Zhukovsky, Vasily Andreyevich.
Zhukovsky, Vasily Andreyevich (b. Jan. 29 [Feb. 9, New Style], 1783, Tula province, Russia--d. April 12 [April 24], 1852, Baden-Baden, Baden [Germany])
Russian poet and translator, one of Aleksandr Pushkin's most important precursors in forming Russian verse style and language. Zhukovsky was educated in Moscow. He served in the Napoleonic War of 1812 and in 1815 became a member of the czar's entourage, being appointed tutor to the heir to the throne in 1826. In 1841 he retired to Germany.
Zhukovsky was a follower of Nikolay Karamzin, the leader of a Romantic literary movement that countered the classical emphasis on reason with the belief that poetry should be an expression of feeling. Zhukovsky was one of the founders of the Arzamas Society, a semihumorous, pro-Karamzin literary group established to oppose the classicists. Like Pushkin, Zhukovsky was interested especially in personal experience, Romantic conceptions of landscape, and folk ballads. His first publication was a translation of Thomas Gray's An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard (1802), and the bulk of his work consists of translations. He introduced into Russia the works of such German and English contemporaries as Gottfried Burger, Friedrich von Schiller, J.W. von Goethe, Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, and Robert Southey. His collected works were published in four volumes in 1959-60.