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World review of mineral discoveries: 1993-1994.

The following report is a summary of the What's New in Minerals? programs that were presented at the 21st and 22nd annual Rochester Mineralogical Symposia in April of 1994 and 1995. Although normally published annually, the review could not be completed by the usual deadline in 1994, so it was held back and has been merged with the 1995 report. The current review therefore covers a two-year period from April 1993 to April 1995. For the most part, only discoveries made during this period are discussed. For the sake of completeness, these will include discoveries already described in published show reports of that time. As in past years, the information is presented geographically, with emphasis placed on truly new finds rather than on continuing supplies of previously known materials. Addresses are given for most of the dealers who are not advertisers in the Mineralogical Record.

A continuing supply of world-class pegmatite minerals from Pakistan,Afghanistan and Brazil, fabulous rhodochrosite crystals from the Sweet Home mine in Colorado, zeolites from India, and a wealth of minerals from the former Soviet Union have fueled the marketplace with a multitude of spectacular specimens over the past two years. Additional numbers of other interesting specimens, rare species, microminerals, and several new species have also appeared. Many of these were brought to our attention by the collectors and dealers named herein, and it is to them that we owe our thanks for sharing information.

Part I: United States

ALABAMA

David and Celia Lare (Jeffrey Mining Company, Rt. 1, box C-20-A1, Salisbury, TN 38067) collected a large quantity of red-brown almandine crystals to 3 cm in schist from near Lake Martin, Old Town.

Beau Gordon (Jendon Minerals) found some excellent phosphate microcrystals at the Red Ball mine, Calhoun County, including golden yellow cacoxenite, gray-green botryoidal kidwellite, pink strengite and colorless, transparent wavellite. Beau also enjoyed similar success collecting at the Fault Line prospect and Indian Mountain.

ARIZONA

Many a mineral collector has long awaited a chance to own a large, classic red wulfenite from the famous Red Cloud mine,Yuma County. That chance may soon be here. Wayne and Laura Thompson (1723 E. Winter Dr., Phoenix, AZ 85020) have recently acquired this property, and plans to reopen the mine are in the making. It is rumored that a limited number of specimens have already been found!

George Godas (6304 S. Clark Dr., Tempe, AZ 85283) has recently mined some new specimens of brilliant red vanadinite crystals from the Pure Potential mine (originally called the North Geronimo mine), north of the Red Cloud mine in La Paz County. The lustrous, hexagonal crystals average 5-7 mm across and thickly cover plates of rock matrix up to 25 cm. Many of the finest specimens are smaller, but with hopper-growth crystals up to 1.5 cm. Some crystals coat dark gray, etched rhombohedral crystals of calcite. Specimens are available from George Godas and Dan and Susan Whitcomb (Gangues Khan Minerals, P.O. Box 663, Manchester, MO 63011).

David Shannon has made a number of new finds. Among these are granular dark blue diaboleite with orange mimetite from the Rowley mine, Maricopa County, and pale blue acicular chrysocolla pseudomorphs (to 4 mm) coating brecciated rock fragments from Eagle Eye mine, La Paz County. Species collectors rejoiced at Dave's having a new supply of the formerly extremely rare new mineral maricopaite from the Moon Anchor mine, Maricopa County. Here, the mineral occurs rather abundantly as white, splintery-to-acicular crystals, sometimes in plumose bundles, on brecciated rock fragments. Another of Dave's unique finds is orthoserpierite from an unusual locality at the Childs Aldwinkle mine, Copper Creek district, Pinal County. The occurrence is unusual in that it formed in a geologically short period of time, probably over the course of a few days or weeks, by the action of surface water draining over a mine dump containing soluble copper minerals. The ephemeral occurrence was last reported by Dave as having blown away in the wind. So much for the million-year hypothesis!

Other interesting new finds include pale olive-to-yellow-green vesignieite in irregular patches to several mm, from a prospect pit 6 km south of Mercer Ranch, Pinal County, available from Steve Pullman (Whole Earth Minerals, P.O. Box 50008, Reno, NV 89513); attractive green botryoidal smithsonite from the 79 mine, near Hayden, Gila County, available from George Stevens Minerals (P.O. Box 44313, Tucson, AZ 85733); well-formed crystals of olive-green conichalcite to 2 mm on a quartz-rich gossan matrix from Copper Creek, Galiuro Mountains, Pinal County, available from Jim McGlasson (Collector's Stope, 7387 S. Flower St., Littleton, CO 80123); quartz pseudomorphs after anhydrite from the Agua Fria River, near New River, available from Rose's Rocks (631 E. Puente, Covina, CA 91722); and calcite crystals from the Holbrook mine, Bisbee, and copper-stained calcite pseudomorphs after glauberite from Camp Verde, both available from Howard Van Iderstein (Cardinal Minerals, 2 Tulip Lane, Huntington, CT 06484).

ARKANSAS

Clive Queit (Box 1014, Fourways 2055, Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa) has acquired some rather astounding quartz crystals from Mount Ida, containing three-dimensional dendritic inclusions of galena crystals. The galena shows a macroscopic habit of cubes in offset patterns, reminiscent of some microscopic cuprite dendrites.

A new Fe-Zr phosphate species, mahlmoodite, has recently been described from the Union Carbide V mine at Wilson Springs, Garland County, where it occurs as microscopic, cream-white balls on sodic pyroxene (see American Mineralogist, 78, 437-440). Specimens of mahlmoodite are available from Sharon Cisneros (Mineralogical Research Company) and the Excalibur-Cureton Mineral Company. New Jersey collector Jack Troy reports that some of the material is associated with tiny (less than 1 mm) yellow octahedral crystals of strontian pyrochlore.

CALIFORNIA

Inesite from the Hale Creek mine, Trinity County, has been a familiar sight at mineral shows for many years, but an apparently new strike has recently put hundreds of specimens on the market. Most of these are matrix specimens, with crystals generally under 1 cm, and most less than 5 mm.

Another familiar California mineral is the famous bicolored elbaite from the Himalaya mine, Mesa Grande. Early in 1994 a series of pockets were encountered at the mine which yielded quantities of richly colored pink and green crystals, both as singles and on cleavelandite (albite) matrix. The largest crystal is doubly terminated and 23 cm in length. Specimens from the find are available from The Collector.

Ken Gochenour, of Tustin, California, has found some exceptional schorl crystals (to 10 cm) at the Mile Down pegmatite, Little Cahuilla Mountain, Riverside County. The brilliant crystals are very complex, with at least three prism forms and two pyramid forms. A few doubly terminated crystals are known. Ken has also collected some very odd microcline crystals from the Fano Simmons mine, Riverside County. These occur as nearly spherical clusters (to 5 cm) of curved crystals (to 5 mm) with pale smoky quartz crystals (to 2 cm) in parallel growths.

Dry Creek Minerals (Rancho Cordova, California) has been operating a claim near Frenchman's Reservoir, Lassen County, for "orchid" and rose quartz. The pale lilac to rose quartz is typically milky, but can show strong color and asterism. Most specimens have been cobbed from milky quartz which is marked by an abrupt transition to the colorful gem material. Other finds reported by Dry Creek Minerals include gold in quartz from the Yellow jacket Extension of the Alhambra mine, El Dorado County, and dolomite crystals from Carson Hill gold mine, Carson Hill, Calaveras County. The white frosted dolomite crystals (to 1+ cm) are composed of closely spaced rhombohedra slightly ofFset from each other, producing a flat, nearly tabular habit. Minor malachite is associated with the dolomite on some specimens.

When it comes to rare species, the Golden State has shared much of the spotlight over the past two years. Wolfgang Mueller has found what he believes are the best mandarinoite crystals (to 1 mm) from the Defiance workings of the Darwin mine, at Darwin. Additionally, the mine has produced native selenium that does not appear to have formed by a mine fire or some other post-mining process. The selenium occurs as thick, sooty mats (to 1 x 10 x 20 cm) coating ore. WolEgang has also identified naumannite from the location.

While it may lack the aesthetic appeal of the Queen mine's famous "blue-caps," a far rarer species of tourmaline, foitite, has recently been described from southern California (see American Mineralogist, 78, 1299-1303). Named for Franklin F. Foit, Jr., foitite is an alkali-deficient, iron-rich tourmaline that is visibly indistinguishable from schorl or dark-colored elbaite. While presently only the type material is known, foitite may ultimately prove not to be such a rare species after more "schorl" specimens have been better characterized.

A new copper tellurite, mcalpineite, has been discovered and named for the McAlpine mine in Tuolumne County (Mineralogical Magazine, in press). Mcalpineite occurs with keystoneite, choloalite and a number of unknowns on quartz, hessite and electrum. There are presently only four specimens known from the occurrence, but fortunately the mineral has also been found at the Centennial Eureka mine, Juab County, Utah (see "unknown no. 1," Rocks and Minerals, 68, 414-415). There it occurs with xocomecatlite, quetzalcoatlite, gartrellite, segnitite and several unknowns presently under investigation at the Geological Survey of Canada.

A third new mineral from California is ferrisurite, a Pb-Ca-[Fe.sup.3+] carbonate-silicate, which occurs as fibrous, crystal-line, olive-green masses associated with various lead and copper oxides from the Shirley Ann claim, Inyo County (American Mineralogist, 77, 1107-1111).

Lastly, Andy Roberts (Geological Survey of Canada) is currently working on a group of mercury-bearing minerals from the Clear Creek claim, San Benito County. There may be as many as eleven new minerals from this location: to date edoylerite, edgarbaileyite, wattersite, szymanskiite, deansmithite and peterbaylissite have been described, and several others will likely soon follow (see Mineralogical Record, 24, 471-475; 21, 215-220; 22, 269-272; Canadian Mineralogist, 28, 703-707; 31, 787-793; Canadian Mineralogist, in press). Mineralogical Research Company and Excalibur-Cureton Mineral Company both have some of these minerals.

COLORADO

Larry and Carmen Piekenbrock (1180 York, Canon City, CO 81212) found some euclase microcrystals at the Boomer mine, Badger Flats, Park County. The clear, equant crystals (to 2 mm) are tightly clustered with white fluorite crystals (to 3 mm) with dark purple corners.

The Rock Farm (PO. Box 2055, Ramona, CA 92065) has marketed a large selection of new goethite specimens from the Lake George area. The goethite consists of bright brown-black crystals in fans and sprays (to 2 cm) on rusty smoky quartz crystals (to 7 cm). There have also been at least two significant finds of amazonite and smoky quartz. Joseph Dorris (Box 413, Manitou Springs, CO 80829-0413) collected a large number of specimens from the Qui-Buc claims near Florissant, and Pegmatite Mining Specialists excavated several large pockets at the Rocket claim, near Lake George, one of which yielded smoky quartz crystals over half a meter long.

Brad Bowman (P.O. Box 2, Victor, CO) has a large new supply of sylvanite and calaverite crystals and masses (to several mm) on typical felsite matrix from the Cresson mine, Cripple Creek,Teller County. The specimens were recovered as a result of mining the dump.

A number of good specimens of epidote were collected last spring by John Holfert and others from the well-known occurrence at the Calumet mine, near Salida, where lustrous crystal groups to 20 cm were obtained. Specimens have been available from Jim Lewis (Diversified Minerals, 2866 Floribunda Dr., Salt Lake City, Utah 84117) and Jim Ferguson (Utah Minerals & Fossils, 12215 Coit Rd. #161A, Dallas,TX 75251)

IDAHO

The Bunker Hill mine near Kellogg has recently produced more very fine pyromorphite and cerussite crystals. Specimens are available from Wayne and Laura Thompson. The pyromorphites are truly spectacular, and of size, color and quality equal to the early 1980's finds. There have also been some excellent specimens of epidote found at Grouse Knoll near Donnelly, Valley County. Lustrous dark green crystals to 7 cm in translucent, pale smoky quartz were collected by Joseph Dorris. Elsewhere, Brad Bowman collected some brilliant black aenigmatite microcrystals (to 1 mm) frozen in pale-colored granular matrix from the Delamar mine, Delamar, Owyhee County.

MAINE

As reported previously, specimen mining at most of Maine's better-known pegmatites has continued, and a number of significant new finds have been made. In all, nearly 35 sites are being worked, and tourists should be advised that virtually all of these localities are currently closed to outside collectors. Those wanting to visit a site thought to be open should contact local collectors and dealers for up-to-date information.

A series of pockets of pale lilac to dark Royal-purple amethyst crystals was excavated in 1993 at the Intergalactic pit, within a hundred meters of the Eastman prospect, Deer Hill, Stow, by Dennis Creaser of Paris, Gary Howard of Bath and Jay Windover of Dixhield. One dark purple crystal with clear outer zones is about 10 x 10 x 20 cm (weighing about 5 kg) and is nicknamed the "Grape of Maine" Some flawless faceted stones to 59 carats have been cut, and the production of specimens has already reached two and a half metric tons, which is probably the largest find ever made during a single year on Deer Hill, although records are lacking. (The state record for a year's production of amethyst specimens is 3.5 metric tons at the Saltman prospect, Sweden.)

While large crystal bundles of bertrandite (to 5 cm) were discovered in Brazil in 1992, the West Hayes Ledge quarry in Greenwood has produced what may be the world's largest V-twins (to 1.5 x 2.1 x 2.3 cm) for the species. The largest twin is a doubly terminated "floater," resembling a "butterfly twin" in shape, but showing repeated cyclic twinning with a median crystal. These bertrandite crystals are also enormously thick for the species (to 3.7 mm). Duane Leavitt of Buckfield and Dennis Gross of Locke Mills had the original specimens. Additionally, some large pockets of clear-to-cloudy sceptered quartz crystals (to 15 cm) were found, which have very spindly host quartz crystals (to 7 x 1 cm).

Dennis Holden, Ronald E. Holden Jr., Mike Jacobs and Robert Hinkley have been the principal miners at the well-known Bennett quarry in Buckfield, where continued mining has provided hydroxylherderite crystals (to 2 cm), exceptional cleavelandite (albite) crystal groups (to 30 cm), attractive coatings of cookeite rosettes, microlite crystals of unusual dodecahedral form (to 2 cm), and numerous excellent quartz crystals, including some very attractive smoky quartz scepter growths on clear to milky quartz crystals (to 15 cm). Also found was a mass of reddish orange pollucite estimated to weigh about 75 kg and containing numerous flawless areas which could cut gemstones of 1 carat and more. Chemical and optical analyses by Eugene E. Foord indicate a composition of 80% pollucite with the remaining alkali portion mostly consisting of sodium. The fairly dark, rose-red pollucite is colored by manganese-bearing montmorillonite. Salmon-orange masses of lithiophilite (to several cm), and partly replaced by rhodochrosite, were found embedded in pollucite. The most interesting finds included bicolored and multicolored, gemmy, singly terminated tourmaline crystals. The best crystals (to 5 x 1.5 cm) have crimson-colored, lightly etched tips with successive zones of light olive to medium green attenuating to almost colorless, palest pink ends. The Bennett crystals superficially resemble some of the famous elbaites from the nearby (about 5 km) Mount Mica quarry finds of the 19th century. A distinctive feature of many of the Bennett quarry specimens is their being embedded in a sheaf-like mass of thinly bladed, botryoidal cookeite covering the "back half" of the crystals. One crystal (about 15 x 15 cm) has a thin, murky green color zone on deep red rubellite. Additionally, a white, fibrous to blocky mineral (designated unknown #8) has been collected in moderate abundance and has subsequently been found to be altered spodumene (E. E. Foord, personal communication).

Some new discoveries of world-class uraninite crystals (to 2 cm) were made at the long-idle "Swamp #1" quarry (Trebilcock occurrence), just north of the Consolidated Quarry group, near Topsham. Of special note are some large crystals collected by Jerry Van Velthuizen (Great Canadian Mineral Company, 53 Portneuf, Cantley Quebec, Canada J8V 3J1).The largest crystal is a multiple-growth octahedron with small cube faces, while the only slightly smaller smooth to mirror-faced crystals are cuboctahedral. Due to their being embedded in oligoclase near annite contacts, no important matrix specimens were recovered. Several dozen crystals of various sizes were found and are among the best specimens recovered in nearly forty years.

Cliff Trebilcock of Topsham, reported finding a rhabdophane-like mineral at the Havey quarry. The mineral consists of equant, bright yellow grains (to 1 + mm) in smoky quartz near grains of oligoclase. A visit to the area revealed that there were actually three quarries on the north side of the short School House Crossing road: the Garland quarry (near the entrance of the road at the Cathance River road) followed by two closely spaced quarries within a hundred meters to the west. For the sake of record, the eastern quarry is called the Havey #1 quarry, while the one to the west is Havey #2 quarry. Examination of both dumps did not yield any more of the rhabdophane-like mineral, but did produce another mineral in bright yellow grains: thorogummite (E. E. Foord, personal communication, 1993).The thorogummite occurs as 1-3 mm crude bipyramidal (?) crystals embedded in oligoclase and smoky quartz. Chemically, it is calcian and very phosphate-rich. Further study is pending. Both quarries produced a new discovery for the state: xenotime-(Y) in resinous, frequently distorted, low-angle bipyramids of greenish to reddish brown color, associated with the thorogummite and bright red monazite-(Ce) crystals (to 3 mm).

Euclase has been discovered at the west Fisher Prospect (west of the Fisher quarry) near Topsham, by Cliff Trebilcock and Dan Swenson. The crystals form sharp individuals to 2 mm and occur as drusy coatings on quartz crystals to several cm associated with cleavelandite. The euclase was identified by Al Falster.

Phil McCrillis of the Plumbago Mining Company (Mt. Mica Rarities, P.O. Box 10, Locke Mills, ME 04255) reported that several kilograms of facetable blue-green elbaite were mined at the Mount Mica quarry, Paris. Ray Sprague and Tony Wielkowicz (Mongort Minerals) have found a number of interesting specimens at their Emmons quarry in Greenwood. While only a limited amount of gem rough was located in 1994, they did find some excellent quartz and muscovite, and cleavelandite (albite) clusters to 30 cm. Among the more unusual minerals they found was a bonanza of goyazite crystals (2-4 mm) with steep rhombohedral form, a habit nearly unique to Greenwood. Additionally, some of the goyazite is coated by a smooth transparent shell of potassium feldspar, probably microcline (William B. Simmons, personal communication, 1995).

Dennis Durgin of Hebron end victor Haverinen of Paris worked the Mount Marie quarry near Paris and found a large suite of minerals including petalite cleavages to 20 cm, dark mauve cookeite crystals (to several mm) in clusters to 5 cm, blocks of purple lepidolite (to 30 cm), brown color-zoned microlite crystals (to 5 mm), and a well-formed 7-cm heterosite pseudomorph after triphylite. A minor amount of gem tourmaline rough was also recovered, and at least one fine dark-colored rubellite and several green stones have been cut.

Lastly, two new minerals have recently been described from Maine. The first of these, mccrillisite, is named for Dean and Phil McCrillis in recognition of the McCrillis family's dedication to pegmatite mining in the state of Maine. Mccrillisite is the Cs-dominant member of the gainesite group, and occurs as colorless, tetragonal bipyramids to 1 mm at Mount Mica. A complete description of the mineral, its occurrence and associated species is given in Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 839-842. The second new mineral is the potassium zirconium phosphate species, kosnarite, which has been described from both Mount Mica and Black Mountain (American Mineralogist, 78, 653-656). The mineral is named for Richard Kosnar, and occurs as colorless to pale blue-green pseudocubic rhombohedral crystals to nearly 1 mm. A limited number of specimens have been available from Mineralogical Research Company and Excalibur-Cureton Mineral Company.

MICHIGAN

Some very fine specimens have recently been mined by Richard Whiteman (Red Metal Minerals, P.O. Box 45, Hancock, MI 49930-0045) at the Caledonia mine in Ontonagan County. The specimens were found on the 4th level, 850 Stope of the Knowlton lode, and consist of some exceptionally well-crystallized native silver in arborescent groups several centimeters across, transparent scalenohedral calcite crystals to 4 cm associated with crystallized native copper and analcime in specimens to 25 cm, and some very good, reddish white datolite. As a lot, these are some of the finest specimens found in Michigan's famous "copper country" since its heyday, when hundreds of mines were in operation.

MISSOURI

There has been a huge find (several tons of material!) of calcite and iridescent marcasite at the Brushy Creek mine, Reynolds County. Some of the calcite crystals are reported to be half a meter in length, and are being excavated from a previously productive occurrence in the mine that has been "off limits" to collecting for a number of years. Very fine specimens of this material are available from Joe Kielbaso (Gemini Minerals, 522 Hathaway Tr., Tipp City, OH 45371), Mike New (Hilltop Minerals, PO. Box 50251, Tucson, AZ 85703) and others. Elsewhere in Missouri, transparent crystals of barite have recently been collected at the Lamb mine in Morgan County. Many of the crystals ate doubly terminated and form aggregates on massive barite up to about 15 cm. Specimens are available from Harold Prior (P.O. Box 591605, Houston, TX 77259-1605) and Glenn Williams (549 Aqua Ridge Dr., St. Louis, MO 63129), who made the discovery The occurrence is described in more detail in Mineral News (11, no. 1, p. 1-2).

MONTANA

The PC mine in Jefferson County is a well-known locality for Japan-raw twinned quartz crystals. Matrix specimens with crystals to 5 cm have recently been available from Dave Bunk Minerals (9240 W. 49th Ave., #317, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033).

NEVADA

John Seibel (P.O. Box 95, Tehachapi, CA 93561) has recently obtained some new anatase and brochantite specimens from Nevada. The anatase consists of brilliant brown crystals to 2 mm replacing titanite crystals to 3 cm from Corral Canyon, Dixie Valley, Churchill County. The brochantite is from Douglas Hill, near Lugwig, Lyon County, and forms rich, colorful coatings of microcrystals on chrysocolla.

Picropharmacolite in white silky crystals (to 1 cm) in divergent sprays (to 7 x 7 cm) has been identified from the Getchell mine, Humbodlt County. The mineral occurs on realgar and calcite, though it is not immediately determinable if it is a post-mining mineral or not. David Shannon has obtained some rich specimens of cervantite from the White Caps mine, Nye County. These form yellow to golden brown, waxy, bladed masses in vugs, cavities and veinlets in stibnite, sometimes with earthy patches (to 5 mm) of cream white stibiconite. Dave also had orange, splintery, acicular sideronatrite crystals (to 1 cm) in sulfur from the Sulfur pit, Crescent Valley, Eureka County.

Steve Pullman has obtained pyrostilpnite as scales and microcrystals from the 6700 level of the Dean mine, as well as scorodite microcrystals from the Wilson-Independence mine, both in Lander County. Steve also has obtained millimeter-sized masses of turanite on matrix, from the Gold Quarry mine [sic], as well as some excellent, dark brown-to-black jarosite crystals (to 3 mm) on matrix from the Goldstrike mine, both in Eureka County. Additional specimens of pyrostilpnite from the Morey mine, Nye County, are available from Sharon Cisneros (Mineralogical Research Company).

NEW HAMPSHIRE

The famous green fluorite locality, the William Wise mine near Westmoreland, has recently been acquired by Jim Tovey and Bob Borofsky (Jolynne Associates, Inc.) and is once again being mined for specimens. Several large pockets have already been excavated, yielding a number of groups of intergrown octahedral crystals associated with quartz. A quantity of faceting-grade rough was also recovered, and plans for continued mining are in progress. Specimens from this venture have been available through Bryan and Kathryn Lees (Collector's Edge). The fluorites are not the only new find from Westmoreland. New England collector Donald Dallaire recently brought to our attention a new occurrence of wulfenite, as well. Small (1 mm) crystals of orange, tabular to bipyramidal wulfenite have been found on a single specimen of quartz crystals collected in October, 1990. Pale gray-green fluorite is associated with the quartz, and galena was noted in close proximity to the specimen, though none is present on it. Molybdenite and ferrimolybdite are also known from the Wise mine, and it is believed the wulfenite probably formed as a result of oxidation by downward migrating groundwater. Additional specimens may be present at the locality or on uncleaned specimens in collections, though they may not be apparent due to the orange-brown iron oxide that coats most of the quartz.

Mary Johnson of the Gemological Institute of America reports that she has found and identified tan to cream-colored hurlbutite grains (to several mm) as a component of the bertrandite pseudomorphs after beryl crystals from the Beauregard mine, near Gilsum.

NEW JERSEY

New Jersey collector Bill Butkowski reports that the Millington quarry, Bernard's Township, Somerset County, has produced a quantity of nice specimens over the past year. The traprock quarries of northern New jersey constitute one of North America's classic localities for zeolites and related minerals, and it is particularly refreshing to learn that once again limited organized collecting trips are being made possible through the quarry owners. Excellent specimens of green prehnite (some as lustrous balls up to 3 cm), natrolite, pectolite, quartz pseudomorphs after anhydrite, gypsum and sphalerite have been recovered. Bill also reports that some very good arborescent copper specimens (to 15 cm) have been found at the Chimney Rock quarry, near Bridgewater.

NEW MEXICO

Ray De Mark and Brian Huntsman (Zuni Minerals, 530 E. Arch St., Marquette, MI 49855) mined a sizeable and very attractive lot of purple octahedral fluorite crystals from the Judith Lynn claim in the Pine Canyon deposit, Grant County. In addition to the fluorites, Ray and Brian also collected some rather aesthetic chalcedony geodes from a rhyolite flow near Lordsburg. The typically lobate and crenulate chalcedony fluoresces bright green under ultraviolet light, and is particularly attractive for the mineral. Also new from New Mexico are some excellent, dark green (nearly black) dufrenite crystals to 5 mm from the Santa Rita mine, Grant County, obtained by Steve Pullman; and green microcrystals of mackayite have been collected from a prospect near the Lone Pine mine, Catron County, by Patrick Haynes (Virgin Mining Company, PO. Box 1531, Cortez, CO 81321).

Our apologies are extended to an unrecorded source who provided information on a new scrutinyite location: the Snake Pit mine, Hansonburg district, Socorro County, where scrutinyite occurs as elongated black crystals on quartz crystals with caledonite, or as encrustations on galena. Additional species from the mine include libethenite, pseudomalachite, turquoise crystals (to 0.5 mm), and crude tiny phosgenite crystals--all as microcrystals.

NEW YORK

The remaining portions of the cubic magnetite occurrence on the 2500-foot level of the Z.C.A. #4 mine at Balmat, St. Lawrence County, were finally mined out early in 1994. Many more excellent magnetite specimens were recovered, as well as interesting yellow and colorless sphalerite crystals. Additionally, some very rich specimens of donpeacorite and turneaureite were collected by the Z.C.A. geologists and staff from the New York State Museum and the Canadian Museum of Nature over the winter. Thanks to the continued cooperation of the Zinc Corporation of America, excellent specimens of these two rare minerals now reside in a number of museums. Both Steve Chamberlain and Ken Hollmann (PO. Box 134, Center Rutland, VT 05736) report that some very fine sphalerite, calcite, barite and celestine specimens have been found at the nearby Hyatt mine, at Talcville, St. Lawrence County. Some of the golden yellow sphalerites and certainly the tabular blue celestine crystals (to 10 cm) are among the best ever recovered from the Balmat district.

Elsewhere in upstate New York, highway construction on SR30, north of Long Lake village has exposed a series of small fluorite-calcite veins cutting granitic gneiss. Pale blue to purplish gray octahedral fluorite crystals up to 2 cm associated with calcite, and often coated with acicular microcrystals of epidote, chamosite and rare kainosite-(Y), have been collected.

Highway construction near Moon Lake, approximately 5 km northeast of Theresa, Jefferson County, uncovered a zone of brecciated marble containing numerous crystals of grayblue apatite, some up to 15 cm in length. The locality is a typical of most apatite occurrences in Grenvillian rocks in that the crystals occur in what appears to be a fault breccia, cemented by crystals of calcite with occasional barite, hematite and other minerals.

Last September,John Medici (7272 Macbeth Dr., Dublin, OH 43017) was able to successfully extract two large pockets of "herkimer diamonds" (quartz) intact from the wellknown diggings on Stone Arabia Road, near Fonda. This was accomplished with a masonry saw, much hard labor and many subsequent hours spent reconstructing a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle of the crystal contents. One of the resulting specimens was displayed at this year's Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, with many "oohs" and "ahs" heard as visitors peered through the pocket opening into an illuminated fairyland of crystals.

NORTH CAROLINA

David and Celia Lare collected some very interesting dolomite crystals (to 1 cm) at the Triangle quarry, near Cary. The colorless to white crystals occur as tightly intergrown spherical clusters (to 1 cm) on drusy and clay-coated ankerite.

OHIO

John Medici (7272 Macbeth Dr., Dublin, OH 43017) collected some remarkable pyrite specimens from Ross County in 1993. Some, which resemble fulgurites, are nearly a meter long, and are believed to have formed in worm burrows in a limey sediment. Other interesting finds made by John over the past year include some complex fluorite crystals from the Auglaise quarry, showing tetrahexahedral and hexoctahedral faces, some good strontianite specimens from Lime City, and some complex pyrite crystals from Duff's quarry, near Huntsville.

OKLAHOMA

David London (IXOR, 530 Garland Court, Norman, OK 73072) reports the rediscovery of an occurrence of unusual smoky quartz crystals in McCurtain County. Most of these have clear, colorless cores with skeletal smoky quartz overgrowths. Approximately 25 kg of crystals are available. London also collected a quantity of unusual calcite specimens from the Arbuckle Mountains in southern Oklahoma. These also show a history of multiple growth, with scalenohedrons overgrown by twinned rhombs, and phantoms defined by planes of solid inclusions. Some occur with natural asphalt, suggesting they may have formed in a mixed brine-petroleum suspension. The specimens range in size from single rhombs 5 to 10 cm, to large crystal plates over 25 cm.

In addition to the quartz and calcite finds, London has also recently excavated some rather remarkable barite rose specimens from east of Noble, Cleaveland County. Hundreds of specimens were recovered in all size ranges, including several exceptionally large clusters over a meter across!

OREGON

Dave Bunk Minerals has recently obtained a large quantity of very attractive calcite and analcime specimens from McMinnville, Yamhill County. The calcite crystals are pale orange in color, and occur together with the analcime in cavities in scoriaceous basalt.

PENNSYLVANIA

While we have nothing exciting to report in the way of new mineral specimens having been found in Pennsylvania, there is some very exciting news to report concerning some new specimens on display in this state! Dr. Robert Witkowski, Research Associate at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Pittsburgh), has informed us that the museum has recently acquired an outstanding 23 x 34-cm specimen of rhodochrosite from t4e famous Sweet Home mine near Alma, Colorado, in addition to a suite of 164 fabulous mineral specimens from the former Soviet Union. Several of these are among the finest known examples of their kind, and include a magnificent 13-cm wire silver from Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, a 9-cm stibnite with barite from Kadamdzhai. Osh Oblast, Kyrgyzstan, a 12-cm plate of betekhtinite crystals with 6-cm crystals partially replaced by covellite, superb crystals of native copper, axinite, perovskite and numerous other fabulous specimens. The acquisition of these minerals was made possible through the cooperative efforts of museum staff, Bryan Lees and the Hillman Foundation.

UTAH

Again, apologies are due to an unrecorded source who showed some attractive mint-green dog-tooth calcite crystals (to 1 cm) in "small cabinet" sized clusters (to 10 cm) from Horse Canyon, San Juan County. The green color is reportedly due to vanadium, and the specimens were found in a petrified wood log.

Recent investigations by Andy Roberts and Joe Marty have identified the rare thallium minerals weissbergite and parapierrotite from Lookout Pass, in southwestern Toole County. Specimens of the parapierrotite are available from Mineralogical Research Company.

Most of us are probably unaware of the great diversity of minerals that have come from Kennecott's huge copper mine at gingham, Utah. Those fortunate enough to visit Jim Lewis's booth (Diversified Minerals) at last year's Denver Show could not help but be enlightened by the amazing variety of minerals he had from that locality. Among these were some very good tetrahedrite and pyrite, botryoidal azurite and malachite with chrysocolla, prismatic blue vivianite crystals to 5 cm, yellow-white hemispheres of wavellite on matrix, okenite, gypsum, prehnite, chalcanthite and good, rich blue turquoise specimens to 12 cm. Also among Diversified's stock was an appealing selection of variscite associated with abundant secondary phosphates from Clay Canyon? near Fairfield.

The famous topaz rhyolites from the Thomas Range continue to yield excellent specimens. The Maynard claim recently produced a large number of single topaz crystals to 4 cm, while hematite and topaz pseudomorphs after garnet (to 8 mm) have been collected from Pismire Wash. Additionally, a new but small supply of bixbyite crystals (generally 1 cm) from the Cubic claims in Topaz Valley, has also appeared.

Other new finds from Utah include thin, bladed, centimeter-size crystals of hematite from the Creole mine, Beaver County (John Seibel Minerals); pale blue botryoidal smithsonite, calcite, rosasite, plattnerite and aurichalcite from the Hidden Treasure mine, north of Ophir, Tooele County, available from Jim McGlasson; rich purple crusts of cobaltomenite on rock from the Parco mine group, Thompson District, Grand County, and microcrystals of pharmacosiderite, metazeunerite and olivenite from the Big Indian mine, near La Sal, San Juan County (Virgin Mining).

VERMONT

Mike Haritos (S.T.D. Mineral Company, 22 Spring Hill Rd., Hyde Park, MA 02136) has recently obtained a small lot of some very well-crystallized clinozoisite specimens from Eden Mills. Most specimens consist of single, terminated, green-brown crystals from 3 to 5 cm, though a few crystal groups to 10 cm were recovered. The specimens are presumed to have occurred in rodingite veins in serpentinite at the Rubberoid Asbestos mine.

VIRGINIA

Bill Baltzley of the Powhatan Mining Company (Route 5, box 6065, Amelia, VA 23002) reports that additional pods of rare fluoride minerals (pachnolite, chiolite, elpasoite, cryolite, thomsenolite, ralstonite) have been found during 1993 at the Morefield pegmatite, near Amelia.

WISCONSIN

Some remarkable crystals of chalcocite have been found on the 1000-foot level of the Flambeau mine near Ladysmith. The best of these resemble some of the specimens from Cornwall, England, which they rival in both size and crystal perfection. Some of the finest are the sharp thumbnail and small cabinet specimens, though very fine plates of crystals over a foot across have been recovered. Some of the crystals show a blue (presumably bornite) or golden (presumably chalcopyrite) patina, and certainly rank with the best of North American chalcocites. Specimens are being marketed by Casey Jones (Burminco, 128 S. Encinitas Ave., Monrovia, CA 91016).

In addition to the chalcocite, Wisconsin has also produced some very good specimens of calcite from the Vulcan quarry near Racine. The crystals are predominantly scalenohedral and gray in color, and often show good phantoms. Flat plates of crystals up to 25 cm have been available from Beau Gordon, Kevin Ponzio (Rock-n-Record, P.O. Box 44, Plymouth, WI 53073) and others. The crystals were apparently found in a clay-filled zone which also produced cuboctahedral crystals of pyrite, marcasite, and other minerals.

WYOMING

Larry and Carmen Piekenbrock found some remarkable pyrite crystals in the montmorillonite of the bona beds, Green River .The crystals (to 1 mm) form three dimensional, six-pointed aggregates of deeply striated, elongated crystals showing cube and octahedron faces.

Karen and Robert Ross (Clarion Drive, Gillette, WY) report finding colorless to cloudy gypsum crystals and fishtail twins (both to 5 cm) in soil near Paintbrush Drive, Gillette, Campbell County.

AFGHANISTAN

While we have seen numerous fine crystals of lazurite from the lapis lazuli mines in the Kokscha Valley of Badakshan over the past decade, we seldom see other minerals from these deposits. At least one such item was available from Herb Obodda at the 1994 Denver Show, which consisted of small but well-formed crystals of phlogopite in marble. The crystals fluoresce orange in longwave ultraviolet light, and creamy blue-white in shortwave light. Another new find seen at the same show was some lustrous brown prismatic crystals of vesuvianite similar to those from Val d'Osta in Italy. The crystals, which average about 2 cm and form groups up to about 8 cm, are from Nuristan, and were available from Dudley Blauwet (Mountain Minerals International).

Daud Wafa (42 Elisabethenstrasse, 70197 Stuttgart, Germany) has had a number of new gem elbaite crystals from Afghanistan. The Gusalaka mine, near Pech, Kunar, produced some well-terminated, flawless, uniformly pale blue indicolite crystals to 5 cm. A few specimens have dark blue cores with paler blue outer zones. Another new locality, the Kligal mine, near Paprok, produced similar flawless bluegreen crystals to 7 cm. A third locality also near Paprok, produced some very interesting pastel, color-zoned crystals. The terminations of these crystals are consistently blue while the other half of the crystals vary from pale pink to nearly colorless. Large crystals (5-10 cm) are usually completely translucent without facetable areas. One crystal labeled as coming from Paprok is 9 cm long and is gemmy along its length with some facetable areas. The complex termination (simple pyramid and ditrigonal pyramid) is pink, and the rest of the crystal mostly lime-green along its length.

Five Lions Gems (P.O. Box 234848, San Jose, California 95123-3848) reported that some intense mint-green gem quality elbaite crystals (to 5 cm) are coming from a new locality in Kunar.

ALGERIA

The large crystals of senarmontite from Hamimat, Constantine, are classic, and while considered by most to represent the world's finest for the species, are seldom available in good specimens today. However, some very good pieces have recently been collected from a dump several kilometers from the mine, and were available from Dr. Jochen Hintze (Im Busche 1, D 4923 Extertal-Lassbruch, Germany) at the 1994 Denver Show. The best of these consist of aggregates of gray, centimeter-sized octahedrons up to 10 cm, with surprisingly little damage, considering they were recovered from dump material.

ARGENTINA

Helvite crystals to 4 mm have been found at the Chinold mine, Cordoba Province. Specimens have been available from Steve Pullman.

AUSTRALIA

Blair Gartrell (Westaus Mineral Museum) had three new rare mineral species at the 1994 Tucson Show. All are from Western Australia, and include ernienickelite from the SM7 pit, Siberia (Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 333-337), kintoreite from Mt. Murray, and widgiemoolthalite from Widgiemooltha (American Mineralogist, 78, 819-821; Mineralogical Record, 25, 283-291). Interestingly, the first of these minerals, ernienickelite, may also occur in the Kempirsay massif, southern Urals, Russia, where it has been described as the Ni-analog of chalcophanite (American Mineralogist, 79, 388389).

Large groups of pale green, acicular gypsum crystals are currently available from Martin Rosser Minerals (Orth Str. 13, 81245 Munich, Germany), Rod and Helen Tyson (Tysons' Minerals) and others. The sparkling crystals are quite attractive. They have formed in a Playa lake (Pernattys Lagoon) near Mt. Gunson, South Australia. The green color is reportedly due to effluent from a nearby copper mine.

AUSTRIA

Denis Gravier (Chemin de Ronde, 01500 Ambronay, France) frequently has micromount specimens in addition to hand-sized specimens. Among his recent offerings are some gemmy, dark green botryoidal aggregates of hyalite opal (to 2 mm) profusely coating matrix from Badersdorf, Burgenland.

BOLIVIA

Alfred Petrov (1728 Casilla, Cochamba, Bolivia) has visited Ahlfeld's famed Cristalmuya locality, about 200 m downhill from the San Francisco asbestos mine, and approximately 50 km from Villa Tunari, Chapare province, Cochabamba department, where he collected a quantity of milky gray doubly terminated danburite crystals to 4 cm. The occurrence is exposed along a stream which cuts through a metamorphosed evaporite/sandstone sequence (in the Limbo Formation), which is cut by veins of crocidolite. In addition to the danburite, he discovered about 20 specimens of the new tourmaline species povondraite (in about 25 trips to the locality!). Povondraite was previously described as ferridravite, but recent crystal structure investigation has led to the redefinition and renaming of the species (American Mineralogist, 78, 433-436). Based on Alfred's field work, it is now known that povondraite formed by contact metamorphism of cold, fist-sized volcanic clasts entrained within a metamorphosed evaporite. Clasts of sedimentary rock appear to have schorl developed around their perimeters rather than povondraite. Povondraite is black with a brilliant luster, and the crystals (to several mm) are thickly intergrown and indistinct. Associated species include: drusy microcline, dolomite, talc, gypsum, danburite, pyrite, hematite, magnesite (in hexagonal prisms) and rarely boracite.

Another interesting discovery by Alfred Petrov is a new supply of aheylite from the lower vein of the huge Hunanui mine, Hunanui, Oruro Department. The aheylite occurs as pale gray, translucent spheres (to several mm) associated with cloudy white variscite and occasional colorless wavellite crystals (to 1 mm) in vugs in cassiterite/quartz matrix. Hunanui has also been the source of a number of other fine specimens, available from Alfred, Rock Currier (Jewel Tunnel Imports) and others: large vivianite crystals; superb large (to 4 x 4 cm) parallel groupings of lime green ludlamite crystals on pyrite, siderite, and vivianite matrix; lustrous ferberite V-twins (to 15 x 15 cm) and several specimens (to 7 x 5 cm) of openly branched cronstedtite crystals (to 5 mm) on matrix were also offered. "Herkimer diamond"-like quartz crystals to 1.5 cm from Rincon de Tigre, north of the Ani mine, in eastern Santa Cruz Department were also available. These crystals often contain three-phase fluid inclusions (to 5 mm) with small movable bubbles (to 0.5 mm) and granular to branching black unknown solids of similar size, which have been arbitrarily called "hydrocarbon." Large, cloudy to translucent brown rhombohedral siderite crystals (to 7 cm) studded with bright octahedral pyrite crystals (to 3 mm) from the Colavi mine, about 50 km from Potosi, were also noted. Krutaite, chalcomenite, kerstenite and other rare selenium minerals from the El Dragon mine, Potosi, continue to be available, and at the 1995 Tucson Show, both Rock Currier and Gary Nagin (Crystal Springs Mining Company, PO. Box 40, Royal, AR 71968) had a large supply of new vivianite specimens from the famed locality at Morococala, Oruro Department.

Both Alfred Petrov and Bob Jackson (PO. Box 2652, Renton, WA 98056) report that a new find of "ametrine" crystals (purple and yellow quartz) has been made at the Ani mine (also seen spelled "Anahi"), in extreme eastern Santa Cruz department. Most of the crystals, which occur up to 10 cm, are highly etched and may have prominent but irregular {0001} faces. The nearest town, Corumba, is in another country (Matto Grosso, Brazil), and has frequently appeared on collector labels, but only the locality in Bolivia, which extends over several kilometers, is known to have yielded specimens (see Mineral News, 10, No. 6, 1-2).

BRAZIL

With all the gem pegmatites and numerous other working mines in Brazil, we seldom hear about minerals collected from roadcuts. At least one such new occurrence came to light at the 1995 Tucson Show, as attractive cinnamon-brown crystals of healandite (Valadares Minerals, Rua Capote Valente, 513, Ap. 133 CEP 05409 Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, S.P, Brazil). The crystals, which range in size from 0.5 to 2 cm, occur in celadonite(?)-lined vesicles in basalt, resulting in specimens with a pleasing contrast. The occurrence is reported to be in a flood basalt similar to those found in Rio Grande do Sul, but in the State of Parana, near Pato Branco. Also new from Valadares Minerals were some truly remarkable transparent gypsum crystals (to 30 cm) on amethyst geode sections from the Irai district, Rio Grande do Sul, and gemmy color-zoned crystals of kyanite from an unspecified locality in Goias.

Dr. Reinhard Wegner (Universidade Federal Da Paraiba, Dep. de Mineracao, 58.100 Campina Grande, Paraiba, Brazil) has recently obtained a quantity of chrysoberyl crystals in mica schist from one of the emerald occurrences near Carnaiba, Bahia. The crystals are very sharp and up to 3 cm, but have a dark charcoal-gray color, probably due to inclusions. Virtually all are textbook examples of cyclic twins, and show the alexandrite effect along their edges.

Luiz Menezes (761 Rua Andre Cavalcante, Belo Horizonte 30430-110, Brazil) has reported a number of new finds in Minas Gerais. Dark bluish green amazonite crystals (to 20 cm) have been found at Santa Maria de Itabira. The locality was discovered in 1990, but production really began in 1994. The amazonite, which is of lapidary grade, is mostly being recovered from a pegmatite in gneiss. Interesting accessory minerals include phenakite and euclase, as 2-3 mm crystals, and a fairly large amount or orange-brown humboldtine. The humboldtine is entirely natural and not the result of any chemical treatment of the specimens. The Golconda mine, near Governador Valadares, has produced a pocket of gemmy, plumose, brush-like indicolite crystals (to 8 x 2 cm). Green tourmaline crystals with small pyrite crystals (to 2 mm) sprinkled on their ends, as well as schorl crystals with fibrous terminations are being found at Sao Jose de Pederneira. Bara do Salinas is producing pastel bicolored elbaite "scepters" (to several cm) as well as pastel rubellite crystals. Some exceptional black dravite crystals (to 4 x 10 cm) with minor chlorite/biotite schist matrix have been coming from an outcrop near Souza. Brilliant, though small (to 1 cm), V-twinned crystals of red rutile are coming out of a small mine near Diamantina. The mine can only be worked in the rainy season, as the crystals require an abundant water supply for their efficient recovery from the sandy/muddy debris in which they occur. Large numbers of transparent, imperial-color topaz crystals (generally less than 5 cm) are being found at the Rodrigo Silva area near Ouro Preto. In addition to specimens from these finds, Luiz also has a large selection of colorless euclase crystals with central blue stripes to 1 cm from Ecuador, Rio Grande do Norte.

Also new are some very noteworthy specimens of secondary phosphate minerals. Excellent specimens of bright pink hureaulite crystals have been found at both Conselheira Pena, and at the Criminoso mine, north of Sao Jose da Safira, Minas Gerais. The former are associated with a well-crystallized, gray reddingite-like mineral, triphylite, vivianite and frondelite, and are available from both Luis Menezes and Carlos Barbosa (Rue Cell Roberto Soares Ferreira 586, Bairro Vila Bretas, 35030 Governador Valaderes, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The latter are available from the Rorksmiths and are associated with rich barbosalite, rockbridgeite, vivianite and other minerals. Both lots of hureaulite are among the best for the species we have seen in a long time.

Carlos Barbosa reports that the Brumado mine, Brumado, Bahia, has recently produced greenish gray calcian dravite crystals to 8 cm. These form symmetrical six-sided prisms with simple three-sided pyramids. The larger crystals are frequently intergrown in jackstraw arrangements, sprinkled with small magnesite crystals. Some very steep-angle dolomite rhombohedra to several cm have also been recovered, as have some superb centimeter-sized crystals of yellow-brown florencite-(Ce). Carlos also reports that Linopolis is producing many brazilianite crystals (to 5 cm) as well as eosphorite and triphylite gemmy enough to be cut into flawless 0.5 ct gems. From Divino de Laranjeiras, Linopolis, are some fascinating hollow pseudomorphs of drusy to granular white adularla after eosphorite (to 3 x 7 cm in clusters to 20 cm). A few pale pinkish tan rhodochrosite crystal clusters (to 2 cm) were found on silvery to bronzy lepidolite/zinowaldite-coated cleavelandite (albite) from Agua Roa, Minas Gerais. Xenotime-(Y) as single gemmy crystals (to 7 mm) with acicular inclusions have been found at Piata, and subparallel groups of cloudy brown crystals (to 1 cm) have come from Ibiajara, both in the state of Bahia. There has been a considerable quantity of lilac to blue fluorapatite crystals available from the Golconda pegmatite, near Governador Valedares, and some transparent prismatic phenakite crystals with complex terminations (to 1 cm) from Carai, Minas Gerais.

Quartz is such an omnipresent species that new localities, especially prolific ones, can easily come and go without notice. Luiz Menezes has had a wide selection over the past two years. Last year his "Cathedral" quartz crystals from the Jaboti mine, Sao Geraldo do Baixio, Minas Gerais, went unnoticed by reporters, but not collectors. The essentially flawless crystals (to 10 cm) frequently show prisms faces sutured by multiple secondary crystals in pseudo-parallel growth. Very large 5 faces (over a cm) and occasional small x faces present a habit which the uninitiated would declare to be Swiss in origin. A number of the crystals are almost featureless but for the edge intersections of the faces themselves, and show the uniform delicately smoky color to which even the specialist would feel comfortable in assigning an alpine Swiss origin.

Luiz also had some interesting parallel-growth pale smoky tabular quartz crystals from the Macaco mine, also in Minas Gerais. These very bright, almost unstriated crystals (to 15 cm) sometimes have secondary colorless quartz overgrowths in parallel position on the edges and tips of the host crystals. Some multiply terminated, yet very smooth-faced, equant, pale, smoky quartz crystals (to 5+ cm) were also produced from the Macaco mine, a few with dark smoky stripes parallel to and next to crystal edges. Other specimens appear to have formed as overgrowths on crystal shards, yielding most unusual shapes. Rock Currier recently obtained some new faden quartz crystals from Diamantina, Minas Gerais. The colorless, cloudy to transparent crystals (to 10 cm) are typically tabular, sometimes with a curved habit and multiple terminations, and show irregular internal "threads" transecting the crystal where regrowth occurred.

Ely F. de Sonza (Rue Pedro 1, No. 7 - Gr. 607, Rio de Janeiro) has recovered some new beryl crystals in jackstraw clusters from his Mimoso do Sul mine in Mimoso do Sul county, Minas Gerais. Complex rhombohedral phenakite crystals (to several cm) have been found in association. Additionally, more green and blue gem beryl crystals (to 7 cm) with unusual modifications and jackstraw clusters of simple hexagonal aquamarine crystals (to several cm) on microcline crystals (to 15 cm) have been found. The mine has also yielded some new, clear topaz crystals in parallel growths (to 12 cm), as well as reddish purple spheroidal lepidolite specimens (to 20 cm). Spheroidal lepidolite has also recently been found at Jose do Linto, Itinga, Minas Gerais.

Some very large morganite beryl crystals (to 25 kg!) have been found at Resplendor, a locality already famous for its huge gem spodumene crystals. Several only slightly smaller crystals (to 30 cm) on and off matrix show a pleasant peachy orange color, which is usually photosensitive and bleaches to pure pink. Morphologically, the crystals resemble those from Corrego do Urucum, though some may be more complex. Specimens are available from Valadares Minerals. The Resplendor mine has also produced a number of schorl crystals to 20 cm, many of which are completely overgrown with medium purple tourmaline.

For those interested in rare species, indium minerals are always certain to raise an eyebrow or two, especially if they are new. Geochemically, indium is often associated with tin, and the Goias Tin Province has recently produced the eighth known indium-dominant species, yanomamite, a hydrated indium arsenate. The mineral occurs as yellow-green crystals and grains associated with scorodite in quartz-topaz greisen at the Mangabeira tin deposit in Goias (see the European Journal of Mineralogy, 6, 245-254 for a complete description). A small number of specimens have been available from Luis Menezes

Another rarity recently available from Luiz is some exceptionally large (5-6 mm) crystals labeled as "georgechaoite" from Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais. This identification, which, in good faith, was based on a strong potassium peak in the qualitative EDS X-ray spectrum of the mineral, has subsequently been found to be in error. Full quantitative microprobe analyses done on these and similar specimens from the locality have shown that, while present, K never exceeds Na in the unit formula (R. A. Gault, personal communication). Therefore the species is gaidonnayite rather than georgechaoite. Though perhaps not as rare as georgechaoite, the gaidonnayite crystals are certainly spectacular nonetheless.

Lastly, we have noted a number of "cookeite" specimens from Brazil have recently reached the marketplace. Few if any of these have been positively identified. Cookeite, although micaceous, does not particularly look like a true mica, and is actually a chlorite-group mineral. It almost always forms in radial botryoids. Likewise, more and more of what are probably muscovite specimens are being sold under the seemingly more desirable name, lepidolite.

CANADA

Most of the new mineral discoveries in Canada this year seem to have been made either in the far north, the western provinces or in Quebec. Certainly the most potentially interesting and economically important new find in Canada has been the new diamond occurrences in the Northwest Territories. Most of the activity has centered around Lac de Gras, approximately 300 km northeast of Yellowknife. To date, over 75 kimberlite pipes have been discovered, and 35 of these have been shown to contain diamonds. Most found so far have been small and of industrial grade, though several gem-quality crystals in the 2-4 carat range have been reported. While it will certainly be a few years before any mines come into production, every indication suggests they will. Whether any diamond crystals from these mines will ever reach the collector market is, of course, another question.

One of the important new finds is the spinel crystals from near MacDonald Island, Northwest Territories. The lustrous black crystals are probably among the most complex large crystals of spinel known from North America. The specimens, which were collected by Brad Wilson (Alpine Gems, P.O. Box 352, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 4W2), for the most part consist of clusters of gray-white pyroxene crystals studded with sharp, dark blue-black crystals of spinel commonly 1-3 cm (though much larger crystals have been found). The deposit lies in a skarn, and most of the specimens have been developed by acid dissolution of enclosing calcite, so that there is minimum damage to the crystals. Additional specimens are available from Gilles Haineault (2266 St-Alexandre, Longueuil, Quebec J4J 3T9) and Tysons' Minerals.

The Tysons also have more newly collected Yukon phosphates (particularly some very fine whiteite, collinsite and wardite) as well as some new pale yellow-green gemmy fluorapatite crystals and velvety black dravite/schorl specimens from the Scepter claim near Emerald Lake, Hess Mountains, Yukon. This locality is well-known for its large sceptered smoky quartz crystals. Other new items of interest from Tysons' include some gypsum crystals from near Hines Creek, Alberta, which occur as simple prismatic and pinacoidal crystals and as "fishtail" twins to 20 cm long; pistachio-green epidote crystals (to l cm) on quartz crystals from Saward, British Columbia; more excellent magnesite and dolomite crystals from Mount Brussilof, near Radium, British Columbia; and more of the branching groups of stacked, white cubic halite crystals from Rocanville, Saskatchewan.

Mark Mauthner of the University of British Columbia reports that some good specimens of cobaltite from the Merry Widow mine at Benson Lake, near Port McNeil (on Vancouver Island, British Columbia) were collected in the fall of 1992 by Don Graham of Vancouver. These consist of brilliant silvery cuboctahedral crystals up to nearly a centimeter, associated with magnetite skarn. Specimens are being marketed through the Collectable Earth shop at UBC's Williams Geological Museum (6339 Stores Rd., Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4), Tysons and others.

Elsewhere in British Columbia, Brad Wilson reports that good smoky quartz, spessartine and beryl specimens have been found in pegmatites in the Passmore area; gem-quality opal has been found near Vernon; and a small amount of gem-quality, bronze-colored and blue-gray corundum has been recovered from the Blu Starr mining claims in the Slocan Valley These localities are all currently under claim, though the opal mine may be open to collectors on a fee basis (contact Okanagan Opal Inc., P.O. Box 298, Vernon, B.C. VIT 6M2 for information). Brad has also recently informed us that colorless Japan-law twinned quartz crystals up to 5 cm have been coming out of the Slocan area, and large smoky quartz, microcline and amethyst crystals have been found on Dunn Peak, south of Clearwater, British Columbia. Pyrostilpnite as submetallic red scales and crystals (to I mm) has been found at the Van Silver claim near Whistler, and rucklidgeite has been found with quartz from Bear Mountain, near Harrison Lake, Hotsprings (both available from Steve Pullman).

In Quebec, continued quarrying at Mont Saint-Hilaire has produced good specimens of genthelvite, sodalite (hackmanite), catapleiite, natrolite, analcime and sugilite. Perhaps the most noteworthy of these are the sodalite and sugilite, which were collected by Gilles Haineault in the spring and early summer of 1994. The sodalites consist of sharp dodecahedral crystals to 3 cm in groups up to nearly 10 cm. Most of the crystals are encrusted with drusy albite, but their interiors are glassy yellow. The sugilites were found in a marble xenolith associated with pectolite. The crystals may be the world's largest (up to 2 cm!) and look like a hexagonal bipyramid of rose quartz. Regrettably, only a few of these were found. For the species collectors, continuing research on the long list of unknowns from Mont Saint-Hilaire has resulted in the description of two more new minerals. Gaultite, a hydrated sodium-zinc silicate, has been named for Robert Gault, Research Assistant at the Canadian Museum of Nature, in recognition of his many years of dedicated work on the minerals of the locality. At present the holotype is the only known specimen. (For a complete description of the mineral, see Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 855-863.) The second new species is petersenite-(Ce), which was named for Ole Petersen, curator of minerals at the Geologisk Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark, for his many contributions to the understanding of alkaic syenite minerals (see Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 405-414).

Elsewhere in Quebec, some very good transparent quartz crystals have been mined at the Mines Cristal Kebec (formerly known as the Adams farm prospect) near Lawrenceville. The Parker mine near Notre-Dame-du-Laus has again been worked, yielding some very fine spinel and forsterite specimens. Specimens from both these finds, as well as an excellent selection of cubanite crystals from the Henderson mine, Chibougamau, have been available from the Great Canadian Mineral Company. Great Canadian has also recently collected some quite nice specimens of "stilbite" (presently unanalyzed) associated with chabazite, healandite and occasional mesolite (?) from a series of relatively new roadcuts on the Maniwaki-Temiscamingue road approximately 24 km northwest of Maniwaki, and 2-4 km west of the entrance to the ZEC Bras-Coupe-Desert. These minerals occur in a mineralized fracture zone in Grenville metasediments, and are among the best zeolites yet found in such a paragenesis. Some of the "stilbite" bow-ties and spheres are up to 3 cm and quite aesthetic. A paragenetically similar occurrence for fluorescent chabazite near Bancroft, Ontario, is described by Schlachtman in Mineral News (11, no. 1, p.4). In the eastern townships area of the province the B.C. asbestos mine at Black Lake, has produced more good chromian grossular specimens, while the Jeffrey mine at Asbestos has produced more small but nice grossular (hessonite) specimens and a few small, exceptionally dark, emerald-green chromian vesuvianites. A limited number of these have been available from Tysons.

As if Quebec didn't already have enough incredible minerals, on June 14, 1994, it was blessed with even more, as the St-Robert meteorite touched down at 00:02 UT. Many people witnessed the fall both visibly and audibly, though perhaps the first to actually "find" a piece of the meteorite was a group of not-so-contented cows encircling a small impact hole in their pasture near St-Robert de Sorel east of Montreal. The first two people on the scene, Stephane and Serge Forcier, removed a specimen about ten minutes later. It now resides in the National Meteorite Collection at the Geological Survey of Canada. Since then, about 20 more pieces have been found.

Other noteworthy discoveries in Canada include the recovery of a quantity of well-formed crystals of green tremolite (electron microprobe analysis gives [Trem.sub.92] [Act.sub.08]) from a roadcut on highway 28 near Hardwood Lake, Ontario; the occurrence of sharp, well-formed crystals of lithiophosphate to 2 cm at the Tanco pegmatite, Bernic Lake, Manitoba; a continuing but very limited supply of extremely lustrous, sharp galena crystals from the Polaris mine at Polaris, Little Cornwallis Island, Northwest Territories (available from Tysons' and Alpine Minerals); and the rare platinum mineral insizwaite from the Strathcona mine at Falconbridge, Ontario has been reported by Roger Poulin (3171 Romeo St., Val Caron, Ontario, Canada P3N 1G5).

Other new mineral species recently described from Canada include several new borate minerals from the Salt Springs potash deposit, Sussex, New Brunswick: trembathite, pringleite and ruitenbergite (Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 445-448 and 31, 795-800); and harrisonite, a new Ca-Fe silicate-phosphate mineral from Arcedeckne Island, Northwest Territories (Canadian Mineralogist, 31, 775-780). Most of these species exist as millimeter-sized crystals and grains in thin sections, and are generally unavailable on the collector market.

CHILE

Certainly one of the highlights of 1993-1994 is the szenicsite from Tierra Amarilla. Overshadowed by the szenicsite, however were some remarkable powellite crystals (to 0.5 cm) from the same find. Habits and colors varied from very steep, pyramidal, honey-yellow crystals through low-angle pyramidal crystals with a yellowish green to olive-green color. Skip and Marissa Szenics, who collected these, also found some excellent tabular antlerite crystals (to 3 mm) at the Santa Catalina mine, Sierra Gorda, Antofagasta, as well as some new and very fine miniatures of dendritic copper crystals from the Manto Cuba mine, Inca del Oro. Another recent find by the Szenics' is an important discovery of bright yellow seeligerite in veinlets to several mm thick from the San Francisco (formerly Beatrix) mine, Sierra Gorda. The seeligerite, along with bright blue lavendulan, green paratacamite and blue boleite, was collected by Terry Szenics. Specimens of these minerals are being offered by Aurora Minerals (16 Niagara Avenue, Freeport, NY 11520).

Specimens of the rare iron tellurite mineral rodalquilarite have been available from Jim McGlasson. These are sharp, glassy, olive-green, terminated microcrystals from the Wendy pit, Tambo, Coquimbo district. Jim has also had some very good quartz encrustation pseudomorphs after enargite from El Indio, Coquimbo department. The groups of 4-cm crystals are quite sharp, showing well the former prismatic crystal habit of the enargite. Another new material from Chile is some very attractive drusy quartz on chrysocolla from Inca de Oro. The specimens, which consist of colorful vug linings in gossan, are available from Luis Leite (Ave. 25 de Abril, #50 3. [degrees] Esq., 2800 Almada, Portugal).

CHINA

ZhengJian-Rong (Hunan Natural Mineral & Artcrafts Shop, 75 Renmin Rd., Changsha) has a large variety of new finds from Hunan. Most popular with customers have been the large groups of transparent, dark blue fluorite crystals (to 3 cm) showing a parquet-like growth of cubes. Clusters to 20 cm have been available, though most are about 7 x 10 cm. Some very large calcite groups were also found. The milky tan calcite crystal aggregates resemble stacks of Chinese peasant hats to 15 cm across and 30 cm high. Probably the most significant of new finds, however, are the doubly terminated cassiterite crystals (to 10 cm!), and gemmy orange scheelites associated with tabular aquamarine beryl crystals that are coming out of Hunan. Another new item to watch for is the diamonds in matrix from Mengyin, Shandong Province. Most of the crystals we have seen so far have been small (1-2 mm) but are clearly visible against the darker colored matrix. Habits vary from distorted octahedra and macle twins to somewhat rounded and flattened multifaced crystals. It is rumored that colorless to pale yellow cloudy diamonds to 1 cm have been found.

At the 1995 Tucson show, Scott Williams (211 N. Penn, Oberlin, KS 67749) had tan to pinkish brown armstrongite and masses of brick-red elpidite in matrix from Han-Bogdo in the central Gobi Desert of Mongolia; and there is still a good supply of fine realgar, orpiment, stibnite and other Chinese minerals available from the Rocksmiths, Doug Parsons (1119 S. Mission Rd., Suite 243, Fallbrook, CA 92028), Mike Bergmann (Galena Rock Shop, 713 S. Bench St., Galena, IL 61036) and others.

COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

There has been a continuing supply of interesting new minerals pouring out of the former Soviet Union, and it is nearly impossible to see and account for all that has been "new" to the western marketplace. The following descriptions include only those minerals that were brought to our attention or we happened to notice. By no means is the list exhaustive.

Among a few of the new items available from Brad Van Scriver (Van Scriver-Pljaskov Minerals, P.O. Box 10, 19900 Prague 9, Czech Republic) are some very attractive, spheroidal, orange stellerite from the Sarbayskaya quarry, near Rudniy, Kusteni Oblast, North Kazakhstan Republic; orange scheelite and black to yellow cassiterite from the lliutin mine, Iliutin, Chukotka Region, Magada Oblast, East Siberia; superb bornite and chalcocite crystals to 2 cm on matrix from Mine no. 57, and dendritic groups of native copper crystals to 5 cm from the Akchiyspaskiy mine, both in the East Dzezkazgan mining area, Dzezkazgan, Dzezkazgan Oblast, Kazakhstan; gemmy green prismatic dravite crystals to 4 cm from the Mikhaylovskoye mine, near Krasniy Chikoy, Chita Oblast, Russia; some remarkable, sharp crystals of platinum to 5 mm in aggregates to 1 cm from Konder, near Nelkan, Ajano-Maiskiv region, Khabarovskiy Kray, Russia; lustrous smoky quartz crystals to half a meter in length from the Dodo mine, near Saranpaul in the Polar Urals; 3-cm octahedral brown to reddish pyrochlore crystals from the Tatarka River, Tatarka Massif, Enisey region, Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Siberia; excellent bobierrite with collinsite from Kovdor, Murmansk Oblast, Kola Peninsula, northeast Russia; and groups of very lustrous octahedral magnetite crystals from the Sokolovsko-Sarbayskaya mine, near Tobal River, near Rudniy, Kusteni Oblast, North Kazakhastan Republic.

Lustrous, sharp cassiterite crystals to 2 cm on mica from Chabarovsk Prymorie, southeast Russia, were available from Rene Triebl (Top Minerals International, Rudolf Haweig 21, A-2700 WR Neustadt, Austria) at the Tucson Show, as were literally thousands of superb specimens from Dal'negorsk from Andras Lelkes (Hercegpimas u. 11, H-1051 Budapest, Hungary) and others too numerous to mention. Volker Betz (Seifer Weg 2, D-6204 Taunusstein-Orlen, Germany) had some unusual, doubly terminated, dark brown eosphorite crystals (to 4 mm) sprinkled on feldspar, associated with small "pineapple" clusters (to 3 mm) of quartz from Urgursay, Kazakhstan; and fraipontite from Kugitang-Tau, Turkmenstan. From the Urals, were masses of nearly pure scaly paragonite from Slyudorudnik, Vyshtym; pecoraite from Tscheremschanskoe; sonolite, alleghanyite, rhodonite, and alabandite from Inyltschek, Kyrgy; tobermorite, from Bazberovskoe; sellaite from Suranskoe, Bashkirien; and clintonite, from Shishimskie Gory. Other material included massive bavenite (to several cm!) with epidote from Kalisay, Kyrgzien; milarite from Ermakovskoe, Buryatien; and sharp nepheline crystals (to 1 cm) frozen in matrix with well-formed eudialyte crystals and aegirine from Alluaiv, Lovozero massif, Kola Peninsula.

Jaroslav Hyrsl (KARP, Herverova 222, 28000 Kolin, Czech Republic) had specimens of wire silver from a new locality near Bet-Pak-Dala, Kazakhstan. The wires form curls and loops to 4 cm, with minor quartz and carbonaceous matrix different in appearance from the Dzezkazgan silvers. Some excellent pearceite crystals (to 5 cm) have been seen from the Sarbayskoe mine, near Rudnyi city. These typically occur as isolated crystals on fracture surfaces, and are sometimes associated with stibnite. Specimens of purple scapolite, which last year were mistakenly called "ussingite," are now being offered by several dealers as coming from Kuk-i-Lal, Tadzhikistan. Of particular interest to zeolite collectors was a find of transparent wedge-shaped and apparently twinned amicite crystals (to 2 mm) thickly intergrown with pale green transparent natrolite crystals (to 5 mm) with aegirine from Kukisvumchorr, Chibiny, Kola Peninsula. For wulfenite collectors, the Moscow Academy for Geological Prospecting (Mikluho Maklaya 23, 117 Moscow, Russia) had small, but very interesting orange-red wulfenite crystals from Sidjak, Uzbekistan.

Talnakh, Noril'sk, Siberia, is continuing to supply fine sperrylites, and some new complex gold crystals (to several mm) in clusters to nearly a cm have been found in milky quartz from Usnyera, Yakutia. Also new from Noril'sk is a white fibrous mineral that occurs in botryoids up to 1 cm, associated with blocky, colorless to mint-green fluorapophyllite crystals to 5 cm. The botryoids are a mixture of pectolite and okenite, and the material has been called "pectokenite," by some collectors. Other new items from Talnakh include crude columnar wurtzite crystals to 2 x 3 cm, embedded in anhydrite, orange stilbite, prehnite, and other minerals. Petr Korbel (Vysokoskolska 488/8, 165 00 Praha 6, Czech Republic) had a supply of polished and chemically analyzed ore samples from Talnakh, containing such rare species as paolovite, geversite, talnakhite, froodite, maslovite and polarite among others.

The Fersman Mineralogical Museum (18-2 Leninsky Prospect, Moscow 117071) distributed some mint-green andradite crystals (to 3 mm) on parallel plumes of white diopside crystals (to 3 mm) in veinlets in serpentinized norite from Tchukorka, Russia. Additional minerals included bright black loparite twins (to 8 mm) in aegirine-eudialyte syenite, and black veinlets (to 2 mm thick) of schneiderhohnite in muscovite from the Keivy pegmatite, Kola peninsula. Of particular interest were minerals from the Saranovskii mine, Saranui, Urals. Collectors will highly prize the yellow-green chromian titanite crystals (to 1 + cm) on pleochroic redgreen chromian clinochlore crystals (to 1 cm) lining fractures in chromite matrix. The bright, frequently doubly terminated clinochlore crystals are probably among the most important chlorite finds in recent memory. The clinochlore crystals occur both as rosettes and pagoda-like individual crystals with few of the typical vermiform aggregates which otherwise characterize the species. Additionally, bright lilac to purple chromian amesite crystals (to 4 mm) were available in nearly pure groups (to several cm), sometimes with associated titanite or clinochlore. Although most of the amesite crystals have cleaved ends, a few show tapered trigonal step-growth terminations, frequently with colorless terminal zones. Terminated sapphire-blue to blue-gray kyanite crystals (to 6 cm) in biotite-almandine gneiss were available from Hit-Ostrov, Karelia, as were tabular corundum crystals (to several cm) from Ilmankie Mountains, South Urals. Gemmy (with 1-2 carat gemstone potential) Baveno-twinned microcline crystals (to 6 cm) were seen from Udatcha, Kovdor massif, Magadan Region, and William 1-inch acquired an exceptional 6-cm sharp forsterite crystal embedded in pale yellow granular apatite from the Kovdor mine, Kola Peninsula. A few dealers in addition to the Fersman Museum had specimens of terminated white hambergite crystals (to 2 cm), both on and off matrix, from Kukurt, eastern Pamir, Tadzhikistan. The museum reported that a selection of well-crystallized fumarole minerals are being found on the Tolbachek volcano, Kamchatka. They were also offering specimens of a new but as-yet unnamed rhenium sulfide mineral from a fumarolic deposit associated with the Kudriavy volcano on the northern tip of Iturup Island in the Kuril Island Arc; the material consists of brilliant metallic gray-white microcrystals and flakes on volcanic cinder (see Nature, 369, 5 May 1994, p. 51-52). A number of rare telluride minerals have also been available from the Fersman Museum, and include rich, nearly pure, massive black coloradoite specimens (sometimes to over 1 kg) associated with massive hessite, petzite, and occasional calaverite from Kochbulak, Uzbekistan. Finally, the Fersman had a unique specimen of pure black opal. The genuinely black opal, which resembled a hydrocarbon and was opaque on thin edges, occurred in a pegmatite near Volyn, Ukraine.

Rare species collectors have also enjoyed a steady flow of new material. Many of these are from the Kola peninsula, and are due to the efforts of A. Voloshin and A. Khomyakov. The list includes bismutocolumbite, bystrite, cancrisilite, crawfordite, hydroxycancrinite, manganotychite, megacyclite, mineevite-(Y), rimkorologite, schomiokite-(Y), sitinakite, tiettite and tounkite, among others. Collectors should be warned, however, that there are a number of other new mineral "species" being offered for sale from the C.I.S. that have have been approved as such by the I.M.A., so be careful! It should probably be pointed out that much of the Russian "liddicoatite" seen on the market may be rather indiscriminately labeled. Most of the rubellites from Nertchinsk (now called Chita) that have so far been studied are calcian elbaites. The Malchan pegmatite field (also called Kraznoy Chikoy) apparently does produce genuine, but sodian, liddicoatite. It must be remembered that the tourmaline group comprises a number of complex solid-solution-series minerals, and without complete chemical and/or structural data it is impossible to know for sure which species is present.

CZECH REPUBLIC

Goldmanite occurs as 1-2 mm crystals in a silicate and sulfide matrix at Tetetice, Klatovy, and liddicoatite has been identified as color-zoned (pink rim/brown core) crystals to several mm at the Blizna graphite mine, Blizna, Bohemia (Jaroslav Hyrsl, unpublished data). Another uncommon mineral noted from KARP Minerals is isokite from Horni Slavkov. This occurs as white-to-pale tan, powdery coatings on stained triphylite, giving one the feeling that much more isokite than we realize is probably in the world masquerading as earthy "apatite."

Transparent crystals of aragonite have been found once again at Norenec bei Bilin, northern Bohemia. Because they are being dug from a decomposed surface vein (approximately 500 m distant from the classic occurrence), most of the crystals are etched. About 2-3 kg of partially facetable material have been recovered, and some pieces could yield stones to over 20 ct. A few well-terminated crystals were found.

FINLAND

Some very rich native antimony specimens consisting of coarse, granular, interlocking cleavage masses to 10 x 12 cm were available from Dr. Jochen Hintze at the 1994 Denver show. Dr. Hintze explained that these are only occasionally found, and occur as glacial boulders near Seinajoki. Also of interest, and undoubtedly of greater economic concern, is Ashton Mining's recent discovery of 21 kimberlites in eastern Finland, the majority of which are reported to contain diamonds.

FRANCE

Excellent snow-white to transparent dickite crystals (to 4 mm) have been found again in vugs in hornfels at the Raberjac mine, Lodev, Herault. Specimens are available from David Shannon. Dave also has a new supply of single and Carlsbad-twinned orthoclase crystals (to 5 cm) of terra cotta color from Ceihes, Herault, as well as wurtzite crystals from the Le Malenes mine. The wurtzite occurs as tightly spaced, dark brown to black hexagonal plates to 2 mm, interspersed with other tightly spaced, nearly black, blocky and somewhat asymmetrical sphalerite crystals (to 2 mm) coating carbonaceous hornfels. Denis Gravier (Chemin de Ronde, 01500 Ambronay, France) has acquired some excellent zinkenite specimens from the Serre farm area, Saint Pons, Haute Province. The crystals are a dull metallic gray, and form needle-like or bladed crystals to 1 cm, occasionally associated with slightly iridescent metallic black chalcostibite crystals to 1 cm on brown siderite crystals.

Also new from France are the new uranium minerals, rabejacite and seelite, the latter of which was named for Paul and Hilde Seel (see Mineralogical Abstracts, 45, 240, and Minemlopical Record, 24, 463-467). Both come from Rabejac, Herault, and are available from the Excalibur-Cureton Company.

GREAT BRITAIN

The Boulby mine, Loftus, Cleaveland, Yorkshire, has continued to produce more of the remarkable pale blue-green boracite crystals. Jim Walker and Mary Fong-Walker (Ikon Minerals, PO. Box 2620, Fallbrook, CA 920-2620) have had some excellent specimens available. The classic locality for crystallized gold at Hope's Nose, Toquay, Devon, has reportedly produced a limited number of new specimens, some of which have been available from Don Edwards (Tideswell Dale Rock Shop, Commercial Road, Tideswell, Derbyshire, U.K.) and Peter Lyckberg (PO. Box 25147, S-40031 Goteborg, Sweden). In Wales, large, lightly etched scalenohedral calcite crystals composed of stacked rhombohedrons have been found at Taffs Wells quarry, near Cardiff. Specimens are available from Tidewell Dale Rock Snop.

GREECE

Among numerous other beautiful specimens that were available from Victor Yount (Route 3, Box 250, Warrenton VA 22186) over the past year, were some new aragonites from Sounion, south of Lavrion (Laurium), Greece. These consist of pale blue on white coralloid growths ("flos ferri"), and are extremely aesthetic specimens. Greece has also recently produced some exceptional amber-colored and deeply striated pyramidal crystals of wurtzite (to 3 mm) in vuggy wurtzite matrix from Agios, Philippos. These are available from Mathias Rheinlander (Mikon Mineralien, Mathilden Str. 12, D-63065 Offenbach/Main, Germany).

INDIA

In spite of decades of activity, the quarries of the Deccan traps in and around Bombay still continue to produce new and beautiful minerals. Among these are two new lots of prehnite pseudomorphs: one after laumontite with fluorapophyllite, and the other after tabular poker chip-shaped calcite crystals. Both are from Malad, and were seen at Rock Currier's booth during the 1994 Denver Show. Both pseudomorphs consist of pale green prehnite, encrusting large crystals (to 10 cm) of the earlier-formed minerals, and occur as large, attractive specimens up to 30 cm. Rock has also recently acquired some outstanding green fluorapophyllite (in clusters to 15 cm) which is very striking in appearance, consisting of brilliant clear external overgrowths on dark green cores. Superb specimens of the more traditionally colored green fluorapophyllite crystals (groups to 7 cm on matrix) and large white mesolite sprays (to 20 cm) from

Ahmadnagar, are available from Gary Nagin. Also new this year are more very fine cavansites from the Wagholi quarry near Pune, which are available from Dr. Arvind Bhale (Earth Science International, Yasham' 166/1-3, Aundh Gaon, Pune 411 007, Maharashtra, India) and others. Some of the finest specimens ever seen were for sale at the 1995 Tucson Show. Some new and interesting hematite roses to 2 cm on drusy quartz have been found at the Dahisar quarry, Bombay, and clusters of green heulandite crystals to 8 cm have been coming from Aurangabad. Both are available from Mountain Minerals International.

ITALY

On a recent trip to Sardinia, Claude Begin (749 Union St., Laval, Quebec H7X 1X7) obtained some very fine gmelinite crystals associated with natrolite from Ittiri, Sassari, and some world-class specimens of ferrierite from near Monastir, Cagliari.

Italy has also produced a number of new minerals, including gravegliaite, namansilite and reppiaite, which are manganese-rich minerals from Val Graveglia, Liguria (see American Mineralogist, 77, 672; and 78, 452). The namansilite (second world occurrence?) and reppiaite are available from the Excalibur-Cureton Mineral Company. The volcanic rocks at Grosseto have yielded another new species, pitiglianoite, which occurs in a single specimen as white microcrystats with afghanite crystals, and is not readily available (American Mineralogist, 76, 2003-2008); and from Sacrofano, Campagnano, Latium, is the new species, peprossite-(Ce), a Ce-La-Al borate (American Mineralogist, 78, 1109), which occurs as microscopic, platy yellow crystals on rock.

JAPAN

Hidemichi Hori (P.O. Box 50, Nerima, Tokyo 176) has informed us of some interesting new finds in Japan. Gobbinsite, cowlesite, levyne, stilbite, and chabazite have been found on Ikezuki island, as well as Chojabaru, Iki island, both part of Nagasaki prefecture, Kyushu. Poughite has been found at the Kobetsuzawa gold mine, Sapporo, Hokkaido. The mineral forms pale yellow, intergranular fillings (~1 mm) in quartz ore that carries some tellurides. SEM studies have shown that the poughite forms flat prismatic crystals. Frohbergite (to 100 microns) has been found in the ore as well. The first discovery of carminite in Japan has been made nearly simultaneously at two localities: the Tsuzura mine, Miyazaki prefecture and the Kiura mine district, Ohita prefecture, both in Kyushu. The carminite occurs as microscopic crystal aggregates in veins 3-5 mm-wide in quartz and limonite. The wall-known Japan-raw twin quartz crystal locality "Narushima," Nagasaki prefecture, Kyushu, has been closed by local officials. Mr. Hori also reported that transparent yugawaralite crystals up to 1 cm have been found at the Kawazu zeolite location, a coastal outcropping on the Izu peninsula, near Kawazu, Shizoka prefecture. Also found at the location are mordenite needles in 5-cm groups and healandite crystals up to 1 cm.

Well-crystallized specimens of two rare calcium borate minerals, nifontovite and olshanskyite, have been found in a skarn at Fuka, Okayama prefecture (see Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 279-284). The olshanskyite occurs as pure, glassy-white, twinned microcrystals to 1 cm in length on spurrite, and the nifontovite as rich, gray, glassy translucent masses with rare pockets of millimeter-sized crystals. Specimens of both these minerals are available from the Excalibur-Cureton Mineral Company.

MALAGASY REPUBLIC

The mineral-rich island of Madagascar has always been a source of interesting specimens. Larry Venezia (115 Coleridge St., East Boston, MA 02128) has recently obtained a lot of lustrous, gemmy, equant crystals of colorless orthoclase from South Betroka, and a new supply of manandonite is available from KARP Minerals. The latter occurs in cavities in a pink to urmaline-quartz matrix at Antadrokomby, Sahatany, and superficially resembles rosettes of white cookeite. Recent study, however, has shown manandonite to be closely related to amesite and the kaolinite-serpentine group.

MALI

Large yellow-green to brown grossular-andradite crystals up to 14 cm in diameter have been found near Sandare, Nioro du Sahel, Mali. Most show good dodecahedral and trapezohedal faces, with glassy interiors that might cut small gemstones. Dark green prismatic crystals of vesuvianite (somewhat resembling those from the Wilui River, Siberia) and epidote up to 5 cm have also been found. Specimens are available from Dave Bunk Minerals (9240 W. 49th Ave., #317, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033).

MEXICO

If there's any truth to the old adage "it never rains but it pours," Mexico must have had a long, wet year. Maybe it's NAFTA kicking in; whatever the reason, no one can deny there seems to be a wealth of new and interesting Mexican minerals on the market. A good number of these were either found or reported by Peter Megaw (5800 N. Camino Escalante, Tucson, AZ 85718), who has many specimens available. Development work at the famous fluorapatite locality in Cerro de Mercado, Durango, has resulted in the recovery of a number of interesting specimens, including octahedral crystals of "martite" (hematite pseudomorphs after magnetite) to 10 cm on an edge, in groups to 30 cm. Other species include dark green prisms of sodic augite to 3 cm, and 3-4 mm sprays of mordenite. In all, about 450 kg of specimens have been collected. At Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua, spectacular large groups of ram's horn gypsum to 15 cm were collected from the Bustillos mine in the west camp. Elsewhere in the district, 7-cm crystals of arsenopyrite in groups up to nearly half a meter, attractive plates of amethyst, and sharp, spinal-law twinned galena crystals partially replaced by anglesite have been found. The latter occur as crystals up to 10 cm and are from level 4 of the Purisima workings in the west camp.

Other new finds also available from Peter include sheets of native silver up to 40 cm, coated with purplish bornite, from the 16th level of the San Martin mine, Sombrerete, Zacatecas; dozens of attractive specimens showing various combinations of quartz, amethyst and calcite from the Valenciana mine, Veta Madre, Guanajuato; and some nice acanthite and chalcopyrite-coated polybasite crystals from the Reyes mine, Guanajuato, Guanajuato. Additional new finds of silver minerals include fine crystals of pyrargyrite to 2 cm in groups to 6 x 8 cm from Santa Elena and lustrous acanthite crystals in groups to 3 x 4 cm from Fresnillo, Zacatecas, both available from Ernesto Ossola (8, Rue du Luxembourg, 30140 Anduze, France). Polybasite pseudomorphs after pyrargyrite crystals (to 1.5 cm) from Guanajuato, and sharp stephanite crystals (to 1 cm) from San Luis Cristobal, are available from Leslie Kunzler and Tony Jones (California Rock and Mineral, PO. Box 318, Royal, AR 71968).

Certainly one of the most colorful recent finds in Mexico is the bright yellow wulfenite and orange mimetite from the San Francisco mine, Cucurpe, Sonora. Specimens from the current production are virtually identical to the older ones for which the locality is justly famous, and consist of paper-thin transparent yellow crystals up to 3 cm on matrix, occasionally associated with platy crystals of barite. Regrettably, the heyday appears to be over due to water problems, but fine selections of specimens in all size ranges are currently available from Wayne and Laura Thompson and Stan Esbenshade (Midwest Minerals and Mining, 1501 W. Kilburn, Tucson, AZ 85705).

The Sierra de la Cruz, east of Lake Jaco, Sierra Mojada, Coahuila, has long been known for its fine specimens of vesuvianite and grossular. Benny and Elva Fenn (Fern's Cems and Minerals, P.O. Box 16285, Las Cruces, NM 88004) have a new supply of these, but in colors thus far atypical for the locality. Most grossulars from the area are usually pale gray to yellow or pale pink, and the vesuvianites are yellowish brown. The new grossulars vary in color from orange-red to a "hot" rosy pink, and the vesuvianites appear zoned with gray-brown central regions and noticeably orange terminations. The cause of these unusual colors is presently unknown. Another uncommon item offered by the Fenn's were sharp, blocky crystals of labradorescent anorthoclase from the Pili mine, Camarco, Chihuahua.

Other Mexican minerals noted over the past year include large, sharp, lustrous dodecahedrons of black andradite from the Ojos Espanoles mine, Lazaro Cardenas, Chihuahua (available from Jendon Minerals) and some good specimens of schorl-dravite from Santa Cruz, Sonora, available from Daniel Belsher (Blue Sky Minerals, 8890 N. Federal Blvd. #52-D, Denver, CO 80221).

MOROCCO

Superbly crystallized hematite has been found at Segangan, near Nador. The tabular, sometimes skeletal crystals are extremely lustrous and occur up to about 8 cm across. Except for some minor associated calcite, they are nearly indistinguishable from those found a number of years ago at Mt. Calvario, Etna, Sicily Some excellent specimens have been available from Ken and Rosemary Roberts (Roberts Minerals, RO. Box 1267, Twain Harte, CA 95383).

MYANMAR (BURMA)

Some very fine crystals of peridot (forsterite) have been found in Pyaung Gaung, though little is known about their occurrence. A limited number of these have been available from The Collector. Another bright green mineral seen on the market in 1993 is the "chrome" tourmaline, usually labeled only as coming from "Burma." Most specimens are single crystals in the 1-3 cm range, and, except for their bright green color, resemble the classic uvite tourmaline crystals from Pierrepont, New York. Chris Wright (Wright's Rock Shop, Route 4, Box 462, Hot Springs, AR 71913) kindly supplied one of us (GWR) with a half dozen randomly selected crystals showing a range of colors from pale to dark emerald-green. Quantitative (WDS) electron microprobe analyses (by R. A. Gault) of these crystals indicate they are all uvite (with [Ca.sup.2+]:[Na.sup.+] averaging 3:1, and no detectable Fe). Furthermore, all contain vanadium (maximum detected [V.sub.2][O.sub.3] = 2.05%) and little to no chromium (maximum detected [Cr.sub.2][O.sub.3] = 0.13%).We presume the color is due to the presence of vanadium in the absence of iron, as is the case with certain natural emeralds. Vanadian uvite may be a more appropriate name.

NAMIBIA

Some of the finest large specimens of crystallized azurite to emerge from Tsumeb in recent history were found last Easter. Specimens have been available from Andreas Guhr (Mineralien Zentrum, Jungfemstieg 8, D-20354 Hamburg, Germany) among others. The find has been documented in detail by Georg Gebhard (see Lapis, 20, no. 1, p. 32, 45-50). Storm Mountain Minerals & Mining (P.O. Box 7268, Boulder, CO 80306) has continued to supply large crystals of rubellite from the Otjua mine, Karibib. The crystals (to 15 cm) are frequently doubly terminated and are blackish red with candy-red highlights.

NEPAL

Mountain Minerals International has acquired some lustrous, relatively smooth faced, dark brown, doubly terminated dravite crystals (to several cm) from Gujarkot, Bheri Zone, western Nepal.

NORTH VIETNAM

Slightly water-worn, red-green color-zoned crystals of tourmaline have recently been obtained from an allovial ruby deposit near Thac Ba Lake, Yen Bai Province. Divergent, subparallel terminated crystals to nearly 20 centimeters have been found and are available from Ikon Minerals.

NORWAY

Torgeir Garmo (Fossheim Steinsenter, N-2686 Lom, Norway) and Peter Lyckberg report several new finds of minerals over the past year in Norway These include colorless, transparent crystals of quartz from Namdalen and at least three different locations in Valdres. At some of these localities, anatase crystals from 3-8 mm also have been found, but not directly on the quartz. Clay-filled pockets containing amethyst crystals up to 2 kg occur in quartz veins in a roadcut near Hamar, approximately 110 km north of Oslo. Some of the crystals show fenster and scepter habits, and a few are faceting-quality. At another roadcut in Caledonian mica gneiss in Selbu, approximately 11 km northeast of Trondheim, very good specimens of blue kyanite crystals to 25 cm have been collected from lenses of quartz up to about a meter across. Less common associated minerals include green fluorapatite, staurolite and white feldspar, and small clear fluorapophyllite crystals were encountered in vogs. Unfortunately, most of the material was buried under the road during its construction. Large, sharp, dodecahedral crystals of almandine (up to 9 cm) have been found in mica schist near Harstad, in northern Norway, and in TysfJord, tiny yellow grains of the rare species okanoganite have been found in yttrian fluorite. Lastly, the locality for yellow barite crystals at Styggedalen, Herre, Telemark, has again yielded specimens when the normally water-filled shaft dried out last summer.

PAKISTAN

Perhaps one of the most significant new discoveries recently seen is the large quantity of fine crystals of forsterite (peridot) from Kohistan, northern Pakistan. The locality is a string of six or eight prospect pits extending over a distance of 2 or 3 km, near a small, seasonally occupied camp named "Suppatt" or "Sumput" in a summer grazing area around 14,000 feet in elevation. The site may be reached from various villages in different directions, including Dasu, Kamila, Patan, Besham Village, Kagan and Naran, but the best designation for labels is "between Kamila and Naran." The best of the crystals are no less than spectacular: large (up to 14 cm!), sharp, excellent in color, and of gem quality, rivaling those from the classic St. John's Island occurrence in the Red Sea. Several crystal habits have been noted, one showing dominant {110} and {011} prisms and {010} pinacoids, modified by smaller {032}, {101} and {051}? prisms. Presently, little is known about the geology of the occurrence. The only associated minerals thus far observed are rounded magnetite crystals and a white talc-like mineral in which the peridot crystals seem to be embedded. A number of dealers currently have specimens, gem rough and faceted stones available.

In addition to the peridot crystals, an abundance of incredibly fine specimens from the pegmatite and alpine occurrences in northern Pakistan has continued to pour forth. Some of the new arrivals include pink tabular crystals of morganite beryl to 15 cm from Drot-Balachi, near Shengus, Gilgit-Skardu road, Northern Areas; spherical aggregates of stellerite to 2 cm associated with topaz from Dassu, Baltistan; blue phenakite crystals from Apaligun; zircon crystals that resemble those from Seiland, Norway, from Bulbin, Wazarat district (all available from Mountain Minerals International); pale yellow-gray, tabular apatite crystals up to 4 cm dusted with chlorite (and occasionally associated with yellow dolomite) in groups to 5 x 8 cm from the Tormiq Valley, north of Skardu; aesthetic groups of lustrous 3-cm schorl crystals to 15 cm from Basha Nala, Shigar Valley, northeast of Skardu; and from the Shengus area, Gilgit division, 3-cm trapezohedral pollucite crystals with small cube faces, as well as beautiful sherry-colored topaz crystals with "Herkimer diamond"-like quartz (all available from Herb Obodda).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

William Forrest (P.O. Box 25001, Fresno, California) has recently obtained some slightly water-worn gold crystals (some with dendritic growth) from the Mount Kare area.

PERU

A limited number of very fine acanthite-coated wire silver specimens have been coming out of the Julcani mine, and have been marketed by Harvey Gordon Minerals (1002 S. Wells Ave., Reno, NV 89502). The acanthite is well-crystallized and forms lustrous, complex crystals up to 5 mm across.

PORTUGAL

Lustrous, mm-sized crystals of libethenite coating cavities in quartz gossan have been found at Estremoz. Some specimens contain associated pseudomalachite, and were offered by Dr. Jochen Hintze at the 1994 Denver Show.

SOUTH AFRICA

Clive Queit (P.O. Box 1014, Fourways 2055, Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa) continues to provide fine specimens from the N'Chwaning mine, Black Rock district. Inesite, however, appears to be in short supply, as few new finds have been made. One species new to the locality is shigaite, which occurs as thin, tabular, amber-colored crystals (to 0.5 x 2 x 2 mm) included in gypsum, and as golden brown rosettes (to 1 cm) on matrix. Clive has also had a limited supply of a bright blue bladed unknown mineral (crystals to 1 cm) embedded in sugilite from the Wessels mine. Also evident from the N'Chwaning mine were the world-class specimens of hausmannite on garnet, available from Don and Gloria Olson (P.O. Box 858, Bonsall, CA 92003). As the species goes, these are as good as it gets!

SPAIN

Attractive pistachio-green epidote crystals forming bladed, radial aggregates to 1 cm associated with transparent quartz crystals, have been found near Alicante, Valencia. Specimens of these were available from Felix Gomez (Torron 50, 32515 Orense, Spain) at the 1994 Denver Show. Also new from Spain are some very fine specimens of tabular blue barite from Cartagena, Murcia, which are available from Victor Yount. Some interesting bipyramidal smoky quartz crystals up to about 2 cm, resembling those from the iron mines of west Cumbria, England, have been coming from Malaga. Specimens have been available from Si and Ann Fraser (Suite 306, 6331 Fairmont Ave., El Cerrito, CA 94530).

SRI LANKA

Well-terminated crystals of sillimanite are rarely found, despite its being a common rock-forming mineral. Mountain Minerals International has a new small supply The transparent crystals (rarely to 1 cm), which superficially resemble "rough" barite crystals, are from Rabuka, near Rakwana, Sabaragamuwa province. In addition to these, Mountain Minerals has also acquired a number of other interesting new items from Sri Lanka, including some exceptionally sharp sapphire crystals to 4 cm from Galbkka, near Vallivaya, Uva Province; terminated crystals of pinkish zircon up to 3.5 cm that resemble those from the Canadian Grenville Province occurrences from Amlilipitiya, near Kataragama; shiny black octahedral spinel crystals to 1 cm from Monaragala, near Badulla, Uva Province; and a 27-carat, 2-cm crystal of sinhalite from Nirialla, near Ratnapura, Sabaragamuwa Province.

SWEDEN

Peter Lyckberg reports that two small pockets uncovered at the Malmberget mine over the winter have yielded interesting tabular hexagonal pseudomorphs of magnetite after hematite and small hematite eisenroses, occasionally on feldspar crystals. Some large calcite pockets (to 6-7 meters) are still accessible, but are now extremely dangerous to excavate, so that relatively few specimens are being recovered.

TANZANIA

Sharon Cisneros has acquired some alumino-tschermakite specimens from the Longido mine, Matibatu Mountains. The mineral occurs as dark green prisms (to 1 cm) embedded in chromian zoisite. Many similar specimens in the past have been labeled edenite.

ZAIRE

Gilbert Gauthier (7 Rue Alexandre III, Maisons Lafitte, France 786000) has long been the source of innumerable and exceptional museum-quality specimens from Zaire, and the past two years have been no exception. Most conspicuous are the new botryoidal malachite specimens obtained by collector salvage operations at the long-closed Star of the Congo mine, Lubumbashi. The specimens range up to 40 x 40 cm in size, with smooth to crusty surfaces, and interlaminated chrysocolla/heterogenite matrix typical of the Shaba localities. Additional excitement was generated by a new "last there will ever be" selection of superior quality, dark gemmy green torbernite crystals (to 1.5 cm in 7 x 10 cm clusters) from the Musonoi mine, Kolwezi. Gilbert also had an exceptional heterogenite specimen (~40 x 40 cm) which had been mined during World War II at the Kabolela mine in central Shaba. The specimen consisted of large, brilliant black botryoids reminiscent of some English hematite, only better. Gilbert also had a remarkable specimen of a very rare and doubly terminated roubaultite crystal (3+ mm) with schoepite from the K.O.V. mine, near the Musonoi mine, and some very beautiful thumbnail-sized quartz crystals with orange to carmine phantom zones of dusty hematite inclusions from Katonto, Shaba.

[Figures 1 to 23 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

George W. Robinson Canadian Museum of Nature P.O. Box 3443, Station D Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1P 6P4

Jeffrey Scovil 734 E. Coronado Road Phoenix, Arizona 85006

Vandall T. King P.O. Box 90888 Rochester, New York 14609

Forrest Cureton 21267 Brewer Road Grass Valley, California 95949
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Author:Robinson, George W.; Scovil, Jeffrey; King, Vandall T.; Cureton, Forrest
Publication:The Mineralogical Record
Date:Sep 1, 1995
Words:16221
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