Workplace, household, and personal predictors of pesticide exposure for farmworkers.
Human exposure to the pesticides that exist in the home, workplace, and community is regulated by a variety of behaviors and environmental factors. While many of these factors are commonly accepted in research on farmworker health and form the basis of pesticide safety education, there has been no comprehensive review of the empirical evidence linking these factors to exposure or to the relationship of exposure and health. We focus on the measurement of behavioral and environmental factors important at the following two points in the pesticide and health relationship: a) those that predict pesticide exposure, including who is exposed and how he or she is exposed, and b) those that modify the absorbed dose of pesticides.
We based this review on the premise that such a compilation of data will allow scientists to identify factors that have been found to be associated with pesticide exposure and, perhaps more importantly, to identify the gaps in current knowledge of the pesticide and health relationship. To the extent that determinants of exposure can be assessed with comparable measures across studies, results of such studies can then be compared to provide better-grounded answers to questions on the health effects of pesticides.
In this article we present a model of the relationship between predictors of pesticide exposure among farmworkers and pesticide exposure on health outcomes. We identify comprehensively the range of factors that may be associated with pesticide exposure, and we distinguish those for which a firm relationship with farmworker exposure has been identified in the scientific literature and those for which the association can only be inferred from other data. We also suggest a minimum set of measures that are necessary to understand farmworker pesticide exposure.
This article is guided by a model (Figure 1) that contrasts the proximal and the distal determinants of pesticide exposure. Those determinants that are proximal to pesticide exposure--that is, the immediate determinants of exposure--are generally behaviors practiced either by farmworkers in the workplace or by farmworkers or their co-resident household members at home. These determinants include (in the workplace) use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and field sanitation, as well as (at home) laundry practices and child activity patterns. These proximal factors are themselves determined by predictors that are considered more distal to the exposure. These predictors include environmental conditions at work (e.g., safety training), at home (e.g., number of farmworkers in residence), and in the larger community (e.g., total farmland treated with pesticides). These environmental factors affect exposure through behavior; the association of environmental and behavioral factors is moderated by psychosocial factors, including the attitudes, values, beliefs, and knowledge held by farmworkers. For example, farmworker residences with a high residential density might be expected to store soiled work clothing that would present an exposure risk to household residents. This relationship could be positively influenced by beliefs that pesticides are harmless, or negatively influenced by knowledge of recommended laundry practices.
A portion of pesticides to which an individual is exposed is absorbed as the pesticide dose, and this dose can have health effects. According to the model, the amount absorbed is moderated by some of the workplace and household behaviors (e.g., hand washing by workers or household residents) as well as by other factors. The latter moderators include genetic factors, body size, and developmental status; these characteristics are not covered in this review.
This review focuses on the conceptual model (Figure 1) developed by the authors. Components of the model were expanded to produce a list of factors potentially related to pesticide exposure in farmworkers. These factors formed the search terms for our review of the literature that searched the PubMed, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.1fcgi?DB=pubmed); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (http://portal. isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi/wos?Init=Yes&SI D=D112jMPBmi56JK4eA1); PsycINFO (http://www.psycinfo.org/psychoinfo/); and AGRICOLA (http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/) databases. We restricted reviews to peer-reviewed publications from studies that involved primary data collection and that were published in 1990 or later. A few earlier studies were included for topics with little research coverage. Articles were graded by the type of evidence for the association of a particular risk factor with pesticide exposure, as follows: 1 = association demonstrated in farmworkers; 2 = association demonstrated in nonfarmworker sample; 3 = plausible association proposed for farmworkers; or 4 = association plausible but not published for farmworkers. To be classified as "1," the study participants had to be described as migrant or seasonal farmworkers. In most other cases the study participants were described as "growers," "farmers," or members of their families, and they were classified as nonfarmworkers. Study participants described as "applicators" were classified as nonfarmworkers. Summaries of articles were compiled by level of evidence and presented in tabular form. Because of space restrictions, only those articles graded "1" or "2" are presented here (Table 1). A minimum list of data to be collected in farmworker pesticide studies was derived from these evidence tables (Table 2).
Wearing PPE is one of the behaviors most widely assumed to protect workers from pesticide exposure. The label PPE can apply to everything from long-sleeve shirts to protective coveralls and respirators. Studies in the United States and abroad show that wearing PPE appropriate to the task results in lower exposure to pesticides (Table 1). Although the studies vary with regard to the types of chemicals investigated, the PPE tested (gloves, overalls), and the types of exposure measured [cholinesterase activity, skin wipes, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) serum levels], they all indicate that PPE is effective in reducing worker exposure to pesticides (Fenske et al. 1990; Gomes et al. 1999; Hernandez-Valero et al. 2001; Lander et al. 1991; Ohayo-Mitoko et al. 1999). Studies in farmers (Arbuckle et al. 2002) and applicators (Fenske et al. 2002a; Nigg et al. 1993) lend further support to the effectiveness of PPE, although they also indicate variations because of fabrics and clothing design. In general, fabric less capable of penetration and designs that cover the largest amount of skin provide the greatest protection from pesticide exposure for workers. Despite the indications of efficacy, studies (particularly of farmers and applicators) show that PPE is frequently not used (e.g., Perry et al. 2002).
Other worker behaviors have been suggested as ways to reduce pesticide exposure, and these alternatives are included as recommended practices in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1992). These behaviors include washing hands in the field before eating and after mixing pesticides. The importance of such behavior is demonstrated by studies showing that pesticides can be transferred to the home via automobile (e.g., Curl et al. 2002; Thompson et al. 2003). Curwin et al. (2003) showed that farmworker hand levels of the OP acephate could be reduced 96% by handwashing.
Additional practices have been suggested to reduce exposure. These practices include wearing grower-provided uniforms and showering at the worksite before returning home. There have been no tests to determine if such workplace behaviors would reduce exposure of the farmworker or the farmworker family.
Farmworker children are sometimes taken to the fields either to work or because adequate child care is lacking (Cooper et al. 2001). Such practices are likely to be predictors of pesticide exposure. Hernandez-Valero et al. (2003) investigated the possible pathways of OCP exposure among 36 migrant farmworker children whose home base was Baytown, Texas. One-third of the children had previously conducted farmwork, and the farmwork duration significantly increased their exposure levels. Mandel et al. (2005) found that children of Minnesota growers often helped apply chemicals and, therefore, had levels of pesticide exposure closer to those of the parent who applied chemicals than to the other parent.
The application of residential pesticides in the home and yard has been investigated as a source of pesticide exposure among farmworkers and nonfarmworkers (Table 1). The collection of wipe (Quandt et al. 2004) or vacuum samples (Bradman et al. 1997), which allow direct identification of the type of pesticide found, has been used to link pesticides applied to worker dwellings to those pesticides detected. However, not all studies have had positive results (McCauley et al. 2001). Urinary metabolites of OP pesticides have also supported the link between residential pesticide application and worker exposure (Arcury et al. 2005).
Similar results have been found in nonfarmworker populations. Yard and garden pesticides were found to be transferred into homes by residents and by dogs (Lewis et al. 2001, Morgan et al. 2001; Nishioka et al. 2001). Use of OP pesticides in gardens is associated with metabolite levels in children (Fenske 2002b; Lu et al. 2001).
Several household sanitation behaviors are associated with farmworker pesticide exposure. Bradman et al. (1997) found that more frequent mopping and vacuuming was associated with lower pesticide recoveries in dust wipes. Arcury et al. (2005) suggested that having a vacuum cleaner was associated with lower levels of urinary OP metabolites.
A number of studies have documented the high potential for personal exposure to pesticides caused by waiting for extended periods before showering after work, not changing clothes immediately after work, and failure to separate work from household laundry (Alavanja et al. 1999; Curwin et al. 2002; Goldman et al. 2004). However, with the exception of McCauley et al. (2003), there is little direct evidence to support this association.
The organization of work is a subfield of occupational health that is concerned with the way that work processes are structured and managed. Organization of work investigators attend to such factors as the nature of the employment relationship (e.g., permanent versus contingent labor), job design (e.g., complexity of tasks and level of worker control), interpersonal elements of jobs (e.g., worker-supervisor relations), as well as such things as work schedules, job security, and communication with an employing organization. Although it has not been explicitly used in farmworker research, evidence suggests that several aspects of the way farm work is organized contribute to pesticide exposure (Marquart et al. 2003).
Several interrelated processes underlying the nature of the employment relationship suggest that pesticide exposure is likely to be greater among farmworkers in seasonal (e.g., workers with H2A visas) or day labor relationships in contrast to those in more "permanent" positions. Farmworkers in employment relationships that are more permanent may receive more effective safety training and more consistent reinforcement of safety behaviors than seasonal farmworkers or day-laborers. Researchers contend that workers in nonstandard employment relationships, such as seasonal workers or day-laborers, may be given tasks that place them at greater risk of becoming exposed to pesticides compared to permanent workers (Quinlan et al. 2001). Moreover, farmworkers in seasonal and day-labor arrangements may be less likely to request safety equipment or to report potential hazards to owners/operators out of fear that it may jeopardize future opportunities for work (Aronsson 1999; Aronsson et al. 2002; Quinlan et al. 2001). Despite the plausibility of several of these linkages, differences in pesticide exposure among farmworkers in different types of employment relationships have not been studied explicitly.
Different aspects of job design, or the tasks performed on a job and how they are performed, have been linked to pesticide exposure (Table 1). Tasks that are not regulated by the WPS can result in elevated pesticide exposure (Coronado et al. 2004). A great number of tasks or duties that put individuals in contact with pesticides or pesticide residues, such as self-service and repair of application equipment among applicators and a greater number of field activities among workers, are associated with more exposure (Alavanja et al. 1999; Hernandez-Valero et al. 2001). Environments that provide farmworkers with little control over how pesticides are applied (e.g., highexposure application methods), when pesticides are applied (e.g., avoiding windy days), and frequency of application are all associated with increased pesticide exposure among farmworkers (Mage et al. 2000; Martin et al. 2002; Mekonnen and Agonafir 2002). Similarly, environments that provide little personal control over protective behaviors, such as absence of well-maintained PPE or inability to wash or change clothes during the workday, contribute to elevated pesticide exposure (Alavanja et al. 1999; Arcury et al. 2002; Austin et al. 2001; Mekonnen and Agonafir 2002; Parrott et al. 1999).
Although there have been no explicit comparison studies, it is likely that different crops are associated with different levels of pesticide exposure because of the differences in tasks associated with crops. For example, some will involve greater hand labor for cultivation and harvest than others. It is likely that those requiring more hand labor will result in greater exposure.
Interpersonal elements of farm work also contribute to pesticide exposure. Better-quality relationships between workers and farmers/growers are important for identifying potential sources of pesticide exposure as well as for designing and implementing effective strategies for minimizing exposure (Grieshop et al. 1996). Communication difficulties caused by language differences between workers and farmers/growers contribute to greater pesticide exposure through less effective training (McCauley et al. 2002; Rao et al. 2004). Similarly, differences in belief systems about the risks of pesticide exposure and appropriate behaviors for minimizing risk can contribute to elevated exposure by undermining the effectiveness of training and safety programs (Arcury et al. 2001; Quandt et al. 1998; Rao et al. 2004). The psychological demands of the work environment can also contribute to lower adherence to safety regulations (Kidd et al. 1996; Thu 1998; Walter et al. 2002). Despite the strong suggested connection of these work environmental factors to pesticides, no studies have examined pesticide exposure and the organization of work, either in farmworkers or in other populations.
One of the major aspects of the work environment directly related to pesticide exposure is safety training for workers. Minimum content and standards for pesticide safety training are part of the WPS, which mandates training for field workers as well as for applicators. A number of studies have examined safety training in farmworkers, but none of these have examined the association of safety training with pesticide exposure. This work shows that many farmworkers fail to receive training as mandated (Arcury et al. 1999; Elmore and Arcury 2001; U.S. General Accounting Office 2000) but that the rates vary over time (Arcury et al. 2001). Salazar et al. (2004) found that even when safety training is presented, it is sometimes understood poorly because of language barriers. Research with applicators (Martinez et al. 2004) and farmers (Perry and Layde 2003) shows that safety training produces increased knowledge, but it does not necessarily result in appropriate safety behaviors.
Household Environment: Physical and Social
Proximity of dwellings to agricultural fields treated with pesticides has been suggested as a dwelling characteristic associated with exposure (Fenske et al. 2000). Studies of dust samples from farmworker residences support this suggestion, both in terms of concentrations of pesticides (McCauley et al. 2001) and in numbers of pesticides found in the home (Quandt et al. 2002, 2004). Curl et al. (2003) found no association between distance to field and levels of metabolites found in children's urine. However, these metabolite levels were associated with house dust concentrations, which, in turn, were associated with the dust in cars of farmworkers, thereby indicating a pathway from worksite to home. Among nonfarmworkers, distance from dwelling to fields was associated with concentrations in house dust (Fenske et al. 2002b; Lu et al. 2000). This linkage was reflected in higher urine concentrations of metabolites in some (Loewenherz et al. 1997) but not all (Fenske et al. 2002b) studies measuring urinary metabolites.
Various housing quality indicators have been linked to greater pesticide exposure for farmworker families. Older dwelling age (Bradman et al. 1997) and renting rather than owning (Arcury et al. 2005) have been examined. These studies were based on the belief that the greater age of a house as well as a history of different tenants might lead to the accumulation of larger amounts of pesticides, both simply as a matter of time and because there might be more opportunity for pest infestations to which pesticides are applied. Both of these measures have been linked to exposure. Quandt et al. (2004) used an interviewer's judgment of how difficult or easy a house was to clean, reasoning that houses more difficult to clean would have a less thorough elimination of pesticides. Cleaning difficulty was associated with greater pesticide exposure.
Several aspects of the household social environment related to household composition have been suggested as major influences on pesticide exposure at home. The logic is that more persons in the household, particularly more farmworkers, will increase the volume of take-home pesticides, and this situation might be most extreme in cases of crowding. The simplest measure, total household size, has been linked to pesticides in two studies of farmworkers (Arcury et al. 2005; McCauley et al. 2001). These findings are supported by the study of Goldman et al. (2004) of pesticide-related behaviors. They found that larger household size was associated with fewer in-home safety behaviors. McCauley et al. (2003), in a study of nonfarmworker agricultural households, found weak and nonsignificant associations between household size and OP residues. More specific measures of household social environment (number of adults and number of agricultural workers in the household) have been suggested. However, this association generally has been tested by comparing agricultural and nonagricultural households (Bradman et al. 1997; Lu et al. 2000; Simcox et al. 1995), not by looking at the variation in number of adults within farmworker homes. Exceptions are the work of Arcury et al. (2005) and Quandt et al. (2004), which compared nuclear family households with those that comprised other adult relatives or nonrelatives and appeared to find more pesticides in the latter. This finding may be caused by greater track-in of pesticides with more adults, or by culture-specific issues. The investigators found that women residing in farmworker homes reported difficulty in enforcing standards of household cleanliness when male in-laws lived with the family because gender roles limit the authority of women over the behavior of fathers-in-law and other relatives. Only two studies have used density or crowding (e.g., persons/room and persons/square foot) as measures of the household social environment. McCauley et al. (2001) found no association in homes of farmworkers, and only a slight association in homes of other agricultural workers (McCauley et al. 2003).
Several different measures have been used to associate overall use of pesticides in a community with exposure. None has focused specifically on farmworkers. Fenske et al. (2000) found that a majority of children in an agricultural region from both agricultural and nonagricultural families had urinary metabolites for OPs. Similar results were reported by Koch et al. (2002), who found no differences because of parental occupation or residential proximity to fields. Lee et al. (2002) measured airborne agricultural pesticides at monitoring stations in California communities. They found that the level of exposure exceeded reference values for noncancer health effects for half of the population.
In agricultural communities, historical use of some persistent pesticides may have led to long-term contamination of the soil. In areas where lead arsenate was used extensively, soil samples have demonstrated the persistence of arsenic (Wolz et al. 2003). DDT, an OCP, is still found in soil samples despite its having been removed from use decades ago (Miersma et al. 2003).
Factors Moderating Behavior and Environment
Psychosocial stressors. Two pathways have been proposed by which psychosocial stressors might lead to pesticide exposure of farmworkers or of growers (Figure 1). None of the studies of these stressors have actually measured pesticides, so no data have been gathered with which to validate these pathways. The first pathway is through stressors on the farmworkers, primarily the result of their social position as immigrants and the process of acculturation that they undergo. Vega et al. (1985) found that Mexican American farmworkers experience high levels of psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms are associated with limited social mobility, transience, poverty, discrimination, and a high rate of traumatic life events. These findings were supported by Hovey et al. (2002a, 2002b), who found that farmworkers suffer from high rates of anxiety. This anxiety, in turn, is associated with elevated acculturative stress, low self-esteem, ineffective social support, and lack of control over the migrant lifestyle. Looking specifically at female farmworkers, Carruth and Logan (2002) documented high levels of depressive symptoms, which were predicted by poor health, perceived hazards of farm work, having experienced recent farmwork-related injuries, and engaging in farm work over long periods of time. These documented stressors and associated mental health deficits may lead farmworkers to take more risks and to neglect to practice safety behaviors protective against pesticide exposure.
The second pathway is through stressors on growers and workers that result from the organization of farm work. Thu (1998) proposed that the narrow temporal window for growing and harvesting, long work hours in isolated work conditions, and the psychological stress associated with farming can push farmers to minimize safety standards. Others have argued that the psychological and physical demands of the job confronted by day-laborers, including farmworkers, directly promote accidents and injuries through fatigue and distraction (Kidd et al. 1996; Salazar et al. 2004; Thu 1998; Walter et al. 2002). They also argue that other difficulties faced by farmworkers, including economic hardship and job insecurity, further elevate the risk of exposure and exacerbate health effects of exposure because farmworkers who have few other employment options may fear requesting PPE or may work through dangerous situations.
Pesticide knowledge and beliefs. Farmworkers' knowledge about pesticides has generally been measured relative to prevailing scientific data, while beliefs come from more exploratory, ethnographic investigations. However, conceptually, both provide workers with information upon which they base their actions, so the distinction is somewhat artificial. Farmworker beliefs and knowledge have been collected in a number of studies that do not relate these data to pesticide exposure or to behaviors that might predict exposure. Quandt et al. (1998, 2001) identified several key beliefs held by farmworkers that might increase behaviors that would promote pesticide exposure. These beliefs include the ideas that pesticides must be felt, seen, tasted, or smelled to be present; the skin blocks absorption and body openings facilitate it; exposure occurs only when a pesticide is wet; susceptibility is individualized; and acute, not low-level chronic, exposure is the primary danger inherent in pesticide exposure. Elmore and Arcury (2001) found similar beliefs among Christmas tree workers. Salazar et al. (2004) found that workers expected to get sick as part of the job. They believed it was all right to work in unsafe conditions if the benefits were high enough. Hunt et al. (1999) found similar beliefs in southern Mexico.
In research with pesticide applicators, Martinez et al. (2004) found that applicators believe, in contrast to farmworkers, that dermal exposure is linked to long-term adverse health consequences, but not to acute illness. The knowledge and beliefs held by applicators reflect their participation in required training (Martinez et al. 2004; Perry et al. 2000). Much of it appears to have been learned by rote with less than optimal understanding of the health consequences of exposure.
Some studies have tried to measure the association of pesticide knowledge and beliefs with pesticide-related behavior. These studies (Arcury et al. 2002; Grieshop et al. 1996; McCauley et al. 2002; Vaughan 1993) show that greater knowledge of pesticide risks increases workers' sense of control and willingness to practice safety behaviors that should reduce exposure. Among farm operators, the belief that one had previously experienced adverse events of exposure was linked to taking greater precautions when working with pesticides (Lichtenberg et al. 1999).
Values and folk beliefs. Familism (an orientation to the welfare of one's immediate and extended family) has been noted as a strong value among Mexican and Central American immigrants (Romero et al. 2004; Sabogal et al. 1987; Salazar et al. 2004). Among adolescent farmworkers, this value is so strong that researchers (e.g., Salazar et al. 2004) have suggested that these workers are likely to neglect themselves (e.g., not adhere to safety practices) in their agricultural work with pesticides. Other authors (e.g., Romero et al. 2004; Sabogal et al. 1987) have suggested that familism should be associated with more positive health outcomes. Thus, of farmworkers who have been exposed to pesticides, those with greater familism may experience lower rates of pesticide-related illness.
Two folk illness concepts that are characteristic of Mexico have been identified among farmworkers. "Susto," an illness associated with having experienced a fright (Rubel 1984), was reported by a significant number of Mexican farmworkers in Florida who had experienced pesticide exposure (Baer et al. 1993). Arcury et al. (2001) reported that farmworkers expressed reluctance to use cold water for washing in the field and to shower immediately after returning home from work. They attributed this reluctance to a concern (indicative of a belief in humoral medicine) (Rubel 1960; Weller 1983) that their bodies were metaphorically hot from work and that the contact with water that, despite variation in temperature, is metaphorically cold, would result in rheumatism and other adverse health outcomes. These studies suggest that folk beliefs about the causes of illness can promote greater pesticide exposure by undermining protective behaviors such as hand washing and using PPE.
Summary of the Evidence
While many diverse factors have been proposed to have direct, indirect, or modifying effects on whether or not farmworkers are exposed to pesticides (Table 1; Figure 1), the research connecting characteristics of workers' environments and behaviors with actual measures of pesticide exposure is meager. Behavioral factors for which the best evidence of a direct relationship with pesticide exposure exists are use of PPE, use of pesticide products in and around the home, and personal hygiene behaviors such as hand washing at work and showering upon returning home from work.
Evidence of environmental factors associated with exposure is lacking for the occupational setting. Aside from clear evidence that job tasks that bring workers into contact with pesticides produce greater exposure, there has been little attempt actually to measure the effect of workplace safety training or the organization of work on exposure. Far more attention has been paid to the effects of the household environment of farmworkers and applicators on the exposure of workers and family members because we have better access to homes than to work sites. With some exceptions, research supports the link between proximity to fields and exposure. While studies use different measures, older houses of poorer quality appear to be linked to exposure. Similarly, different measures of household composition have been used. Most suggest that a greater number of adults and farmworkers in a house leads to greater amounts of pesticide in the dwelling and more pesticide exposure of the residents.
None of the psychosocial or cultural factors proposed as moderators in the association of environment or behavior with exposure has been examined with actual pesticide exposure data. Thus, the role of such factors in farmworker exposure is unknown.
The review of the evidence also highlights the fact that many of the existing studies that identify predictors of pesticide exposure in farmworkers, as well as in nonfarmworkers, have relied on self-reported behaviors rather than on true exposure measures. Among those studies that have included measures of exposure, some have employed environmental samples rather than biological measures. This history suggests that further studies of the association between predictors of exposure and actual biomarkers are warranted.
Recommendations for Data Collection and for Future Research
The evidence provided by this review, encompassing both factors with demonstrable links to exposure and those plausible but not well studied, indicates that a minimum set of concepts should be included in studies of farmworker pesticide exposure. The exact measures for each concept are not entirely clear because of the dearth of research that has actually sought to measure the association of predictors and exposure outcomes. Therefore, the recommendation is to obtain a broad enough group of measures to test for likely pathways of exposure.
This minimum set differs depending on whether the research focus is limited to occupational pesticide exposure of workers or if the focus includes the paraoccupational and environmental pesticide exposure of adults and children who reside with farmworkers. For the latter, some additional measures are included (e.g., child play areas). Measures are presented from proximal to distal determinants (Table 2). Although this review has included a variety of moderators that are likely to be important in the exposure pathway, there is currently insufficient research to recommend any particular set of such measures.
This review suggests that a productive line of research would be to focus on the role of the organization of work with regard to pesticide exposure. This area of research can help identify aspects of the workplace that can be modified to protect workers from pesticide exposure. It is consistent with the approach of much of occupational safety and health, in that it relies less on changing human behavior directly than on "engineering" changes in work and the workplace environment. While the organization of work is a well developed area of research, it has not had widespread application to farmworker pesticide safety research.
The most obvious dearth of data found in this review is in the area of cultural and psychosocial factors that may moderate the effect of household and workplace environments on safety behaviors. Although such factors are clearly not direct influences on exposure, they condition the extent to which behavior or environmental change to protect workers and their families will be accepted, and they are, therefore, necessary components of behavioral interventions. It is premature to list specific data to be collected because such factors do not lend themselves to measurement through simple questions.
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Sara A. Quandt, (1) Maria A. Hernandez-Valero, (2) Joseph G. Grzywacz, (1) Joseph D. Hovey, (3) Melissa Gonzales, (4) and Thomas A. Arcury (1)
(1) Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA; (2) University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; (3) University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA; (4) University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
This article is part of the mini-monograph "Farmworker Exposure to Pesticides: Methodological Issues for the Collection of Comparable Data."
Address correspondence to S.A. Quandt, Division of Public Health Sciences, Dept. of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1063 USA. Telephone: (336) 716-6015. Fax: (336) 713-4157. E-mail: email@example.com
This article was produced as part of the Farmworker Environmental Health Research Comparable Data Conference held in Winston-Salem, NC, on 30 September-1 October 2004.
Financial support was provided by the Pesticide Environmental Trust Fund, N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services; the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R13 ES/OH013378); and CropLife America, Inc. This work was supported in part by the intramural research program of the NIEHS, National Institutes of Health.
The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.
Received 11 July 2005; accepted 3 November 2005.
Table 1. Review of literature on predictors of pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Relationship to pesticide exposure Characteristic Rating (a) Reference Population Workplace behaviors Availability and 1 Fenske et al. 12 farmworkers use of personal 1990 protective equipment 1 Gomes et al. 532 farmworkers in 1999 United Arab Emirates 1 Lander et al. 100 greenhouse 1991 workers and 43 fruit growers; 113 slaughtermen served as controls 1 Ohayo-Mitoko 539 agricultural et al. 1999 workers in 4 areas of Kenya 1 Spencer et al. 28 peach 1995 harvesters, California 1 Hernandez-Valero 26 Mexican et al. 2001 American migrant farmworkers in Baytown, Texas 2 Arbuckle et al. 126 pesticide 2002 applicators in Ontario 2 Fenske et al. 6 pesticide 2002a applicators in central Florida citrus groves 2 Nigg et al. 1993 3 greenhouse pesticide applicators in Florida Field sanitation 1 Curwin et al. 12 Hispanic male 2003 tobacco harvesters near Kinston, North Carolina Household behaviors Residental 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino pesticide use 2005 farmworker family households in western North Carolina and Virginia 1 Bradman et al. 5 farmworker and 1997 6 nonfarmworker dwellings in California's Central Valley 1 McCauley et al. 96 farmworker 2001 homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon 1 Quandt et al. 41 farmworker in 2002, 2004 family homes North Carolina and Virginia 2 Fenske et al. 12 farmworker 2002b homes in Central Washington State; 14 non-agricultural reference homes 2 Lewis et al. 2001 Single household 2 Lu et al. 2001 110 children, ages 2-5 years, from 96 households in the Seattle metropolitan area 2 McCauley et al. 24 agricultural 2003 families in northwestern US 2 Morgan et al. Single family 2001 dwelling in Chatham County, North Carolina 2 Nishioka et al. 11 occupied and 2 2001 unoccupied homes Cleaning 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino 2005 farmworker family households in western North Carolina and Virginia 1 Bradman et al. 5 farmworker and 1997 6 nonfarm- workers dwellings in California's Central Valley Laundry 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino 2005 farmworker family households in western North Carolina and Virginia Delay changing 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino clothes and 2005 farmworker bathing family households in western North Carolina and Virginia 2 McCauley et al. 24 agricultural 2003 families in northwestern US Household pets 2 Lu et al. 2001 110 children, ages 2-5 years, from 96 households in the Seattle metropolitan area 2 McCauley et al. 24 agricultural 2003 families in northwestern US 2 Morgan et al. Single-family 2001 dwelling in Chatham County, North Carolina 2 Nishioka et al. 11 occupied and 2 2001 unoccupied homes Child activity 2 Morgan et al. Single-family patterns 2001 dwelling in Chatham County, North Carolina 2 Mandel et al. 95 farm families 2005 (grower, spouse, and child) in Minnesota and South Carolina Diet 2 Curl et al. 2003 39 preschool age children (18 children with organic diets and 21 children with conventional diets) in Seattle, Washington 2 Stehr-Green et al. 85 rural-dwelling 1988 persons Transportation 1 Curl et al. 2002 218 farmworker households in Washington State 1 Thompson et al. 571 farmworkers in 2003 the Lower Yakima Valley in Washington State Workplace environment Task variety 1 Hernandez-Valero 26 Mexican et al. 2001 American migrant farmworkers in Baytown, Texas Job design 1 Coronado et al. 213 farmworkers in 2004 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State Household environment: dwelling characteristics Dwelling 1 McCauley et al. 96 farmworker (location 2001 homes and 24 relative to grower homes in exposure two agricultural sources) communities in Oregon 1 Curl et al. 2002 218 farmworker households in Washington State 1 Quandt et al. 41 farmworker 2002, 2004 family residences in North Carolina and Virginia 2 Fenske et al. 12 farmworker 2002b homes in Central Washington State and 14 non-agricultural reference homes 2 Loewenherz et al. 88 children under 1997 6 years in 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families 2 Lu et al. 2000 109 children, 9 months to 6 years, in an agricultural community in central Washington State Dwelling type 1 McCauley et al. 96 farmworker 2001 homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon Dwelling tenure 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino 2005 farmworker family households in western North Carolina and Virginia Housing 1 Bradman et al. 5 farmworker and quality/state 1997 6 nonfarmworker of repair dwellings dwelling in California's Central Valley 1 Quandt et al. 41 farmworker 2002, 2004 family residences in North Carolina and Virginia Household environment: household characteristics Total household 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino size (total 2005 farmworker number of family residents) households in western North Carolina and Virginia 1 McCauley et al. 96 farmworker 2001 homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon 2 McCauley et al. 24 agricultural 2003 families in northwestern United States 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino 2005 farmworker family households in western North Carolina and Virginia Number of 1 McCauley et al. 96 farmworker farmworkers in 2001 homes and 24 household grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon 1 Bradman et al. 5 farmworker and 1997 6 nonfarm- workers dwellings in California's Central Valley 2 Lu et al. 2000 109 children, 9 months to 6 years of age, in an agricultural community in central Washington State 2 Simcox et al. 26 farming, 22 1995 farmworker, and 11 nonfarming residences in eastern Washington State Household 1 Arcury et al. 9 Latino composition 2005 farmworker family households in western North Carolina and Virginia 1 Quandt et al. 41 farmworker 2004 family residences in North Carolina and Virginia Household 1 McCauley et al. 96 farmworker density or 2001 homes and 24 crowding grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon 2 McCauley et al. 24 agricultural 2003 families in northwestern United States Community environment Overall level of 1-2 Fenske et al. 109 children in agricultural 2000 agricultural use community in eastern Washington State (91 had parents working agriculture) 2 Koch et al. 2002 44 children living in an agricultural community in central Washington State 2 Lee et al. 2002 California communities Historical 2 Wolz et al. 2003 58 homes in agricultural agricultural pesticide use community in Washington State 2 Miersma et al. Elementary school 2003 yards in 8 cities near the Texas- Mexico border Relationship to pesticide exposure Characteristic Reference Exposure measurement Workplace behaviors Availability and Fenske et al. Dermal exposure to lindane use of personal 1990 protective equipment Gomes et al. Blood sample: 1999 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity Lander et al. Blood sample: AChE activity 1991 Ohayo-Mitoko Blood sample: AChE activity et al. 1999 Spencer et al. Dislodgeable foliar residue of 1995 azinphos-methyl (AM) pesticides measured on skin and clothing Hernandez-Valero Blood samples: 21 et al. 2001 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) Arbuckle et al. Urine samples: Phenoxy- 2002 herbicides 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 4-chloro-2- methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) Fenske et al. Exposure to organophosphorus 2002a (OP) insecticide ethion during airblast application by fluorescent tracer deposition on skin surfaces beneath garments, video imaging analysis instrument (VITAE system), and alpha- cellulose patches placed outside and beneath the garments Nigg et al. 1993 Pads placed inside and outside three types of protective coveralls measured exposure to chlorpyrifos, fluvalinate, and ethazol Field sanitation Curwin et al. Handwipes: acephate residues 2003 Household behaviors Residental Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites pesticide use 2005 Bradman et al. House dust and handwipe sample: 1997 33 pesticides McCauley et al. House dust samples: residues of 2001 major OPs used in area crops Quandt et al. Wipe samples from floor, toys, 2002, 2004 and children's hands: 8 locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses Fenske et al. House dust samples and 2002b children's urine samples: 2 diethyl OP pesticides-- chlorpyrifos and parathion Lewis et al. 2001 Samples of indoor air; vacuumable carpet dust; carpet dislodgeable residues; deposits on bare floors, table tops, and dinnerware; surrogate food; and residues on children's hands and toys: diazinon and chlorpyrifos Lu et al. 2001 Urine samples: 6 dialkylphosphate (DAP) compounds McCauley et al. House dust samples: OP 2003 pesticides Morgan et al. Soil, turf, and carpet 2001 samples; 24-hr air samples; handwipes; and samples taken from dog fur and paws Nishioka et al. Indoor air samples; surface 2001 wipes from floors, table tops, and window sills; and floor dust samples before and after lawn application of the herbicide 2,4-D Cleaning Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites 2005 Bradman et al. House dust and handwipe 1997 samples: 33 pesticides Laundry Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites 2005 Delay changing Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites clothes and 2005 bathing McCauley et al. House dust samples: OP 2003 pesticides Household pets Lu et al. 2001 Spot urine samples: six dialkylphosphate (DAP) compounds McCauley et al. House dust samples: OP 2003 pesticides Morgan et al. Soil, turf, and carpet 2001 samples; 24-hr air samples; handwipes; and samples taken from dog fur and paws: pesticides Nishioka et al. Indoor air samples; surface 2001 wipes from floors, table tops, and window sills; and floor dust samples: before and after lawn application of herbicide 2,4-D Child activity Morgan et al. Soil, turf, and carpet samples; patterns 2001 24-hr air samples; handwipes, and samples taken from dog fur and paws: pesticides Mandel et al. 24-hr urine samples: 2,4-D; 2005 glyphosphate; and metabolite of chlorpyrifos Diet Curl et al. 2003 24-hr urine samples: 5 OP pesticide metabolites Stehr-Green et al. Blood samples: 11 pesticide 1988 residues and metabolites Transportation Curl et al. 2002 House and vehicle dust samples: 6 pesticides Urine samples: 5- dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites Thompson et al. Urine samples of farmworkers 2003 and children, house and vehicle dust samples: pesticides Workplace environment Task variety Hernandez-Valero Blood samples measured 21 et al. 2001 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) Job design Coronado et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites; 2004 House and vehicle dust samples: OP pesticides Household environment: dwelling characteristics Dwelling McCauley et al. Home dust samples: OP residues (location 2001 relative to exposure Curl et al. 2002 House and vehicle dust samples: sources) 6 pesticides Urine samples: 5 OP metabolites Quandt et al. Wipe samples from floor, toys, 2002, 2004 and children's hands: 8 eight locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses Fenske et al. House dust samples and 2002b children's urine samples: chlorpyrifos and parathion Loewenherz et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites 1997 Lu et al. 2000 Urine and hand wipe samples: OP pesticides House dust samples and wipe samples: OP pesticides Dwelling type McCauley et al. Home dust samples: residues of 2001 major OPs used in area crops Dwelling tenure Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites 2005 Housing Bradman et al. House dust and handwipe sample: quality/state 1997 33 pesticides of repair Quandt et al. Wipe samples from floor, toys, 2002, 2004 and children's hands: 8 locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses Household environment: household characteristics Total household Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites size (total 2005 number of residents) McCauley et al. Home dust samples: OP residues 2001 McCauley et al. House dust samples: OP 2003 pesticides Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites 2005 Number of McCauley et al. Home dust samples: OP residues farmworkers in 2001 household Bradman et al. House dust and handwipe sample: 1997 33 pesticides Lu et al. 2000 Urine and hand wipe samples: OP pesticides. House dust samples and wipe samples from various surfaces: OP pesticides Simcox et al. House dust and soil samples: 4 1995 OP insecticides Household Arcury et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites composition 2005 Quandt et al. Wipe samples from floor, toys, 2004 and children's hands: 8 locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses Household McCauley et al. Home dust samples: OP residues density or 2001 crowding McCauley et al. House dust samples: OP residues 2003 Community environment Overall level of Fenske et al. Urine samples: OP metabolites agricultural 2000 use Koch et al. 2002 Urine samples: dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites Lee et al. 2002 Ambient air sampling of multiple classes of airborne pesticides Historical Wolz et al. 2003 Soil and house dust samples: agricultural lead arsenate pesticide use Miersma et al. Soil samples: OCPs 2003 Relationship to pesticide exposure Characteristic Reference Findings Workplace behaviors Availability and Fenske et al. Demonstrated penetration of use of personal 1990 lindane through workshirt and protective pants. Recommended adding equipment coveralls and gauntlet-type gloves Gomes et al. Higher AChE was associated with 1999 changing work clothes and use of work coveralls, gloves, and face scarf Lander et al. Wearing gloves was protective 1991 of AChE activity in greenhouse workers Ohayo-Mitoko Use of coverall resulted in et al. 1999 less AChE inhibition than not wearing coverall or just wearing boots Spencer et al. More pesticides were found on 1995 outer of two shirts, indicating the protective effect of clothing from dislodgeable residues Hernandez-Valero Wearing gloves and hats et al. 2001 resulted in less OCP exposure in farmworkers than wearing only hats Arbuckle et al. Reduced pesticide in urine 2002 following application was associated with use of rubber gloves for mixing/loading, and wearing rubber boots for cleanup Fenske et al. Among applicators, compared 2002a dermal exposure to pesticides for cotton work shirts/pants, woven coveralls, nonwoven garments. All garments allowed fabric penetration. Exposure was highest with nonwoven garments, mostly because of large sleeve and neck openings Nigg et al. 1993 Less penetration of synthetic disposable coverall than of reusable treated twill coverall Field sanitation Curwin et al. Farmworkers removed 96% of 2003 acephate on hands by washing Household behaviors Residental Arcury et al. Residential pesticide use was pesticide use 2005 associated with higher levels of OP metabolites in samples from children and adults living in farmworker dwellings Bradman et al. Residential application of 1997 agricultural and residential pesticides was related to presence of pesticides in dust samples McCauley et al. Found no relationship between 2001 pesticides in wipe samples and "family use of pest control products" Quandt et al. Found a greater number and 2002, 2004 weight of residential pesticides than agricultural pesticides in dust samples collected in farmworker dwellings Fenske et al. OP pesticide use in garden was 2002b associated with increased metabolite concentrations in children's urine Lewis et al. 2001 Demonstrated that indoor and outdoor residential pesticide application resulted in pesticides on surfaces in homes accessible to human contact Lu et al. 2001 Children's OP pesticide concentrations were higher if parents reported garden pesticide use but were not based on indoor residential pesticide use McCauley et al. Pesticide use in the home was 2003 not related to levels of total OP residues Morgan et al. Children and adults were 2001 exposed to pesticides that were applied to yards and then were transferred into the house by pets (dogs), adults, and children Nishioka et al. Children and adults were 2001 exposed to pesticides that were applied to yards and then were transferred into the house by pets (dogs) and adults Cleaning Arcury et al. Living in a dwelling that is 2005 easier to clean and that has a vacuum cleaner was associated with lower levels of OP metabolites among children and adults Bradman et al. Frequency and type of cleaning 1997 (mopping, vacuuming) was related to presence of pesticides in dust samples Laundry Arcury et al. Higher levels of OP metabolites 2005 for adults and children were associated with improper handling of laundry, including storage of work clothes in house and laundering of work clothes with family clothes Delay changing Arcury et al. Higher levels of OP metabolites clothes and 2005 for adults and children were bathing associated with farmworkers who delay changing from work clothes and bathing McCauley et al. Level of total OPs and of 2003 azinphos-methyl was higher in homes where workers waited > 2 hr before changing out of work clothes Household pets Lu et al. 2001 OP pesticide concentrations in children were not different based on reported pet treatment McCauley et al. Total number of pets in the 2003 home was not related to levels of total OP residues Morgan et al. Pet dog was a vehicle for the 2001 transfer of pesticide residues from lawn to house Nishioka et al. Pet dog was a vehicle for the 2001 transfer of pesticide residues from lawn to house Child activity Morgan et al. Children were a vehicle for the patterns 2001 transfer of pesticide residues from lawn to house Mandel et al. Children's urine pesticide 2005 concentrations were lower than those of growers, but higher than those of growers' spouses, thus reflecting children's activity patterns Diet Curl et al. 2003 Urine of children who ate an organic diet contained significantly lower levels of OP metabolites than urine of those who ate a conventional diet Stehr-Green et al. In "rural-dwelling persons," 1988 consumption of home-produced eggs and root vegetables was associated with increased serum concentrations of pesticides Transportation Curl et al. 2002 Found pesticides in dust samples collected in farmworker vehicles Thompson et al. Found pesticides in dust 2003 samples collected in farmworker vehcles Workplace environment Task variety Hernandez-Valero Number of tasks that brought et al. 2001 farmworkers into contact with pesticides was associated with elevated serum levels of mirex, DDT, and trans-nonachlor Job design Coronado et al. Workers performing tasks not 2004 regulated by WPS (e.g., thinning) were more likely to have detectable levels of azinphos-methyl in house and vehicle dust Household environment: dwelling characteristics Dwelling McCauley et al. Found that azinphos-methyl (location 2001 concentration decreased with relative to increased distance from exposure fields sources) Curl et al. 2002 Strong correlation between pesticides in cars and in house dust. Weaker correlation between house dust and child urine. No association between distance to fields and child's urine, thus suggesting that behavior, not proximity to fields, was responsible for exposure Quandt et al. Proximity to agricultural 2002, 2004 fields was related to the number of agricultural pesticides detected in dust samples collected in dwellings Fenske et al. Homes in close proximity (200 2002b ft/60 m) to pesticide-treated farmland had higher chlorpyrifos and parathion house dust concentrations than did homes farther away, but this effect was not reflected in the urinary metabolite data Loewenherz et al. Higher DMTP levels were found 1997 in applicator children living < 200 ft from an orchard than in nonproximal applicator children Lu et al. 2000 Higher levels of pesticides were found in dust samples from dwellings closer to orchards Dwelling type McCauley et al. Housing type (labor camp, 2001 trailer, apartment) was not related to pesticide residues Dwelling tenure Arcury et al. Renting rather than owning was 2005 associated with higher levels of OP metabolites found in samples from persons living in farmworker dwellings Housing Bradman et al. Dwelling age is related to quality/state 1997 presence of pesticides of repair Quandt et al. More residential pesticides 2002, 2004 were found in dust samples collected in dwellings judged to be difficult to clean Household environment: household characteristics Total household Arcury et al. Larger household size was size (total 2005 associated with higher number of levels of OP metabolites for residents) adults and children McCauley et al. More persons in household was 2001 related to greater azinphos-methyl in dust McCauley et al. Weak, nonsignificant 2003 correlation was found between number of household residents and levels of total OP residues. Number of adults in household Arcury et al. More adults in the household 2005 was associated with higher levels of OP metabolites for adults and children Number of McCauley et al. More farmworkers in household farmworkers in 2001 was related to greater household azinphos-methyl in dust Bradman et al. Higher amounts of pesticides in 1997 dust in farm worker than nonfarmworker homes. Pesticides found on hands of children in farmworker, but not nonfarmworker homes, suggest take home pesticides Lu et al. 2000 Households with agricultural workers had higher levels of OP pesticides in dust wipe samples and on children's hands, and higher levels of metabolites in children's urine samples, than reference homes Simcox et al. OP pesticide residues were 1995 found more often in homes of agricultural workers than in reference homes Household Arcury et al. Higher levels of OP metabolites composition 2005 for adults and children were associated with nonnuclear family household composition Quandt et al. Nonnuclear family household 2004 composition was weakly associated with agricultural but not with residential pesticides Household McCauley et al. Found no relationship between density or 2001 pesticides and area of home crowding McCauley et al. Weak correlation was found 2003 between total area of home and levels of total OPs residues Community environment Overall level of Fenske et al. Most children living in an agricultural 2000 agricultural region during use the spray season had measureable dialkyphosphates, and a substantial fraction had doses > reference values for azinphos-methyl Koch et al. 2002 DAP metabolites were elevated when OP pesticides were sprayed in the region. No differences were found to be related to parental occupation or residential proximity to fields Lee et al. 2002 Exposure estimates [greater than or equal to] risk of noncancer health effects reference values occurred for 50% of exposed population for several pesticides Historical Wolz et al. 2003 Dwellings near land used for agricultural orchard production during pesticide use 1905-1947 had significantly higher soil and household lead, and also higher soil arsenic than other homes Miersma et al. Attributed OCPs found in school 2003 yards to historical agricultural activity (a) 1 = Association with pesticide exposure was demonstrated in farmworkers. 2 = Association with pesticide exposure was demonstrated in nonfarmworker samples. Table 2. Recommended measures of predictors of pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Workplace Wear clean clothes to work (frequency) behaviors Wash hands at work (frequency) Use of personal protective equipment (type, frequency) Household Residential use of pesticides (type, frequency), including behaviors pet products Wear work clothes into dwelling Wear work shoes into dwelling Time to changing from work clothes after work Time to bathing after work Contact with others before changing clothes after work Contact with others before bathing after work Storage of soiled work clothes Laundry method (machine, hand) Separation of work and family clothes in laundry Child play areas (inside, outside) Work Safety training (contents, quality) environment Work task (fieldwork, mix and load, apply) Access to hygiene facilities Availability of personal protective equipment Ability to communicate with supervisor Residential Location relative to pesticide application environment Housing structure type Housing overall repair Housing size (area, rooms) Bathing facilities per resident Laundry facilities per resident Total number residents Total number of farmworkers Crowding; adult/room; workers/room; workers/sleeping room Community Agricultural acreage environment Volume pesticides applied/year
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|Author:||Arcury, Thomas A.|
|Publication:||Environmental Health Perspectives|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2006|
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