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Wild food plants used by people living with HIV/AIDS in Nakisunga sub-county, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a devastating impact on the victims' health, nutrition and food security. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other opportunistic infections calls for research into natural products to find solutions to this pandemic. This involves exploration of the readily available wild food plant species (WIFPs) and promotion of their consumption especially among the vulnerable and marginalised groups of people. In Nakisunga sub-county, WIFPs are consumed by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) because of their presumed nutrition and health benefits. Despite exploitation of WIFPs by PLWHA, there have been no empirical studies to document the indigenous knowledge on WIFPs' usage in Nakisunga sub-county. This study aimed at providing information regarding the consumption of WIFPs by PLWHA in Nakisunga sub-county because of their presumed nutritional and health benefits. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in which 60 semi-structured questionnaires were administered. A snowball sampling approach was used to identify other PLWHA in their respective villages since these people always met on clinic days and knew where each of them resided. Individual interviews were supplemented with direct observations and 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) guided by a checklist of questions. Eighty-four WIFPs from 66 genera and 41 families were identified. Priority species were Abrus precatorius L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Physalis angulata L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Solanum nigrum L. Fifty-six WIFPs were used as food only and 28 species served as food and medicine. The majority (43%) of WIFPs were herbaceous and mainly collected from the wild (75%). The most frequently consumed plant parts were the fruits (34%) and leaves (33%). These were consumed as snacks (23%) and vegetables (24%), respectively. Boiling (37%) was the commonest method of preparation used. Documentation of this indigenous knowledge on WIFPs' consumption by PLWHA will help promote them for wider usage and initiate scientific validation of their nutrient quality. In conclusion, there is a diversity of WIFPs in this area which are being added to the diets of PLWHA because of their presumed nutritional significance. These species need to be taken further for scientific validation of their nutrient quality and conservation measures devised for their sustainable production.

Key words: PLWHA, Wild food plants, Consumption, Documentation, Nutrition, Dietary diversity

INTRODUCTION

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that makes it difficult for the body to fight off infectious diseases [1]. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by damaging specific lymphocytes (T-cells) which fight off invading germs in the body. When the number of T-cells falls to a low level (less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood), people with HIV become more susceptible to other infections and may get certain types of cancer that a healthy body would normally be able to fight off. About 64% of PLWHA in the world are in sub-Saharan Africa [2]. The Global Fund Guidelines for HIV/AIDS indicate that 135,000 people get infected with the virus [2]. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other opportunistic infections exert great limitations for world health by causing serious debility, morbidity and mortality in the affected population.

About one million Ugandans are infected with HIV, a predominantly sexually transmitted virus that targets the immune system [3]. The 2011 Uganda AIDS survey indicator showed an increase in the HIV/AIDS prevalence amongst people aged between 15 to 49 years from 6.4% in 2006 to 7.3% in 2011 [4]. In Uganda, the prevalence of HIV is higher in urban areas than rural areas at 10%and 6%, respectively [5]. Consuming diverse diets offers protection against chronic diseases, and enhances the immune system in people living with HIV to combat AIDS opportunistic diseases [6, 7]. There is a diversity of WIFPs with good nutritive and therapeutic values that PLWHA can potentially add to their diet.

Fortunately, Uganda is endowed with many varieties of such indigenous food plants that have an outstanding potential to alleviate nutritional deficiencies among vulnerable groups [8]. Documentation of the WIFPs is vital because it creates awareness since a large proportion of PLWHA cannot afford to produce or buy exotic foods due to the high input costs and price implications, respectively. This study documented the WIFPs consumed by PLWHA in Kidondo, Luwule and Namayuba villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district in Uganda. Specific inquiry was made to find out the plant parts consumed, conditions managed, growth habits and habitats, side effects encountered after eating some of the plants, methods of food preparation and frequency of consumption.

METHODS

Study population

Sixty HIV-infected adults receiving services from Mukono Health Centre IV were contacted but of these only 33 responded. At recruitment, another 27 could not respond because they were bed ridden and unable to answer the questionnaire. These were substituted with 27 caregiver interviews. Subjects were eligible for the study if they were HIV-infected adults aged 15 years and above. Before interviewing any respondent, the study team members explained the objectives of the study and verbal consent to conduct the interviews was sought.

Ethnobotanical Survey

Sampling procedure

Field work for this study was carried out between May and August, 2012. A cross-sectional study design was employed and involved use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Three villages Kidondo, Luwule and Namayuba were randomly selected from Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district, Central Uganda. All these villages are predominantly rural. Structured questionnaires were developed and pre-tested in a pilot survey and subsequently refined. The main research questions for the study were: (1) What WIFPs are consumed by PLWHA in Nakisunga sub-county? (ii) Where (collection sites) do the PLWHA get the WIFPs they consume? (iii) Which parts of the WIFPs are consumed and how are they prepared? (iv) How frequently are the WIFPs consumed? (v) What are the most preferred WIFPs? and (vi) How did the PLWHA acquire the knowledge concerning the roles of WIFPs? Purposive sampling was used to identify the first respondent (PLWHA) after which snowball sampling approach (non-probability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances) was used to identify other PLWHA in their respective villages. The snowball sampling approach was appropriate since these people always met at Mukono Health centre IV on clinic days so they knew each other [9].

Twenty individual interviews were conducted in each of the three villages using the local language (Luganda). The individual interviews were supplemented with direct observations and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs). Each FGD contained 10 members and had equal numbers of both sexes to avoid bias. After the discussions, field walks in WIFPS collection areas were made and plant vouchers collected. The vouchers were indexed as N.A. (Nabatanzi Alice) and deposited at the Makerere University Herbarium. They were named with reference to the Flora of Tropical East Africa.

Data analysis

Ethnobotanical data were transferred into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets for cleaning and preliminary analysis. The dataset was then exported to SPSS statistical software Version 16.0 for Windows for statistical analysis. The data were coded and summarized as means and frequencies. Plant prioritization was based on frequency of mention.

RESULTS

Respondents' biographic details

Socio demographic characteristics of the respondents are summarized in Table 1. They show that the respondents were mainly from the Baganda tribe and equally balanced between Christians and Moslems. Most were less than 34 years of age and had low levels of education. Crop farming was the major source of employment.

Wild food plant species consumed by PLWHA

The respondents mentioned 84 WIFPs in this study (Table 2). These species belong to 41 families and 66 genera. Species from families Solanaceae (10%), Dioscoreaceae (8%) and Fabaceae (8%) were the majority. Most were collected from the wild (75%) and growing as herbs (43%) - Figure 1. The parts of the plant most frequently consumed were the fruits (34%) and leaves (33%) - Figure 2. Some of the respondents reported that consumption of some WIFPs causes digestive disorders comprising of nausea (76.7%), diarrhoea (10%), stomach ulcers (6.7%) and heart burn - 6.7%.

Boiling, raw consumption and steaming were the commonly used methods of preparation (Figure 3). Foods were consumed mainly as pot herbs, snacks, sauce and beverage (Figure 4). Fruits were eaten raw as snacks.

DISCUSSION

Results from this study show that there is a diversity of WIFPs in this area, which greatly contributes to the diets of PLWHA. Some of the species consumed were both nutritious and therapeutic as reported by the respondents during the interviews and FGDs (Table 3). Fruits were predominantly consumed as snacks when ripe, and to a limited extent used in making juices. The leafy vegetables were cooked prior to consumption, which would lead to the loss of water soluble vitamins especially vitamin C [10]. It is, therefore, recommended that the vegetables are cooked in small amounts of water for short periods to minimize loss of vitamin C and that the cooking water be consumed if no bitter compounds are present [11]. Most of the consumed WIFPs were collected from the wild. This meant that they were free and could be accessed by the local communities who are poor and also have little energy to propagate crops [12]. The majority of the WIFPs are herbaceous by growth habit and as such, regenerate quickly and are likely to continue being available [13]. This justifies that WIFPs have the potential to improve dietary quality and quantity thereby increasing food security among people living with HIV/AIDS.

CONCLUSION

From this study, a large number of wild edible plants (84 species) were being consumed by people living with HIV/AIDS in Namayuba, Kidondo and Luwule villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district (Table 2). This high diversity plays a significant role in the food and nutritional variety of PLWHA since these people are prone to suffer from many nutritional deficiencies as compared to HIV negative individuals. Fortunately, some of these species may serve as nutri-therapeutics, are abundant, accessible and culturally rooted in the area.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The nutritional and therapeutic values of the wild food plants documented in this study need to be scientifically validated. People living with HIV/AIDS elsewhere need to be sensitized about the values of these plants so that they can incorporate them into their diets. These plant species need to be domesticated since wild habitats are continuously being destroyed as a result of urbanization, industrialization and population growth.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks go to Carnegie Corporation of New York through the Science Initiative Group (SIG) for Regional Initiative in Science and Education for African Natural Products Network (RISE-AFNNET) for funding this project. Sincere thanks go to the local people (People Living with HIV/AIDS and Care givers) of Nakisunga sub-county who willingly provided me with the necessary information required for my study.

REFERENCES

[1.] UNAIDS. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic: A UNAIDS 10th Anniversary Special Edition. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2006. Available from www.unaids.org/(Accessed 5th August 2013).

[2.] Global Fund. Global Fund Guidelines on HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005. Available from www.theglobalfund.org/ (Accessed 10th December 2012).

[3.] UNAIDS/ WHO. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva.

[4.] Wagate C Mbaria J Gakuya D Nanyingi M Kareru P Njuguna A Gitahi N Macharia J and F Njonge Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. Phytother. Res. 2010; 24: 150-153.

[5.] Republic of Uganda. Ministry of Health. Nutritional Care and Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda: Guidelines for Service Providers. Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Health, 2011. Available from www.health.go.ug/(Accessed 20th August 2013).

[6.] Republic of Uganda. Ministry of Health. Nutritional Care and Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda: Guidelines for Service Providers. Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Health, 2003. Available from www.health.go.ug/(Accessed 20th August 2013).

[7.] Cummings JH and SA Bingham Diet and the prevention of cancer. Br. Med. J. 1998; 317:1636-1640.

[8.] Soyiri IN and AK Laar Dietary Diversity Approach: A Key Component to the Management of HIV/AIDS Patients in Ghana. International Conference on AIDS, abstract no. D11497; 15th International Conference on AIDS, Bangkok, Thailand, July 11 to 16, 2004.

[9.] WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature. The Vital Wealth of Plants: WWF and the Conservation of plants, WWF, CH-1196, Switzerland, 1993. Available from www.worldcat.org/.../vital-wealth-of-plants-wwf...plants/ (Accessed 6th July 2013).

[10.] Tongco DC Purposive sampling as a tool for informant selection. Ethnobot. Res. Appl. 2007; 5:147-158.

[11.] Anderson TW New horizon for vitamin C. J. Nutr. Tod. 1977; 12(1):6-13.

[12.] Sreeramulu N, Ndossi GD and K Mtotomwema Effect of cooking on the nutritive value of common food plants of Tanzania: Part 1 - Vitamin C in some of the Wild Green Leafy Vegetables. J. Food Chem. 1983; 10: 205-210.

[13.] Somnasang P and G Moreno-Black Knowing, gathering and eating: knowledge and attitudes about wild food in an Isan village in Northeastern Thailand. J. Ethnobiol. 2000; 20(2): 197 - 216.

[14.] Tabuti JRS, Dhillion SS and KE Lye The status of wild food plants in Bulamogi County, Uganda. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2004; 55(6): 485-498.

Nabatanzi A. (1*) and I. Nakalembe (2)

(*) Corresponding author email: alicen@cns.mak.ac.ug

(1) Department of Plant Sciences, Microbiology and Biotechnology. Makerere University. P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda

(2) Department of Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences. Makerere University. P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda

Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the respondents (n = 60)

                               CHARACTERISTIC
Ethnicity     Religion         Age             Education

Baganda (46)  Christians (35)  15 - 34 (28)    Primary (26)
Others (14)   Moslems (25)     35 - 54 (21)    Secondary (22)
                                               No formal
                               55+ (11)        education (8)

                                               Tertiary (4)

Ethnicity     Occupation

Baganda (46)  Farmer (42)
Others (14)   No source of income (7)
              Irregular income from petty trade,
              handicraft, craft work, carpentry
              (6)
              Unskilled laborer (3)
              Trader (1)
              Teacher (1)

Note: Frequencies are shown in parentheses

Table 2: A list of wild food plants and mushrooms consumed by PLWHA in
Namayuba, Luwule and Kidondo villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono
district, Central Uganda

Family, species and     Local name     Habit  Habitat          Part
voucher number          (Luganda)                              used

Solanaceae,             Nsugga         H      Open             Sh/ Lv
Solanum nigrum L.,      enzirugavu            grassland
NA 37
Malvaceae,              Musaayi        H      Hill slope       Lv/
Hibiscus sabdariffa                           with well        seeds
L., NA 17                                     drained
                                              soils

Amaranthaceae,          Doodo          H      Road side        Lv /
Amaranthus spinosus     owa'maggwa                             Sh
L., NA 4

Solanaceae,             Ntuntunu       H      Home             Fr
Physalis angulata L.,                         garden
NA 2
Papilionaceae,          Lusiiti        Cl     Banana           Lvs
Abrus precatorius                             plantation
L., NA 13
Solanaceae,             Obunyaanya     H      Back yard        Fr/
Solanum                                                        Lvs
lycopersicum L. , NA
1
Amaranthaceae,          Doodo          H      Home             Lvs/
Amaranthus dubius                             garden           Sh
Mart. ex Thell., NA 3

Capparaceae,            Jjobyo         H      Back yard        Lvs/
Cleome gynandra L.,                                            Sh
NA 40
Rubiaceae,              Mutugunda      T      Home             Fr
Vangueria apiculata                           garden
Aubrev. & Leandri,
NA 26
Solanaceae,             Katunkuma      H/Sh   Back yard        Fr
Solanum anguivi
Desf., NA 11
Papilionaceae,          Obuyindiyind   Cl     Home             Seeds
Phaseolus lunatus L.,   i                     garden
NA 67
Burseraceae,            Empafu         Cl     Along a          Lvs
Canarium                                      live fence
schweinfurthii Engl.,
NA 34
Lamiaceae,              Omujaaja       H      Home             Lvs
Ocimum                                        garden
gratissimum Forssk.,
NA 33
Lauraceae,              Budalasini     T      Homestead        Lv
Cinnamomum verum                              compound
J. Presl., NA 35
Annonaceae,             Kitafeeri      T      Road side        Fr
Annona muricata L.,
NA 5
Rutaceae,               Sekyungwa      T      Homestead        Fr
Citrus sinensis Pers.,                        compound
NA 6
Solanaceae,             Kamulari       S      Home             Lvs/
Capsicum frutescens                           garden           Fr
L., NA 8
Dioscoreaceae,          Makobe         Twin   Banana           B
Dioscorea bulbifera                    ner    pl an t a t ion
var.
anthropophagrum
Miers, NA 61
Oxalidaceae,            Mizabibu       T      Homestead        Fr
Averrhoa carambola                            compound
L., NA 79
Solanaceae,             Ekinyanya      S      Behind a         Fr
Cyphomandra                                   Kraal
betacea Walker, NA
21
Dioscoreaceae,          Balugu         H      Banana           T
                                              plantation
Dioscorea
cayenensis Lam., NA
81
Palmae,                 Ekinazi        T      Homestead        Fr
Elaeise guineense                             compound
Pax., NA 15
Basellaceae,            Nderema        Cl     Live fence       Lvs
Basella alba L., NA
38
Fabaceae,               Ebigaaga       Cl     Fence near       Seeds
Phaseolus spp, NA                             kraal
78
Punicaceae,             Nkomamawa      T      Road side        Fr
Punica granatum L.,     nga
NA 5
Zingiberaceae,          Ttungulu       H      Wetland          Fr
Aframomum
alboviolaceum K.
Schum, NA 43
Caesalpiniaceae,        Omukooge       T      Grassland        Fr
Tamarindus indica
L., NA 29
Zingiberaceae,          Matungulu      H      Wetland          Fr
Aframomum
angustifolium K.
Schum, NA 57
Melastomataceae,        Nantooke       H      Banana           Fr
Tristemma                                     plantation
mauritianum Decne.
Ex Trecul, NA 69
Myrtaceae,              Amapeera       T      Thicket          Fr
Psidium guajava L.,     g'omunsiko
NA 22
Guttiferae,             Musaali        T      Thicket          Fr/
Garcinia buchananii                                            seeds
Jacq., NA 48

Zingiberaceae,          Ekinzaali      Rh     Home             Wh
Cucurma longa L.,       ekiganda              garden
NA 85
Fabaceae,               Empindi        H      Banana           Seeds
Vigna unguiculata                             plantation
(L.)Walp., NA 64
Dioscoreaceae,          Endagu         H      Banana           T
Dioscorea spp, NA                             plantation
52
Euphorbiaceae,          Jerengesa      S      Hedge            Lvs/
                                                               Sh
Acalypha bipartita
Mull. Arg., NA 41
Verbenaceae,            Akayukiyuki    S      Road side        Fr
Lantana trifolia L.,    kebalya
NA 18
Rubiaceae,              Emwanyi        T      Home             Seeds
Coffea canephora                              garden
Froehner, NA 10
Amaranthaceae,          Mboog'         H      Home             Lvs/
Amaranthus lividus      ennene                garden           Sh
subsp. Polygonoides
Thell. ex Druce, NA
NA 58
Rosaceae,               Nkenene        S      Near a           Fr
Rubus pinnatus var.                           kraal
afrotropicus
(Gaertn.) Hylander,
NA 32
Rutaceae,               Entale         S      Grassland        Br
Zanthoxylum             y'eddungu
chalybeum L., NA 55
Fabaceae, Voandzeia     Mpande         H      Homestead        Seeds
subterranea (L.)                              compound
Thouars, NA 51
Rubiaceae,              Akamwanyim     T      Thicket          Fr
Cathium lactescens      wanyi
Hiern., NA 44
Dioscoreaceae,          Kaama          Cl     Banana           T
Dioscorea                                     plantation
minutiflora (L.) W.T.
Aiton, NA 72
Polygonaceae,           Kafumitabage   H      Road side        Lvs
Oxygonum sinuatum       ngege
Dammer, NA 27
Palmae,                 Mukindu;       T      Homestead        Fr
Phoenix reclinata       Mpirinvuma            compound
Jacq., NA 76

Asclepiadaceae,         Mulondo        Rh     Home             Wh
Mondia whytie                                 garden
Skeels, NA 70
Commelinaceae,          Nnanda         H      Field            Lvs
Commelina               ennene
benghalensis L., NA
19

Commelinaceae,          Nnanda         H      Field            Lvs
Commelina africana      entono
L., NA 20
Amaranthaceae,          Mbooge         H      Home             Lvs/
Amaranthus              entono                garden           Sh
graecizans subsp.
Sylvestris
(Villiers)Brenan, NA
42
Apocynaceae,            Nyonza         T      Thicket          Fr/R
Carissa edulis Vahl,    (Plant),
NA 36
Solanaceae,             Nume           H      Grassland        Lvs
Solanum                 y'ekyalo
macrocarpon Lam.,
NA 21
Passifloraceae,         Wuju           Cl     Thicket          Fr
Passiflora
quadrangularis, NA
84
Hyadnaceae,             Amaleere       H      Banana           Wh
Lentinus prolifer                             plantation
Engl., NA 63
Euphorbiaceae,          Kalyabakyala   H      Grassland        Lvs
Micrococca
mercurialis Benth.,
NA 60
Solanaceae,             Katuntunu      H      Home             Fr
Physalis minima L.,                           garden
NA 74
Cucurbitaceae,          Kyangwe        Cl     Climbing         Fr
Luffa cylindrica                              on
Cogn. M. Roem.,                               unfinished
NA, 14                                        house
Anacardiaceae,          Miyembe        T      Thicket          Fr
Mangifera indica L.,    gy,omunsiko
NA 16
Dioscoreaceae,          Mukulujjuni    H      Garden           T
Dioscorea spp, NA                             edge
52
Compositae,             Mululuza       T      Garden           Lvs
Vernonia amygdalina                           edge
K. Schum, NA 12
Cucurbitaceae,          Nsuusuti       Cl     Climbing         Fr
Sechium edule                                 on a live
(Jacq.) Sw., NA 30                            fence
Dioscoreaceae,          Amakoloongo    Twin   Banana           T
Dioscorea                              ner    plantation
odoratissima Engl.,
NA 47
Musaceae,               Empumumpu      H      Banana           Fr
Musa sapientum L.,                            plantation
NA 54
Amaranthaceae           Kagiri         H      Kraal            Lvs
,Achyranthes aspera
L., NA 46
Sapotaceae,             Kawuntuntun    T      Home             Fr
Pachystela brevipes     u                     garden
Engl., NA 50
Dioscoreaceae,          Kisebe         Cl     Banana           T
Dioscorea alata L.,                           plantation
NA 9
Cruciferae,             Magereganko    H      Road side        Lv
Erucastrum              ko
arabicum Fisch. &
Mey., NA 25
Euphorbiaceae,          Mukusu,        T      Bush land        Fr
Uapaca paludosa J.      Nkusu,
F. Gmel., NA 66         Munnmagulu
Moraceae,               Muzinda        T      Road side        Fr
Treculia africana L.,
NA 65
Anacardiaceae,          Muziru         T      Grassland        Fr
Pseudospondias
microcarpa Engl.,
NA 69
Cucurbitaceae,          Ziizi (Kabaka  Cl     Home             Lvs
Kedrostis               w'enva)               garden
foetidissima L., NA
28
Anacardiaceae,          Akakwansok     H      Grassland        Fr
Rhus vulgaris           wanso
Meikle, NA 71
Fabaceae,               Empinamuti/    H      Homestead        Seeds
Cajanus cajan (L.)      Enkolimbo             compound
Millsp., NA 83
Rubiaceae,              Ennimbwelim    S      Slope            Fr
Mussaenda arcuata       bwe
Poir., NA 49
Cyperaceae, Cyperus     Gugu           Sedge  Swamp            Wh
rotundus L., NA 24
Asparagaceae,           Kadaali        S      Open             Fr
Asparagus flagellaris                         grassland
Baker, NA 45
Compositae,             Kafumbe        H      Bush             Wh
Conyza sumatrensis
(Retz.) E., NA 59
Palmae,                 Kibo           T      Swamp            Fr
Raphia farinifera,
NA 62
Polygonaceae,           Kiwere         H      Thicket          Sh/ Lv
Rumex abyssinicus
Engl., NA 68
Papilionacaeae,         Kiyindiru      H      Banana           Lvs/S
Vigna anguiculata                             plantation       h
Delile, NA 64
Sapotaceae,             Nkalati        T      Bush             Fr
Manilkara dawei
(Stapf) Chiov., NA
73
Tricholomataceae,       Obutundatund   H      Termite          Wh
Termitomyces            a                     mound
eurrhizus (R. Heim),
NA 75
Acanthaceae,            Temba          H      Homestead        Lv
Asystasia mysorensis                          compound
(Roth) T. Anderson.,
NA 70
Tricholomataceae,       Obutiko        H      Termite          Wh
Termitomyces            obubaala              mound
microcarpus (Berk.)
Heim., NA 82

Family, species and     Eaten as               No. of
voucher number                                 PLW
                                               HA

Solanaceae,             Vegetable              52
Solanum nigrum L.,
NA 37
Malvaceae,              Leaves are a           50
Hibiscus sabdariffa     vegetable and the
L., NA 17               seeds are dried and
                        pounded into flour
                        eaten as a staple
Amaranthaceae,          Vegetable (bitter      48
Amaranthus spinosus     and eaten in small
L., NA 4                quantities)/
                        tenderiser (shoots
                        and leaves are
                        burnt; the ash is
                        mixed with water
                        and filtered. The
                        resulting liquid is
                        used for cooking
                        tough vegetables
                        such as cowpea
                        leaves and pigeon
                        peas to make them
                        more tender)
Solanaceae,             Snack                  47
Physalis angulata L.,
NA 2
Papilionaceae,          Snack                  44
Abrus precatorius
L., NA 13
Solanaceae,             Vegetable/ salad       43
Solanum
lycopersicum L. , NA
1
Amaranthaceae,          Vegetable/ potash      40
Amaranthus dubius       (leaves are dried
Mart. ex Thell., NA 3   and burnt to ashes.
                        The ashes are used
                        to make a filtrate
                        which is evaporated
                        and the residue
                        used as a substitute
                        for common salt
Capparaceae,            Vegetable              38
Cleome gynandra L.,
NA 40
Rubiaceae,              Snack                  38
Vangueria apiculata
Aubrev. & Leandri,
NA 26
Solanaceae,             Vegetable              36
Solanum anguivi
Desf., NA 11
Papilionaceae,          Sauce                  36
Phaseolus lunatus L.,
NA 67
Burseraceae,            Snack                  35
Canarium
schweinfurthii Engl.,
NA 34
Lamiaceae,              Beverage (leaves       34
Ocimum                  dried or fresh)
gratissimum Forssk.,
NA 33
Lauraceae,              Beverage (leaves       26
Cinnamomum verum        dried or fresh)
J. Presl., NA 35
Annonaceae,             Snack                  23
Annona muricata L.,
NA 5
Rutaceae,               Snack                  22
Citrus sinensis Pers.,
NA 6
Solanaceae,             Vegetable (Lvs)/       20
Capsicum frutescens     spice(fruit juice)
L., NA 8
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       20
Dioscorea bulbifera     staples
var.
anthropophagrum
Miers, NA 61
Oxalidaceae,            Snack                  20
Averrhoa carambola
L., NA 79
Solanaceae,             Snack/ dessert/        19
Cyphomandra             beverage fruit juice
betacea Walker, NA      drunk
21
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       18
                        staples
Dioscorea
cayenensis Lam., NA
81
Palmae,                 Beverage (fruit        18
Elaeise guineense       juice)/ oil
Pax., NA 15
Basellaceae,            Vegetable              18
Basella alba L., NA
38
Fabaceae,               Vegetable              16
Phaseolus spp, NA
78
Punicaceae,             Snack                  16
Punica granatum L.,
NA 5
Zingiberaceae,          Snack                  16
Aframomum
alboviolaceum K.
Schum, NA 43
Caesalpiniaceae,        Juice                  15
Tamarindus indica
L., NA 29
Zingiberaceae,          Snack                  13
Aframomum
angustifolium K.
Schum, NA 57
Melastomataceae,        Snack                  13
Tristemma
mauritianum Decne.
Ex Trecul, NA 69
Myrtaceae,              Snack                  11
Psidium guajava L.,
NA 22
Guttiferae,             Snack (fr),            10
Garcinia buchananii     beverage (wine is
Jacq., NA 48            made from the
                        edible fruit)
Zingiberaceae,          Food flavor            9
Cucurma longa L.,
NA 85
Fabaceae,               Sauce                  9
Vigna unguiculata
(L.)Walp., NA 64
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       8
Dioscorea spp, NA       staples
52
Euphorbiaceae,          Vegetable              8

Acalypha bipartita
Mull. Arg., NA 41
Verbenaceae,            Snack                  7
Lantana trifolia L.,
NA 18
Rubiaceae,              Snack                  7
Coffea canephora
Froehner, NA 10
Amaranthaceae,          Vegetable              7
Amaranthus lividus
subsp. Polygonoides
Thell. ex Druce, NA
NA 58
Rosaceae,               Snack                  7
Rubus pinnatus var.
afrotropicus
(Gaertn.) Hylander,
NA 32
Rutaceae,               Beverage               6
Zanthoxylum
chalybeum L., NA 55
Fabaceae, Voandzeia     Sauce                  6
subterranea (L.)
Thouars, NA 51
Rubiaceae,              Snack                  5
Cathium lactescens
Hiern., NA 44
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       5
Dioscorea               staples
minutiflora (L.) W.T.
Aiton, NA 72
Polygonaceae,           Vegetable              5
Oxygonum sinuatum
Dammer, NA 27
Palmae,                 Snack/ beverage        5
Phoenix reclinata       (the growing shoots
Jacq., NA 76            are tapped to make
                        palm wine)
Asclepiadaceae,         Snack                  5
Mondia whytie
Skeels, NA 70
Commelinaceae,          Vegetable              5
Commelina
benghalensis L., NA
19

Commelinaceae,          Vegetable              5
Commelina africana
L., NA 20
Amaranthaceae,          Vegetable              4
Amaranthus
graecizans subsp.
Sylvestris
(Villiers)Brenan, NA
42
Apocynaceae,            Snack (fr), tea spice  4
Carissa edulis Vahl,    (root)
NA 36
Solanaceae,             Vegetable/ salad       4
Solanum
macrocarpon Lam.,
NA 21
Passifloraceae,         Snack                  4
Passiflora
quadrangularis, NA
84
Hyadnaceae,             Sauce                  3
Lentinus prolifer
Engl., NA 63
Euphorbiaceae,          Vegetable              3
Micrococca
mercurialis Benth.,
NA 60
Solanaceae,             Snack                  3
Physalis minima L.,
NA 74
Cucurbitaceae,          Vegetable              3
Luffa cylindrica
Cogn. M. Roem.,
NA, 14
Anacardiaceae,          Snack                  3
Mangifera indica L.,
NA 16
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       3
Dioscorea spp, NA       staples
52
Compositae,             Vegetable (Young       3
Vernonia amygdalina     Lvs)
K. Schum, NA 12
Cucurbitaceae,          Sauce                  3
Sechium edule
(Jacq.) Sw., NA 30
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       2
Dioscorea               staples
odoratissima Engl.,
NA 47
Musaceae,               Sauce                  2
Musa sapientum L.,
NA 54
Amaranthaceae           Vegetable              2
,Achyranthes aspera
L., NA 46
Sapotaceae,             Snack                  2
Pachystela brevipes
Engl., NA 50
Dioscoreaceae,          Accompaniment to       2
Dioscorea alata L.,     staples
NA 9
Cruciferae,             Vegetable              2
Erucastrum
arabicum Fisch. &
Mey., NA 25
Euphorbiaceae,          Snack                  2
Uapaca paludosa J.
F. Gmel., NA 66
Moraceae,               Snack                  2
Treculia africana L.,
NA 65
Anacardiaceae,          Snack                  2
Pseudospondias
microcarpa Engl.,
NA 69
Cucurbitaceae,          Sauce                  2
Kedrostis
foetidissima L., NA
28
Anacardiaceae,          Snack                  1
Rhus vulgaris
Meikle, NA 71
Fabaceae,               Sauce                  1
Cajanus cajan (L.)
Millsp., NA 83
Rubiaceae,              Snack                  1
Mussaenda arcuata
Poir., NA 49
Cyperaceae, Cyperus     Potash                 1
rotundus L., NA 24
Asparagaceae,           Snack                  1
Asparagus flagellaris
Baker, NA 45
Compositae,             Potash                 1
Conyza sumatrensis
(Retz.) E., NA 59
Palmae,                 Snack                  1
Raphia farinifera,
NA 62
Polygonaceae,           Snack                  1
Rumex abyssinicus
Engl., NA 68
Papilionacaeae,         Vegetable              1
Vigna anguiculata
Delile, NA 64
Sapotaceae,             Snack                  1
Manilkara dawei
(Stapf) Chiov., NA
73
Tricholomataceae,       Sauce                  21
Termitomyces
eurrhizus (R. Heim),
NA 75
Acanthaceae,            Vegetable              1
Asystasia mysorensis
(Roth) T. Anderson.,
NA 70
Tricholomataceae,       Sauce                  21
Termitomyces
microcarpus (Berk.)
Heim., NA 82

Part Used: L-Leaves, Sh- Shoot, Fr- Fruit, Wh-Whole,
Br- Bark, B-Bulbils, R-Roots

Table 3: Wild food plants used as food and medicine by PLWHA in
Namayuba, Luwule and Kidondo villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono
district, Central Uganda

Family and species                Habit  Part used

Papilionaceae,                    Cl     Lvs
Abrus precatorius L.
Amaranthaceae,                    H      Young Lvs
Amaranthus graecizans subsp.             & Sh
Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan,
Amaranthaceae,                    H      Young Lv &
Amaranthus spinosus L.                   Sh before
                                         developmen
                                         t of the
                                         spines
Asparagaceae,                     Sh     Fr
Asparagus flagellaris Baker
Burseraceae,                      T      Fr/ inner
Canarium schweifurthii Engl.             part of seed

Rubiaceae,                        T      Fr
Cathium lactescens Hiern.,
Solanaceae,                       Sh     Lvs/ Fr
Capsicum frutescens L.
Cruciferae,                       H      Lv
Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. &
Mey.
Apocynaceae,                      T      Fr/R
Carissa edulis Vahl
Capparaceae,                      H      Young Lvs/
Cleome gynandra L.,                      Sh
Compositae,                       H      Wh
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.

Solanaceae,                       Sh     Fr
Cyphomandra betacea Walker
Guttiferae,                       T      Fr/ seeds
Garcinia buchananii Jacq.

Malvaceae,                        H      Lv/seeds
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Lamiaceae,                        H      Lvs
Ocimum gratissimum Forssk.
Polygonaceae,                     H      Lvs
Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer
Rosaceae,                         Sh     Fr
Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus
(Gaertn.) Hylander
Solanaceae,                       H/Sh   Fr
Solanum anguivi Desf.,
Solanaceae,                       H      Young sh
Solanum nigrum L.                        and Lvs
Melastomataceae,                  H      Fr

Tristemma mauritianum Decne.
Ex Trecul
Compositae,                       T      Young
Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum             leaves
Tricholomataceae,                 H      wh
Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.)
Heim.
Acanthaceae,                      H      Lv
Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T.
Anderson.
Caesalpiniaceae,                  T      Fr
Tamarindus indica L.
Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa            T      Fr
carambola L.
Zingiberaceae,                    Rh     Wh
Cucurma longa L.
Annonaceae,                       T      Fr
Annona muricata L.

Family and species                Method of preparation

Papilionaceae,                    Eaten raw
Abrus precatorius L.
Amaranthaceae,                    Boiled/ steamed
Amaranthus graecizans subsp.
Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan,
Amaranthaceae,                    Boiled/ steamed
Amaranthus spinosus L.

Asparagaceae,                     Eaten raw
Asparagus flagellaris Baker
Burseraceae,                      Fruit are immersed in hot
Canarium schweifurthii Engl.      water to soften the rind
                                  and flesh then eaten or
                                  fruits are collected,
                                  depulped, cracked and the
                                  inner part of the seed eaten
Rubiaceae,                        Eaten raw
Cathium lactescens Hiern.,
Solanaceae,                       Boiled/raw/powder
Capsicum frutescens L.
Cruciferae,                       Boiled
Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. &
Mey.
Apocynaceae,                      Eaten raw (fr), powder (R)
Carissa edulis Vahl
Capparaceae,                      Boiled/steamed
Cleome gynandra L.,
Compositae,                       Whole plant is collected,
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.     dried and burnt. The ash is
                                  mixed with water, filtered
                                  and evaporated and the
                                  residue collected
Solanaceae,                       Raw
Cyphomandra betacea Walker
Guttiferae,                       Fr(raw)/ seeds (collected
Garcinia buchananii Jacq.         wrapped in banana leaves
                                  and baked in hot ash and
                                  eaten like peanuts)
Malvaceae,                        Boiled
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Lamiaceae,                        Beverage
Ocimum gratissimum Forssk.
Polygonaceae,                     Steamed/boiled
Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer
Rosaceae,                         Raw
Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus
(Gaertn.) Hylander
Solanaceae,                       Steamed/boiled
Solanum anguivi Desf.,
Solanaceae,                       Steamed
Solanum nigrum L.
Melastomataceae,                  Raw

Tristemma mauritianum Decne.
Ex Trecul
Compositae,                       Boiled
Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum
Tricholomataceae,                 Boiled
Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.)
Heim.
Acanthaceae,                      Steamed
Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T.
Anderson.
Caesalpiniaceae,                  Raw
Tamarindus indica L.
Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa            Raw
carambola L.
Zingiberaceae,                    Collected, dried, ground
Cucurma longa L.
Annonaceae,                       Raw
Annona muricata L.

Family and species                Condition treated

Papilionaceae,                    Skin diseases, acidosis
Abrus precatorius L.
Amaranthaceae,                    Sore throat, immune
Amaranthus graecizans subsp.      booster, joint pains
Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan,
Amaranthaceae,                    Fever, diarrhoea, dysentry,
Amaranthus spinosus L.            febrifuge, effective
                                  diuretic

Asparagaceae,                     Diarrhoea, sore throat
Asparagus flagellaris Baker
Burseraceae,                      Cough
Canarium schweifurthii Engl.

Rubiaceae,                        Sore throat, stomach
Cathium lactescens Hiern.,        wounds, anaemia
Solanaceae,
Capsicum frutescens L.
Cruciferae,                       Stomach wounds
Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. &
Mey.
Apocynaceae,                      Headache, cough, malaria
Carissa edulis Vahl
Capparaceae,                      Fever, immune booster
Cleome gynandra L.,
Compositae,                       Clotting blood on fresh
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.     wounds

Solanaceae,                       Malaria
Cyphomandra betacea Walker
Guttiferae,                       Flu and cough
Garcinia buchananii Jacq.

Malvaceae,                        Anaemia
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Lamiaceae,                        Stomachic
Ocimum gratissimum Forssk.
Polygonaceae,                     Ulcers
Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer
Rosaceae,                         Immune booster
Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus
(Gaertn.) Hylander
Solanaceae,                       Antipyretic, appetite
Solanum anguivi Desf.,            stimulant
Solanaceae,                       Antipyretic, acidosis
Solanum nigrum L.
Melastomataceae,                  Immune booster

Tristemma mauritianum Decne.
Ex Trecul
Compositae,                       Malaria
Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum
Tricholomataceae,                 Immune booster
Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.)
Heim.
Acanthaceae,                      Appetite stimulant
Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T.
Anderson.
Caesalpiniaceae,                  Appetite stimulant
Tamarindus indica L.
Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa            Sore throat, immune
carambola L.                      booster
Zingiberaceae,                    Eye problems
Cucurma longa L.
Annonaceae,                       Skin diseases, acidosis
Annona muricata L.

Family and species                Side effects

Papilionaceae,                    Nausea/seeds are
Abrus precatorius L.              poisonous
Amaranthaceae,                    Throat irritation
Amaranthus graecizans subsp.
Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan,
Amaranthaceae,
Amaranthus spinosus L.

Asparagaceae,
Asparagus flagellaris Baker
Burseraceae,
Canarium schweifurthii Engl.

Rubiaceae,                        Slightly acidic
Cathium lactescens Hiern.,
Solanaceae,                       Aggrevates ulcers
Capsicum frutescens L.
Cruciferae,
Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. &
Mey.
Apocynaceae,
Carissa edulis Vahl
Capparaceae,
Cleome gynandra L.,
Compositae,                       Throat irritation
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.

Solanaceae,
Cyphomandra betacea Walker
Guttiferae,                       Fr is slightly acidic
Garcinia buchananii Jacq.

Malvaceae,
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Lamiaceae,
Ocimum gratissimum Forssk.
Polygonaceae,
Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer
Rosaceae,
Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus
(Gaertn.) Hylander
Solanaceae,
Solanum anguivi Desf.,
Solanaceae,
Solanum nigrum L.
Melastomataceae,                  Slightly acidic

Tristemma mauritianum Decne.
Ex Trecul
Compositae,
Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum
Tricholomataceae,
Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.)
Heim.
Acanthaceae,
Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T.
Anderson.
Caesalpiniaceae,
Tamarindus indica L.
Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa            Mouth irritation
carambola L.
Zingiberaceae,
Cucurma longa L.
Annonaceae,
Annona muricata L.

Part Used: L-Leaves, Sh- Shoot, Fr- Fruit, Wh-Whole, Br- Bark,
B-Bulbils, R-Roots: Habit: H-Herb, T-Tree, S-Shrub, Cl- Climber, Rh-
Rhizome

Table 4: HIV/AIDS associated conditions that improved on consuming wild
food plants (self-reported)

Conditions        Percentage

Fever             18
Body cleansing    15
Immune boosting   14
Skin diseases      8
Anorexia           6
Diarrhoea          6
Dysentery          6
Cough              6
Internal wounds    5
Abdominal upsets   4
Sore throat        4
Malaria            3
Stomach wounds     1
Influenza          1
Headache           1
Joint pains        1
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Author:A., Nabatanzi; Nakalembe, I.
Publication:African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6UGAN
Date:Nov 1, 2016
Words:5077
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