[degrees]37'55"E), 20.iv.2008, 590 m, mountain slope with scattered forest trees and dense ground vegetation, rotting fruits of avocado, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

Leptacis togoensis sp. n.

Figs 35-38

Etymology: Named after the country of the type locality, Togo.

Diagnosis: A small species with distinct hyperoccipital carina; female A4 about 1.4x as long as A3, hardly longer than the widened A5; A8 -A9 each slightly transverse, rather strongly pointed at apex on inner side; scutellar spine half as long as propodeum; fore wing with marginal cilia one-third the width of wing; female metasoma 0.8x as long as rest of body.

[FIGURES 35-38 OMITTED]

Description:

Female.

Body length 0.60 mm. Black, T1 brown; A1-A6, mandibles, tegulae and legs more or less light brownish, apical third of hind tibiae and last segment of tarsi darkened; A7-A10 dark brownish. Head from above (Fig. 35) 1.95x as wide as long, 1.15x as wide as mesosoma; occiput transversely reticulate-coriaceous; hyperoccipital carina distinct and complete but low; vertex distinctly reticulate-coriaceous; frons with very weak, slightly transverse meshes. OOL very short, lateral ocelli almost touching inner orbits. Eyes bare. Head in frontal view 1.1x as wide as high. Antenna (Fig. 36) with A1 0.8x as long as height of head, 1.15x as long as distance between inner orbits; A8-A9 each slightly transverse. Mesosoma 1.5x as long as width across tegulae, 1.2x as high as wide. Sides of pronotum with weak rugosity on about anterior one-third, rest smooth. Mesoscutum with few setae, most of them along imaginary notaulic courses, weakly reticulate-coriaceous, without notauli; hind margin with a very small prolongation medially, at each side having about six setae over narrow scuto-scutellar grooves. Mesopleuron smooth. Scutellum (Fig. 37) slightly more setose than mesoscutum, with a small, light brownish tooth behind. Metapleuron medially smooth and bare in more than anterior half, with sparse pilosity along upper and lower margins. Propodeal carinae close together. Fore wing fully 0.9x as long as entire body (33:36), 2.8x as long as wide, almost clear, with moderately fine and rather sparse microtrichia; marginal cilia one-third of the width of wing. Hind wing 10x as long as wide; marginal cilia 1.4x width of wing. Metasoma (Fig. 38) 0.8x as long as head and mesosoma combined, longer than mesosoma (16:15), and as wide. T1 inconspicuously pubescent, with two longitudinal carinae. T2 with distinct, roundish basal foveae which are hardly 0.2x as long as tergite, rest of T2 smooth. Apical tergites combined hardly one-third as long as T2, with very fine reticulation, virtually bare.

Comparison: Most similar to L. microcera Buhl, 2003, but that species has head 1.3x as wide as mesosoma and 1.3x as wide as high, A5-A6 and A8-A9 narrower and more cylindrical than in L. togoensis, mesosoma 1.7x as long as wide, mesoscutum with scattered setae, marginal cilia of fore wing fully 0.4x width of wing, and metasoma 1.1x as long as mesosoma but narrower, with T3-T6 combined being 0.4 as long as T2. The body colour of L. microcera is dark brown and the legs are yellowish overall.

Holotype: [female] TOGO: Region des Plateaux, E of Ounabe at the border between Pref D'Amou and Pref. de Wawa, NW of Temedja, NW of Atakpame, at creek Ofe (07[degrees]32'35"N 00[degrees]59'59"E), 19.iv.2008, 705 m, remains of secondary rainforest at creek with coffee plantation, dense understorey, swept, M. von Tschirnhaus.

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