World mission conferences in the Twentieth Century.
If we think of the course of the twentieth century as a trajectory moving from 1900 to 1999, we can image a series of missiological signposts spanning from 1910 to 1996, from Edinburgh to Bahia. Edinburgh marks the beginning of the modern ecumenical movement, and each of the signposts that follow has contributed to an emerging ecumenical tradition. This tradition, which has brought about a more commonly shared understanding of mission among Christians, has been crafted by a search for what it means to be church in mission, and by historical awareness which has consciously interacted with events in a theological way.(1)
There are several parameters to keep in mind as one reflects on this ecumenical tradition. The first is perhaps the most obvious, namely that the conferences on world mission and evangelism are part of a larger series of signposts spanning much of the present century, and this is especially true since the World Council of Churches (WCC) came into existence, and has held regular assemblies.(2) Likewise, Faith and Order has held regular meetings since its first world conference in 1927.(3)
Both the academic and juridical processes that have accompanied the journey of the ecumenical movement offer other parameters. Here one is reminded of the work of Faith and Order as well as of the various bilateral dialogues that are also part of the ecumenical tradition. These have contributed a body of literature that helps us to measure as it were the progress of the movement.
In this paper I want to look at that aspect of the ecumenical movement, which gives a place to a dialogue of life.(4) While the world mission conferences have not been conducted in a non-academic or non-juridical way,(5) one of their greatest contributions stems from the gathering of Christians periodically from different places in the world in order to reflect on mission. It is important to give more attention to this dialogue of life within the ecumenical movement. It is this manner of relationship, consciously acknowledged that permits the recognition "that we need one another across the spectrum of Christian memory and cultural experiences and that we are actually part of the growth towards koinonia of worship."(6)
Such a dialogue of life in the framework of the ecumenical movement, and specifically in the framework of the world mission conferences, can be seen to function in two ways. First of all, through this interaction, one can show how missionary understanding and engagement has come to be situated within a dynamic conception of church. Second, the dialogue of life in mission has engaged the historical process in a way that is continually reshaping the concept of mission. As we approach the end of this century, profound changes are challenging both of these emergent understandings in ways perhaps not even dreamed of in 1910. Bringing both of these concerns together, the ecclesial and the missiological, a word needs to be said about their foundational relation to unity among Christians. This unity cannot be separated from engagement in mission. Unity and mission share an identity within the Christian community, and while this shared identity is not always easily realized in practice, the conviction about their ultimate inseparability remains the inspiration and motivating force of the ecumenical movement. The world mission conferences are among those instances representing this deeply rooted conviction.
A search for what it means to be church in mission
Development of mission within the colonial framework, a period of time that began in earnest around the sixteenth century with the voyages of discovery and lasted until around the middle of the present century, was somewhat separated from the daily life and self-understanding of the church. This was true for both Protestants and Roman Catholics, although with some varying nuances due to different theological understandings, especially about the church. For both, mission was something confined to specialized groups who went out to places where people had not heard the gospel message and where the church was not present.(7)
A more interactive and integrated understanding of the relation between church and mission has been developing over the past several years. Anderson has noted that one of the ways in which the theology of mission has developed in the present century has been through the "progressively deepening confrontation of the Church and mission with theology."(8) While this observation was thirty years ago, subsequent events have borne out the continuity of this process.(9) Edinburgh certainly gave this unfolding process a strong initial impetus. As Latourette noted, this gathering in 1910 marked a "new sense of fellowship among Christians . . . the growing realization of this fellowship was to be one of the most significant characteristics of the ecumenical movement."(10) Faith and Order, which has done so much to develop theological discernment in the interest of developing and strengthening the ecumenical tradition, traces its original inspiration to Edinburgh.(11)
This first world mission conference intended to focus on practical collaboration in mission among its Christian participants, and therefore had ruled out "discussions about differences of opinion in doctrine and ecclesiastical structure and practice."(12) However, concern was expressed from within the conference that cooperation among separated Christians was insufficient to address some of the fundamental issues facing Christians.(13)
Yet, preparations for Edinburgh stemmed from a deep desire for unity. J.H. Oldham, who was largely responsible for the preparations, included among the participants some of those who were rooted in the Anglican tradition.(14) Bishop Gore was among this number, and he, with others, insisted that Latin America not be included as a mission field in the purview of the conference out of respect for the Roman Catholic Church.(15) Attention to the sensitivities of the different traditions, rather than criticism or excluding them from consideration, provides an opening towards building an ecumenical tradition.
After the experience of Edinburgh, those who had participated saw the need of continuing their collaboration. From this, the International Missionary Council (IMC) was formed in 1921, and prepared the way for the next world mission conference to be held in Jerusalem in 1928. While the participants at Edinburgh had been largely of western origin, those of Jerusalem were more widely representative, having come not only from the west, but also from Asia and Africa. Their churches were the fruit of earlier missionary labours. However, the self-understanding of these new church leaders brought about the beginning of a new way of perceiving the relation between church and mission. S.C. Lueng, from the Church of Christ in China, insisted on the subsidiary relation of mission to the church. He stressed that missionaries should be inserted in the life of the church rather than continue as representatives of missionary boards. David Yui, also from China, noted that "missionaries ought to have a permanent place in China, just as we hope Chinese missionaries must in future have a permanent place in America."(16)Among the other contributions of Jerusalem in relation to its concerns about the kingdom of God, syncretism and diakonia,(17) a changed perspective concerning the relation between church and mission emerged around the question of relations "between younger and older churches." This, in fact, was one of the volumes in the final report of the conference.(18)
The next world mission conference was held in Tambaram, India in 1938, under the theme The World Mission of the Churches, focusing on the church as "bearer of the Gospel."(19) Participants from the younger churches were present in increased numbers, and their experience of mission and church impacted the thinking of the conference. In fact, "mission had become increasingly the realm of the indigenous churches and their life and development was therefore central towards its understanding."(20) Of course, Tambaram is perhaps best remembered for its discussion of the question of how the church relates to persons of other faiths. This continues to be a missiological concern, as Tambaram Revisited illustrates.(21)
Experience of being a community of faith in mission was strengthened, especially through the contacts and relations built up during these gatherings. Yates notes the significance of this growing sense of being a world community in the experience of Karl Hartenstein, a participant from Germany at Tambaram. Facing conscription to fight for a cause with which he profoundly disagreed, he wrote to William Paton, also a participant, about the hope he experienced at Tambaram as "the communion and fellowship by all Christian churches of the world."(22)
The World Council of Churches was formed in 1948. The existence of the International Missionary Council outside the WCC, once again posed the question about the relation between mission and church. While mission was understood increasingly as belonging to the nature of the church, an inherent temptation remained to view the church as the end of mission. J.C. Hoekendijk led in challenging a church-centred concept of mission, citing such an approach as an obstacle to evangelism. Willingen took up this challenge and examined the nature and source of mission. It concluded that the saving action of God precedes the church and mission; the church is not the starting point nor the goal of mission; the church is the one sent on mission.(23) Studying the missionary obligation of the church, the conference had concerned itself with questions about the authority of faith, the growing church, evangelism, the life of the church, the economic basis of the church, and church-state relations.(24) Mutiso-Mbinda notes that a shift occurred at the Willingen conference from "emphasis on an ecclesiocentric mission to a mission-centred church."(25) Now the way was open to explore more deeply the relation between a church sent in mission for the ultimate Reign of God. In Ghana, 1958, the shift became clearer: mission belongs to the very nature of the church, there are no geographical boundaries to mission; mission is to be carried out in partnership rather than in a model suggesting any kind of domination of one Christian community over another.(26)
The International Missionary Council and the World Council of Churches met jointly at New Delhi in 1961. The IMC was integrated with the WCC, and became the Division on World Mission and Evangelism (DWME), later to become the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism (CWME), in 1971.(27) The integration of the IMC into the World Council of Churches, while it did not resolve all the questions surrounding the relation between church and mission, symbolized the process toward a deeper insight into the place of mission at the heart of the church.(28)
The DWME prepared the next world mission conference, which was held in Mexico City, 1963. Another dimension of the church's participation in mission was realized at Mexico City. The Orthodox Church, as member of the WCC, participated in the conference; and there were three official observers from the Roman Catholic Church. The Second Vatican Council, which had opened in 1962, proved to be a major ecumenical event in the life of Roman Catholics. In a practical way, this extended participation of' the Christian community reflected the ecumenical vision of the conference, which stressed that mission is to be carried out by the whole church because the mission of God takes place in all six continents.(29) Mission was understood as God's mission, missio Dei; the church participates in this mission.
At the end of 1972 and the beginning of 1973 the next world mission conference, the second under the direction of the CWME, met in Bangkok. The theme of the conference was Salvation Today, which was studied under the aspects of 1) culture and identity, 2) salvation and social justice, 3) churches renewed in mission. The contribution of Bangkok to the developing integral understanding of a church sent in mission was chiefly in the discussion about relationships among churches across national, confessional and continental boundaries.(30) This thinking resulted in what became known as the moratorium on sending funds and personnel from Europe and North America to other parts of the world. This discussion, which originated at Jerusalem in 1928, had become more urgent in the light of the events reshaping the world in its various ethnic and cultural self-understandings that emerged in the aftermath of the end of colonialism in the late 1940s.
Melbourne in 1980, with its theme of Thy Kingdom Come: Good News to the Poor, represented a deepening and an extension of the reality of the whole church coming together. Both Orthodox and Roman Catholics wrote preparatory studies of the themes. The number of Roman Catholics present as observers increased about threefold those present in Mexico City. Bible study was another important aspect of the conference, centred on a different text from the Lord's Prayer each day. The experience of shared faith around this central Christian prayer significantly deepened the participants' awareness of being part of a gathered community.
San Antonio, 1989, continued a missiological reflection on the Lord's Prayer around the theme, Your Will be Done: Mission in Christ's Way. Much preparatory work was done to enable the participants to enter into worship in a way that brought into sharp focus the meaning of being a community gathered in the name of Christ to worship the Triune God.(31) This was ecumenical worship that reflected dynamically the "impulse to a common witness" the source of which is "the personal and community experience of Jesus Christ."(32) Both worship and Bible study, as at Melbourne, were integrated into active participation at the conference. While it is difficult to assess how such an experience affected each participant, and while it is likewise appropriate to assume that some were left unmoved by it, there remains the evidence from a number that this experience brought about "awareness of the communion with Christ and with each other (which) generates the dynamism that impels Christians to give a visible witness together."(33)
This evolution in recognizing and deepening the relationship between church and mission, from Edinburgh in 1910 to San Antonio in 1989, is principally missiological. That is, it is concerned first of all with communicating the gospel message to peoples who have not heard the good news, or have not heard it in a way that they can either accept or reject it. (The latter situation is particularly that of the western countries that have traditionally been thought of as Christian.) This foundational missiological concern first of all drew Christians together from a number of different confessions, recognizing that division among Christians was a missiological contradiction. This awareness, over time, grew to a greater inclusiveness among the various confessions. The engagement is still incomplete. The words of Common Witness, written in 1980, are still true, "the tragedy of our divisions remains with us at the focal point of our testimony to Jesus: the Holy Eucharist."(34) Melbourne captured the urgency of this tragedy in the image of Eucharist as Bread for the Missionary Journey,(35) an idea developed in Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry by Faith and Order in 1981. The strength of the worship experience in San Antonio prepared the ground more proximately for a witness that can move to another level of unity. This is not to suggest that there are no difficulties, nor is it to suggest that this path alone is sufficient to find the reconciliation and unity of the church. However, this experience of a gathered people, even a pilgrim people, symbolized in the participants of the conferences who came from so many different places in the world and who represented such a great diversity of gifts in the service of the gospel, is likewise an essential element in the search for unity among Christians.
In summary, the world mission conferences have recognized that a separation between mission agencies and local churches is yet a further contradiction. Mission is not seen as activity limited to the formation of Christian communities, but is seen much more comprehensively as God's communication to all peoples -- an activity in which the church is called to participate. Therefore, mission is not focused solely on the church, but the church is sent in mission. Mission is at the heart of the life of the Christian community; it is the dynamism that enables its members to go out to those who have not heard about God's infinite love for them.
As one stands on the threshold of Bahia, one can ask how the journey will go ahead. Will the participants in Bahia have the courage of those who preceded them in Edinburgh, Jerusalem, Tambaram . . . and take significant steps toward unity from the missiological conviction that "what we have in common, and the hope that is in us, enable us to be bold in proclaiming the Gospel and trustful that the world will receive it?"(36) The heritage of the world mission conferences have enabled us with a vision of mission that is integral to the life of the Christian community, a church sent in mission. This has happened in a number of ways, but especially in and through the lived dialogue of Christians coming together from an increasing diversity of cultures and ethnicities. It has happened particularly in and through the lived experience of faith expressed in worship and Bible study. The reflection from the WCC Faith and Order consultation Towards Koinonia in Worship, illustrates a significance that also seems to apply aptly to the world mission conferences: "Within the giving and receiving we held together experiences of the unity of worship without which any appreciation of koinonia would be impaired: church and world; word and sacrament; gospel and creation; Christ and culture; life and faith. We recognized that we need one another across the spectrum of Christian memory and cultural experiences and that we are actually part of the growth towards koinonia in worship."(37)
Toward a deeper missiological awareness
We have just considered how the world mission conferences, over the course of this century, have brought about a clearer perception among Christians about the missionary nature of the church. These conferences, as alluded to in the beginning, have also taken place in a stream of historical consciousness that has shaped missiological awareness. Since mission is primarily and foundationally about communicating God's good news, it has become increasingly evident that while the content of the message remains the same, the way it is communicated, the language and style used, must be in relation to the context or situation in which one is communicating.
The earlier conferences were not so explicit about contextualization; but caught, as it were, in the movement of twentieth century history, they gave expression to Christian experience of unity in God's love that transcended national enmities. It is somewhat of a sad paradox confirming elements of Christian unity that this present century has given occasion to prove more than once that national and international wars cannot completely destroy those elements.
When the conference on world mission and evangelism met in Jerusalem in 1928, the participants were keenly aware of the spiritual poverty of the west, which became evident after World War I. As compared with the gathering at Edinburgh, there was significantly less triumphalism.(38) At the same time, a new sense of national identity was emerging in Asia and Africa. As noted earlier, leaders who came from these churches reflected this new political sense and brought their thinking to bear on the conferences. Initially, they questioned the relation between mission agencies and church; in time they would ask about the relation between being Christian and being of a particular nation, and how to express Christian identity within different ethnic, national and cultural contexts -- the central question for the last world mission conference of this century.
When the participants gathered for the conference in Tambaram in 1938, they did so in the midst of a rapidly increasing international conflict. Some countries were already at war with one another, and yet delegates from these countries in conflict prayed together and witnessed to the universality of the Christian community and its foundation in the love of God.
The IMC met at Whitby in Canada in 1947, in the immediate aftermath of World War II. As the participants gathered, they experienced a profound awareness of the significance that their Christian relationship in the gospel had survived the war. They were also aware that tremendous changes were reshaping the world, although they probably could not have foreseen how profoundly. Their understanding of mission challenged them to discern what meaning these changes held for communicating the gospel. The theme of the conference reflecting this conviction and concern examined partnership in obedience in an effort to understand the momentous changes and what they implied for mission. Attention was given to the effect of environment and context on the church and its mission, as well as the meaning of Christian witness in this situation of a changing world order.
Context continued to challenge missiological insight, and by Willingen in 1952, the world was recognized as the horizon of mission, since this world is the place of God's activity and communication. A global concept of mission grew in the context of a rapidly shrinking world, due to new means of travel and communications. Theologically, this globalization was undergirded by the concept of missio Dei, especially at the conference of Mexico City, 1963, with its agenda of mission on six continents. The theology of missio Dei provided a way of seeing that God's mission in the world is growing. An increasing international perspective in mission thinking accompanied this perspective.
As new countries became independent, liberation was a theme that gradually took hold in theology. Missiological praxis became immersed in liberation struggles, and mission theology engaged with liberation themes. Biblically, new insights emerged about reading the Word of God in the midst of present day contexts and conflicts. All of these currents were present at the world mission conference held in Bangkok in 1975. Its theme, Salvation Today, opened up new spaces for missiology with its direct challenge to purely eschatological views about the meaning of salvation. The conference studied the relation between salvation and human liberation, and the relation between the kingdom of God and the liberation of the poor.
Focus on the poor, those who live in the places where need for liberation is most clearly defined because of the extent of material deprivation and oppression from outside forces, took on greater importance. It became a central theme of the next world mission conference in Melbourne, Australia in 1980, as can be seen from its theme, Thy Kingdom Come: Good News to the Poor. Oppressed peoples, struggling for liberation, challenged those concerned about communicating the good news in new ways. They were the starting point for mission, they were the majority of peoples who had not heard the gospel message. The poor became the leaders who summoned missionaries to new ways of communicating the gospel. They called for non-dominating models, they challenged those who would speak to listen first; those who would lead, to walk with, to accompany. The conference itself often became a situation of struggle as the voices of the poor, audible through the dynamics of the conference, probed, and at times provoked. Out of all of these liberation developments, new approaches and understandings in mission emerged. Melbourne was not solely responsible for these developments, but it symbolized in an intensive way, the process operative in the world in the late seventies and into the eighties.
1989 in retrospect became one year that marked a cataclysmic change in the world. Already in May 1989, when the world mission conference met in San Antonio, Texas, a number of the participants from eastern Europe had experienced liberation. The theme of the conference, Thy Will be Done: Mission in Christ's Way, was studied in terms of 1) Turning to the Living God; 2) Participating in Suffering and Struggle; 3) The Earth is the Lord's; and 4) Towards Renewed Communities in Mission. All of these dealt with various missiological themes, such as mission and unity, dialogue and witness, the question of secularized society and the gospel message; solidarity with the poor and suffering; prophetic witness. Ecological awareness as a missiological question was given attention for the first time, with affirmation by the conference that "mission in Christ's way must extend to God's creation."(39) Missiological concern for integration of theory and action led the conference planners to call for a way to continue the conference beyond its actual time of gathering. Each of the working sections formulated "acts of faithfulness" which accompanied its report.(40)
The theme of the conference, Thy Will be Done: Mission in Christ's Way, was intended as a process of discernment to understand more clearly how we are to carry out mission today in Christ's way, rather than to further define mission.(41) With the events that led up to 1989, especially in eastern Europe, but which had repercussions around the world, major shifts were occurring right at the time of San Antonio. In fact, at that very moment, the students were gathered at Tiananmen Square, Beijing. The conference itself was too close to analyze the meaning of these shifts. and yet a brief comparison of the messages from Melbourne and San Antonio, illustrates how the participants in these two world mission conferences experienced the meaning of mission in the context of the world.
We meet under the clouds of nuclear threat and annihilation. Our world is
deeply wounded by the oppression inflicted by the powerful upon the
powerless. These oppression are found in our economic, political, racial,
sexual and religious life. Our world, so proud of human achievements, is
full of people suffering from hunger, poverty and injustice. . .(42)
and from San Antonio:
Concerned with the discernment of the will of God in today's world, the
representatives of the churches gathered in San Antonio, and spoke about
shared signs of hope and renewal. . . . Communities, and even entire
nations, in unexpected ways, are involved in self-examination, repentance,
renewal and struggle for justice, turning to the Living God, stressing the
infinite value of human dignity, and turning to one another to make
peace. . . .(43)
Melbourne was deeply conscious, as noted earlier, of the plight of the poor and the underlying relationship of this reality to engagement in mission directed toward the realization of God's kingdom or reign. The image of the poor -- those who suffer injustice, at "the periphery of national and community life," enabled the conference to image Jesus Christ "exercising his healing authority on the periphery."(44) The conference launched a call in its message, taken up later in The Ecumenical Affirmation, to direct missionary proclamation toward those on the periphery, because the poor and oppressed in the world are often "the people who have not heard of the Gospel of Jesus Christ." At the heart of this call to mission, however, there is the conviction that Jesus Christ goes to those on the periphery. The call to mission, Your Kingdom Come, is a call which "brings us closer to Jesus Christ in today's world."(45)
Conscientious commitment to solidarity with those who suffer was clearly present among the participants in San Antonio. It had become rooted in a deeply ecclesial and spiritual vision:
The two most significant trends of this Conference were the spirit of
universality (catholicity) of the gathering, and its concern for the fullness
of the gospel, namely: to hold in creative tension spiritual and material
needs, prayer and action, evangelism and social responsibility, dialogue and
witness, power and vulnerability, local and universal.(46)
Awareness that the signs of the times carry "a new call to faith" and "a new challenge for mission and evangelism" marked San Antonio as a further development in understanding mission as a process of communicating the good news in today's very different world. A little over a year later, at the end of 1990, John Paul II issued his encyclical letter, Mission of the Redeemer. Speaking of "new worlds and social phenomena," he notes that "rapid and profound transformations . . . characterize today's world, especially in the southern hemisphere, . . . having a powerful effect on the overall missionary picture."(47) The sense of new call to faith and new challenges for mission, finds a new expression in the modern equivalents of the Areopagus (cf. Acts 17:22- 31).(48)
Images of new spaces for mission in a world that continues to experience profound and unforeseeable change characterize the moment of mission on the threshold of Bahia. Called to,One Hope: the Gospel in Diverse Cultures, the theme of the conference, will be examined under four aspects: 1) Authentic witness within cultures; 2) Gospel and identity in community; 3) Local congregations in plural societies; 4) One gospel-diverse expressions. It is not appropriate to try to forecast the outcomes of Bahia. However, given the record of the world mission conferences to date in efforts to develop a pattern of inclusive participation, and in developing a tradition of ecumenical worship and Bible study, one can hope that, out of the dying and rising experienced in such a diverse and committed gathering, new hope will be born, new spaces of mission will be discovered and new challenges to unity among the disciples chosen to communicate the good news, will emerge.
(1) Cf. Roger Haight, sj. Jesus and Mission: An overview of the problem," in Discovery, No. 5 December 1994, pp. 1-23. The author emphasizes the bearing of historical consciousness on theology and the understanding of Jesus Christ, the church and mission. He proposes that historical consciousness constitutes the framework within which we must think today. If our theology is to be intelligible in our world, it has to he correlated with and inculturated into a historically conscious world. Historical consciousness describes the context within which our questions arise. It describes the intellectual culture or world into which theological answers are appropriated. p. 5.
(2) A poster, Highlights -- 20th Century Ecumenical Movement, from the World Council of Churches, illustrates this idea of signposts marking the ecumenical movement.
(3) G. Gassmann, Faith and Order, Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement, N. Lossky et al., eds., Geneva and Grand Rapids: WCC Publications and William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991. p. 413.
(4) This term has been used originally by the Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences (FABC), to describe the inter-relations between Catholics and persons of other religious faith traditions; it is a concept that attempts to capture the dynamic process of human relationships in the context of lived experience rather than starting with theoretical assumptions. In this way it opens new space for persons to live together and share in common pursuits.
(5) The earlier world mission conferences may have produced more academic style documents, while the latter, following developments in conference style generally, have emphasized more relational styles of meeting, and briefer reports, along with a number of papers both before and during the conferences.
(6) Faith and Order Commission, Towards Koinonia in Worship: Report of a WCC Faith and Order Consultation on the Role of Worship Within the Search for Unity, Midstream: The Pluralism of the Ecumenical Movement, 34, No. 2, 1995, pp. 197-229.
(7) Cf. G. H. Anderson, ed., The Theology of Christian Mission, New York: McGraw Hill, 1961, p. 4, A. Dulles sj., "John Paul II and the New Evangelization," in America, Vol. 166, No. 3 1992, pp. 52-59, 69-72.
(8) Anderson, op. cit.
(9) It would be too lengthy to include all the various examples that one could cite since 1961 but a simple indication of some of the more influential moments suffices, e.g. Vatican II with its insistence that mission is at the heart of the church; the integration of the International Missionary Council with the World Council of Churches; the Ecumenical Affirmation" of the World Council of Churches; Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry -- the document of the Faith and Order Commission; the study of Gospel and Culture presently being carried out by the World Council of Churches.
(10) Cf. K.S. Latourette, Christian World Mission in our Day, New York: Harper and Row, 1954, pp. 360-61.
(11) Cf. Gassmann, op. cit., pp. 411-412
(12) Cf. Latourette, op. cit., pp. 360-361.
(13) Cf. Latourette, ibid.
(14) Vf. T. Yates, Christian Mission in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 29.
(15) Cf. Yates, ibid.
(16) Cf. Yates, op. cit., p. 67.
(17) Cf. Yates, op. cit., pp. 67-70; also,. Mutiso-Mbinda, Concepts of Mission in the World Council of Churches: 1961-1991, Rome: Domenici-Pecheux, 1993, pp. 16-18.
(18) Yates, op. cit., p. 67.
(19) Cf. Mutiso-Mbinda, op. cit., p. 18.
(20) Yates, op. cit., p. 120.
(21) International Review of Mission, Vol. 77, 1988.
(22) Yates, op. cit., p. 12
(23) Cf. Mutiso-Mbinda, op. cit., p. 114.
(24) Cf. Van der Bent, Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement, Lossky et al., eds., Geneva and Grand Rapids: WCC Publications and William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991, p. 327. 25 Cf. Mutiso-Mbinda, op. cit., p. 112.
(26) Cf., ibid., p. 114.
(27) Cf. K. Nissen, "Mission and Unity: A look at the integration of the International Missionary Council and the World Council of Churches," in International Review of Mission, Vol. 63, 1974, p. 543.
(28) Cf. T. Stransky. International Missionary Council. Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement, Lossky, N. et al., eds., Geneva and Grand Rapids: WCC Publications and William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991, pp. 528-529.
(29) Cf. Mutiso-Mbinda, op. cit., p. 115.
(30) Cf. Mutiso-Mbinda, op. cit., p. 37.
(31) Cf. F. Wilson, ed., The San Antonio Report: Your Will be Done In Christ's Way, Geneva: WCC Publications, 1990, pp. 9-12.
(32) Common Witness: A Study Document of the Joint Working Group of the Roman Catholic Church and the World Council of Churches, Geneva: WCC Publications, 1984, No. 7.
(33) Ibid.; this kind of experiential transformation was evident in the sharing about the conference on various occasions as different images that touched deeply into one's experience of being part of a church sent in mission were highlighted in a variety of conversations and reports in the weeks following the conference.
(34) See Note 31.
(35) CWME, Your Kingdom Come: Mission Perspectives, Geneva: WCC Publications, 1980, pp. 205-206.
(36) Common Witness, op. cit., no. 30.
(37) Faith and Order Consultation, op. cit., p. 197.
(38) Cf. Yates, op. cit., pp. 67-7.0.
(39) Cf. Mutiso-Mbinda, op. cit., pp. 44-45.
(40) Cf. Wilson, op. cit.
(41) Ibid., pp. 4-5.
(42) CWME, op. cit., p. 234
(43) Wilson, op. cit., p. 21
(44) CWME, op. cit., p. 236.
(46) Wilson, op. cit., p. 20
(47) See No. 37.
Anderson, G.H., ed. The Theology of Christian Mission. New York: McGraw Hill, 1961. CWME. Your Kingdom Come: Mission Perspectives.". Geneva: WCC, 1980.
Dulles, Avery, sj. "John Paul n and The New Evangelization," America, Vol. 166, No. 3, 1992, pp. 52-59, 69-72.
Faith and Order Commission. Towards Koinonia in Worship: Report of a WCC Faith and Order Consultation on the Role of Worship Within the Search for Unity. Mid-Stream: The Pluralism of the Ecumenical Movement, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1995, pp. 197-229.
Flannery, Austin, ed. Vatican Council 11: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents. Northport, N.Y.: Costello Publishing Co., 1975.
Gassmann, G. Faith and Order. Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement. (Lossky, N. et al., eds.). Geneva and Grand Rapids: WCC Publications and William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991, pp. 411-413.
Haight, Roger, sj. "Jesus and Mission: An overview of the problem," in Discovery, 5, 1995, pp.
John Paul II. Mission of the Redeemer.". Boston: St Paul Books and Media, 1990. Tertio Millenio Adveniente. Boston: St Paul Books and Media, 1994.
Latourette, K.S. Christian World Mission in Our Day. New York: Harper and Row, 1954.
Mutiso-Mbinda, John. Concepts of Mission in the World Council of Churches: 1961 to 1991. A Study of the Historical Development in the Understanding of Christian Mission in the Documents of the World Council of Churches from New Delhi to Canberra. Rome: Domenici-Pecheux, 1993. Nissen Karsten. "Mission and Unity: A Look at the Integration of the International Missionary Council and the World Council of Churches," in International Review of Mission, Vol. 63, 1974, pp. 539-550.
Stransky, T. International Missionary Council. Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement, Lossky, N. et al., eds. Geneva and Grand Rapids: WCC Publications and William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991. pp. 526-529.
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|Title Annotation:||Looking Towards Salvador: Conference on World Mission and Evangelism, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 1996|
|Publication:||International Review of Mission|
|Date:||Jul 1, 1995|
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