When is hysterectomy appropriate for cervical dysplasia?
Hysterectomy is commonly requested by patients upon learning of cervical dysplasia, particularly if they have chronic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and have experienced years of frequent surveillance and interventions. They may see hysterectomy as an option to avoid this close surveillance and to be free of their dysplasia.
There are two main concerns with offering hysterectomy as the primary surgical option for the management of dysplasia. Firstly, it may not be curative, and secondly, it may be an inadequate excisional procedure, particularly if the patient has occult invasive disease that has not been adequately diagnosed with a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or a cone biopsy procedure.
It is important to counsel these patients that surgery is not a treatment for high-risk HPV infection, which is the underlying etiology of their disease. With that etiology, HPV infection is likely to persist after hysterectomy and they may develop vaginal or vulvar dysplasia. Therefore, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology recommends that cytology and /or high-risk HPV surveillance continue following hysterectomy if that surgery was performed for dysplasia. (1) Hysterectomy is not a means to avoid years of surveillance testing. Approximately 10% of women who have hysterectomy for cervical dysplasia develop vaginal dysplasia or cancer after surgery. (2,3) This is similar to the likelihood of recurrent dysplasia after an alternative excisional procedure. In my experience, this diagnosis is often met with enormous frustration for the patient who thought that her hysterectomy would be the cure of her HPV-related disease. Thorough colposcopic evaluation of the vagina can be technically challenging after hysterectomy because of difficulty adequately visualizing lesions within the vaginal rugations, particularly within the puckered lateral vaginal fornices, the most common location for dysplasia. (3)
It is critical that, if patients are offered hysterectomy for treatment of cervical dysplasia, they are counseled that it may not be curative, that they will require long-term vaginal surveillance, and that they are at continued risk for vaginal and vulvar cancer.
An additional concern with performing hysterectomy for definitive management of cervical dysplasia is the concern that occult cancer may be missed preoperatively, and that the hysterectomy is inadequate surgical clearance of the disease. Approximately 2%-5% of patients with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or equivocal Pap test have occult cervical cancer. (4) A similar proportion of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage III or adenocarcinoma in situ on colposcopy biopsy have invasive carcinoma on evaluation of an excisional specimen. (5) The traditional surgical approach has dictated that a modified (type II) or extended (type III) radical hysterectomy be performed in the setting of FIGO stage IA2 or greater cervical cancer. Radical hysterectomies remove parametria! tissue, effectively achieving a wider margin around the primary lesion. This is important because cervical cancer primarily spreads via direct extension.
The appropriate radicality of surgery for microscopic lesions is debated. It has been proposed that, for very small, low-risk lesions, a traditional extrafascial hysterectomy or trachelectomy, or possibly even a large conization, may be adequate. (6) However, this is controversial, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines still advocate for radical procedures for these lesions. (7) Certainly an excisional procedure (LEEP or cone) should first be performed to define the size and histologic features of the lesion, and ideally, evaluation and counseling with a gynecologic oncologist should be performed prior to offering patients with a stage IA2 or greater lesion an extrafascial hysterectomy. Additionally, a separate decision would need to be made regarding the need for lymphadenectomy, as this is typically recommended for patients with stage IA2 or greater lesions.
Patients should be counseled that, if extrafascial (simple) hysterectomy is chosen as the primary excisional procedure, they may require additional therapy (additional surgery, or radiation and possibly chemotherapy) if cancer is found in the specimen and the parametria! margin is inadequate. Additionally, and of more concern, if the lesion is a bulky lesion extending into the parametrium and not recognized preoperatively, a "cut-through" hysterectomy will be inadvertently performed (in which margins are grossly positive). These situations typically feature heavy blood loss with patients at increased risk for immediate surgical complications. Postoperatively, prognosis is substantially worse for patients who have had a cut-through hysterectomy, compared stage for stage with patients who primarily received a radical procedure with negative margins or primary chemotherapy and radiation. (8) Otherwise said, their risk for death is higher if this error is made. Therefore a thorough examination is essential prior to performing hysterectomy for dysplasia. Any suspicion of bulky cancer should be considered a contraindication for proceeding.
As a rule, no patient should transition directly from cytologic evaluation with Pap screening to hysterectomy. A colposcopic evaluation of the cervix and vagina accompanied with a thorough bimanual rectovaginal examination should always be performed first. Biopsies of the ectocervix and ideally the endocervix should be obtained because the accuracy of histology is greater than that of cytology. For patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage I lesions, hysterectomy is not appropriate, as these patients have an extremely low risk for the development of cervical cancer, and the risks and costs of hysterectomy are not justified in such a population.
Surgeons should wait at least 6 weeks following conization or LEEP before performing hysterectomy in order to minimize the likelihood of perioperative complications. (9)
Substitution of LEEP or cone with hysterectomy
In general, it is the most prudent approach to first perform a diagnostic excision with LEEP or cone biopsy before proceeding with hysterectomy for definitive surgery. However, there may be some situations in which this is not feasible. In patients whose cervix is very small and flush with the vagina, an excisional procedure may not be technically possible without concern for damage to adjacent structures. In these patients, after a thorough exam has evaluated for gross disease, a hysterectomy may be the only way to adequately diagnose and treat high-grade dysplasia through excision. For patients with limited access to resources, transportation, or a concern for noncompliance with follow-up, surgeons may wish to offer patients primary hysterectomy rather than a staged procedure.
Hysterectomy remains a potential option for treatment of cervical dysplasia. However, patients should be made aware of the risks of undertreatment of occult cancers, the need for longterm surveillance testing, and the risk for future vaginal dysplasia or cancer. Ideally a comprehensive, stepwise assessment from cytology to colposcopy and examination to diagnostic excisional procedure will first take place to proceed safely with this approach.
BY EMMA C. ROSSI, MD
Dr. Rossi is an assistant professor in the division of gynecologic oncology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has no relevant financial disclosures.
(1.) Saslow D et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012 MayJun;62(3):147-72.
(2.) Schockaert S et al. Incidence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia after hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Aug; 199(2): 113. el-5.
(3.) Kalogirou D et al. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) following hysterectomy in patients treated for carcinoma in situ of the cervix. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1997;18(3):188-91.
(4.) Landy R et al. Evaluating cytology for the detection of invasive cervical cancer. Cytopathology. 2016Jun;27(3):201-9.
(5.) Latif NA et al. Management of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: a comparison of loop electrosurgical excision procedure and cold knife conization. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015 Apr;19(2):97-102.
(6.) Bai H et al. The potential for less radical surgery in women with stage IA2-IB1 cervical cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Sep; 130(3):235-40.
(7.) National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Version 2.2018. 2018 Jun 26.
(8.) Barber HR et al. Operative management of patients previously operated upon for a benign lesion with cervical cancer as a surprise finding. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1968 Aug l;101(7):959-65.
(9.) Sullivan SA et al. Association between timing of cervical excision procedure to minimally invasive hysterectomy and surgical complications. Gynecol Oncol. 2017 Feb;144(2):294-298.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Gynecologic Oncology|
|Author:||Rossi, Emma C.|
|Publication:||OB GYN News|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2018|
|Previous Article:||The diagnosis and surgical repair of vesicovaginal fistula.|
|Next Article:||New insights into sleep, pregnancy weight gain.|