Wild food plants used by people living with HIV/AIDS in Nakisunga sub-county, Uganda.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a devastating impact on the victims' health, nutrition and food security. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other opportunistic infections calls for research into natural products to find solutions to this pandemic. This involves exploration of the readily available wild food plant species (WIFPs) and promotion of their consumption especially among the vulnerable and marginalised groups of people. In Nakisunga sub-county, WIFPs are consumed by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) because of their presumed nutrition and health benefits. Despite exploitation of WIFPs by PLWHA, there have been no empirical studies to document the indigenous knowledge on WIFPs' usage in Nakisunga sub-county. This study aimed at providing information regarding the consumption of WIFPs by PLWHA in Nakisunga sub-county because of their presumed nutritional and health benefits. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in which 60 semi-structured questionnaires were administered. A snowball sampling approach was used to identify other PLWHA in their respective villages since these people always met on clinic days and knew where each of them resided. Individual interviews were supplemented with direct observations and 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) guided by a checklist of questions. Eighty-four WIFPs from 66 genera and 41 families were identified. Priority species were Abrus precatorius L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Physalis angulata L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Solanum nigrum L. Fifty-six WIFPs were used as food only and 28 species served as food and medicine. The majority (43%) of WIFPs were herbaceous and mainly collected from the wild (75%). The most frequently consumed plant parts were the fruits (34%) and leaves (33%). These were consumed as snacks (23%) and vegetables (24%), respectively. Boiling (37%) was the commonest method of preparation used. Documentation of this indigenous knowledge on WIFPs' consumption by PLWHA will help promote them for wider usage and initiate scientific validation of their nutrient quality. In conclusion, there is a diversity of WIFPs in this area which are being added to the diets of PLWHA because of their presumed nutritional significance. These species need to be taken further for scientific validation of their nutrient quality and conservation measures devised for their sustainable production.
Key words: PLWHA, Wild food plants, Consumption, Documentation, Nutrition, Dietary diversity
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that makes it difficult for the body to fight off infectious diseases . The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by damaging specific lymphocytes (T-cells) which fight off invading germs in the body. When the number of T-cells falls to a low level (less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood), people with HIV become more susceptible to other infections and may get certain types of cancer that a healthy body would normally be able to fight off. About 64% of PLWHA in the world are in sub-Saharan Africa . The Global Fund Guidelines for HIV/AIDS indicate that 135,000 people get infected with the virus . The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other opportunistic infections exert great limitations for world health by causing serious debility, morbidity and mortality in the affected population.
About one million Ugandans are infected with HIV, a predominantly sexually transmitted virus that targets the immune system . The 2011 Uganda AIDS survey indicator showed an increase in the HIV/AIDS prevalence amongst people aged between 15 to 49 years from 6.4% in 2006 to 7.3% in 2011 . In Uganda, the prevalence of HIV is higher in urban areas than rural areas at 10%and 6%, respectively . Consuming diverse diets offers protection against chronic diseases, and enhances the immune system in people living with HIV to combat AIDS opportunistic diseases [6, 7]. There is a diversity of WIFPs with good nutritive and therapeutic values that PLWHA can potentially add to their diet.
Fortunately, Uganda is endowed with many varieties of such indigenous food plants that have an outstanding potential to alleviate nutritional deficiencies among vulnerable groups . Documentation of the WIFPs is vital because it creates awareness since a large proportion of PLWHA cannot afford to produce or buy exotic foods due to the high input costs and price implications, respectively. This study documented the WIFPs consumed by PLWHA in Kidondo, Luwule and Namayuba villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district in Uganda. Specific inquiry was made to find out the plant parts consumed, conditions managed, growth habits and habitats, side effects encountered after eating some of the plants, methods of food preparation and frequency of consumption.
Sixty HIV-infected adults receiving services from Mukono Health Centre IV were contacted but of these only 33 responded. At recruitment, another 27 could not respond because they were bed ridden and unable to answer the questionnaire. These were substituted with 27 caregiver interviews. Subjects were eligible for the study if they were HIV-infected adults aged 15 years and above. Before interviewing any respondent, the study team members explained the objectives of the study and verbal consent to conduct the interviews was sought.
Field work for this study was carried out between May and August, 2012. A cross-sectional study design was employed and involved use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Three villages Kidondo, Luwule and Namayuba were randomly selected from Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district, Central Uganda. All these villages are predominantly rural. Structured questionnaires were developed and pre-tested in a pilot survey and subsequently refined. The main research questions for the study were: (1) What WIFPs are consumed by PLWHA in Nakisunga sub-county? (ii) Where (collection sites) do the PLWHA get the WIFPs they consume? (iii) Which parts of the WIFPs are consumed and how are they prepared? (iv) How frequently are the WIFPs consumed? (v) What are the most preferred WIFPs? and (vi) How did the PLWHA acquire the knowledge concerning the roles of WIFPs? Purposive sampling was used to identify the first respondent (PLWHA) after which snowball sampling approach (non-probability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances) was used to identify other PLWHA in their respective villages. The snowball sampling approach was appropriate since these people always met at Mukono Health centre IV on clinic days so they knew each other .
Twenty individual interviews were conducted in each of the three villages using the local language (Luganda). The individual interviews were supplemented with direct observations and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs). Each FGD contained 10 members and had equal numbers of both sexes to avoid bias. After the discussions, field walks in WIFPS collection areas were made and plant vouchers collected. The vouchers were indexed as N.A. (Nabatanzi Alice) and deposited at the Makerere University Herbarium. They were named with reference to the Flora of Tropical East Africa.
Ethnobotanical data were transferred into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets for cleaning and preliminary analysis. The dataset was then exported to SPSS statistical software Version 16.0 for Windows for statistical analysis. The data were coded and summarized as means and frequencies. Plant prioritization was based on frequency of mention.
Respondents' biographic details
Socio demographic characteristics of the respondents are summarized in Table 1. They show that the respondents were mainly from the Baganda tribe and equally balanced between Christians and Moslems. Most were less than 34 years of age and had low levels of education. Crop farming was the major source of employment.
Wild food plant species consumed by PLWHA
The respondents mentioned 84 WIFPs in this study (Table 2). These species belong to 41 families and 66 genera. Species from families Solanaceae (10%), Dioscoreaceae (8%) and Fabaceae (8%) were the majority. Most were collected from the wild (75%) and growing as herbs (43%) - Figure 1. The parts of the plant most frequently consumed were the fruits (34%) and leaves (33%) - Figure 2. Some of the respondents reported that consumption of some WIFPs causes digestive disorders comprising of nausea (76.7%), diarrhoea (10%), stomach ulcers (6.7%) and heart burn - 6.7%.
Boiling, raw consumption and steaming were the commonly used methods of preparation (Figure 3). Foods were consumed mainly as pot herbs, snacks, sauce and beverage (Figure 4). Fruits were eaten raw as snacks.
Results from this study show that there is a diversity of WIFPs in this area, which greatly contributes to the diets of PLWHA. Some of the species consumed were both nutritious and therapeutic as reported by the respondents during the interviews and FGDs (Table 3). Fruits were predominantly consumed as snacks when ripe, and to a limited extent used in making juices. The leafy vegetables were cooked prior to consumption, which would lead to the loss of water soluble vitamins especially vitamin C . It is, therefore, recommended that the vegetables are cooked in small amounts of water for short periods to minimize loss of vitamin C and that the cooking water be consumed if no bitter compounds are present . Most of the consumed WIFPs were collected from the wild. This meant that they were free and could be accessed by the local communities who are poor and also have little energy to propagate crops . The majority of the WIFPs are herbaceous by growth habit and as such, regenerate quickly and are likely to continue being available . This justifies that WIFPs have the potential to improve dietary quality and quantity thereby increasing food security among people living with HIV/AIDS.
From this study, a large number of wild edible plants (84 species) were being consumed by people living with HIV/AIDS in Namayuba, Kidondo and Luwule villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district (Table 2). This high diversity plays a significant role in the food and nutritional variety of PLWHA since these people are prone to suffer from many nutritional deficiencies as compared to HIV negative individuals. Fortunately, some of these species may serve as nutri-therapeutics, are abundant, accessible and culturally rooted in the area.
The nutritional and therapeutic values of the wild food plants documented in this study need to be scientifically validated. People living with HIV/AIDS elsewhere need to be sensitized about the values of these plants so that they can incorporate them into their diets. These plant species need to be domesticated since wild habitats are continuously being destroyed as a result of urbanization, industrialization and population growth.
Special thanks go to Carnegie Corporation of New York through the Science Initiative Group (SIG) for Regional Initiative in Science and Education for African Natural Products Network (RISE-AFNNET) for funding this project. Sincere thanks go to the local people (People Living with HIV/AIDS and Care givers) of Nakisunga sub-county who willingly provided me with the necessary information required for my study.
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Nabatanzi A. (1*) and I. Nakalembe (2)
(*) Corresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org
(1) Department of Plant Sciences, Microbiology and Biotechnology. Makerere University. P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
(2) Department of Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences. Makerere University. P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the respondents (n = 60) CHARACTERISTIC Ethnicity Religion Age Education Baganda (46) Christians (35) 15 - 34 (28) Primary (26) Others (14) Moslems (25) 35 - 54 (21) Secondary (22) No formal 55+ (11) education (8) Tertiary (4) Ethnicity Occupation Baganda (46) Farmer (42) Others (14) No source of income (7) Irregular income from petty trade, handicraft, craft work, carpentry (6) Unskilled laborer (3) Trader (1) Teacher (1) Note: Frequencies are shown in parentheses Table 2: A list of wild food plants and mushrooms consumed by PLWHA in Namayuba, Luwule and Kidondo villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district, Central Uganda Family, species and Local name Habit Habitat Part voucher number (Luganda) used Solanaceae, Nsugga H Open Sh/ Lv Solanum nigrum L., enzirugavu grassland NA 37 Malvaceae, Musaayi H Hill slope Lv/ Hibiscus sabdariffa with well seeds L., NA 17 drained soils Amaranthaceae, Doodo H Road side Lv / Amaranthus spinosus owa'maggwa Sh L., NA 4 Solanaceae, Ntuntunu H Home Fr Physalis angulata L., garden NA 2 Papilionaceae, Lusiiti Cl Banana Lvs Abrus precatorius plantation L., NA 13 Solanaceae, Obunyaanya H Back yard Fr/ Solanum Lvs lycopersicum L. , NA 1 Amaranthaceae, Doodo H Home Lvs/ Amaranthus dubius garden Sh Mart. ex Thell., NA 3 Capparaceae, Jjobyo H Back yard Lvs/ Cleome gynandra L., Sh NA 40 Rubiaceae, Mutugunda T Home Fr Vangueria apiculata garden Aubrev. & Leandri, NA 26 Solanaceae, Katunkuma H/Sh Back yard Fr Solanum anguivi Desf., NA 11 Papilionaceae, Obuyindiyind Cl Home Seeds Phaseolus lunatus L., i garden NA 67 Burseraceae, Empafu Cl Along a Lvs Canarium live fence schweinfurthii Engl., NA 34 Lamiaceae, Omujaaja H Home Lvs Ocimum garden gratissimum Forssk., NA 33 Lauraceae, Budalasini T Homestead Lv Cinnamomum verum compound J. Presl., NA 35 Annonaceae, Kitafeeri T Road side Fr Annona muricata L., NA 5 Rutaceae, Sekyungwa T Homestead Fr Citrus sinensis Pers., compound NA 6 Solanaceae, Kamulari S Home Lvs/ Capsicum frutescens garden Fr L., NA 8 Dioscoreaceae, Makobe Twin Banana B Dioscorea bulbifera ner pl an t a t ion var. anthropophagrum Miers, NA 61 Oxalidaceae, Mizabibu T Homestead Fr Averrhoa carambola compound L., NA 79 Solanaceae, Ekinyanya S Behind a Fr Cyphomandra Kraal betacea Walker, NA 21 Dioscoreaceae, Balugu H Banana T plantation Dioscorea cayenensis Lam., NA 81 Palmae, Ekinazi T Homestead Fr Elaeise guineense compound Pax., NA 15 Basellaceae, Nderema Cl Live fence Lvs Basella alba L., NA 38 Fabaceae, Ebigaaga Cl Fence near Seeds Phaseolus spp, NA kraal 78 Punicaceae, Nkomamawa T Road side Fr Punica granatum L., nga NA 5 Zingiberaceae, Ttungulu H Wetland Fr Aframomum alboviolaceum K. Schum, NA 43 Caesalpiniaceae, Omukooge T Grassland Fr Tamarindus indica L., NA 29 Zingiberaceae, Matungulu H Wetland Fr Aframomum angustifolium K. Schum, NA 57 Melastomataceae, Nantooke H Banana Fr Tristemma plantation mauritianum Decne. Ex Trecul, NA 69 Myrtaceae, Amapeera T Thicket Fr Psidium guajava L., g'omunsiko NA 22 Guttiferae, Musaali T Thicket Fr/ Garcinia buchananii seeds Jacq., NA 48 Zingiberaceae, Ekinzaali Rh Home Wh Cucurma longa L., ekiganda garden NA 85 Fabaceae, Empindi H Banana Seeds Vigna unguiculata plantation (L.)Walp., NA 64 Dioscoreaceae, Endagu H Banana T Dioscorea spp, NA plantation 52 Euphorbiaceae, Jerengesa S Hedge Lvs/ Sh Acalypha bipartita Mull. Arg., NA 41 Verbenaceae, Akayukiyuki S Road side Fr Lantana trifolia L., kebalya NA 18 Rubiaceae, Emwanyi T Home Seeds Coffea canephora garden Froehner, NA 10 Amaranthaceae, Mboog' H Home Lvs/ Amaranthus lividus ennene garden Sh subsp. Polygonoides Thell. ex Druce, NA NA 58 Rosaceae, Nkenene S Near a Fr Rubus pinnatus var. kraal afrotropicus (Gaertn.) Hylander, NA 32 Rutaceae, Entale S Grassland Br Zanthoxylum y'eddungu chalybeum L., NA 55 Fabaceae, Voandzeia Mpande H Homestead Seeds subterranea (L.) compound Thouars, NA 51 Rubiaceae, Akamwanyim T Thicket Fr Cathium lactescens wanyi Hiern., NA 44 Dioscoreaceae, Kaama Cl Banana T Dioscorea plantation minutiflora (L.) W.T. Aiton, NA 72 Polygonaceae, Kafumitabage H Road side Lvs Oxygonum sinuatum ngege Dammer, NA 27 Palmae, Mukindu; T Homestead Fr Phoenix reclinata Mpirinvuma compound Jacq., NA 76 Asclepiadaceae, Mulondo Rh Home Wh Mondia whytie garden Skeels, NA 70 Commelinaceae, Nnanda H Field Lvs Commelina ennene benghalensis L., NA 19 Commelinaceae, Nnanda H Field Lvs Commelina africana entono L., NA 20 Amaranthaceae, Mbooge H Home Lvs/ Amaranthus entono garden Sh graecizans subsp. Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan, NA 42 Apocynaceae, Nyonza T Thicket Fr/R Carissa edulis Vahl, (Plant), NA 36 Solanaceae, Nume H Grassland Lvs Solanum y'ekyalo macrocarpon Lam., NA 21 Passifloraceae, Wuju Cl Thicket Fr Passiflora quadrangularis, NA 84 Hyadnaceae, Amaleere H Banana Wh Lentinus prolifer plantation Engl., NA 63 Euphorbiaceae, Kalyabakyala H Grassland Lvs Micrococca mercurialis Benth., NA 60 Solanaceae, Katuntunu H Home Fr Physalis minima L., garden NA 74 Cucurbitaceae, Kyangwe Cl Climbing Fr Luffa cylindrica on Cogn. M. Roem., unfinished NA, 14 house Anacardiaceae, Miyembe T Thicket Fr Mangifera indica L., gy,omunsiko NA 16 Dioscoreaceae, Mukulujjuni H Garden T Dioscorea spp, NA edge 52 Compositae, Mululuza T Garden Lvs Vernonia amygdalina edge K. Schum, NA 12 Cucurbitaceae, Nsuusuti Cl Climbing Fr Sechium edule on a live (Jacq.) Sw., NA 30 fence Dioscoreaceae, Amakoloongo Twin Banana T Dioscorea ner plantation odoratissima Engl., NA 47 Musaceae, Empumumpu H Banana Fr Musa sapientum L., plantation NA 54 Amaranthaceae Kagiri H Kraal Lvs ,Achyranthes aspera L., NA 46 Sapotaceae, Kawuntuntun T Home Fr Pachystela brevipes u garden Engl., NA 50 Dioscoreaceae, Kisebe Cl Banana T Dioscorea alata L., plantation NA 9 Cruciferae, Magereganko H Road side Lv Erucastrum ko arabicum Fisch. & Mey., NA 25 Euphorbiaceae, Mukusu, T Bush land Fr Uapaca paludosa J. Nkusu, F. Gmel., NA 66 Munnmagulu Moraceae, Muzinda T Road side Fr Treculia africana L., NA 65 Anacardiaceae, Muziru T Grassland Fr Pseudospondias microcarpa Engl., NA 69 Cucurbitaceae, Ziizi (Kabaka Cl Home Lvs Kedrostis w'enva) garden foetidissima L., NA 28 Anacardiaceae, Akakwansok H Grassland Fr Rhus vulgaris wanso Meikle, NA 71 Fabaceae, Empinamuti/ H Homestead Seeds Cajanus cajan (L.) Enkolimbo compound Millsp., NA 83 Rubiaceae, Ennimbwelim S Slope Fr Mussaenda arcuata bwe Poir., NA 49 Cyperaceae, Cyperus Gugu Sedge Swamp Wh rotundus L., NA 24 Asparagaceae, Kadaali S Open Fr Asparagus flagellaris grassland Baker, NA 45 Compositae, Kafumbe H Bush Wh Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E., NA 59 Palmae, Kibo T Swamp Fr Raphia farinifera, NA 62 Polygonaceae, Kiwere H Thicket Sh/ Lv Rumex abyssinicus Engl., NA 68 Papilionacaeae, Kiyindiru H Banana Lvs/S Vigna anguiculata plantation h Delile, NA 64 Sapotaceae, Nkalati T Bush Fr Manilkara dawei (Stapf) Chiov., NA 73 Tricholomataceae, Obutundatund H Termite Wh Termitomyces a mound eurrhizus (R. Heim), NA 75 Acanthaceae, Temba H Homestead Lv Asystasia mysorensis compound (Roth) T. Anderson., NA 70 Tricholomataceae, Obutiko H Termite Wh Termitomyces obubaala mound microcarpus (Berk.) Heim., NA 82 Family, species and Eaten as No. of voucher number PLW HA Solanaceae, Vegetable 52 Solanum nigrum L., NA 37 Malvaceae, Leaves are a 50 Hibiscus sabdariffa vegetable and the L., NA 17 seeds are dried and pounded into flour eaten as a staple Amaranthaceae, Vegetable (bitter 48 Amaranthus spinosus and eaten in small L., NA 4 quantities)/ tenderiser (shoots and leaves are burnt; the ash is mixed with water and filtered. The resulting liquid is used for cooking tough vegetables such as cowpea leaves and pigeon peas to make them more tender) Solanaceae, Snack 47 Physalis angulata L., NA 2 Papilionaceae, Snack 44 Abrus precatorius L., NA 13 Solanaceae, Vegetable/ salad 43 Solanum lycopersicum L. , NA 1 Amaranthaceae, Vegetable/ potash 40 Amaranthus dubius (leaves are dried Mart. ex Thell., NA 3 and burnt to ashes. The ashes are used to make a filtrate which is evaporated and the residue used as a substitute for common salt Capparaceae, Vegetable 38 Cleome gynandra L., NA 40 Rubiaceae, Snack 38 Vangueria apiculata Aubrev. & Leandri, NA 26 Solanaceae, Vegetable 36 Solanum anguivi Desf., NA 11 Papilionaceae, Sauce 36 Phaseolus lunatus L., NA 67 Burseraceae, Snack 35 Canarium schweinfurthii Engl., NA 34 Lamiaceae, Beverage (leaves 34 Ocimum dried or fresh) gratissimum Forssk., NA 33 Lauraceae, Beverage (leaves 26 Cinnamomum verum dried or fresh) J. Presl., NA 35 Annonaceae, Snack 23 Annona muricata L., NA 5 Rutaceae, Snack 22 Citrus sinensis Pers., NA 6 Solanaceae, Vegetable (Lvs)/ 20 Capsicum frutescens spice(fruit juice) L., NA 8 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 20 Dioscorea bulbifera staples var. anthropophagrum Miers, NA 61 Oxalidaceae, Snack 20 Averrhoa carambola L., NA 79 Solanaceae, Snack/ dessert/ 19 Cyphomandra beverage fruit juice betacea Walker, NA drunk 21 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 18 staples Dioscorea cayenensis Lam., NA 81 Palmae, Beverage (fruit 18 Elaeise guineense juice)/ oil Pax., NA 15 Basellaceae, Vegetable 18 Basella alba L., NA 38 Fabaceae, Vegetable 16 Phaseolus spp, NA 78 Punicaceae, Snack 16 Punica granatum L., NA 5 Zingiberaceae, Snack 16 Aframomum alboviolaceum K. Schum, NA 43 Caesalpiniaceae, Juice 15 Tamarindus indica L., NA 29 Zingiberaceae, Snack 13 Aframomum angustifolium K. Schum, NA 57 Melastomataceae, Snack 13 Tristemma mauritianum Decne. Ex Trecul, NA 69 Myrtaceae, Snack 11 Psidium guajava L., NA 22 Guttiferae, Snack (fr), 10 Garcinia buchananii beverage (wine is Jacq., NA 48 made from the edible fruit) Zingiberaceae, Food flavor 9 Cucurma longa L., NA 85 Fabaceae, Sauce 9 Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp., NA 64 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 8 Dioscorea spp, NA staples 52 Euphorbiaceae, Vegetable 8 Acalypha bipartita Mull. Arg., NA 41 Verbenaceae, Snack 7 Lantana trifolia L., NA 18 Rubiaceae, Snack 7 Coffea canephora Froehner, NA 10 Amaranthaceae, Vegetable 7 Amaranthus lividus subsp. Polygonoides Thell. ex Druce, NA NA 58 Rosaceae, Snack 7 Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus (Gaertn.) Hylander, NA 32 Rutaceae, Beverage 6 Zanthoxylum chalybeum L., NA 55 Fabaceae, Voandzeia Sauce 6 subterranea (L.) Thouars, NA 51 Rubiaceae, Snack 5 Cathium lactescens Hiern., NA 44 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 5 Dioscorea staples minutiflora (L.) W.T. Aiton, NA 72 Polygonaceae, Vegetable 5 Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer, NA 27 Palmae, Snack/ beverage 5 Phoenix reclinata (the growing shoots Jacq., NA 76 are tapped to make palm wine) Asclepiadaceae, Snack 5 Mondia whytie Skeels, NA 70 Commelinaceae, Vegetable 5 Commelina benghalensis L., NA 19 Commelinaceae, Vegetable 5 Commelina africana L., NA 20 Amaranthaceae, Vegetable 4 Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan, NA 42 Apocynaceae, Snack (fr), tea spice 4 Carissa edulis Vahl, (root) NA 36 Solanaceae, Vegetable/ salad 4 Solanum macrocarpon Lam., NA 21 Passifloraceae, Snack 4 Passiflora quadrangularis, NA 84 Hyadnaceae, Sauce 3 Lentinus prolifer Engl., NA 63 Euphorbiaceae, Vegetable 3 Micrococca mercurialis Benth., NA 60 Solanaceae, Snack 3 Physalis minima L., NA 74 Cucurbitaceae, Vegetable 3 Luffa cylindrica Cogn. M. Roem., NA, 14 Anacardiaceae, Snack 3 Mangifera indica L., NA 16 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 3 Dioscorea spp, NA staples 52 Compositae, Vegetable (Young 3 Vernonia amygdalina Lvs) K. Schum, NA 12 Cucurbitaceae, Sauce 3 Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., NA 30 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 2 Dioscorea staples odoratissima Engl., NA 47 Musaceae, Sauce 2 Musa sapientum L., NA 54 Amaranthaceae Vegetable 2 ,Achyranthes aspera L., NA 46 Sapotaceae, Snack 2 Pachystela brevipes Engl., NA 50 Dioscoreaceae, Accompaniment to 2 Dioscorea alata L., staples NA 9 Cruciferae, Vegetable 2 Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey., NA 25 Euphorbiaceae, Snack 2 Uapaca paludosa J. F. Gmel., NA 66 Moraceae, Snack 2 Treculia africana L., NA 65 Anacardiaceae, Snack 2 Pseudospondias microcarpa Engl., NA 69 Cucurbitaceae, Sauce 2 Kedrostis foetidissima L., NA 28 Anacardiaceae, Snack 1 Rhus vulgaris Meikle, NA 71 Fabaceae, Sauce 1 Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., NA 83 Rubiaceae, Snack 1 Mussaenda arcuata Poir., NA 49 Cyperaceae, Cyperus Potash 1 rotundus L., NA 24 Asparagaceae, Snack 1 Asparagus flagellaris Baker, NA 45 Compositae, Potash 1 Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E., NA 59 Palmae, Snack 1 Raphia farinifera, NA 62 Polygonaceae, Snack 1 Rumex abyssinicus Engl., NA 68 Papilionacaeae, Vegetable 1 Vigna anguiculata Delile, NA 64 Sapotaceae, Snack 1 Manilkara dawei (Stapf) Chiov., NA 73 Tricholomataceae, Sauce 21 Termitomyces eurrhizus (R. Heim), NA 75 Acanthaceae, Vegetable 1 Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anderson., NA 70 Tricholomataceae, Sauce 21 Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.) Heim., NA 82 Part Used: L-Leaves, Sh- Shoot, Fr- Fruit, Wh-Whole, Br- Bark, B-Bulbils, R-Roots Table 3: Wild food plants used as food and medicine by PLWHA in Namayuba, Luwule and Kidondo villages in Nakisunga sub-county, Mukono district, Central Uganda Family and species Habit Part used Papilionaceae, Cl Lvs Abrus precatorius L. Amaranthaceae, H Young Lvs Amaranthus graecizans subsp. & Sh Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan, Amaranthaceae, H Young Lv & Amaranthus spinosus L. Sh before developmen t of the spines Asparagaceae, Sh Fr Asparagus flagellaris Baker Burseraceae, T Fr/ inner Canarium schweifurthii Engl. part of seed Rubiaceae, T Fr Cathium lactescens Hiern., Solanaceae, Sh Lvs/ Fr Capsicum frutescens L. Cruciferae, H Lv Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey. Apocynaceae, T Fr/R Carissa edulis Vahl Capparaceae, H Young Lvs/ Cleome gynandra L., Sh Compositae, H Wh Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Solanaceae, Sh Fr Cyphomandra betacea Walker Guttiferae, T Fr/ seeds Garcinia buchananii Jacq. Malvaceae, H Lv/seeds Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Lamiaceae, H Lvs Ocimum gratissimum Forssk. Polygonaceae, H Lvs Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer Rosaceae, Sh Fr Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus (Gaertn.) Hylander Solanaceae, H/Sh Fr Solanum anguivi Desf., Solanaceae, H Young sh Solanum nigrum L. and Lvs Melastomataceae, H Fr Tristemma mauritianum Decne. Ex Trecul Compositae, T Young Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum leaves Tricholomataceae, H wh Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.) Heim. Acanthaceae, H Lv Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anderson. Caesalpiniaceae, T Fr Tamarindus indica L. Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa T Fr carambola L. Zingiberaceae, Rh Wh Cucurma longa L. Annonaceae, T Fr Annona muricata L. Family and species Method of preparation Papilionaceae, Eaten raw Abrus precatorius L. Amaranthaceae, Boiled/ steamed Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan, Amaranthaceae, Boiled/ steamed Amaranthus spinosus L. Asparagaceae, Eaten raw Asparagus flagellaris Baker Burseraceae, Fruit are immersed in hot Canarium schweifurthii Engl. water to soften the rind and flesh then eaten or fruits are collected, depulped, cracked and the inner part of the seed eaten Rubiaceae, Eaten raw Cathium lactescens Hiern., Solanaceae, Boiled/raw/powder Capsicum frutescens L. Cruciferae, Boiled Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey. Apocynaceae, Eaten raw (fr), powder (R) Carissa edulis Vahl Capparaceae, Boiled/steamed Cleome gynandra L., Compositae, Whole plant is collected, Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. dried and burnt. The ash is mixed with water, filtered and evaporated and the residue collected Solanaceae, Raw Cyphomandra betacea Walker Guttiferae, Fr(raw)/ seeds (collected Garcinia buchananii Jacq. wrapped in banana leaves and baked in hot ash and eaten like peanuts) Malvaceae, Boiled Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Lamiaceae, Beverage Ocimum gratissimum Forssk. Polygonaceae, Steamed/boiled Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer Rosaceae, Raw Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus (Gaertn.) Hylander Solanaceae, Steamed/boiled Solanum anguivi Desf., Solanaceae, Steamed Solanum nigrum L. Melastomataceae, Raw Tristemma mauritianum Decne. Ex Trecul Compositae, Boiled Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum Tricholomataceae, Boiled Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.) Heim. Acanthaceae, Steamed Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anderson. Caesalpiniaceae, Raw Tamarindus indica L. Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa Raw carambola L. Zingiberaceae, Collected, dried, ground Cucurma longa L. Annonaceae, Raw Annona muricata L. Family and species Condition treated Papilionaceae, Skin diseases, acidosis Abrus precatorius L. Amaranthaceae, Sore throat, immune Amaranthus graecizans subsp. booster, joint pains Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan, Amaranthaceae, Fever, diarrhoea, dysentry, Amaranthus spinosus L. febrifuge, effective diuretic Asparagaceae, Diarrhoea, sore throat Asparagus flagellaris Baker Burseraceae, Cough Canarium schweifurthii Engl. Rubiaceae, Sore throat, stomach Cathium lactescens Hiern., wounds, anaemia Solanaceae, Capsicum frutescens L. Cruciferae, Stomach wounds Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey. Apocynaceae, Headache, cough, malaria Carissa edulis Vahl Capparaceae, Fever, immune booster Cleome gynandra L., Compositae, Clotting blood on fresh Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. wounds Solanaceae, Malaria Cyphomandra betacea Walker Guttiferae, Flu and cough Garcinia buchananii Jacq. Malvaceae, Anaemia Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Lamiaceae, Stomachic Ocimum gratissimum Forssk. Polygonaceae, Ulcers Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer Rosaceae, Immune booster Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus (Gaertn.) Hylander Solanaceae, Antipyretic, appetite Solanum anguivi Desf., stimulant Solanaceae, Antipyretic, acidosis Solanum nigrum L. Melastomataceae, Immune booster Tristemma mauritianum Decne. Ex Trecul Compositae, Malaria Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum Tricholomataceae, Immune booster Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.) Heim. Acanthaceae, Appetite stimulant Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anderson. Caesalpiniaceae, Appetite stimulant Tamarindus indica L. Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa Sore throat, immune carambola L. booster Zingiberaceae, Eye problems Cucurma longa L. Annonaceae, Skin diseases, acidosis Annona muricata L. Family and species Side effects Papilionaceae, Nausea/seeds are Abrus precatorius L. poisonous Amaranthaceae, Throat irritation Amaranthus graecizans subsp. Sylvestris (Villiers)Brenan, Amaranthaceae, Amaranthus spinosus L. Asparagaceae, Asparagus flagellaris Baker Burseraceae, Canarium schweifurthii Engl. Rubiaceae, Slightly acidic Cathium lactescens Hiern., Solanaceae, Aggrevates ulcers Capsicum frutescens L. Cruciferae, Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey. Apocynaceae, Carissa edulis Vahl Capparaceae, Cleome gynandra L., Compositae, Throat irritation Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Solanaceae, Cyphomandra betacea Walker Guttiferae, Fr is slightly acidic Garcinia buchananii Jacq. Malvaceae, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Lamiaceae, Ocimum gratissimum Forssk. Polygonaceae, Oxygonum sinuatum Dammer Rosaceae, Rubus pinnatus var. afrotropicus (Gaertn.) Hylander Solanaceae, Solanum anguivi Desf., Solanaceae, Solanum nigrum L. Melastomataceae, Slightly acidic Tristemma mauritianum Decne. Ex Trecul Compositae, Vernonia amygdalina K. Schum Tricholomataceae, Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk.) Heim. Acanthaceae, Asystasia mysorensis (Roth) T. Anderson. Caesalpiniaceae, Tamarindus indica L. Oxalidaceaea, Averrhoa Mouth irritation carambola L. Zingiberaceae, Cucurma longa L. Annonaceae, Annona muricata L. Part Used: L-Leaves, Sh- Shoot, Fr- Fruit, Wh-Whole, Br- Bark, B-Bulbils, R-Roots: Habit: H-Herb, T-Tree, S-Shrub, Cl- Climber, Rh- Rhizome Table 4: HIV/AIDS associated conditions that improved on consuming wild food plants (self-reported) Conditions Percentage Fever 18 Body cleansing 15 Immune boosting 14 Skin diseases 8 Anorexia 6 Diarrhoea 6 Dysentery 6 Cough 6 Internal wounds 5 Abdominal upsets 4 Sore throat 4 Malaria 3 Stomach wounds 1 Influenza 1 Headache 1 Joint pains 1
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|Author:||A., Nabatanzi; Nakalembe, I.|
|Publication:||African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2016|
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