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Zoology section. (Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 111th Meeting).

AN ASSESSMENT OF INTERLOCALITY VARIATION IN CHARACTER RELATIONSHIPS OF BLACK BEARS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. Binh Tran, Melvin L. Beck, and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Relationships of morphologic characters were assessed in the black bear Ursus americanus. Twenty-four cranial measurements were examined from bears collected from 11 localities in the western United States. Character relationships were determined using correlation values and the Mantel test. Overall, results suggested high correlations among selected characters. Additionally, associations among some characters remain rather stable throughout the area sampled while others appeared variable.

AN ASSESSMENT OF CATCH-PER-UNIT-EFFORT TO MONITOR POPULATION TRENDS OF SMALL MAMMALS IN WESTERN TENNESSEE. Heidi L. Hopkins * and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Species richness and species abundance distributions were assessed in three habitat types (forest, early successional field, forest/early successional field edge) using Sherman live traps. Thirty transects of 10 traps each were established in respective habitat types during fall, winter, and spring seasons. Species richness and species abundance distributions were determined from results based on approximately 900 trap nights in each habitat per season. Results to date indicate greatest species richness in edge habitat followed by field and forest, respectively. Species with the greatest abundance distributions were: white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus, forest and edge; eastern cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus, field. Independent mark-recapture studies were conducted to determine estimates of absolute abundance of sp ecies in each habitat type and provide comparative data for relative abundance measures derived from transect sampling. Results suggest that indices derived from live trapping based on catch-per-unit effort can be used to monitor population trends of small mammals.

STATUS OF CAMBARUS WILLIAMI BOUCHARD AND BOUCHARD, AN ENDEMIC CRAYFISH TO THE ESCARPMENT OF THE EASTERN HIGHLAND RIM OF TENNESSEE. Roger A. McCoy and David I. Withers, Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, Tennessee. Cambarus williami (no common name) was described in 1995 by R. W. Bouchard and J. W Bouchard (Notulae Naturae, Number 471) from specimens collected at Brawley's Fork in Cannon County, Tennessee. Cambarus williami is distinguished from the closely related C. friaufi and C. brachydactylus by gonopod and annulus ventralis morphology. The species is apparently restricted to small, spring-fed, gravel and chert-bottomed streams, where it inhabits burrows constructed in the substrate. It was reported only from Brawley's Fork until the Division of Natural Heritage initiated surveys in 2000. Currently, Cambarus williami is reported from 13 sites in 10 streams, all within the escarpment of the Eastern Highland Rim in the East Fork Stones drainage. Cambarus williami has not been found in simila r habitats in adjoining watersheds. The Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency listed the species as Endangered in 2001.

THE RATCHET AND THE RED QUEEN: THE MAINTENANCE OF SEX IN PARASITES. R. Stephen Howard, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. An important unresolved problem in evolutionary biology is to account for the adaptive significance of sexual reproduction in parasites. Recent theoretical studies describe two possible mechanisms that may favor sex over asex: (i) interactions with other parasites, and (ii) interactions with the vertebrate immune system. In the present study I used individual-based computer simulation models to explore a third possibility--that sex in parasites is favored as the result of direct interactions with hosts. I tested this hypothesis by tracking the progress of asexual lineages into sexual populations for various combinations of parasite virulence and rates of transmission to hosts. In general, these results suggest that coevolutionary interactions promote coexistence between sexual and asexual parasites, selecting for the accumulation of clonal diversity and thus underm ining any potential long-term advantage to sex. The incorporation of stochastic mutation accumulation (Muller's ratchet) into the model however, reverses the pattern and generates a decisive advantage to sex over a wide range of parameter space. This result may explain the observation that sex is more common among long-lived parasitic species as compared to their free-living relatives.

SCENT MARKING AND MATE CHOICE IN THE PRAIRIE VOLE MICROTUS OCHROCASTER. Shawn A. Thomas *, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Olfactory communication through scent marking is common among mammals and provides information to conspecifics about the competitive ability, identity, or attractiveness of an individual. Females supposedly can assess male quality based on their scent. However, mate choice based on scent marking by males has not been tested experimentally. In a series of laboratory experiments with prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster, females did not choose males based on their frequency or pattern of scent marking. Additionally, females did not advertise their interest in a particular male through scent marking. Scent marking appears to advertise individual identity, but in prairie voles, the frequency and pattern of scent marking is not a reliable predictor of dominance or mate choice. Mate choice is a complex phenomenon and apparently depends on a suite of phenotypic male characteristics that have precedence over quantity of scent marks.

BREEDING STRATEGIES OF THE AMERICAN ELK IN RESPONSE TO PREDATION RISK. Jerry O. Wolff Toni Van Horn *, Emily Hopkins *, and Aaron Stoudt *, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Prey animals such as elk may alter their behavior in the presence and absence of predation risk with respect to differing levels of vulnerability. We gathered data on rutting behavior of bull elk in predator-free (Rocky Mountain National Park; RMNP) and predator-rich (Yellowstone National Park; YNP) environments. Data were gathered on group size, foraging behavior, vigilance, fighting versus ritualized aggression, and other risk-taking behaviors of bull and cow elk in the two study sites. We hypothesized that elk in YNP would spend more time in vigilance, less time foraging, exhibit more ritualized and less combat aggression, form larger group sizes, and spend more time close to cover than those in RMNP. Data were gathered from mid September through October 2001. The results will be applied to adaptive strategies associated w ith risk-avoidance theory.

A SURVEY OF BATS AT SHILOH NATIONAL MILITARY PARK. Paige E. Pierce *, Michael L. Kennedy, and James A. Huggins, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (PEP, MLK) and Union University, Jackson, Tennessee (JAH). From May through October 2001, bats were surveyed at Shiloh National Military Park, Hardin County, Tennessee. Sampling was conducted using mist nets in dry and wet habitats throughout the park. Nets were set for capture usually 3 to 4 days per week. Results indicated the capture of over 120 individuals representing seven species. Lasiurus borealis (red bat), Myotis austroriparius (southeastern myotis), Pipistrellus subflavus (eastern pipistrelle), and Nycticeius humeralis (evening bat) were species captured most frequently. Demographic information for each species is discussed.

ASSOCIATION OF SELECTED HABITAT VARIABLES TO CAPTURE SUCCESS OF RACCOONS PROCYON LOTOR, VIRGINIA OPOSSUMS DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA, AND STRIPED SKUNKS MEPHITIS MEPHITIS. Roger A. Baldwin, Allan E. Houston, and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (RAB, MLK) and The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee (AEH). During the fall and winter of 2000-2001, raccoons Procyon lotor, Virginia opossums Didelphis virginiana, and striped skunks Mephitis mephitis were live-trapped on an 8 X 8 grid (traps spaced at 230 m intervals) at the Ames Plantation in Fayette and Hardeman counties in western Tennessee. The purpose of the study was to determine the association of selected habitat variables to capture success. At each trap site, over 20 variables were measured, and correlation analysis was used to determine the association of variables with captures. Percent slope, number of logs present, and number of pine snags > 35 cm dbh were found to have the highest correlations with capture success.

SPATIAL ASSOCIATION OF RACCOONS PROCYON LOTOR IN WESTERN TENNESSEE. Jason B. Jennings *, Michael L. Kennedy, Troy A. Ladine, and Shannon Maris-Danley, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Spatial association (the occurrence of an individual in relation to another) of a population of raccoons Procyon lotor was assessed during the winters of 1991-2001 at the Meeman Biological Station in Shelby County, Tennessee. From mark-recapture data on a 5 by 10 grid (traps spaced at an interval of approximately 150 m), spatial associations were determined from movements documented on the grid. Results indicated that raccoons at this site utilized much of the same space. Support for intraspecific exclusion of raccoons by others was lacking. Data were examined in relation to age and sex.

AN EVALUATION OF WITHIN- AND AMONG-STREAM VARIATION OF BIOASSESSMENTS IN THREE STREAMS. Rebecca Houtman *, Steven W. Hamilton, and Joseph R. Schiller, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for assessing the biotic integrity of streams. These techniques employ several ecologically relevant measures of community structure, function, and pollution tolerance, i.e. metrics, considered to be sensitive to stream degradation. The metrics are selected to cover a wide range of structural and functional properties of aquatic biological communities. The preliminary data of this study test the implied assumption that sampling two riffles of a single stream reach provides an accurate representation of the macroinvertebrate assemblage of the stream and, therefore, a reliable bioassessment. Five riffles from each of three reaches were collected and analyzed from Buzzard Creek to test these assumptions. Two riffles we re sampled and analyzed from a single stream reach in each of three streams to assess among stream variation. These preliminary results are used to determine if within stream variation is greater than among stream variation.

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF TURTLES OF THE TENNESSEE RIVER GORGE. Daniel C. Kuntz *, Chris Manis, and David E. Collins, Southern Adventist University, Collegedale, Tennessee and Tennessee Aquarium, Chattanooga, Tennessee. During the summers of 2000 and 2001 several species of turtles were trapped and observed visually along several miles of the Tennessee River Gorge. The purpose of this turtle survey was to better understand the local populations of turtles in the Tennessee River. As pollution takes its toll on animals of various groups, it was thought wise to keep track of the turtles in the local area in order to assess the health of the population. This preliminary study reports the kinds of turtles and the locations in which they were trapped, comparing the two trapping seasons. The results showed that Trachemys scripta was the most abundant turtle trapped (possibly up to 70% of the turtles trapped). Further analysis of the data will form a baseline against which future population fluctuations will be monitored .

A TEST OF THREE MIST-NET CONFIGURATIONS TO ASSESS CAPTURE SUCCESS OF BATS OVER STREAM CORRIDORS. L. Michelle Gilley * and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Three different mist-net configurations were utilized to assess capture success of bats foraging over stream corridors. The three configurations consisted of an "I" (net placed directly across stream), a "T" (one net placed directly across stream and one net positioned perpendicular to first net in midstream), and a "Z" (two nets positioned along the banks of stream and a center net running diagonal between the two nets). Trapping was conducted during the summer months of 2000 and 2001. For statistical analyses, ANOVA and chi-square goodness of fit tests were used to compare capture success of each treatment. The study consisted of 675 net nights and 220 total captures (85 "I", 62 "T", 73 "Z"). Results suggested that the "I" configuration was the most efficient procedure for capturing bats when considering net-area and equa lly efficient when treating each configuration as a single net-set.

AN ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF A POPULATION OF RACCOONS PROCYON LOTOR. John R. Hisey *, Michael L. Kennedy, Troy A. Ladine, and Shannon A. Maris-Danley, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. Selected demographic data were assessed for 268 raccoons captured on a 5 by 10 grid using live traps spaced approximately 150 m apart at the Meeman Biological Station in western Tennessee. The work was conducted during the winters of 1991-2001. Annual turn-over rates (the percentage of animals present during 1 year but not the following year) averaged 79% and varied between 50.0% and 100.0% over the 10 years. Mean individual persistence times (mean of the number of years for each animal to disappear from the population) were also compared among years and age classes and between sexes. More males were captured than females for all but 1 year, with the sex ratio varying from 1:0.6 to 1:1.2. The population consisted of primarily age class II or older individuals.

CAPTURE TRENDS FROM A MARK-RECAPTURE STUDY OF MALE AND FEMALE RACCOONS PROCYON LOTOR IN WESTERN TENNESSEE. Brian D. Carver * and Michael L. Kennedy, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee. We examined 11 years (1991-2001) of mark-recapture data to assess differences in capture trends of male and female raccoon Procyon lotor. Animals were studied on a 5 by 10 grid using live traps during the winter of 1991-2001 at the Meeman Biological Station in Shelby County, Tennessee. Overall (annually or with years combined), no differences were found in the number of males and females captured, the probability of recapture, or the average number of captures per individual between the sexes. The average greatest distance moved between captures was higher for males than females.

GROWTH OF THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL PYGANODON GRANDIS IN TWO WEST TENNESSEE BORROW PITS. David H. Kesler and Naomi Van Tol, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (DHK). We determined the growth of the Giant Floater, Pyganodon grandis (Say, 1829), in two west Tennessee borrow pits. Individuals from one borrow pit (Grandis Canyon = GC), were measured for length, numbered, and either returned to GC or transplanted in a nearby borrow pit (Humphreys Pit = HP). Change in length after a year was significantly greater in HP (ANCOVA F = 33.3; d.f = 1,109; P < 0.001). Ford-Walford plots gave [L.sub.[infinity]] values for GC and HP mussels of 125.6 mm and 209.0 mm, respectively. Values of k were 0.361 for mussels in GC and 0.137 for HP mussels. We also determined the length-age relationship of individuals from GC by examining shell internal annuli. Mean [+ or -] SE values for [L.sub.[infinity]] and k from these data were 169.0 [+ or -] 16.93 mm and 0.184 [+ or -] 0.059, respectively. These values gave predicted length changes significantly greater t = 6.39; d.f = 35; P < 0.001) than length changes observed in GC individuals, but significantly less (t = 2.93; d.f = 71; P < 0.002) than those in individuals moved to HP. These results demonstrated that growth rate determinations from annuli measurements are unreliable unless environmental conditions remain static.

MUSSELS OF THE WOLF RIVER, TENNESSEE AND MISSISSIPPI. D. H. Kesler, D. Manning, N. Van Tol, L. Smith, and B. Sepansky, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (DHK). We sampled freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Wolf River and its tributaries in Shelby and Fayette counties, Tennessee, and in Benton County, Mississippi. We identified 25 species and recorded the specific locations of 4,284 individuals. Mussels were abundant upstream from the Collierville, Tennessee sewage effluent, which also coincides with the extent of headcutting from earlier channelization. Downstream from this location, mussels were very rare in the river, but abundant in adjoining borrow pits. Some of the species we report are unique or rare in western Tennessee. One species, the Fat Mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea (Barnes, 1823)) is reported nowhere else in Tennessee besides the Wolf River and three species, the Pink Heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus (Say, 1817)), the Plain Pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium Rafinesque, 1820), and the Spike (Ellipti c dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)) have not been reported to occur in western Tennessee. The Southern Hickorynut (Obovaria jacksoniana (Frierson, 1912)) has been reported in only one other Tennessee river and the Southern Rainbow (Villosa vibex (Conrad, 1834)) has been reported in only two other Tennessee rivers.

TROPHIC TRANSFER OF METALS FROM SEAGRASS TO EPIPHYTES AND GRAZING INVERTEBRATES. Pamela N. Monger * and Frank C. Bailey, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Aquatic pollution is a factor influencing the components of a seagrass ecosystem. The objectives of this project were to determine if: 1) bioaccumulation of copper, cadmium, and lead occurs in seagrass, epiphytes, and epifauna, 2) metal levels are higher in samples from a more impacted site, and 3) trophic transfer of copper occurs from epiphytes to snails in the laboratory. Sample collection occurred at two sites near Gulf Breeze, Florida. Metal analysis was completed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were significant differences found in metal levels between sites, as well as interaction effects. The trophic transfer of copper was determined in the laboratory by dosing periphyton plates with copper and allowing field-collected snails to graze. Copper levels in dosed snails were significantly higher than controls, s uggesting that metal presence and trophic transfer may be a concern.

ACTIVITY OF COMMON SNAPPING TURLES IN A SEASONALLY DRYING WETLAND. Tamara J. Berthel * and Brian T. Miller, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Although common snapping turtles are a well studied species, relatively little is known about how they cope with seasonally drying habitats. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of common snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina were investigated from June to September 2001 at Sinking Pond, Coffee County, Tennessee, using radio-telemetry techniques. Hydrographs of Sinking Pond are characterized by abrupt seasonal rises and falls with maximum water depths ranging from zero feet in the summer and fall to 11.5 feet in the winter and spring. Turtles began to dig down into the leaf litter of the pond basin as water levels began to fall in mid July. Rather than migrating to other bodies of water, the turtles remained buried in the basin after the pond was completely desiccated, possibly in a state of estivation. Individuals continued to stay buried in th e dry basin and were located at the same sites two months later.

A TRICHOPTERAN SURVEY OF SEVERAL TRIBUTARIES OF SULPHUR FORK CREEK AND RED RIVER, ROBERTSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Ken J. Davenport * and Steven W. Hamilton, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. Caddisflies (order Trichoptera), an order of insects related to moth and butterflies, are an important part of the food web in freshwater environments and the larvae are used as bioindicators in the assessment of water quality. Adult caddisflies were sampled from Brush, Miller, and Buzzard creeks in Robertson County, Tennessee from May 1999 to April 2001. Brush Creek is a third order and Miller Creek is a fourth order tributary of Sulphur Fork Creek. Buzzard Creek is a third order tributary of Red River. These streams are located in the Western Pennyroyal Karst ecoregion of the Interior Plateau. Adults were collected using ultraviolet light traps and males were identified to species. A total of 13 families, 33 genera and 63 species have been identified to date. At least two new state records and several n ew county records are included. Based on published checklists of Tennessee and Kentucky caddisfly fauna and the preliminary data thus far obtained, this poorly surveyed area appears to have a moderately rich trichopteran fauna typical of this region.

* Student author.
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Author:Huggins, James A.
Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2002
Words:3129
Previous Article:Physiology and biochemistry section. (Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 111th Meeting).
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