Yuanhe poetry sequences: a new look.
You can arrange sequences in many different ways. Waka poetic editors invented marvelous and unique ways of combining short verses (tanka) based on progressions (seasonal, narrative) and subtle emotional or imagistic associations. (1) Pre-modern British poets usually followed well-trodden narrative, dramatic, and discursive ways to organize short verses, but recently critical attention has preferred the subtler lyrical organization governing works like Eliot's Four Quartets or Yeats' Songs in Time of Civil War. (2) And the Tang poets? In an earlier study, we demonstrated that each of Du Fu's great poetic sequences followed a unique set of organizing principles, usually involving subtler associations rather than obvious narrative progressions, but not necessarily eschewing formal structural patterns. (3) During the Yuanhe reign period (806-21), the great mid-Tang "neoclassical" poets Han Yu and Meng Jiao each wrote "Autumn Meditations" (Qiu huai) inspired in part by Du Fu's "Autumn Arousal" (Qiu xing). (4) These and similar sequences by Han and Meng deserve our close attention because they raise classic questions about poetic sequences: how do poets marry the intensity of short lyrical utterances with the weight and transformational possibilities of extended verse structures? How can they keep the sequence tightly linked and unified? And, in a tradition that privileged short, lyrical utterances, what drove poets to essay so arduous and unfamiliar a form?
Poetic sequences offer many challenges, and not only to poets themselves. Readers face difficulties of their own. Instead of recalling merely a short verse while reading exegeses, they have to keep in mind a grand structure, with many movements or "stanzas"; while envisioning organizing mainstays, they also have to keep a live eye for repeated images, words, and motifs that help knit poems together. Rosenthal and Gall speak of "overloading," which certainly might addle devotees of, say, Pound's book-length Cantos. Fortunately, the two sequences we will examine comprise only eleven and nine verses, respectively; you could chant them both within five minutes. Still, they have presented considerable challenges to readers. We can only read in linear fashion, from word to word and line to line. But the paradigmatic relations among words chosen--oversimplifying, which do and do not work repetitions--demand a more "vertical" approach. As far as we know, neither traditional Chinese nor modern readers have managed to discover the sequential structural organization informing Han Yu's "Autumn Meditations." In claiming to have discovered such organization, we must of course remember the caveat so well expressed by Adam Gopnik in a review of Shakespeare's Sonnets, considered as a "sequence":
One should always be wary of ... a scholar insisting that there is a pattern where before none has been seen, since scholars have an overwhelmingly strong confirmation bias in favor of patterns--finding patterns is what scholars do. (5)
While at least the West's most astute reader of Tang verse did recognize "Wintry Creek" (Han xi) as a sequence, he rather underestimated its tragic tenor and the demons that drove Meng Jiao to create it. (6) Reading by reading, poetic criticism aspires to creep toward better understanding; in that spirit, we translate and interpret these two classic sequences anew.
We present our explications in two parts. With Han Yu's Autumn Meditations, we must first and foremost overcome skeptics who, like Gopnik, question whether this perceived sequential pattern really exists. With Meng Jiao's Wintry Creek, our primary task becomes more tonal than structural--we must demonstrate why we read the sequence more pessimistically than most. With such different issues at stake in each sequence, it makes sense to attack them a bit differently in explication. With Han Yu (part 1), we shall begin by elucidating the structure that informs his sequence, considering five overarching motifs that help knit the eleven verses together. Then we shall proceed sequentially, pointing out the "carry-over stitches" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or "anadiplosis" that knit each verse to its neighbor. (7) After refreshing our memories with a look at the table arranging the principal repeated motifs, we return to examine some dialectically unfolding motifs that Han employed to provide additional "pattern," additional "fine-stitching" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
With Meng Jiao, we need not reinvent any wheels by elaborately "proving" sequential arrangement. Instead, we will begin by reviewing the table for "Wintry Creek," then briefly consider how it reveals Meng's inverted arch, or bridgelike structure. We then examine some "carry-over" images, analyze some main motifs that develop through the nine stanzas to highlight Meng's dramatic conflict. We quickly pass through the nine verses, examining the dark side of Meng's vision, before considering "Wintry Creek" as dramatic psychotherapy.
PART 1: HAN YU, "AUTUMN MEDITATIONS" (806?, CHANG'AN)
Indefatigable *mei? mei?, King Wen. Shijing 235.2 (8)
Indefatigable, Prince Shen. Shijing 259.2
Moving resolute, times pass me by. Chuci (9)
Each section gets a motto; this one highlights a polysemous binome-word. Its better-known meaning comes from the "Court Odes" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] so celebrated in Confucian poetics. Let's remain on the look-out for how Han Yu wields it, to see if his more introspective use does not belie simple "Confucian" characterizations of Han Yu.
Stephen Owen's reading has nicely explicated Han's concerns and the relation of "Autumn Meditations" to Han and Wei verse. He and Charles Hartman have also deftly accounted for most of Han Yu's allusive play, allowing us to annotate only certain salient references. (10) Naturally, previous readings have left plenty of room for fresh insight; after all, complex verse sequences don't reveal all their secrets to any one explication by one critic at one time. We may begin with "Autumn Meditations' " background. On plausible literary historical grounds, Owen suggested Han Yu wrote this in 812, after the heyday of Yuanhe exoticism. But most traditional scholars, focusing on Han's political entanglements, date "Autumn Meditations" to 806. Han had just returned from southern "exile," full of hopes for his role in a new emperor's court. After some months as a mere ritual specialist, an "Erudite" of the National Academy in Chang'an, however, factional strife and the realization that he had extremely limited political influence forced Han to take stock and wonder about his place in the world. "Autumn Meditations" has significant resonances with the "Southern Alps" poem dated to 806, and the government's new campaign against disloyal military governors fits the "lamia" and other pests mentioned in Stanza IV. Let us, then, tentatively follow scholars like Qian Zhonglian, Hanabusa Hideki and Charles Hartman (11) and date this sequence to Fall, 806, most likely to late November.
Received opinion holds that "Autumn Meditations," unlike denser Tang sequences, forms merely a "series." This deserves rethinking; when you recall the fundamental distinction that in a series the poem-order matters little but in a sequence it makes all the difference, a different answer suggests itself. Asserting likely "sequential" structure demands a demonstration; we will begin by quickly sketching overarching structural patterns, proceed to translation, then examine structural links, both distal and proximal. Then we shall discuss a few key integrating motifs and finish with some conceptual considerations.
You can glean a first clue to sequencing by observing this sequence's most "superficial" formal features, rhyme class (for the moment, ignoring tones) and number of lines per "stanza":
Verse # I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Rhyme -i -i an ing ing ing an an an ing ao Line ## 16 10 14 12 12 10 18 20 14 14 10
Already rhyme-groups suggest that "Autumn Meditations" I--II and XI (open-vowel rhymes) form a frame within which inner stanzas (two interlocking sets of nasal codas) work some sort of interlaced dialectic, a rhyming chiasmus framed as a-b-b-b, a-a-a-b. Lengths suggest that II and XI will serve as codas for Han's introduction and conclusion, that III--VI develop toward an agogic climax in VII-VIII, reminiscent of the dramatic contour from sonata form in classical music. Indeed, readers' judgment has hailed VIII as the most famous and most anthologized section of "Autumn Meditations."
Further analysis will, however, require readers' sustained and informed attention. To that end, we offer a new translation of all eleven poems below (underlines for binomes; italics for words with special weight or emphasis, sometimes due to repetition). Thanks to the painstaking work of Stephen Owen and Charles Hartman, we need not thoroughly annotate Han Yu's allusions; we have, however, highlighted in abbreviated form allusions and covert references to Zhuangzi (Zz) (12) and related Daoist texts, for reasons that will presently become clear.
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I [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Before my window, a pair of fine trees: Massed leaves aglow in gay glory. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] With Autumn wind's one riffling whisk, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Swish and skirl, they sing without end. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] McCRAW: Yuanhe Poetry Sequences: A New Look Fading lamp lights my empty bed; Midnight--they must assail my ear. Woe & sorrow arrive for no reason; Stirred to sighs--manage to sit up. At daybreak, I regard the face-- his own; leaves' No longer like they used to look. Helios spurs on the sun and moon: also: days and months Mad haste--we can't count on them. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Tho' living adrift follows many paths, allusion to Zz 15.12 Our dash to death takes just one track. Why drown in your own suffering? [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: "bitter"; we have finessed "wildly," to enhance our closure Given brew, enjoy while you can. II Silvery dews down the hundred weeds; Wort and orchid, equally worn away. Growing green down by all four walls; Revived anew, flooding the ground. Cold cicadas soon stilled to silence; Crickets ravish themselves in song. Cycles phase without appointed end; Nature's gifts to each--alas--contrast. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Suiting the season, each takes its place; Pine & cedar deserve no special esteem. or: need no high rank III Those seasons, how they press on-- My own resolve, how dilatory. A Spike helm--tippler in vain; A Sickleside--able to eat, still. In my study hall, daily "naught to do"; Spurring my horse, off to suit myself. Vague maze of roads out from my gate; Wanting to leave, I make myself while ... Back home I flip thru history books; Fancy words, in a flood of millions. Stale traces--whoever would chase? Zz 14.77 My low likings--no noble offering. or esteemed; allusion to A great man's high aims will persist; Liezi 7.85 Only petty women multiply grievance. Gongsun Yan, a disgruntled chief at loose ends (quoted in line 5) Lian Po, aging general eager to prove he hadn't lost vigor (name fancifully "translated," to make a parallel) IV Autumn's breath, daily falling forlorn; Tsrhik tsrhik Autumn's void, daily trembling chiller. ling ling Above--on the bough, no cicada; Below--upon my plate, no flies. Who's not stirred by the season? Eye and ear rid of what's hateful. In clear dawn, book closed, sitting; South Alps show their highest ridge. Down below in a crystalline pool Lies a lamia--chilled, snareable. Alas, I can't get to go there: Who'd say I can't catch it up? V Cut apart, hung up in empty grief; lielie Anguish gnaws--holding vain alert. tshek_tshek Dews weep, aloft in Autumn trees; Bugs mourn forever in wintry night. Recoil, retreat--approaching new cares; Han Yu's public name Bustle, dash on--lamenting past ires. Back to folly, discern that level track; compare Laozi 20 Draw on antiquity--get a long wellrope. Zz 18.29 Even drifting fame still brings shame; Its meager taste--really, I'm lucky! Maybe I can put aside regret & blame, And find right here a screened retreat. VI This morning never did manage to get up; Just sat straight through, till daylight died. Bugs singing, my room screened gloomier; Moon disgorged, window blazing bright. Feelings of loss, as if erred on my way; possibly referring to Zz Thoughts adrift, keener than a splinter. 8.18 Dust and dirt--lazy to stand in thrall; Fancy words--let 'em rashly race ahead. Still I have to force my stubborn balk-- In King's service for morning's audience. VII Autumn night--just can't make it dawn; Autumn days--alas, how easily dark! If I had no pressing, compelling aims, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: Zz 29.52 (and elsewhere) How come I've got all this remorse? Wintry cock--in vain stuck on your roost; Waning moon--bugged by too much spying. Taking up my zither, I fix stop and string, Strum again & again, ever fainter to ear. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], i.e., Han Yu's formal name Ancient music, long buried, blown out; No way to tell the true from the swill. Humbling my heart, dash on with my times; Forcing--alas--can only last a moment. Rather like riding a wind-borne boat: Once loose, just can't get it moored. Better to scrutinize fancy writings; Mark and proof in lead & cinnabar. Why must I demand more than enough? All I need will fit in bushel and crock. perhaps echoing Han shu 85.3454 on peck-pint talents: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] VIII Swirl and coil, leaves falling to earth, Wind borne, racing before my porch. Their song seems to have a meaning: Whirl, twirl--chasing one another. An empty hall at dun dusk; I sit, mute--nothing to say. My boy comes in from outside And lights the lamp before me. Asks after me--I don't answer; Offers me food--I will not eat. Retreats to sit by our west wall again, part of Han's public & chant all thru folios of verse. name That author's no man of this day, very likely Qu Yuan Departed, gone--1000 years' time. Something in his words strikes me, Brings me back with vinegary pang. I turn around and say: My boy, Put down your book--sleep well. Great men, preoccupied in thought, Have deeds to do that never end... IX Frosty winds invade my paulownia; Massed leaves wither, tree-stuck. Down empty steps one slip drops, Ringing like shattered tree-coral. I say: night's breath has blown out; Moondriver has meteored his globel borrowing a peerless phrase From Stephen Owen Dark-sky depths, naught to rely on; Flight path too steep, scarcely safe. Startled, I get up, go out to look; Lean by a doorpost, copiously cry. Woe & sorrow waste sundial shadows; Sun and moon like bouncing balls. also: "days and months" Back from erring, not counting how far, (cf. I) For milord--halt this dusty saddle. X Sundown darkens, all who came depart; Each common clamor stows its sound. Biding remote, reclined in night's quiet; yuw yuw I&IS, also unendingly long, of a Fall night Indefatigable, holding in Autumn's light. * mei? mei?; also implacable, of time's advance The world s tangles march out concerns; Outside woes invade my whole-heart. Forced feelings won't stretch fully; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], also "stronger resolves" Weaker broodings waned yet wax anew. Twist and squirm to dodge word snares; * het khjut, allusion Zz Dimly groping--touch of heart's blade. 24.110 (13) mieng mwang, likely alluding to Zz 23.51, Lushi chunqiu 24.384 (14) allusion to Zz 20.38 Routed, I scruple to discard 1000 in gold; What's won--like glorious 1-inch grass. He who knows shame: worth naming brave; Silent repose---who could command you? [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; allusion to Zz 20.61 XI Fresh & few, chrysanthemums in frost; sjen sjen So late now--what use, your finery? Flutter up, butterfly flirting with scent; yang yang Your existence--even unearlier yet. As the cycle ends, the pair of you meet; Lithe & lovely, guard each other & die. PjwonX lwan West winds put dragon & snake to sleep; Massed leaves daily wither away. tew kawX Always have fates allotted it so-- Drowned, blown out--hardly worth saying, eh? mjinX mjiet
To perceive Han Yu's sequential art, we must grasp the key structural motifs that shape and support his sequence. These include both distant resonances that join inner and framing stanzas and also proximal patterns that help link each stanza to its neighbor. First, let's highlight the distant links that form an architectural structure for Han's sequence:
Frame (I--II and XI): Share Han's theme of fatalism in the face of fell Autumn. Han repeats "fine(ry)" (1.1, XI.2), "life/living/grow" (1.13, II.4; XI.4), and "death" (1.14 [cf. "worn away" and "stilled" in II]; XI.6) to evoke how each particular creature's fate in Nature's cycles moves him. Indeed, tensions between time's arrow and time's cycle (1.14, II.7; XI.5) mark a major framing theme. In II Han finds cold comfort in the notion that "cycles phase without appointed end," but by XI he has found inner resources that let him accept "cycle's deadend." So end Han's shortest stanzas. Both at beginning and in closure, Han proceeds with extraverted rhetoric (in marked contrast to more "psychological" inner stanzas); he treats his depression with fatalism (1.14, II.9; XI.9), exhortations to enjoy each event in season (1.16, II.9; XI.1,3), and rhetorical questions and denials that enjoin against special pleading (1.15, II. 9; XI. 10). Beginning and end also feature a plethora of atmosphere-heightening sound-symbolic binomes, which we have marked with underlining. Finally, opening and closing stanzas frame with daylight, after a long interior section in which "Autumn night--just can't make it dawn."
Food (III and VIII): Share a theme of sustenance--the nourishments of food, books, and human caring that make our short time pass tolerably. Ill presents Han's "false try," an attempt through physical and vicarious (literary) escape to maintain "intent" over "grievance" (11.13-14). Only in VUI.lOff., when Han's "son" (whether his own or a symbolically filial page makes little difference) revives dead words, can song resurrect our poet. Thus, III and VIII introduce and resolve Han's problem with writing/wen, those "stale traces" (III.ll) of long-dead men (VIII. 13-4). In both stanzas, Han plays the "great man" with nothing to do, trapped in his "vain/empty" habits (III.4) and hall (VIII.5). He plays off family figures that either can help--"my boy" (VIII.7)--or cannot--"petty women" (III. 14). Both stanzas feature a much more introverted treatment than in Han's frame; in each verse an exhortation "saves" him from despair and moves him toward a positive declaration that his aims will "persist" and "never end." These declarations ring out from a surrounding pall of negative constructions (at least two in III; at least six in VIII). In both cases, positive responses emerge from a dour battle in which adversative "arousals" (III. 1 "press on"; VIII.l's dead leaves: "swirl and coil") threaten with mortality, while initial responses (III.2 "how dilatory"; VIII.4-8's spiritual coma) lead to a crisis.
Dreams (IV and IX): Share visions of "disorder" (flies and dragon in IV; moon's crash in IX) that invite political allegorization and stimulate Han's assertion he would help his ruler (IV. 1-2; IX. 14; the pool's dormant "lamia" could conceivably also symbolize a recluse's potential (15)). But in IV Han's effort proves vain; while IX repeats "vain/empty," Han closes with a stronger declaration. Both stanzas involve some altered state--IV's concluding daydream and the nightmare vision revealed as dream in IX.9. Both also recapitulate elements from Han's opening; IV recycles I's strong response "suffer/a/as!" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and its two-scene, dawn-concluded structure; IX revives I's autumn wind and proceeds from "vain" to a panicked view of sun and moon (days and months ...) out of control. In both stanzas Han's approach proceeds outward (in contrast to III, VIII) and ends with stillness. But although both stanzas close with negations, IV's denial of impotence rings hollow, while IX's undoing of error proves more productive.
Stillpoint (V and X): Share a reclusive, "empty" stillness in which Han has yet to fend off internalized enemies (esp. V.I 1, X.5ff.). Both make multiple reference to inner states--concerns, woes, cares, broodings, shame, and the like. But their tonality differs: in V Han sits "cut apart" and "anguish-gnawed" lielie, tshek tshek, while in X he "bides remote," "indefatigable" yuw yuw, *mei? mei?. Charles Hartman has observed that V and X mark the climax of Han Yu's inventive diction. (16) Both stanzas also invoke Laozi and Zhuangzi for spiritual support, with advice to "discern the level track," "discard 1000 in gold," and so on. We will point out more borrowings below; for now, let's add one from V.8: when Han speaks of a "long wellrope," he has in mind Zhuangzi, "A short wellrope cannot draw up from the depths." (17)
But V's troping sounds more negative--recoil, retreat, hide out--while X resists--defend, recover, defy. V.8 "gets" only a wellrope--a frail path out of deep depression--while X. 12 "wins" the glory afforded by peace of mind. (18) Four nearly consecutive allusions to Zhuangzi outline the grueling process by which Han works out his path. V ends hoping only to "screen out" grief, unsure our recluse can hold out; but X, which began by screening out, survives grief to close in peaceful affirmation, or at least acquiescence. Both stanzas feature extremely introverted treatment; they recommend self-restraint and overcoming desires for fame. V, however, ends tentatively and stuck in darkness, putting off full resolution of Han's internal crisis until X, when Han Yu's "dark night of the soul" finally finds a therapeutic light.
Hollow Core (VI and VII): The sequence's fulcrum, present Han's "hollow man" crisis. In these stanzas, Han's seclusion leaves this latter-day Ruan Ji (210-263) trapped in isolation, nothing to do, nothing to say, unable either to enjoy Nature's song or respond convincingly with his own. Negatives abound; dawns never happen (VI. 1-2, based on lines from an ancient elegy) or fail to yield normal days (V.1). All seems "adrift" (V.6), unmoorable (VI.14); writings lose their power, and he can only "force" himself (V.9, VI.12) to (re)act. Both recapitulate opening elements: VI recycles I's "sit up" and "drift," "racing" and "wild/ rash"; VII reworks I's "bitter/a/or" and stirred-up emotions, "dash," and "out of control." VI ends by anticipating dawn; in VII midnight anguish and ennui prevent time from budging. In both stanzas, again, Han burrows inward, finding meager sustenance and relief only in superficial distinctions and in duties dully attended.
In addition, each stanza anticipates/resonates with its neighbor, in that form of stanzaic anadiplosis in Chinese called the "carry-over stitch" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. We have already accounted for I--II as a structural unit. "Suit" (II.9, III.6), "season," and "noble" all link II and III; lofty trees segue into Han's "own resolve." Transition from III--IV finds "grievance" refigured in "forlorn" and "chill"; literary writings in both stanzas prove unavailing. Both stanzas share a stout resistance; Lian Po's trencherwork dissolves into IV's empty plate, but Han still insists he's hale enough to do his duty. His sense of emptiness [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] links IV-V; a man with nowhere to go, he finds himself keeping "vain alert," a frustrated teacher and would-be warrior "cut apart." IV's opening binomes, falling forlorn tsrhik tsrhik [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and trembling chiller ling ling, morph into V.l-2: Cut apart lielie [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Anguish gnaws tshek tshek [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In both verses, Han's a lost soul seeking his dao. We have discussed VI-VII links. Their negativism extends into VIII, which also shares VII's hollow-man failure to respond; in both stanzas, music reduces to impotent "wind borne" strains. VIII's eventual aroused response to leaves' "flurry" yields, however, to emotional collapse before a leaf's "single slip" in IX. These stanzas also share a closing resolution. But IX's final commitment in defiance of time's course then slips (X.3-10) into a darkness that reveals the perils of emotional commitment; in each stanza "invade" (IX. 1, X.6) and dangers (IX.8 "scarcely safe"; X.9-10 "snares" and "blade") provoke a crisis. Finally, hard-won "glorious grass" and respite (X.12, 14) prefigure Han's closing "fresh flowers" and reconciliation with death; X's hard-won repose earns XI's "sleep" and contentment.
To illustrate Han's poetic "fine-stitching," and to help readers keep track of his stitches, we offer the table on p. 80. At first glance, statistical minds might incline to tot up all links, establish a "matrix of dissimilarity," and make a multi-dimensional scaling analysis. But, since not all links have the same quality, such an experiment will disappoint; it makes more sense to evaluate linkages qualitatively. Of course, it does signify that total links increase as you proceed through the sequence. Connections abound as the dramatic and thematic conflicts reach a climax (VII-IX), win resolution (X), and then taper in XI, which forms the denouement of "Autumn Meditations." Once you perform qualitative analyses, you will notice quite a few more linking features within Han's sequence. (19)
While we hardly plan an exhaustive account, one further point about sequential links needs adding. As "Autumn Meditations" trudges on into and out of despair, Han's interstanzaic movements often proceed dialectically, not smoothly. For example, swings from extraverted treatment to introversion characterize many transitions: II, IV, IX, and XI run "outward"; but III, V-VIII, and X turn inward. A similar dialectic informs Han's responses to questions of public service. He tries for seclusion in III, then opts for service in IV; V hopes for "screening off," VI looks forward to morning audience; VII opts to eke by, VIII asserts greatness; IX makes Han's boldest claim to help "milord," then a last reversal in X apparently resolves the issue by claiming peace in "silent repose" (though the dormant dragon at cycle's "dead-end" offers potential for reascendance). (20) Such oscillating dialectics prove a key structural principle in "Autumn Meditations"; they reveal the machineries by which Han helps solve inner conflicts. Thus, despite testimony that Han just ad hoc "chooses whichever response seems satisfying or appropriate to the situation," (21) we must look more closely.
Several more unifying motifs need highlighting to enhance our demonstration that "Autumn Meditations" works as a sequence. First, negation; we have already marked a few salient instances where Han deploys "empty/vain" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and negative adverbs. Negations peak in IV and again in VIII, where the declaration "never end" proves ephemeral. Kong still haunts Han in IX; only by confronting his own ambitions--"touch of heart's blade"--squarely in X can Han find peace in stillness. Compare "blown out" mjiet [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in VII.9 and IX.5; only at sequence's end can Han face that prospect with equanimity. By contrast, later stanzas raise a crisis of "having" you [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In VI Han "has" only tomorrow's court levee to keep him living, to set against "never did manage." But in VII, three negative constructions match three you (4: "got"; 6: "taking"; 13: "rather"). The less Han has, the more you obsesses him; in VIII, again, three you (3, 15: "something"; 20) attempt to balance a plethora of negatives. Only when Han makes peace with ending "drowned, blown out" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] can he fall silent. At closure--as elsewhere in "Autumn Meditations"--absence trumps presence, at least potentially an unexpected, "Daoist" trope.
This leads us to consider sound and music in "Autumn Meditations." We begin with the sounds of leaves (1.4) and bugs (II.5-6) that, in good old Chinese stimulus-response fashion, arouse Han's lyric responses. We follow such faltering melodies until VII, when Han fails to make convincing response. Only when his "boy" shows him the revived power of 1 iving language (VIII. 15-6) can Han feel again; in IX the ringing fallen leaf provokes his "long cry." With this authentic response, Han gets in touch with his feelings, and by X can fall silent, having expressed his *mei? mei? resolve. A musically inclined critic might well speak of "motivic development" in "Autumn Meditations."
Verbs of motion/travel provide another leitmotif. Often they heighten the tension between linear and cyclic time, as in I's "spur" and "dash" against II's "cycles" and "suiting." These return at coda as XI resolves "flutter" into "die," when all creatures find their little lives "rounded with a sleep." As Han's sequence progresses, his "wavering" intensifies: III "spurs" to no avail except a decision to stay put; IV sees Han "stirred" but unable to move. In V Han recoils/returns from "dashing," but in VI he just sits "lost, adrift," reluctant to "recklessly race." VII demonstrates the uselessness of forced "dashes" and a wind-borne boat; better VIII's "death-in-life" persistence against racing leaves. IX's meteoring moon and bouncing-ball luminaries resolve into "return" and "halt." Oddly, critics have read IX as Han bidding farewell to a Yuanhe exoticism dismissed as "gone astray while returning"; they misread IX.13. Upon noticing Han's use of an Yijing hexagram, you will appreciate that mifu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should stress not "gone astray" (as if the construction were verb-object) but "back from straying" (mi, setting preconditions for the main verb fu). Such misreading can set a critic off on a fantasy errance of his own. (23) In fact, Han's fancy has not proved far wrong; on waking, he's reduced to tears when he realizes time ("sun and moon") really are bouncing along wildly; the political implications of such cosmic disarray afford a less strained reading for "milord" than traditional or recent ones. But let's return ... In X Han self-prescribes "flight" against attack, but must walk a twisty path to self-confrontation before he can win rest, a Daoist repose that finds equilibrium with Nature's closing quietus.
Lofty ambitions/intents [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] also help give this sequence a definite, distinctive shape. The slow descent of "Autumn Meditations" into a Slough of Despond (by stanzas VI-VII) gets traced in the progression from (I) aging and sorrow to (II) "pines and cedars need no special esteem," which can also mean "they need no high rank." Han Yu here asserts that his self-worth and high purposes will need no buttressing from external rewards and status. But we find it hard to believe him; in III his enduring [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] leads to a meditation on ancient worthies who met with too little royal reward. Then Han ruefully calls his own likings "lowly, ignoble" before asserting that his "great man's high aims" deserve higher approbation than whatever women want. His wordplays on "esteemed/noble" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] seem to probe an unresolved conflict. In IV he hopes to win merit against a "lamia," but laments he has no chance to prove himself. As he slips deeper into depression, V finds Han abjuring himself to "recoil, retreat" and "return to folly." He declares himself reconciled to the "meager taste" of his current status, but VI just finds him sinking deeper. Now he admits he's "lost his way," and has extreme difficulty even rousing himself for morning audience. By VII, he must ruefully admit his "pressing, compelling aims" have simply led to remorse; the closing assertion of contentment with meager salary rings false. In VIII the poet seems nearly dead; only emergency resuscitation allows him to re-assert his status among "great men .../With deeds to do that never end." IX finds Han at or near total breakdown, though he ends by declaring himself "back from erring" and ready to lend "milord" a helping hand. X plumbs the depths; an "indefatigable" aim meets the burdens/tangles of the age. They war, and Han declares himself "routed," retreating to a position of calm from which he can deny any external "command." As far as "Autumn Meditations" goes, this seems to resolve things. The last stanza no longer worries about high aims and status, and this allows our poet to "accept his fate."
A closely related, unremarked aspect of "Autumn Meditations" needs recognition. Han opened with a suitably Confucian set of mottoes involving the binome *mei? mei?, which the Odes used to praise an indefatigable hero like King Wen and with which Han advances the climactic soundplays of X. But in Chuci **mei? mei? had already modulated to the implacably resolute advance of time. Indeed, faced with political frustrations, mutability, and mortality, Han needs to find firmer ground than a Ruist service ethic. Already in III.3 Han used a "Spikehelm" (the gaur or rhino horn helmet of a War Minister) allusion in a Zhuangzian way. In a late Zhuangzi chapter, War Minister Gongsun Yan figured in a hawk-dove "Maul" and "Bash" account of political intrigue (24) that foreshadows Han's disillusion with court wrangling. Stanzas V and X intensify and then climax Han's internal meditation with multiple Daoist allusions. Soundplay reaches a crescendo in X.7-10 with chiastic interplay of (framing) yang and (pivotal) yin finals (nasal ending vs. open-ended or voiceless-stopped):
gjangX hwej trjang pvuwX manX nyak nemH khwet yiH yeng *het khjut pjieH ngjoX tsjengX mieng mwang tsyhowk sim pjaeng.
In the pivotal inner lines (X.8-9), yin (and especially end-stopped) finals predominate; in 7 yang interruptus stresses the futility of Han's stretched bow, while in 10 a single yin final "strike" dominates the yang-final "blade/weapon." Han's yin-yang soundplay reinforces his Laozian message; faced with attack and danger, flee and pursue an inward-turning "philosophy of camouflage." But this advice does not guide Han's inner journey for long; not Laozi but fragments from outer chapters of Zhuangzi actually orchestrate Han's ultimate inner breakthrough. Previous annotators have noticed the "discard gold ... preserve one's 'child' " allusion to Zhuangzi', (25) they missed less conspicuous references. (26) "Twist & squirm" *het khjut recalls a homophonous binome from Zhuangzi chapter 24; (27) the "snare of words" recalls the famous conclusion of Zhuangzi chapter 26; and the "heart's blade," while attributable to several sources, recalls this sentence from Zhuangzi chapter 23: "Of weapons/ blades, none deadlier than heart's own aim." (28) Commentators have missed these resonances partly because some look fairly covert, but chiefly because they don't expect good Confucian Han Yu--who also wrote a commentary on Zhuangzi--to find needed inspiration from a Daoist (maybe this helps explains why some commentators find stanza X's inner meditation "virtually unintelligible"). Yet Han's real battle lies within himself, a war of "this and that/ right and wrong" he can balance only by finding the "center of the ring." No surprise, then, that Han ends with a resolve to "repose tranquilly," alluding to Zhuangzi chapter 20, "Sages reposedly embody passage and meet their end." (29) Two of Han's allusions concern two of the three versions from Zhuangzi chapter 20 relating how Confucius got beset between Chen and Cai. The second account, which mentions Lin Hui, ends with Confucius "ending his studies and discarding his books," thereby winning even greater affection from his disciples. The third account ends with Confucius learning how to "pass on tranquilly." (30) Easy to see how these lessons may have inspired Han Yu, our troubled Imperial Academician! These allusions (and by the end of X we have encountered twelve more-or-less obvious references to Daoist classics) do not just play with words; the retreat from "strong/forced" to "supple/ weak," the "twist and squirm to dodge word snares," and dodge "heart's blade" as well, enabling a retreat to recover an inner child that culminates in tranquil repose--this maps out a spiritual resolution to psychological crisis marked at every turn with signposts from Laozi and Zhuangzi. Though Han's Daoist therapy and resolution might have escaped younger eyes, it could hardly have been missed by ninth-century contemporaries. Quite possibly, Confucian revivalist Han's reference to Daoist texts conveyed an accommodating message to colleagues and enemies bound up in Yuanhe factional strife. (31) But we may take away a different message; Han exorcises inner demons and ends his lengthy meditation on living, dying, and transforming with references to butterfly/-ies, to the "withered ... wood" that recalls entranced Nanguo Ziqi, and with his last word, dao ("say/way"). After multiple references to Daoist classics in the previous ten stanzas, it seems impossible here not to think of Zhuangzi, chapter 2. Skeptics indifferent to context will consider these less than plain "allusions." Indeed, we need a subtler word to describe Han Yu's delicate dance, which never quite gives the game away in so many words. So much the better; Laozi and Zhuangzi would agree that a little indirection best approaches dao. "Autumn Meditations" has turned out, then, to work something like modern therapy. Meditation on Daoist texts has guided Han through a psychological set of introspective "self-help" sessions which, by sequence's end, have enabled him to face living and dying with equanimity.
PART 2: MENG JIAO, "WINTRY CREEK" (808?, LOYANG)
(A valued Master) mince-pickles/blends [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] the myriad kine yet isn't deemed right. mince-pickles /blends the myriad kine yet isn't deemed cruel. (Ruist-Mohist disputes) mince-pickles/blend each other with thyes and thnot [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (32)
Meng Jiao's sequence, it bears warning, confronts readers with some pretty ugly "mince-pickling." The textual controversy from Zhuangzi, with its argument about whether "blend" or "hash" fits better, bears application to "Wintry Creek." It remains to determine whether, as some readers have argued, Meng also convincingly "blends" relations between the human and natural realms.
All readers of "Wintry Creek" owe Stephen Owen a large debt for first focusing scrutiny on Meng's relatively neglected sequence and for demonstrating its great poetic value. Naturally, certain less-illuminated aspects deserve a second look. We may begin, as with "Autumn Meditations," by considering its likely historico-biographical provenance. In 806 Meng Jiao's patron, Water and Land Transport Commissioner Zheng Yuqing, got him a sinecure in Zheng's transport office. Meng settled on the north bank of a stream quite near Loyang, where he built a small kiosk for "Engendering Life." Thus, we need not imagine Meng outside freezing through every moment of this next sequence. Details of Meng's career imply that he wrote this either during the Spring either 807 or 808. "Wintry Creek" does not resonate with other verses dated to 807, but it shares many features--too many to relate here--with his dirge-series "Apricots Die Young" (Xing shang) written upon the deaths of his young sons at the beginning of (lunar) Spring, 808. (33) When reading lines like III.3 and VII.8 below, keep in mind these images from "Apricots Die Young":
Frozen hand, don't toy with these pearls ... Flash-frost, don't shear away Spring ... Freezing cold, frost kills off Spring; limb after limb, like tiny knives.
Let us imagine this poem, then, taking shape during February 808. (34) Owen quite rightly observes that here Meng "exploits the poem sequence to the fullest." (35) But subsequent assertions about the power of Meng's "moral stand," his faith in the power of Confucian ritual, and certain details of understanding demand we revisit Meng's sequence. First, we should add some salient details about "Wintry Creek's" organization. A cursory glance at length and rhymes suggests Meng's sequence will pivot around its central stanza:
Verse # I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX Rhyme -en -i -i ing -en -ou -ou an -en Line ## 14 16 14 14 22 8 10 10 12
These rude statistics also suggest that I and IX will frame, that II--III will cohere to develop Meng's opening, that IV will intensify by deviating from pattern, and that V will provide the central link that climaxes I-IV and in turn prepares a resolution by IX. VI-VII will then together explore a further development (even as the shorter stanzas hasten us onward), VIII will deviate from pattern, and IX will resolve the entire sequence. Observe, too, that after Meng's introduction, a neat two-by-two pattern of alternation between nasal-ending and open-ended rhymes also helps shape "Wintry Creek." Readers may verify these projections shortly. For now, enough to realize that Meng has wrought a neater, more symmetrical architecture than Han Yu. Perhaps through a process of emulation and genteel competition, Meng's arch-formation has approached something like an Ursatz. In reexamining Meng's verses, we begin (of course) with a translation.
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
I [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Frosts wash all watery hues away; sriang siei: swi: siok tsien: Wintry Creek reveals silky scales. han khej hen- syem lin Regally inspect this empty mirror, Reflecting a body haggard & worn. tsyew- tshje: dzan dzwij- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] syin Sunken slick--no hiding itself now; Showing its bottom, luster renewed. Wide open like a gentleman's heart: Could it imperil and cut folk down? as usual in Tang verse, read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as rhetorical interrogative tshjen: zjowk [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Now I realize--shallow common hearts Harden by night, let you ford by dawn. Purifying rinse--1 palmful of jewels Melts far away 1000 cares about dust. Now I know--mud-trodden streams Mustn't neighbor an alpine spring. II The road along Loyang's bluffs; The creek before Meng family farm. My boat moves, pale ices crack, Music making azurine moans. syeng tsak tsheng yew sej Green waters harden green jade, White waves grow white tablets. Bright, brighter--in a precious mirror; Kine upon kind evened in heaven's glow. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] By oblique steps, down to a perilous crook; Clamber dead boughs, hear a widow's weep. usually associated with sad birds Overnight frosts bit by bit abate; sjuwk srjang sraw- sjew gjet [one text reads "fragrant"] Gelid light blended in faint blur. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Sitting dumb, listen and stare straight; Walking witless, I lose my own tracks. Up layered bluffs, tried by hacking thorns; tsyowk kik My words alight mostly on grief. III At dawn I drink one cup of brew; Traipsing snow I visit Clear Creek. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Each wave & ripple frozen to knives, Chopping gouging at widgeon & teal. Roosting feathers shorn all away; Bloodsoaked sounds sunk in sand & mud. xwet syeng drim sra nej Standing apart--what could I say? Brooding mute--heart's sour moan. swan sje Frozen blood, don't turn to Spring; Turn to Spring & life'll grow uneven. tsak tsyhwin srjeng pjuw: dzej Frozen blood, don't turn to flower-- Turn to flower & trigger widow's weep. srjang Gloom-hidden, needle-thorn thorp; kik tsyim tshwon Frozen dead--hard to till and plow. IV My punter pole hammers out jade stars, The whole way trailing burst fireflies. North freeze--mourn right to the bottom; Predator-gluttons sing odes to rank-fish. dzyem seng Icy teeth grind and gnash each other; Windy tones sour clapper and chime. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] No fleeing from cleartuned griefs [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] That wash each wisp within hearing. sej: tsyhwit syem sit theng Jeweled waves, all rolled away; Bright birds fly, falter, fall ... Stepping down--slippery, uncertain; Roosting aloft--snap! hard to rest. dzjang sej tsyejt Shriek squawk swallow in grievance; xew- lew- xep sap Look up and sue: when to find peace? V One crook one straight--the watercourse; White dragon--such squamous scales! linjin A frozen blast, with chop suey keening; dzop swij Mince-pickle tone, gorge & gulch acetic. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] On w-wooden p-pad--ch-ch-chattering ineptly; Fliers, creepers more mildly humane to each. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] My fierce bow--once your string snaps-- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] With last gasp--vying as honored guests. Greatest awe fully established here, Little murders no longer deployed. sjew; sret Sparkle white--how sparkling white; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Vapors vital, still more vapors vital. Auspicious clearing scours sun & moon; Jewels on high disclose planet & star. Standing apart, feet paired in snow, Intoning alone, 1000 cares renew. Heaven's Despoiler--your brilliance wasted; a baleful comet--omen of disaster (36) Sky-sieve's Tongue--champing chops in vain. Songs 203: constellation associated with gluttony, slander Yao as Sage will not listen to such as you; Confucius humbled--still we have an aide. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; or "greatly straitened," also a live meaning (37) My protest report complete at last; Ancient honor hard to fully deploy. VI When we take the frozen dead to eat, Murderous airs won't cease to blow. Wield weapons to effect kindness & honor, & kindness, honor spring from knifepoint. Kindness, honor at knifepoint smell rank; M Hardly things a gentleman may seek. Wave on wave draw out sword-icicles, Cleave each other like avenging foes. VII Pointed snows poke the fish's heart; The fish's heart flushes acuter rue. Vaguely, as though a Shade-river spoke, wangliang; *mang? rang? Lamenting the course of hacking apart. kat tshet Who let breath of an alien clime Poke into our heartland's flow? Shearing away one whole month's Spring; tsjen: dzin: ?jit njwot tsyhwin Shutting off a hundred gulches in gloom. phjiek .. bak kuwk .. Look up, cherish new cleared light Shining down--I wonder at my woes. VIII Old creekman wailing in worst winterchill; Rheum and snivel ice with coralline clink. thej: sij: ... Forms of fliers dead, creepers dead; Snow-sundered, mincing heart & guts. sjwet ljet ... Swordblades, frozen, cannot gouge; Bowstrings stiffened won't shoot. Ever I've heard a gentleman warrior Won't eat spoils from Heaven's kill. sret dzan Hacking jade, I cover bones, carcass; tsyowk njowk .. kak Mourning rosegems keen, stream down. IX Creek winds dispatch the remnant ice; Creek glints hold bright Spring within. Jade melts, flower-petals drip-drop; snowflakes Dragon dissolved glitters squamous scales. By thin-air steps, down to clear crook In melt-time to bathe in fragrant ford. sjew .. drewk .. tsin 1000 leagues, where ice sundered, One ladleful, warm and humane. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Gelid seedsouls wash each other, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: essence/seed/sperm /germ/gleam/soul Ripple & wavelet vie in renewal. Suddenly, as if--all sword-gashes gone-- first rouse this hundred-battled body.
Readers have had relatively little trouble seeing "Wintry Creek" as sequence, largely because it features such a strong story line and such lurid dramatic conflicts. At first we wonder why our poet harbors such dire misgivings about a creek "wide open like a gentleman's heart," but soon he reveals it as some sort of murderous monster, a dragon or lamia, engulfing its "prey" like a cold constrictor. After some cruel killings and feeble protests, a warm front brings back the "humane" world very like Meng's opening, only wearier.
Aside from this overarching dramatic structure, a great deal of "fine-stitching" helps knit the sequence together. To illustrate the dense texture of images in "Wintry Creek," (38) we offer another mnemonic in Table 2 (p. 90).
Warned by our previous experience with Han Yu, we shall not encourage elaborate statistical analysis. A careful look at our chart will reveal that Stanza I links most with stanzas II, III, and closing IX; stanza II also links closely with III and Meng's conclusion; stanza III also links closely with IV, which in turn links closest with V. Of course, every stanza has links to apical V, Meng's longest and climactic verse. Short stanzas VI and VII link closest with each other, while VIII-IX cleave to each other, and also with Meng's opening. These ties reinforce our strong sense of Meng's meticulous sequential architecture, which deserves careful comparison with that of "Autumn Meditations." Unlike with Han Yu's verse, we have no "sequence" controversy here, so we can eschew extensive proof. We shall let our table express proximal structural links and pass on to examining motifs that particularly reward close scrutiny.
First, let us adumbrate a few significant motifs in "Wintry Creek" that belie simple blackwhite assessments of its themes and progress:
Metals/jewels: The "empty mirror's" (1.3,5) luster and purifying "jewels" (1.11) seem promising, but "harden" and turn "gelid" in II; by III we confront a deadened "needle-thorn thorp." The "jade stars" and heavenly "jewels" in IV/V register ambivalently; only when the "coralline clink" of "mourning rosegems" from VIII thaws into melted "jade" at sequence's end can we view Meng's jewels as unambiguously positive.
Icelfreezing-, these intensify from "frost" and "harden" (1.1,10) to "frozen knives" (III.3), "icy teeth" (IV.5), and "sword-icicles" (VI.7). "Frozen" itself occurs no less than four times in III, and occurrences of "snow" sjwet deserve special attention because they sound homophonous with and often accompany or suggest occurrences of "blood" xwet (see esp. III. 21F.; V.l5; VII. 1; VIII.4). Even in closure, we still encounter "gelid" and two instances of "ice." On the other hand, liquid images, especially of "washing" (I, IV; cf. "scours" in V, IX), never disappear even during the coldest spell. Here, too, attempts at purification succeed only in closure (IX).
Weapons/war: these closely track instances of metal and ice/snow. Here again we encounter auxesis climaxing with a battle in V heightened by two different uses of "deploy," one military (V.12), one rhetorical (V.22), which emphasize Meng's struggle to speak on bleeding creatures' behalf. Note the persistence of weapons and war-images throughout "Wintry Creek's" second half, including Meng's "hacking" burial implement (VIII.9) and his concluding "vie ... sword gashes ... hundred-battled."
Animals I corpses', these seem to begin with the mourning birds, i.e., "widow's weep" in II. 10/III. 12, and expand to include wild ducks (III), all "fliers/creepers" (V, VIII), and fish as well (IV, VII). Bodies begin to fall in III and accumulate with several references to murder, until Meng buries them in VIII. But this account forgets something; the first "body" in Meng's sequence refers to Wintry Creek--and Meng reflected in that creek. Similarly, the carnage ends only with creek, creatures, and Meng himself all arousing a "body of 100 fights." From its first "body haggard and worn" to its end, "Wintry Creek" never lets us separate Meng from prey, predators, and killing, which all "form one body"--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (to misuse a stock phrase from traditional Chinese criticism).
Clearing tsieiH [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], glow/reflect, light: these seem similarly attractive in I and 11.8, which adds "leveled/blended" dzej (cf. tsiei "mince pickles") to clear skies. But the clearing skies in V do not necessarily bode well for beleaguered creatures, while the clearing in VII.9-10 just makes our poet wonder. Only the return of "bright Spring" in closure resolves our poet's ambivalent treatment.
Numbers: salient occurrences pair "one" with a "thousand" (1.11-2; V.15-6; IX.7-8); while the first and last instances read positively, that in V sounds ominous. Similarly, other uses of "one" (V.l, VII.7) don't necessarily evoke confidence in nature's order.
Gentleman [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this valorizing term should always sound positive, but note how it appears paired agonistically with killers/murderers in 1.7-8; V. 17-20; VI.5-6; VIII.7-8. A similar tension occurs with Meng's usage of "humaneness and honor" renyi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In V.6 we first encounter ren ascribed to animals, as opposed to human "predator-gluttons" (IV.4); Meng himself finds ancient "honor" hard to live up to (V.22). In VI we encounter false renyi that spring from man's weaponry and smell "rank" as the predator-glutton's coveted fish. Only after Meng's honorable gesture in VIII do we finally encounter "humane" (IX.8), but it's the stream's ren, not just a person's.
Words/sound/protest: these begin with sad "crack" and "moan," "weep" and "grief" (II) and intensify with "bloodsoaked sounds" and protests against blood (III), reaching a crescendo with "Shriek squawk swallow in" (IV) and Meng's attempted memorial in V, which at first chatters against the freezing wind's "chop suey keening" and "mince-pickle tone," then rails against slander, and finally stammers laboriously of Yao and Confucius. But bloody protests continue, as the demon complains (VII.2-6); wailing and mourning prevail until his final stanza. Despite his protests, the many voices/mouths in Meng's sequence voice not objection but appetite; see esp. IV.4-6 with its "sour" wind, V.3-4 with its "mince-pickle tone," and the gluttonous stars in V.17-8. This blood-chorus of prey and predator drowns out Meng; only balmy breezes in IX. 1 finally manage to disperse the chorus crying for blood.
Several patterns in concert begin in I, recur at apical stanza V, and bow out in closure, as we have begun to see. When you compare him with Han Yu, Meng has increased the intensity and sophistication of his "motivic development." Another important pattern, mutuality Teach other" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], begins promisingly with man and stream in apparent mutual harmony (1.4). In V.6 dying creatures almost evoke a "Peaceable Kingdom" vision of mutual harmony. But in IV. 4 "each other" refers to Nature red in tooth and claw; in VI.8 it recurs in closure as "cut each other like avenging foes." Only with "wash each other" (IX.8) do we recover amiable mutuality.
Contrast occurrences of alone/lone/apart, which evoke our poet in crisis, as in III.7 and V. 15. The word "renew" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] traces a similar trajectory; in I the stream renews "luster," but in V. 16 "1000 cares" renew. Only with IX. 10 do we regain Spring renewal. Even references to a "dragon" and its scales follow the same pattern: the stream/dragon appears ambivalently in I (potentially a positive self-image for a gentleman recluse, but also a potential killer) and in V (where whiteness seems to evoke deadliness even more than clarity); finally, in IX's suddenly "peaceable" kingdom, the "dragon dissolves."
We can leave full analysis of these image-skeins for readers; enough now to get familiar with their main outlines--their grundgestalt, as musical critics might say--and assure yourselves of Meng's almost obsessively dense weave before thoroughly imbuing yourselves in his entire sequence.
Our main reason for revisiting "Wintry Creek" involves overturning oversimplified statements of Meng's theme. We have an assertion that Meng, the "moral man confronting an evil world ... by his unswerving integrity overcome[s] it." (39) This statement surprises, because traditional Chinese ethical stimulus-response miracles usually depended on the moral nature of the entire world, without which virtue could not influence the cosmos. But this optimistic reading requires two elements: first, it needs a moral hero of extraordinary stature and power--Saint Meng. Second, it needs a resolutely moral natural order to respond with a miracle. Stephen Owen has recognized the exceptional nature of the demands placed on "Wintry Creek." He observes that no other Meng Jiao sequence reaches a "happy ending"; he also writes that, in a ninth-century context, belief in moral purity's "magic power over nature" seems "most unusual." (40) What he finds unusual, we find unbelievable. Meng, while striving earnestly for purity and goodness, has no claim upon sainthood; the natural order on display in "Wintry Creek" obeys no theological constraints to behave well. We can well believe Meng wanted to and, perhaps, intended to make an optimistic scenario work. But a careful rereading uncovers too much gray area, too many murky details that complicate relations among grief and conscience, outrage and appetite. Let's review Meng's sequence to point out where it belies an optimistic "miracle" reading.
Meng's ambivalences begin right in stanza I. He can't make up his mind whether the creek symbolizes purity or, as becomes evident, foulness. The uneasy sibilants in lines 1, 4 (where Meng makes entrance), and 11 whisper of covert evil. Moreover, when Meng observes his image in Wintry Creek, the "body haggard & worn" he superimposes man on stream. He then attributes to the stream a "gentleman's heart," a pathetic fallacy revealing how he identifies himself with Wintry Creek. Yet, despite his contention that a sip from the creek offers a "purifying rinse," Meng realizes immediately that this creek has killed, conceals evil, and stands guilty of "mud-trodden" befoulment. Hardly an auspicious way to paint yourself as saint in some divinely inspired moral setting!
Owen correctly reads stanza II as revealing "Wintry Creek's" ugly, evil face. This portrait of a cruel world intensifies in III-IV. To understand III.3-5 properly, we must know a little about migrating wildfowl. It won't help to imagine dumb ducks destroyed by dive bombing ice because they "mistakenly believed they were landing on water." Rather, imagine weary migrants misled by false Spring, toiling on in search of open water and food. Previous thaws will have opened creek channels that a single night's freezing snap and frost-heave can close. If exhausted, starving ducks get trapped; they may prove too weak or weary to escape, or they may not escape without losing a bit of blood and feathers, or they may lose blood, feathers, and more to nearby predators. (41) Meng's horrified attempt to "stand apart" from this slaughter does not succeed; rather, he's implicated, much as Du Fu gets implicated in his poem "Standing Apart," where Stephen Owen very deftly explores the poet's implication with mayhem. (42) This idea gets foregrounded in IV.4, when Meng sighs: "no fleeing" from songs of "predator-gluttons" that certainly at least include human hunters. Owen himself has called Meng an unusually hungry poet, who often characterizes himself as famished. (43) You can't help but wonder if the singing "predators" do not in a sense include our bard; if "no fleeing" does not extend to Meng himself? Where could he flee to escape the chorus of eater and eaten?
V reaches a climax signaled by formal features, such as wordplays and other soundplay. In Meng's medieval Chinese the harsh-sounding "chop suey" dzop swij-[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and his bizarre use of "mince-pickle" and "acetic/harsh" to describe storm winds take away our breath. They renew our suspicion that guilty hunger colors his perception. Meng himself cannot find voice to answer this sonic onslaught; at this point, he still "stands apart" in shock, as yet unable to muster a responding protest. Note that even when Meng tries to "stand apart" he stands with feet "paired in snow " sjwet--a medieval Chinese near-homophone for blood xwet--beset by one thousand cares. Vehement rhetoric--as so often in Meng's verse--overlays intense inner conflict. (44) Clever puns in V.7--his "fierce bow"--and V.10--"sparkle white"--reveal that we cannot see his role as completely innocent. Meng "fierce" puns on his surname Meng; jiao "white" puns on his given name Jiao. These wordplays implicate Meng--who after all is only human--with murderers; clearwhite does not put him in the clear, because even clearing Heaven has become a residence for villains. Meng does not merely explore his inner brute; building on Han Yu's "Autumn Meditations," Meng's "Wintry Creek" turns self-reflexive nameplay to even greater artistic account. (45) Arguably, Meng builds on Han Yu's example in another way; much as in Han's "Autumn Meditations" IX, Meng Jiao probably invests his anti-slander diatribe with contemporary political significance, about whose exact contours we need not speculate. His use of Ode #203, which records the lament of Eastern outsiders against Western-capital abuse, would work perfectly for an opposition-faction poet writing from Loyang complaining about abuses from Chang'an. And, of course, wintry cold fits the traditional association between yin atmospheric omens and political abuse, a typical Yuanhe trope. (46)
Meng's ambiguous language double-cuts at every turn; even the positive-sounding "vapors vital" yunyin sound less concordant when we recall Meng used them twice in "Autumn Meditations" to describe slander. (47) Meanwhile, even Stephen Owen concedes that the evil suggestions from Heaven's Despoiler and Sky-sieve's Tongue "more likely come from his stomach than from the stars." (48) Thus, Meng's concluding attempts to "deploy" words against slaughter mark an internal struggle against his own appetites as well as a protest against slaughter in the outside world. Standing wildlife watch till dark, Meng also keeps vigil on himself. As night falls for the only time in this grim sequence, Meng realizes his protest has failed.
Meng Jiao wrote of himself during this period of life:
A whole life--squawking in vain; Neither remonstrance, nor admonishment. (49)
Out of office in Loyang, Meng simply lacked the status for a successful remonstrance. No wonder his protest in V fails. As we move into VI, we find the "murderous airs don't cease to blow." Meng rejects any "humaneness and benevolence" that depend on force, yet force continues to rule; how have Confucian moral values worked any miraculous change? Throughout stanzas VI-VIII, the natural order's icy weapons--bows, choppers, and swords--continue to hack, gouge, shear, split, and poke. Even the resident water demon, VII's Shade-river wangliang, protests this inhuman slaughter. We seem closer to the sardonic humor of Han Yu's "Suffering from the Cold" or "Fire in the Luhun Mountains"--in which even animals beg to get roasted, hoping only not to freeze--than to any vision of a moral natural order. (50) And what constitutes Meng Jiao's heroic, saintly act? He wails and, taking up an unspecified weapon, hacks at the ice in a vain attempt to "bury" the carcasses. Ritually appropriate and--no doubt--desperately sincere, but--surely--unavailing. And where did fierce Meng's weapon come from?
Finally, our expected Spring thaw comes, the nearly frozen survivors bathe together, and the poet takes another purifying rinse. To some this represents a triumph of human moral intervention. But we--perceiving in "Wintry Creek's" natural order only amoral indifference--linger over Meng's final line, and his parting gaze at the creek: "I first rouse this hundred-battled body."
How has Meng concluded? With "vie," with "sword gashes," with "remnant" and "done" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and--instead of the expected bainian shen "body of 100 years"--with a grislier baizhan shen, "body of 100 battles." This round has ended, the creek has swallowed what victims people left behind, and Meng--with one final round of actions identifying his "body" with the creek's--has survived to witness another round. "In my end lies my beginning." Given the plethora of formal features linking this sequence's opening and closing stanzas, it would take rose-colored glasses and considerable amnesiac effort to claim any "moral victory" greater than a beleaguered return to the world of stanza I.
Let us, too, return to our initial point in revisiting this sequence: in Tang China--unlike in the modern West--readings that presuppose a simple man/nature or inner/outer dichotomy do not in general appeal much and do not particularly fit "Wintry Creek." But, having discredited an optimistic "miracle" reading, what would we put in its place? Why did Meng write this sequence, and what did he hope to solve? Should we imagine he tried--seeking comfort--to write a medieval morality play and, overcome by internal demons, failed to prosecute it successfully? We must leave room for uncharitable readers who might condemn "Wintry Creek" for failing to support a sanguine reading. But perhaps we can suggest an alternate way to make sense of Meng's considerable labors. Perhaps he wrote the sequence as a therapeutic endeavor.
Let's recapitulate what we know about Meng Jiao ca. Spring 808. He had just lost both his sons in infancy; he had likened their untimely deaths to the murders of a "frozen hand." Yuanhe poets frequently use untimely cold as allegory for times "out of joint." (51) We know, both from the modern critical testimony of Rosenthal and Gall, and from our experience with Han Yu (not to mention Du Fu!), that poets often turn to sequences when wrestling with intolerable, intractable issues that a short poem or two cannot exorcize. (52)
We also know that Meng lacked any political influence or significant office; hence, perhaps, the failure of his attempt to "remonstrate" in stanza V. Moreover, to perform successful rites for the dead at family ancestral altars, you would need your youngest son to play personator of the corpse, and an older son to play sacrificer [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. But Meng had just lost both his sons in infancy. If Confucian court and clan rituals could not succeed, perhaps another form of ritual might? Recall that medieval rites of exorcism and burial had an ancient connection. (53) Dramas involving trance and exorcism characteristically proceed with a summons, an accusation, an investigation, a sentencing, and the petitioning of Heaven's troops. (54) Similarly, Meng--with his ironic "regally inspect"--detects demonic evil under a tranquil surface (I). A chorus of victims then indicts these predatory demons (II--IV), leading to injunctions against slaughter, and a petition for Heaven to stop the slaughter. Even the weapons invoked--bows, choppers, and swords--recall the tools of an exorcist.
Now let's revisit the Shade-river/wangliang from stanza VII. In early medieval China, court exorcists performed a grand all-purpose Exorcism right after lunar New Year's, called the Danuo. They called the chief exorcist the *pang sang-s, or "Scrutinizer in Four Directions," who quells demons such as the *pang rang, *mang? rang?, or *mang? s-jang?. (55) It fascinates that modern critics--attracted, no doubt, by the near-homophonies among these words--associate exorcist with demon, and predator with prey. (56) Even better, ancient lore identified wangliang and his "brothers" as children of a mythical thearch; the brothers all died young and got condemned to become demons. (57) The relevant ancient Chinese texts may not have intended a close identification among these categories, but the grief-stricken ninth-century father, struggling to make any sense of his sons' death, distraught and overwhelmed by any "unseasonable" appearance of wintry death in Spring, and even feeling a measure of guilty self-implication with Nature's ruthless murders, might well have fused these old bits of lore and come to see himself in the fate of the ambiguous victim-demon wangliang. Dead infants, water demons, New Year's exorcisms, and prey-predator hybrids could have fused in the distraught theater of Meng's mind, resulting in a peculiar and cathartic psychodrama. This self-exorcism may not have fully "cured" Meng, but it does illuminate Wintry Creek's darker corners in ways that simpler miraculous morality play readings cannot. It also illustrates a psychological truth about people under great stress. In extremis, our ordinary "selves" deform; fissures appear, and strange voices come through; "Meng Jiao" may become "Fierce Harsh-white light." Critics have observed that in poetic sequences, as poets wrestle with the intolerable and insolvable, they explore "alternate personae." At best, a strong poet can make of this emotional welter an "orchestrated sensibility." (58) In a discordant way, Meng Jiao has borne out Rosenthal and Gill's insight.
What has a second look at these sequences revealed? Well, don't trust the tried and trite, for one. Received wisdom has Han Yu the neo-classicist reviving Confucian values in his verse, while Meng Jiao confidently wields the sword of Confucian ritual to magically overcome the world's problems. (59) Yet, contrary to this "Confucian line," we find Han Yu turning to Zhuangzi as therapeutic text, while Meng Jiao, quite possibly frustrated with the failure of Confucian ritual forms, surreptitiously turns to the liturgy of religious exorcism. We aim, not to dismiss a predominantly "Confucian" characterization of Han and Meng, but to show how an oversimplified ideological characterization cannot adequately illumine the dark places in their poetic praxis. For example, when Meng's "Wintry Creek" does rely on Confucian Classics, he often wields the "Deviant Royal Odes" from the Confucian Odes to climax his weave. His close to IV. 14: "Look up and sue: when will bring peace" recalls a protest against Heaven from the "Deviant Odes" (191.9): "You no-good vast heaven, My king's not at peace". We may add that the common rhyme word "peace" remains conspicuously absent from stanza IV! Then in V Meng's climactic diatribe against heavenly slanders borrows star-tropes from "Deviant Odes" #203 and #200. #200 in particular takes a vicious tone and concludes by acknowledging its author, a certain Mr. Meng. Meng's ensuing failure (V.22) to "fully deploy" also suggests the useless stellified Weaving-maid from #203.7, who "cannot finish her pattern." Even Meng's agonized fish (VII.2) closely resembles its suffering precursor from Ode #192.11. Meng warbles this ode like "deviant Ya" bards, "trembling on thin ice." Precisely these "Deviant Odes" lie farthest from the usual "amiable and magnanimous" mode favored by mainline aesthetics. They represent the Canon in its least Confucian spirit.
We need to expand how we view their intellectual resources, because desperate poets seeking therapy will not stop at orthodox methods. We also should keep in mind that Han Yu and Meng Jiao stayed in close contact, especially during the years 807-10, when both lived in Loyang and wrote poems together. It seems natural that their great sequences might have a common problematic. Han Yu's inner journey features the kind of involved introspection we might associate with psychoanalysis, while Meng Jiao, faced with a minor drama that touches him where it hurt most, hyperbolically imagines Universal Evil threatening all. He then enacts something like a weird psychodrama to exorcize this evil. A worried friend would have cautioned Han "don't take things so much to heart!" That same friend might have told Meng: "don't make such a big deal over nothing!"
At this point, weary readers might agree: these Tang poetry sequences are deep, difficult, distinctive, and demanding. They plumb psychological depths; they explore difficult corners of poetics and interpretation; each finds its distinctive structure; yet all make demands that seem to exact as much from readers as they did from their authors. We vividly remember the final months before our book on Du Fu appeared; due to a forced late acquaintance with C. H. Wang's From Ritual to Allegory, we did not grasp in time the close filiation of Du Fu's "Autumn Arousal" with the eight-stanza, eight-line paeans to King Wen (and admonitions against misrule) from the Grand Capital Odes. (60) These Tang "Grand Capital Odes," too, make it hard to see their full pattern. As de Man said, and he should have known, "insight involves blindness." If Tang poetry sequences continually humble and overthrow even the ablest interpreters, we will simply have to acquiesce, since recognizing our fallibility only underscores the inexhaustibility and magnificent charms of Tang poetry.
University of Hawai'i at Manoa
(1.) See the classic study by Robert H. Brower and Earl Miner, Japanese Court Poetry (Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1961), 319-28.
(2.) M. L. Rosenthal and Sally Gall, The Modern Poetic Sequence: The Genius of Modern Poetry (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1983), esp. 6-24, 102-7, 178-83.
(3.) David McCraw, Du Fu's Laments from the South (Honolulu: Hawai'i Univ. Press, 1992), chapters 9-11 and conclusion, pp. 231-39.
(4.) For modern editions of Han Yu's sequence, see esp. Qian Zhonglian, Han Changli shi xinian jishi (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1957); Shimizu Shigeru, Kan Yu (Chugoku shijin senshu ed., vol. 11; Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1958); and Harada Kenyu, Kan Yu (Hanshi taikei vol. 11; Tokyo: Shueisha, 1966). Readers should pay these editions careful attention, not only for their own merit, but because they form the armature for Stephen Owen's work (see n. 5). Among several recent Meng Jiao editions, Hua Chenzhi et al., eds., Meng Jiao shi ji jianzhu (Beijing: Renmin wenxue chubanshe, 1995), and Hao Shifeng ed., Meng Jiao shi ji jianzhu (Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe, 2002), have proved especially helpful. Skeptics may question how Han Yu could have acquired a sense of poetic sequence. They perhaps forget that Du Fu had written his great sequences (esp. "Autumn Arousal") just forty years before Han Yu's sequence "Autumn Meditations." Han Yu, Du Fu's first great champion, would very likely have seen them and shared them with his close poetic companion, Meng Jiao.
(5.) Adam Gopnik, "June, Moon, Tune: What is this Thing Called Love?" The New Yorker (July 6, 2015): 80.
(6.) Stephen Owen, The Poetry of Meng Chiao and Han Yu (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1975 [henceforth "MCHY"]), 140-52 (Meng) and 254-69 (Han). We do not essay detailed comparisons between these sequences and those of Du Fu, because each sequence follows its own inner logic; like snowflakes, no two look alike. Also, we have not pursued detailed comparisons with linked verse, because the two forms differ greatly. You might fruitfully compare the relationship between a poetic sequence and linked verses to the relationship between a song- cycle and a jazz session. In the former, someone through-composes the sequence for maximum coherence; in the latter, coherence largely arises from the skill participants display in responding to the previous phrase. Global coherence rarely occurs, except as a song's structure guides it. On linked verses by Meng Jiao and Han Yu, see MCHY, chapter 7. For the classic treatment of Japanese linked verse (renga), see Earl Miner, Japanese Linked Poetry: An Account with Translations of Renga and Haikai Sequences (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1979).
(7.) Here we refer to the stanzaic analogue of anadiplosis--a word used at the end of a sentence, then used again at the beginning of the next sentence. Chinese speak of a carry-over stitch, where you "carry-over" yam from one needle to another without knitting it in; you can tuck the yam into the next row--the classic "carry- over," an etymological equivalent for anadiplosis (doubling, tucking) and for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (keep one stitch--or word, in poetry--and carry it over to the next row--or line, in verse). Some would prefer to call this simply a figural motif.
(8.) Ancient Chinese reconstructions (underlined; marked with asterisk) largely follow those in Axel Schuessler, ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese (Honolulu: Hawai'i Univ. Press, 2006). Middle Chinese reconstructions (underlined; no asterisk) follow those of William Baxter: http://ocbaxtersagart.lsait.lsa.umich.edu (accessed throughout 2009-10). When not foregrounding medieval Chinese soundplay, we have used Modern Standard Mandarin spellings, in pinyin.
(9.) See David Hawkes, Songs of the South (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1959), 93.
(10.) MCHY; compare Charles Hartman, "Language and Allusion in the Poetry of Han Yu" (Ph.D diss., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 1974). Hartman's discussion of an "allusive field" that helps integrate Autumn Meditations as "a set" (p. xii) in a sense foreshadows our own project.
(11.) Qian Zhonglian, Han Changli shi, 240; cf. Yan Shoulian, "Cong Yuanhe shifeng zhi bian kan Han Liu shi" Wenxueyichan 1987.4: 80-87; Zhang Qinghua, Han Yu nianpu huizheng (Nanjing: Jiangsu jiaoyu, 1998), 2: 227-28. Compare the investigations of Hartman, "Language and Allusion," 181-93, and Han Yu and the Tang Search for Unity (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1986), 68.
(12.) Zhuangzi yinde, Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series 20 (Beiping: Harvard Yenching Institute, 1947, rpt. Taibei 1966).
(13.) On the phonological equivalence of *het khjut and *het grut, see the gloss of Ma Xulun quoted in A. C. Graham, Chuang-tzu: Textual Notes to a Partial Translation (London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1982), 10.
(14.) Yin Zhongrong, annot., Liishi chunqiu jiaoshi (Zhonghua congshu weiyuanhui: Tai bei, 1958).
(15.) Qian Zhonglian, (Han Changli shi, 244) offers a plausible political interpretation of IX. Cf. Lu Tong's lunar fable, partly translated in A. C. Graham, Poems of the Late Tang (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), 81-88. Cf. n. 46, and compare Han's great "South Alps" (Nan shan shi), in which the vision of a dragon in a pool provides Han an epiphany--see the discussion in MCHY, 207-8.
(16.) Hartman, "Language and Allusion," 160.
(17.) Zhuangzi 18.29. Compare Xunzi 4.42.
(18.) Ge Lifang (quoted in Qian Zhonglian, Han Changli shi, 241) observes how Han's problem posed in V receives a deeper treatment in X.
(19.) Not everyone sees sequences the same way. Later Chinese critics did not always catch Tang writers' drift; for example, Chen Hang (1785-1825) tried to reorganize "Autumn Meditations" according to the sequence II, IV, IX, VIII, I, VII, III, XI, V, X, VI (Shi bixingjian [Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1981], 202-6; thanks to an anonymous reader for calling this scheme to my attention). To refute Chen would waste much ink; let's just say it has roughly the same power to convince as his political allegorization of the Mao Odes. Skeptical readers should compare his argument with mine.
(20.) Compare MCHY, 261, who observes that Han's closing responses in stanzas I-V contradict each other.
(21.) MCHY, 262.
(22.) For full-color charts in this article, please visit http://www2.hawaii.edu/~mccraw/han%20yu@20meng%20jiaoyuanhegraph.pdf
(23.) On fantasy and the bizarre in Han and Meng's poetry, see--inter alia--MCHY, chapters 11-12; also Liu Jiankun, "Lun Han Yu Meng Jiao shi de qi zhi bu tong" Zhongguo xiaowai jiaoyu 2008.8: 1046/1054.
(24.) Zhuangzi 25.20ff.
(25.) Zhuangzi 20.38.
(26.) We'll spare readers Derridean excurses on the quirk that reference to fleeing Lin Hui |e] ("grove return") gets followed by closural return to Han's opening paired tree motif!
(27.) Zhuangzi 24.110.
(28.) Zhuangzi 23.51. The precise phrasing owes more to the version in Liishi chunqiu, 384,
(29.) Zhuangzi 20.61
(30.) See the treatment by John Makeham, "Between Chen and Cai: Zhuangzi and the Analects," in Wandering at Ease in the Zhuangzi, ed. Roger Ames (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1998), 75-100.
(31.) Unsurprisingly, Han's Zhuangzian resolve has completely escaped modern Chinese commentators, who persist in labeling Han as "Confucian" tout court (e.g., Bi Baokui Han Meng shipai yanjiu [Shenyang: Liaoning daxue chubanshe, 2000], esp. 77-79) and who try to read "Autumn Meditations" purely as a "talented scholar finds no patronage" lament (Wang Dehua, "Lun Han Yu shige de shuqing xing," Yantai daxue xuebao, 2004.4: 213-14).
(32.) Zhuangzi 6.88; 13.12; 22.80.
(33.) See You Xinxiong, Meng Jiao yanjiu (Taibei: Wenjin chubanshe, 1984), 37-38. The Tang Histories record no especially heavy wintry weather in early Spring of either year; see Jiu Tangshu 14.420 (807) or 14.424 (808); but on late-Tang drier, cooler weather, see Brian Fagan, The Great Warming: Climate Change and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations (London: Bloomsbury Press, 2008), esp. 222-24.
(34.) Stanza V mentions sun and moon in the sky at once, implying the week before a full moon. A full moon occurred on Feb. 14, 808 (first lunar month).
(35.) MCHY, 140.
(36.) In medieval texts, Heaven's Despoiler also got written as Heaven's Slanderer, associated with witches and sorcerers. See the discussion in Hua Chenzhi, Meng Jiao shi, 236-37.
(37.) If we take [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to mean Confucius, we have an allusion to Analects 19.7; if we take it to mean "greatly," we have an equally plausible allusion to Ode 193.1. A remarkable double entendre!
(38.) On the denser image-weave in Meng Jiao's (versus Han Yu's) sequences, see, for example, Yu Nianhu, "Han Meng 'Qiuhuai' shi yixiang bijiao", Suiyuan shizhuan xuebao 2003.3: 53-54.
(39.) MCHY, 141.
(40.) MCHY, 138 and 149.
(41.) Thanks to my Uncle Howard, who spent half a lifetime hunting and then preserving ducks along the Atlantic coast, for confirming my speculations about III.3-5. Cf. MCHY, 143.
(42.) Stephen Owen, Traditional Chinese Poetry and Poetics: Omen of the World (Madison: Wisconsin Univ. Press, 1985), 133-37.
(43.) MCHY, 154-57.
(44.) See MCHY, 155, which observes that Meng Jiao projects his feelings onto his poetic worlds.
(45.) Worth elaborating that Meng likely adapted his name-punning from Han Yu's "Autumn Meditations." In V. 5 Han (introspectively seeking a reclusive path) covertly punned on his cognomen tuizhi "retreat and proceed" by writing tuijiu, also "retreat and proceed." Then in VII.8 when trying to grope toward personal response, he heard his notes as yu dan, "even fainter." Yu, Han's given name, trailed by only a few lines his repetition of the sounds han and han ("remorse" and "wintry"; the rhyme-word "remorse" ending VII.4). Meng intensifies his own psychodrama by placing his name-punning closer together.
(46.) For a typical poetic example, see Han Yu's "Suffering from Winter" (Qian Zhonglian, Han Changli shi, 74-76; compare MCHY, 212-13), discussed in Bi Baokui, Han Meng shipai yanjiu, 11. For other characteristic Meng Jiao examples, see, e.g., "Song of the Commoners in a Wintry Land" Sfifklf (Hua Chenzhi, Meng Jiao shi, 125) and "Song Suffering from Wintry Cold" (Hua Chenzhi, Meng Jiao shi, 16). Hao Shifeng, rather leadfootedly, reads "Wintry Creek" as political allegory from beginning to end; see his Meng Jiao shi ji jianzhu, 232-41.
(47.) V.12; XV. 16; the latter usage closes his great meditational sequence.
(48.) MCHY, 148.
(49.) Hao Shifeng, Meng Jiao shi ji jianzhu, 406.
(50.) For these poems, see MCHY, 212-20.
(51.) See n. 40 and also Meng's "Song of the Wintry Jiang" (Quart Tang shi 11.4180) and his "Autumn Meditations," esp. stanzas II and V.
(52.) See, in particular, Rosenthal and Gall, The Modern Poetic Sequence, 101, 164, 411, etc.
(53.) See Edward L. Davis, Society and the Supernatural in Song China (Honolulu: Hawai'i Univ. Press, 2001), 15-16, 186-90.
(54.) Ibid., Chapter 3-4. Compare the treatment of la ("interrogation/injunction") in judicial inquiry and exorcism, noted in Mark Lewis, Writing and Authority in Early China (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1999), 23, and the sources mentioned in his note.
(55.) Here we telescope the treatment in Derk Bodde, Festivals in Classical China: New Year and Other Annual Observances during the Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.-A.D. 220 (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1975), 74-117.
(56.) See esp. Bodde, Festivals in Classical China, 114-17. The phonological resemblances among these words will convince some readers Meng could have associated them. Observe that all binomes begin with labials and, in their second syllables, begin with dentals (either liquid or sibilant). Even an ancient phonologist would allow that homorganic sounds often characterize twin words. On the general tendency in medieval Daoism to blend god and demon, see Qian Zhongshu, Guanzhui bian (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1978), 1.183-84. For more specific stories blending god and demon in exorcistic contexts, see the tales of Zhongkui and the "Three Audiences." On Zhongkui, see Steven Little, "The Demon Queller and the Art of Qiu Ying," Artibus Asie 46.1-2 (1985): 5- 128. For the "Three Audiences," see Shangqing lingbao (early fifteenth c.), Zangwai daoshu edn., 24.23a. Another striking blend of demon and god occurs in the Shangqing use of "demon examiners" in the celestial bureaucracy (at the level of Celestial Examiners) to test, "guarantee and recommend" aspirants for celestial office; see Shawn Eichman, "Converging Paths: A Study of Daoism during the Six Dynasties, with Emphasis on the Celestial Master Movement and the Scriptures of Highest Clarity" (PhD diss., Univ. of Hawai'i, 1999), 209-19. Thanks to Poul Anderson for help with this footnote.
(57.) Bodde, Festivals in Classical China, 104.
(58.) Rosenthal and Gall, The Modern Poetic Sequence, 235, 98.
(59.) On neo-classical Confucian revival, see MCHY, esp. 2-23. Chinese critics unanimously share this view. Some contemporary Chinese critics have, however, stressed other elements in Meng Jiao's verse. For example, see Xie Jianzhong, "Daojiao yu Meng Jiao de shige," Wenxue yichan 1992.2: 42-50 (and other similar articles by Xie), esp. p. 50, where Xie observes the religious Daoist influence on Meng's weirder side. Cf. similar findings in Ma Benteng, "Meng Jiao de shige chuangzuo yu daojia jingshen," Xinan shifan daxue xuebao 2005.5: 167-71. For the locus classicus identifying Buddhist influence on Meng's verse, see Wen Yiduo, Wen Yiduo quanji (Wuchang: Renmin, 1982), 4: 6.56. For recent studies elaborating on the considerable Buddhist influence in Meng's verse, see especially Xie Jianzhong, "Lun fojiao kuti yu Meng Jiao de shige fengmao," Zunyi shifan xuebao 1996.6: 15- 20 (and similar studies by Xie); and Zhang Chuanfeng, "Shi jing rujiao wu, jian yu fosheng qin--Meng Jiao yu fojiao," Huzhou shizhuan xuebao 1996.2: 30-36, esp. 31-32.
(60.) See McCraw, Du Fu's Laments from the South, 232, for this sin of omission.
Table 1. Links across stanzas (most data in Chinese, for compression's sake), Han Yu, "Autumn Meditations" (22) category images Poem II II [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sun/day [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] moon [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] old/now mom/ eve [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality life/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT death/ REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE end ... IN ASCII] IN ASCII] fates [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] biota plants [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] language [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +- service sustenance [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 9 7 category images III IV [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sun/day [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moon old/now [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mom/ eve [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mortality life/ [TEXT NOT death/ REPRODUCIBLE end ... IN ASCII] fates biota plants critters [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] language [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +- service [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sustenance [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 8 9 category images V VI [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sun/day [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] moon [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] old/now [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mom/ eve [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] elements wind ... mortality life/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT death/ REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE end ... IN ASCII] IN ASCII] fates biota plants [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] language [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +- service [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sustenance [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 10 10 category images VII VII [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sun/day moon [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] old/now [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mom/ eve [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality life/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT death/ REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE end ... IN ASCII] IN ASCII] fates biota plants [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] language [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +- service [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sustenance [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 15 16 category images IX X [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sun/day [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] moon [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] old/now [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mom/ eve [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mortality life/ [TEXT NOT death/ REPRODUCIBLE end ... IN ASCII] fates biota plants [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] critters language [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] +- service [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sustenance [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tot links 14 9 category images XI [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sun/day [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] moon old/now mom/ eve [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] mortality life/ [TEXT NOT death/ REPRODUCIBLE end ... IN ASCII] fates [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] biota plants [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] language [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sound sight/eye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] subjective feelings thoughts empty [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +- service sustenance [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tot links 5 22. For full-color charts in this article, please visit http://www2.hawaii.edu/~mccraw/han%20yu%20meng%20jia0yuanhegraph.pdf Table 2. Links across stanzas, Meng Jiao, "Wintry Creek" category images Poem I II [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] freeze/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT melt REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] bright/ dark [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT wash REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] biota plants [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] misc. thing/word language [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] +-service [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sustenance/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT gluttony REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 17 15 category images III IV [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] freeze/ [TEXT NOT melt REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] bright/ dark [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT wash REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] biota plants [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] misc. thing/word language [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sight/eye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +-service sustenance/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT gluttony REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 17 16 category images V VI [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] freeze/ [TEXT NOT melt REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] bright/ dark [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT wash REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] biota plants critters [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] misc. thing/word language [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sound [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sight/eye subjective feelings [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] thoughts [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] empty [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +-service [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sustenance/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT gluttony REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 17 9 category images VII VIII [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] freeze/ [TEXT NOT melt REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] bright/ dark [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT wash REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] IN ASCII] biota plants critters [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] misc. thing/word language [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] sound sight/eye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] subjective feelings [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] thoughts empty [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] still +-service [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sustenance/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT gluttony REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 12 14 category images IX [TEXT NOT season [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] freeze/ [TEXT NOT melt REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] bright/ dark [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] elements wind ... [TEXT NOT wash REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] mortality [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] biota plants [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] critters [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] misc. thing/word language sound sight/eye subjective feelings thoughts empty [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] negative [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] moving +/[-] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] still [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] +-service [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sustenance/ [TEXT NOT [TEXT NOT gluttony REPRODUCIBLE REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN ASCII] tot links 14
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|Publication:||The Journal of the American Oriental Society|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2016|
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