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Xylanase, glucose oxidase, ascorbic acid impact whole wheat bread characteristics.

As we all know, we have become more aware of the benefits of eating healthy foods. Although they're interested in novel functional foods, consumers still prefer those products that have good sensory characteristics.

All breads are nutritious, some more so than others. The wheat germ in whole wheat flour contains protein in addition to fat and several minerals. The nutrient profile of whole wheat bread is excellent. It has 2 grams of fiber, primarily insoluble. Foods containing insoluble fiber may help prevent colon cancer and breast cancer. Almost 1 milligram of iron per slice, a substantial amount of folic acid (17.5 micrograms), vitamin E, copper, vitamin B6 and the three major B vitamins make whole wheat bread a nutrient-dense food.

Scientists in Brazil set out to see what impact adding xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid, which has antioxidant properties, would have on the specific volume, texture and sensorial characteristics of whole wheat loaf bread. The researchers developed a central composite rotational design. They analyzed the results using a statistical technique: response surface methodology.

Two experimental formulas considered excellent, and the standard bread formula were submitted to sensory acceptance and buying intention tests with 37 consumers. These people evaluated such attributes as appearance, color, aroma, flavor and texture.

The investigators found that adding xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid changed some of the bread's characteristics. With respect to loaf volume, the scientists did not find a statistical difference between the formulations. So, it appears that the choice of any amount of xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid would not lead to significant differences in the specific volume of the end product.

For texture, the scientists found lower values for crumb firmness in the formulas that contained higher concentrations of ascorbic acid, above 70 ppm; glucose oxidase; and xylanase. Good sensory scores were obtained for consumer acceptance and buying intent. All of the formulas obtained average scores and were liked moderately and very much by the panelists. The majority of consumers indicated they would probably purchase the bread.

Further information. Yoon Kil Chang, Department of Food Engineering, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Barao Geraldo, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil CEP 13083-970; phone: +55 19 3521-2121; email:
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Publication:Emerging Food R&D Report
Date:Aug 1, 2010
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