Writing your CV.
A curriculum vitae is a vital tool for job hunting. Essentially it is a printed or electronic document which describes you--your career, education, and personal details--painting an attractive but accurate portrait of your abilities, achievements and interests.
1. Aim to produce a CV which has impact, is factual and brief Your CV should be:
* positive--more than just a list of responsibilities
* clear--written in understandable language
* neat--the best standard you can achieve in content and layout.
* short--preferably two sides of A4, or the equivalent in electronic format.
It is essential that your CV is as easy to read as possible. Use both headings (Personal, Education, Experience etc) and bullet points.
2. Identifying detail
This important information forms the head of the document and consists of:
* full name
* telephone numbers: home and others where you are contactable. often, organisations remove this information to meet their equal opportunities policies.
3. Decide on a suitable format for your CV
The two most used CV formats are chronological or functional in style.
* Chronological--this is the most widely used format. As it suggests, this CV follows your career back in an historical manner and works well for those who have significant incremental moves. However, gaps on the CV are very obvious.
* Functional--this style of CV highlights the main skill areas such as management, people, operations, finance, budgets and IT. It is particularly appropriate for those who have developed their career on the basis of their transferable skills.
Consider also whether to choose a printed or electronic format. Companies and recruitment agencies are increasingly accepting CVs online and many web sites allow you to post your CV for potential employers to see. An online CV will need to be formatted in a simple and clear style that looks good on-screen. Avoid fancy fonts, colours and shading, as these may not reproduce well on other PCs that have a different screen resolution or operating system, and keep the page size to A4
Consider your career, and starting with your last role work backwards in chronological order stating:
* job title--with clarification if necessary
* outline of responsibilities--including the number of people managed
* main achievements--the areas where you have made positive contributions or identifiable outcomes.
The most detailed information should be provided about your most recent post, with detail reducing as you go back in time (unless a post was of special relevance to the one you are applying for). Posts held more than about 10 years ago should usually only be listed by responsibilities.
5. Describe your achievements as your own
A CV is essentially a selling tool. By using active words, such as analysed, achieved, created, developed, designed, implemented, specialised or led, a positive picture of your skills can be developed. Use phrases such as:
* "The systems I designed are now contributing to the success of the organisation."
* "I designed and successfully introduced new procedures."
This approach is valuable for either chronological or functional formats.
6. Note your educational experiences, including short courses
Again, in chronological order list:
* schools/colleges attended at secondary level and above
* qualifications obtained
* professional qualifications and memberships.
If at all possible, each qualification should be limited to just one line. If you are a regular attendee of short courses, include only those of relevance to the post applied for.
Think carefully about where education should be placed in your CV. If you have been studying in the last five years, or if you have completed a qualification relevant to the role, place education towards the beginning.
7. Decide on the further personal detail you wish to include
This information may include:
* date of birth
* marital status and gender
* driving licence
* career aspirations--but only include these if they "fit" with the job for which you are applying
* hobbies--but try to strike a balance between the picture of someone whose leisure activities are so numerous and absorbing that they leave no time for work, and someone with no outside interests. Avoid meaningless terms such as "clubbing" or "socialising".
8. Adopt the right approach for explaining experience or skill deficits
You will rarely find the elusive "perfect job" that exactly matches your experience and skills. You may well be applying for a type of work of which you have little experience, especially if you are a recent graduate. Some tips for arranging your CV to minimise the negative effect of this are:
* adopt a functional resume style
* focus on your relevant educational achievements and knowledge, putting this section first on the CV if it shows you in a better light than your employment experience
* bring out skills from non-work areas that might be relevant to the post
* emphasise personal qualities such as motivation and willingness to undertake training.
9. Physical appearance
The grammar, physical appearance and content of a CV, whether paper-based or electronic are very important. Poorly constructed sentences, faulty grammar, careless spelling, illogical layout, scruffy, dog-eared or tea-stained paper or a poor quality photocopy may tip the balance against you, all other things being equal. Emails are particularly prone to typing mistakes as many people are perhaps not totally proficient with a keyboard, or do not use a spellchecker. So:
* check and double-check your spelling
* get someone else to read your draft through
* ensure the presentation is clear and easy to read
* always type or word-process your CV, and send a fresh printout, not a cheap, tacky photocopy.
Some companies scan CVs onto a computer and then search for specific key words. Online CVs are very likely to be searched electronically. Use current buzzwords with care. Your CV should support the notion that you fully understand what the terms mean and imply.
10. Write a covering letter or e-mail
Covering letters are also important. You should use them to tailor your experience to the opportunity or organisation and to summarise key elements of your CV. Do not assume that an email is more informal than a letter; pay similar attention to a formal style, grammar, phrasing, spelling and layout.
Below are some useful phrases.
Applying in response to an advertisement
"I am writing in response to the above advertisement and wish to apply for the position outlined. As requested, I attach a copy of my CV for your consideration. I am seeking an appointment where my experience can be fully utilised and I would be pleased to discuss this post in more detail."
One successful style of letter writing lists the requirements outlined in the advertisement with your skills and experience--this clearly displays how you match the role.
"I intend to progress my career with the accent on...I would welcome a meeting with you to discuss my CV in greater depth in the context of any suitable vacancies in your organisation. A copy of my CV is attached. If you feel my experience could be usefully applied I would be pleased to meet with you to discuss existing or potential openings."
Dos and don'ts for CV writing
Do</p> <pre> Be simple in your message. Ensure that the layout is easy to follow. Create plenty of white space. Sell yourself and use your achievements. Choose a format which works best for you. Read your CV from a potential employer's point of view. </pre> <p>Don't</p> <pre> Lie. Be afraid to get advice. Lose your individualism. Forget to explore the possibilities of posting your CV on the Internet. Neglect your CV and fail to keep it updated. </pre> <p>Useful reading
The career adventurers fieldbook : your guide to career success Stephen Coomber, Stuart Crainer and Des Dear love Oxford, Capstone, 2002
Resume kit, 4th ed, Richard H Beatty New York: John Wiley, 2000
The ultimate CV for managers and professionals: win senior managerial positions with an outstanding CV, Rachel Bishop-Firth Oxford, How to Books, 2000
Readymade CVs: sample CVs for every type of job, 2nd ed, Lynn Williams London: Kogan Page, 2000
* You have 8 seconds to make an impression with your CV. What impression does yours create in 8 seconds? Ask a colleague or friend.
* CVs should be about the future. Is it clear what contribution you could make to an organisation and what your future career objective is?
* CVs are also about the past: does yours summarise your achievements in a positive way?
* An employer may get hundreds of applications for the same job. How might your CV stand out?
* When was the last time you updated your CV?
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|Title Annotation:||Checklist 055; curriculum vitae|
|Publication:||Chartered Management Institute: Checklists: Personal Effectiveness and Development|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2005|
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