Printer Friendly

What does the field of international relations look like in South America?

Introduction

Some authors consider that the first Department of International Relations was created in 1917 at the University of Wales at Aberystwyth (Nogueira and Messari 2005, 3). Therefore, in a couple of years the academic community should be celebrating the centenary of a discipline that has since then evoked lively discussions. One of the main debates concerns what ideas and actors have shaped International Relations (IR) as a subject through the years. That is to say, whether the origins and main practices of this young North American/European-born discipline make it epistemologically limited. To what extent have normative criteria been restricting IR's general explanatory power? Even though one cannot conceive South America (1) outside the Western World heritage, this part of the globe has its own historical and cultural idiosyncrasies, which possibly have had an impact on the development of the IR thought conceived inside its borders (Rouquie 1987).

In this context, the present article seeks to make an original contribution by mapping how IR has evolved in South America and the current configuration of the field. As such, the objective is to scrutinize via local journals how researchers have approached IR in terms of theory, method and area. This study is, therefore, exploratory and descriptive in nature. For this purpose, it is organized in three parts: (1) Historical origins and development of the IR discipline in South America; (2) Theoretical trends; and (3) Empirical evidences. The conclusion summarizes the major findings and analysis of the empirical research, comparing them with the available literature. A Lakatosian approach is adopted as it presumes a research agenda based upon IR main theories and approaches, and it identifies the major trends of IR research in South America (2) as well.

Historical origins and development of the IR discipline in South America

As it usually happens in the social sciences, the IR discipline brings, in its roots, influences from other sciences, such as Philosophy, Political Science, Economics, Law, Sociology and History, which have contributed significantly to the theoretical construction of this field (Lessa 2005). Its actual structuring began only in the second half of the twentieth century through the discussions between Utopia and Realism, the configuration of the Cold War and the consequent prominence of classical Realism (Carr 2001; Morgenthau 1985).

Nowadays, three broad branches stand out, which are subdivided into theories and more specific approaches: Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism. In addition to these three theories, South America, whose reality demanded another look at the international scene, contributed to the study of IR with the construction of the Dependency Theory, a differentiated approach grounded on Marxism. Originating in the initial studies of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in the 1950s and 1960s, it deepened the discussions about international asymmetry and opened a range of new research topics. Also according to Tickner (2002, 48, our translation):
   (...) the thought of the ECLAC School tried to demonstrate how the
   expansion of capitalism, the international division of labor and
   the integration of Latin American economies in the world system
   produced asymmetrical relations between the major countries of the
   center and the nations of the periphery.


Dependency Theory represented a major change in the scientific view of the international reality. From a horizontal vision that saw the world through the ideological perspective of the

Cold War, prioritizing security in a Realist logic, Latin America began to see the world in a vertical perspective, bringing out another kind of conflict, North versus South, denuding the asymmetries that characterize international relations. This world-view brought with it another set of concepts (e.g. center and periphery, development and underdevelopment, exploitation, inequality) and actors (e.g. social classes, unions, multinational companies, among others) to the research of international phenomena. Though this, research agenda is more connected to sociology of development than IRper se, overall structuralism remained a central paradigm in the Latin American conception of the international realm (Gonzalez 2006; Froio 2012). As any theory, Dependency Theory selects some aspects of reality and bypasses others. Of course, it offers another approach to international studies, but it also presents limits, such as its inability to analyze the interdependence processes that characterize the world nowadays beyond the center-periphery division.

The diversity of IR theories imposes classificatory difficulties, especially in the southern continent, where international reality has been an object of study through many disciplinary branches. We turn now to the institutional set-up of IR in South American academia in order to understand the discipline's regional underpinnings.

South American thought on IR mostly began in institutions other than universities. It was present in academia as well, but with little curricular differentiation from other subjects, and overall guided by more political, prescriptive and practical concerns. As an example, the study of international issues in Brazil was carried out by areas as different as Law, Economics, History and Political Science (Lessa 2005). Though these studies diversified and enriched those particular disciplines, they contributed little to the outlining of an autonomous IR field of research. The first Brazilian inquiries in IR began in institutions such as Itamaraty and the Armed Forces, which were guided chiefly by practical concerns, prioritizing historic and geopolitical approaches. The earliest courses in Argentina were connected to a diplomatic law tradition. Thus, they predated the onset of Political Science courses in some universities, and prioritized the formation of elite bureaucrats, politicians and also researchers (Bulcourf 2008). As early as 1927, the Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) created courses on diplomacy and political science (Fernandez and Guardamagna 2011). In Chile, the first courses in Political Science that emerged in the 1950s were also more concerned with forming statesmen, therefore emphasizing public administration and law (Gatica 2012). Chile was also the original headquarters to the Facultad Latino-americana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), created in 1957 by a UNESCO initiative to advance social sciences in Latin America and which now has 16 participating countries.

In Brazilian academia, an important early step towards the differentiation of IR was the opening of the Instituto Brasileiro de Relates Internacionais (IBRI) in 1954 in Rio de Janeiro. It would only be in the 1970s and 1980s that universities, such as the University of Brasilia (UnB) and the Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), began to consolidate this field of research. The relation between universities and the state also moved forward with the creation of the Instituto de Pesquisa em Relates Internacionais (IPRI) in 1987 to deepen the dialogue between the Foreign Relations Ministry and academia, while the regional integration processes of the 1990s also produced a great mass of research.

However, IR's true boom in South America would arrive in the 2000s, with a significant increase in the number of undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as scientific journals in the region. In Chile and other Andean countries, though Political Science and IR courses grew a lot in the 2000s, they did not become as popular as those focused on public policies and administration (Fuentes and Santana 2005). The latter are also prevalent in Colombia and Venezuela, where Political Science and Law are generally fused into one single faculty (Diaz and Antar 2005) (3).

In most South American universities, IR courses tend to be placed in Political Science and Law departments, with some exceptions in institutions that have specific focuses (e.g. military academies).

The progressive differentiation of the IR field and specialization of its scholars was accompanied by the creation of academic and professional associations, think tanks and other institutions gathering researchers and incentivizing scientific production in the region. The first centers were created in Argentina (Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales, 1978), Chile (Consejo Chileno para las Relaciones Internacionales, 1989), Uruguay (Colegio de Licenciados en Relaciones Internacionales del Uruguay, 1989; Centro de Formacion para la Integracion Regional, 1993), and Brazil (Centro Brasileiro de Relates Internacionais, 1998). The majority of South American associations was created in the 2000s, still concentrated in the same countries: Associacao Brasileira de Relates Internacionais (2005), Consejo Uruguayo para las Relaciones Internacionales (2003), Red Colombiana de Relaciones Internacionales (2009), Consejo Federal de Estudios Internacionales (Argentina, 2009), Asociacion Chilena de Especialistas Internacionales (2010) and Asociacion Uruguaya de Estudios Internacionales (2014). Some institutions, such as Fundacao Getulio Vargas (which was originally founded in the 1940s and opened an IR center in 2009), Centro Brasileiro de Relates Internacionais and Consejo Argentino para las Relaciones Internacionales are among the world's leading think tanks (4).

Theoretical trends

As stated by Bedin (2000, 62), IR theory is "a vision, an interpretation, a perspective of international or global phenomena, supported by some method, whose claim is to explain and give meaning to the events that are unfolding in the international arena". As the main IR paradigms had in their origin a great influence from Western thought, especially the United States, some authors argue (5) theoretical choices are prone to political implications, usually stated as limits and ideologies. Stressing the shortcomings of theories, Cervo (2008, 8) says that:
   The universal explanatory reach of theories is forged, since it is
   bounded to the interests, values and standards of conduct of
   countries or group of countries in which are developed and for
   which are useful, contradictorily to the concepts, that exposes the
   national or regional roots which are based on and refuse themselves
   to be invested of a global explanatory reach.


It is true that, with exception of Dependency Theory (Andre Gunder Frank, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Enzo Faletto, Raul Prebisch, among others), IR theories were developed by researchers from the West and, of course, they reflect a point of view from their places of origin. However, that should not mean that they are, automatically, unable to explain international phenomena in other parts of the world, as we discuss in this section.

Universalism versus Western World: inertial mimetic process and the search for autonomy

In the beginning of last century, Woodrow Wilson took the first steps towards the theoretical construction of IR. His 14 points paved the way for the building of Liberal Idealist Theory, and inspired the research and the organizations aiming a peaceful future built upon the principles of the capitalist market.

It was, however, after World War II that IR theories indeed began to take shape: the Realism of Morgenthau, Carr, Aron and Kissinger represented not only a reaction to the romantic Wilsonian idealism of the interwar period, but it has established itself as the classic IR paradigm. Along with Realism, the other major paradigm, Liberalism, sought, in its own way, to justify international reality, pretentiously presenting themselves as objective and universal theories. The influence of these currents stems not just from academia, but also from the international weight of their countries of origin. It can be argued that these theories are subjective in that they explain phenomena from those nations' viewpoint. But is this not the essence of all theories in the field of Humanities? As Tickner (2002, 10) said, "(...) a paradigm fulfills the function to set up those aspects that a scientific community will judge worthy of being investigated at the same time that it marginalizes the issues that (...) in any way contradicts the central ideas of the paradigm".

The question then is whether South American research has been guided by those influential Western currents, adapted them according to the reality investigated, or--given their insufficiency to provide answers to specific international issues raised by the periphery--sought autonomy of thought and offered an alternative analytical framework.

Amado Cervo (2008, 24) makes a call for researchers, mainly Latin Americans:
   To contribute to the end of international relations theories and
   their replacement by concepts applied to relations proposes itself
   as a way of transitioning from an international system that
   services the interests, values and patterns of action of capitalist
   old structures to another that welcomes interests, values and
   patterns of action of emerging countries. It proposes mental
   evolution corresponding to the material evolution in progress.


Nonetheless, simply discarding Western theories implies refuting potentially useful (though limited) interpretations, thus presenting a challenging choice for South American researchers.

Ideology is not Science

A common feature in the development of social sciences in South America is the marked presence of ideology in its theoretical foundations. As a region constantly seeking autonomy and impregnated by the discourse of colonial powers' distance, some South American scholars resist theories from the North, as if they were resisting new interferences on their internal affairs (Bernal-Meza 2005). Der Derian (1989) says that predominant narratives in IR studies tend not only to ignore divergent voices, but also to stimulate domination over historical practices, reinforcing dominant discourses.

Ideological bias is linked to an epistemological commitment which can be identified by answering a simple question: is it possible to make objective social science? If the answer is affirmative, we are looking at researchers who are concerned with explaining the real world through causal links between causes and effects, in a positivist epistemological approach; on the other side, if the answer is negative, we are assuming the impossibility of making social science in a value-free way, in which we do not explain, but are only able to understand the real world (Hollis and Smith 1990; Hollis 1994). The latest, interpretivist approach became known in IR as the alternative approach to positivist theories, called post-positivist approaches (Lapid 1989).

It may be useful to recall Weber (1973) in his commentary about the axiological neutrality of social sciences. According to him, normative judgments influence decisions regarding what to study, as well as presenting, at the end, the importance of the research. The fundamental issue is to assure that, while in the intermediary phases, the research is not conducted by normative values. Thus, the adoption of the scientific method is not an option, it is a necessity.

Theories may have research agendas, and legitimize epistemic communities, just as ideologies have corollary agendas and interest groups. Confounding science and ideology is, therefore, to mystify objectives, dominating groups, dominated groups and power structures, usually superposing ideological groups and epistemic communities.

It must be considered that, if it is possible to accept that an ideology-driven science is damaging to science advancement, there are many researchers who point to the impossibility of completely separating science from ideology (6). It is necessary to notice that though irrevocably connected, they can and must be subject to an effort of keeping each other apart, in order to preserve both of them as they were meant to be. Science is linked to formal processes of learning and knowledge production, while ideology is attached to social action and the ethics of conviction.

As we demonstrate in the next section, these trends are very present in an extensive body of articles from South American IR literature.

Empirical evidences

An accurate and up-to-date picture of the IR research field in South America can only be obtained by means of empirical verification. In order to grasp what is the main academic profile of the region, we have analyzed a very large corpus of scientific articles published from 2006 to 2014 following the methodology described in this section.

Methodology Corpus selection

We have analyzed the academic production of South American countries included in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), a library and database for journals in all fields of knowledge founded in 1998. This library was chosen because: it is a repository created in Brazil and focused on the scientific production of developing countries, thus increasing the likelihood that our sample of articles would provide a reliable picture of IR in South America, and because it has a rigorous set of admission and permanence criteria to ensure that the journals it hosts meet high academic standards (7).

Choosing only journals listed in SciELO implied the exclusion of some IR titles that, as of 2015, had not yet met their publishing requirements. Though this meant a reduction in the number of journals analyzed, it avoided ad hoc inclusions and it ensured relevance--as listed journals have to observe superior quality practices (8).

SciELO has journals from the following South American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Due to (1) the scarcity of strictly IR journals in those countries (only Brazil, Colombia and Chile have exclusive publications), (2) the fact that IR researchers publish in journals from different fields regularly, and (3) the interdisciplinarity that characterizes this area of study, our scope was enlarged so as to include journals from IR-related fields, such as Political Science, Sociology, History, Economics, Anthropology and Law.

The time span analyzed went from January 2006 to December 2014. We arrived at a corpus of 35 journals from six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela. The total number of journals and downloaded articles are summarized in Table 1 below. (9)

We have taken into consideration possible biases on our corpus selection. First, SciELO is an online database founded and maintained by a Brazilian research foundation. Consequently, it has a greater number of Brazilian journals. Though this could be a potential bias, it is nonetheless important to underscore that Brazil, having a larger number of academic centers, can be expected to account for the greatest share of IR research in the region.

Second, SciELO seeks to standardize scientific procedures in order to guarantee higher-quality research. We chose it instead of other databases which could have more South American titles (e.g. Latindex) because it was the only one employing criteria of quality for hosting journals.

The corpus had articles written in six different languages: English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German and Italian. The dominant languages are Portuguese (4,024 articles) and Spanish (3,303 articles), which account for 93% of all material. English is the third language used (6%), and though the distance from the two leading languages is great, its usage has risen steadily over the years, from only 26 articles (in 2006) to 87 (in 2014), indicating a growing tendency of researchers to publish in English.

Content analysis

Our interest was to verify the predominant (i) theories, (ii) methods and (iii) research areas in South American IR today. Focusing on those three domains allows us to get a concise picture of the main influences and interests in the field, specifically to (iv) discover prevailing research templates used by researchers and (v) the profile of regional journals.

The Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) Around the World survey has already provided some evidences of how the area looks like today, via their cross-national surveys with IR professors (Maliniak, Peterson and Tierney 2012).

Researchers attempting to investigate the state of the art of a given scientific field have some available courses of action. Traditionally, they can elaborate a comprehensive description of the history and trends of the area, drawing upon key developments, institutional history, and can more or less systematically attempt to qualify and quantify academic production--as done by Miyamoto (1999), Lessa (2005) and Almeida (2006) for Brazilian IR. Analysis of university course curricula is also employed to characterize the teaching tendencies of the field (Merke 2005; Froio 2012).

A more systematic approach is possible through meta-analysis, in which bibliometrics is a means of measuring science. Meta-analyses consist in manually analyzing a sample of articles, classifying each piece according to its theory, methodology, results, or other variable of interest (10). To the extent of our knowledge, such analyses are non-existent in South American IR. Journals on IR have tangentially been included in Political Science meta-analyses (11).

As we wanted to obtain the most representative picture of IR production in the region, we tried an alternative method which would allow us to handle a large corpus such as ours. Analyzing the 7,857 downloaded articles, and then manually classifying each piece would be humanly impossible. Therefore, we resorted to content analysis as a research method. By using this approach, we relied on a software to count word frequencies and to locate the occurrence of specific key terms predetermined by the user in thematic dictionaries. Therefore, we built a classificatory dictionary containing the key terms and names of authors that were most likely to be found in an article adhering to a certain theory, method or area. For instance, the terms Constructivism and Wendt were added under the Constructivism theoretical category, as we expect an article that uses a constructivist perspective to employ those words often. Naturally, not all matches can be interpreted as meaningful, only those pertaining to IR articles. This can be problematic due to the interdisciplinarity of our corpus and also because just counting a term can be misleading when the context is not taken into consideration. The term Liberalism, for instance, could be mentioned just as often by Liberal and Marxist authors, though with very different connotations. Thus, we also embedded context rules in our dictionary to avoid negative matches, especially for terms that are polysemic and tend to be frequent in non-IR articles (i.e. only count the term "Marxism" if it is present in the same document as the phrase "International Relations"). It is worth underscoring that the usage of content analysis presupposes that authors explicitly name the theories, methods and areas used in the article.

We used the software QDA Miner v.4.1.21 and WordStat 7, both by Provalis Research. First, we classified each individual article at QDA Miner according to four variables: (i) journal title, (ii) date, (iii) country and (iv) language. Afterwards, we sent the corpus to WordStat, which performed the content analysis. In WordStat, we elaborated a dictionary containing the following categories and subcategories (12):

* Theory

* Constructivism

* Liberalism

* Realism

* Marxism

* English School

* Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism

* Critical Theory

* Feminism

* Method

* Quantitative Analysis

* Statistical Methods

* Content Analysis

* Qualitative Analysis

* Discourse Analysis

* Historical Analysis

* Ethnography

* Hermeneutics

* Analytic Description/Narrative

* Mixed Methods

* Formal Models

* Area

* Foreign Policy Analysis

* International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy * Institutions and International Regimes * Regional Integration

* History of International Relations and History of Foreign Policy

* International Law (13)

From our original corpus of 7,857 articles, 4,209 had no positive matches with the terms listed in the dictionary and were therefore excluded. The discussion in the following section refers to the analysis performed on the remaining 3,648 articles. The last two columns of Table 1 indicate the new distribution of articles per journal.

Results

Theory

Liberalism was the predominant theory for all studied years, being present in 31.22% of the articles, followed by Realism (26.92%). The third most popular theory, Constructivism, scored significantly less (12.8%) and was not very distant from other second-tiers theories--being actually less popular than Marxism in 2007 and 2008, and Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism in 2007 and 2014. Feminism was the least frequent theory. The results are summarized in Table 2.

Liberalism and Realism were prevalent in all countries, except Uruguay. Second-tier theories, in turn, displayed greater cross-country variation as shown in Table 3 and Figure 1.

Liberalism and Realism also had the highest co-occurrence, appearing jointly in 622 cases (Jaccard Index (14): 0.415). This leads us to believe that the prevalence of these theories is due to the fact that IR articles tend to follow an argument structure which opens up with a contrast between Liberalism and Realism, even when the author intends to employ an alternative approach.

The 0.415 JI, the highest ranked in the whole study, means that 41.5% of the appearances of the Liberalism category in the corpus are accompanied by the Realism category, and vice-versa.

A similar interplay might be in place between Marxism and Liberalism (JI: 0.267), reproducing a thesis-antithesis essay style. Constructivism was most strongly associated with Realism (JI: 0.225). Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism and Critical Theory were both more associated with Marxism, evidencing their indebtedness to this original paradigm (JI: 0.206 and 0.146, respectively). English School was most strongly associated with Realism (JI: 0.156), probably due to the international system/society debate. Feminism seemed to be more isolated, as its association with other approaches was comparatively weaker, being most significantly associated with Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism (JI: 0.105).

We also had the concern of monitoring the status of Dependency Theory. As this is considered an original South American contribution to the study of IR, we wanted to know whether the maturing of this field of research in the region was accompanied by a comparable development of this particular theory.

By isolating Dependency Theory from the Marxism category, we could see that it has declined in importance over the years, as show in Figure 2. The fact that in total it was present in only 184 articles from a total of 424 Marxist ones indicates that, even within this theoretical frame, Dependency Theory is not a dominant approach.

Lastly, we wanted to verify whether the IR production in the region could be classified as predominantly positivist or post-positivist. Therefore, we followed Schmidt (2013) and Wight (2013) by grouping the theories Liberalism, Realism and Marxism under a new category, Positivism; and Constructivism, Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism, Critical Theory, English School and Feminism as Post-Positivist. (15) Results show that Positivist epistemology is prevalent, with 45.9% of cases, against 29.7% for Post-Positivism (16).

By performing a correspondence analysis, it was possible to place all analyzed countries in a continuum that showed where each one was located between both epistemic poles. As seen on Figure 3, apart from Uruguay, all countries are placed on the more positivist end of the spectrum and do not have great distance between them, indicating epistemological homogeneity in most South American countries.

Method

Concerning the methods used, Qualitative Analysis was prevalent, being present in 226 articles, while Quantitative Analysis came in second, registered in 176 articles. Only 55 articles made explicit mention of using Mixed Methods. Formal Models were the least common method, occurring on a mere 0.41% of all cases.

Table 4 allows us to see that the total number of articles mentioning any method at all is rather small if compared, for instance, to theories. Even the most frequent method is present in only 6.2% of all considered articles. The lack of method-awareness is an enduring shortcoming of the IR field in South America (17), and those figures allow us to perceive the magnitude of this oblivion.

Anyhow, placing the data in time-series shows us that the number of articles explicitly mentioning methods has grown in the past years, as displayed in Figure 4. Most importantly, the series indicates a steady growth in Quantitative Analysis, which surpassed Qualitative Analysis for the first time in 2014. This could perhaps be just a temporary peak which will recede in the next year, or it could be the turning point for South American IR, signaling a departure from its original humanities-related approaches and a growing preference for statistical methods, as it has been happening with Brazilian Political Science (18).

Apart from Argentina and Venezuela, all countries show the same hierarchy: Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Mixed Methods and Formal Methods.

Qualitative Techniques

The Qualitative Analysis category was composed of five different techniques. Breaking down this category, we could see that the most popular approach was Historical Analysis, being present in 152 of the 226 articles that used Qualitative Analysis (67.26%).

This hierarchy was similar in all countries (except for Venezuela, which had zero qualitative cases), with Historical Analysis accounting for over half of the Qualitative Analysis articles. Uruguay was the only divergent case, which had 33.3% Historical Analysis, followed by 25% Hermeneutics.

Quantitative Techniques

As for Quantitative Analysis, we broke it down into Statistical Methods and Content Analysis. Statistical Methods were the most common technique, accounting for a quarter of the 176 articles using Quantitative Analysis, while Content Analysis only accounted for 7.39%, as shown in Table 8. Even so, on the years 2011 and 2013, Content Analysis was used more often than Statistical Methods.

Regarding individual countries, Argentina, Chile and Venezuela did not use Content Analysis at all, while Uruguay had no record of using Statistical Methods.

Area

The predominant area of interest was "Institutions and International Regimes", which was present in over half of the 3,648 articles, followed by "Regional Integration" (43.35% of the cases) and "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" (34.81%), as shown in Table 9. For the time period considered, most of the research areas continued to display the same hierarchical importance, with the exception of "Foreign Policy Analysis" and "International Law", which often switched between fourth and fifth place.

The prevalence of "Institutions and International Regimes" can be partly explained by the broad definition we have employed for this area. As Keohane (1984) puts it, institutions are a pattern of activity or a human-constructed arrangement; Krasner (1982) adds that international regimes are principles, norms, rules and decision procedures shared among international actors. Together, these concepts encompass almost every object of research in IR.

"Institutions and International Regimes" was prevalent for all countries, with Uruguay and Venezuela showing a larger concentration of their production in that single area. "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" was the second most important area for Colombia, and third for Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. "Foreign Policy Analysis" was third for Argentina and Venezuela.

There was a high proportion of co-occurrences between areas, which was expected given the fact that a single article is likely to address one main area in combination with other secondary fields. In particular, "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" showed high similarity with a number of other areas: "International Law" (JI: 0.436), "Foreign Policy Analysis" (0.405), and "Institutions and International Regimes" (0.373). Moreover, "Regional Integration" was also close to the areas of "Institutions and International Regimes" (0.356) and "Foreign Policy Analysis" (0.335).

South American IR research templates: commonly associated theories, methods and areas

Though measuring the importance of individual theories, methods and areas is in itself a significant contribution to understanding the IR field in South America, it remains incomplete if no attempt is made to discover how they are combined by publishing authors in their research designs (Lebow and Lichbach 2007; Brady and Collier 2010).

Hence, we verified how often each theory, method and area co-occurred across the corpus. The resulting co-occurrence matrix, displayed in Table 11, shows how frequently all theories, methods and areas appear in combination with one another for all studied articles. We will discuss this absolute frequency in comparison with the similarity measured by the JI.

As shown, all eight theories had high co-occurrences with Liberalism and Realism, followed by Marxism. Methodologically, they overwhelmingly favored Qualitative Analysis. Liberalism and Realism were the theories with more co-occurrences with Quantitative Analysis. Considering the association between theories and research areas, it was possible to see that, in absolute terms, "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" is the area of research that co-occurs more often with theories in general, suggesting that articles on this subject are less a-theoretical.

Focusing on individual theories, we can perceive that Constructivism is frequently associated, in absolute terms, with the research areas "Institutions and International Regimes", "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "Regional Integration". Considering similarity, as measured by the JI, Constructivism is actually more closely related to "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" (0.208) and "Foreign Policy Analysis" (0.197). This probably occurs because the two most popular concepts developed in IR Constructivist theory are securitization (Buzan and Waever 2003) and identity (Wendt 1999).

A similar reversal takes place for Critical Theory, which is more associated, in absolute terms, with "Institutions and International Regimes", but according to the JI, to "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" (0.105). This is understandable, given Critical Theory's normative concern with how problem-solving theories such as Realism portray war and peace, and therefore proposed alternative, non-dichotomous readings of these phenomena.

Concerning Feminism, it had few co-occurrences since it was overall a marginal theory. It was, nonetheless, related to "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy", "Institutions and International Regimes" and "International Law". The same hierarchy regarding research areas was present for Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism, indicating a shared interest structure for authors from those Post-Positivist perspectives.

As the prevalent theory of the corpus, Liberalism had the most co-occurrences across methods and areas. It registered the highest co-occurrences with all methods, including the unpopular Mixed Methods and Formal Models. It was more associated with the area of "Institutions and International Regimes", followed by "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "Regional Integration". It is important to underscore that "Regional Integration" had the most co-occurrences with Liberalism, and with the accompanying area "Institutions and International Regimes". This is indicative of how Liberalism focuses on economic issues, which is the main variable in most regional integration studies. Also, regional integration is usually associated with institution-building that entangles countries' economies and trade (Deutsch et al. 1957; Haas 1958).

Marxism's JI ranked higher with all methods, suggesting that, although it mentioned methods less frequently than Liberalism and Realism in absolute terms, it had a smaller proportion of articles lacking methodology.

Realism was most strongly associated with "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy", which was expected, given the former's emphasis on issues of war, peace and power. It is noteworthy that, from all theories, Realism had the highest co-occurrences with the area "History of International Relations and History of Foreign Policy", which was overall a neglected area.

Concerning individual areas of research, most of them tended to associate more often with Liberalism, Realism, Constructivism and Marxism, in that order of importance. "Foreign Policy Analysis" and "International Law" displayed an interesting harmony in that aspect, as they had a close number of co-occurrences with those theories. This is compatible with the behavior of these areas of research across time. They switched between fourth and fifth places often, indicating that they have received the same attention from all theoretical perspectives.

"International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" had the highest number of cases co-occurring with the Formal, Qualitative and Quantitative Methods; and likewise for theories, suggesting that articles dealing with this topic tend to be more method and theory-aware.

The area of "Institutions and International Regime" was, by a very large lead, most commonly associated with Liberalism. This was expected as those were the overall most popular area and theory, but also given the above mentioned broad conceptualization of institutions and international regimes.

South American IR journals: many areas, some methods, and few theories

Having investigated the prevalence of specific theories, methods and areas across countries, we now turn our analysis to the journals. In this section we present a classification of all 35 journals included in the study, so as to arrive at an overview of what are the main epistemological and methodological affinities of each publication, preferred areas of interest, and if any clusters can be spotted.

We classified the journals according to the percentage of Positivist vs. Post-Positivist articles (Y-axis) and to the percentage of Qualitative vs. other methodologies (X-axis). The result is displayed in Figure 8, which creates four possible profiles for publications. It is clear that the majority of IR journals in South America employs some form of Positivist theory. Only two journals from the 35 were predominantly Post-Positivist. Method-wise, we can see greater diversity, though Qualitative Methods are still dominant (21 vs. 14 journals with more than 50% of their articles using Qualitative Analysis). If we focus on IR-only titles (Colombia Internacional, Contexto Internacional, Estudios Internacionales, Rev. Bras. Pol. Int., Rev. Rel. Int. Estr. y Seg.), we will see that they cluster on the upper, center-to-left part of plot, indicating they are predominantly Positivist and tend to have a greater share of non-qualitative articles. Therefore, the most populated quadrant is that of Qualitative and Positivist journals. It is noteworthy that the Post-Positivist and Quantitative quadrant is completely empty, which could be explained by the primacy given by Post-Positivist theories to discourse, representation and ideas--variables more promptly accessible by qualitative research.

In order to verify what the journals' main areas of interest are, we inserted the information from this scatter plot, plus data on the prevalence of each area of research for all journals, into a radial coordinates plot, producing Figure 9 below. The six research areas are placed in the outer circumference of the graph, while the 35 journals are represented by the bubbles plotted inside the circle. Journals which have the majority of their articles focused on one peculiar area will be more distant from the center and closer to the spot on the circumference corresponding to that respective area, while journals that have a more balanced distribution of articles will be closer to the center. The size of the bubble indicates epistemology: the more positivist a journal, larger the bubble area. Shading, in turn, indicates method: the more qualitative a journal, the darker the shade.

Most of the journals tend to be concentrated in the center of the circle, meaning that they have a rather balanced interest in different areas. From the six research areas, "International Institutions and Regimes", "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "Regional Integration" form a triad which draws the majority of journals.

A rather balanced range of interest seems to characterize South American IR journals. The ones which are farther apart from the center, and are therefore more mono-thematic, are from IR-related areas: International Law, Civilizar, and Ciclos en la Historia, la Economia y la Sociedad. Many of the plotted journals publish on Social Sciences or Humanities in general, which might explain the overall balance of interest. If we focus again on the five IR-exclusive titles, we can see that they too are close to the center, and slightly more drawn to the areas of "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "Foreign Policy". This is perhaps indicative that those areas are less accessible to more interdisciplinary journals, which can instead focus on integration and institutions, which are phenomena more open to neighboring disciplines.

Regarding methodology, qualitative and quantitative journals are scattered, though there is a slightly greater concentration of quantitative-oriented journals in the center and lower-half of the circle.

As most journals use Positivist theories, the area of the bubbles in the plot does not vary greatly. Nonetheless, one finds smaller bubbles, indicating more Post-Positivism, in the center of the circle and in the direction of the areas "International Law" and "Institutions and International Regimes". Some of the smaller bubbles are also lighter in color, indicating that journals that have a more balanced methodological preference will also be more receptive to different epistemological viewpoints.

Country-wise, we can see some affinities between countries and areas. In comparison to other countries, Argentinean titles tended to emphasize on the "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy", "Foreign Policy Analysis" and "History of International Relations and History of Foreign Policy" triad. Colombian journals were more drawn to the "International Institutions and Regimes", "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "International Law" portion. Chilean journals, to "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "Foreign Policy".

Conclusion

Under the Lakatosian approach proposed by this article, in general, the IR field in South America looks like a North American mimetic ersatz, i.e., it has been built under the Northern/Western influence despite its own idiosyncrasies. Maybe because South American authors understand that those idiosyncrasies are not relevant and in the majority of cases the Realism and Liberal paradigms are able to explain how nations behave (Henkin 1979).

As a matter of fact, considering the three dimensions of analysis this article proposed-theory, method and area-one cannot identify, apart from a positivist and qualitative preference, any major genuine trend of South American IR, nor any significant attempt to contribute to the new "Global IR" ideas (Hurrell 2015).

Concerning theories, the study of our sample demonstrated that Liberalism was predominant, followed by Realism and Constructivism, the latter being close to second-tiers theories: Marxism and Post-Modernism/Post-Colonialism. By isolating Dependency Theory from Marxism, we could see that its importance has declined over the years, and that even within the Marxist tradition it was not a dominant approach.

Regarding methods, Qualitative Analysis was prevalent, although it was surpassed by Quantitative Analysis for the first time in 2014. Whether this is a momentary spike or a turning point in South American IR remains to be observed in future assessments. Only 12.94% of all articles mentioned methods, indicating a widespread methodological unawareness.

The predominant areas of interest for the studied period were "Institutions and International Regimes", "Regional Integration" and "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy", which was already expected, as these areas, in fact, are the main ones studied by the three most used theories mentioned above.

We have also found common patterns which South American IR researchers use when combining theories, methods and areas. All eight theories had high co-occurrences with Liberalism and Realism, followed by Marxism. Methodologically, they favored Qualitative Analysis. In absolute terms, "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" is the area of research that most cites theories in general, meaning the production on this topic is the least a-theoretical.

From our classification of all the 35 journals studied-according to epistemologies and methodologies -, it is clear that most publications lean towards Positivism. There is some methodological diversity, though Qualitative Methods are prevalent, and examples of Quantitative/ Post-Positivist journals are inexistent. IR-exclusive titles, in turn, are predominantly Positivist and have a comparatively larger share of non-qualitative articles. Most journals have a balanced interest in different areas. From the six research areas, "International Institutions and Regimes", "International Security, Strategic Studies and Defense Policy" and "Regional Integration" attract the majority of titles.

Our findings are complementary to that of previous empirical researches that have also tried to characterize the IR field, although using other approaches, such as surveys and analyses of IR courses curricula. Froio (2012, 16) indicated an increase in "Security and Defense" analyses in Latin America. Additionally, Tickner (2013) identified Realism and Liberalism as the predominant paradigms studied in IR undergraduate courses in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, and Marxism as a minor current in Latin America (a second-tier theory, in our results); and notices a clear preference for qualitative over quantitative methods. She also underlined that "Regional Studies" are the most cited area of interest in the aforementioned countries (idem, 22), which is similar to our finding that "Regional Integration" is the second most frequent area in number of articles and the most frequent in number of matching terms. Though the author indicated a certain balance concerning the option on a positivist or post-positivist approach (idem, 26), our results show a clear predominance of positivist epistemology. Other studies on the IR field in individual South American countries also corroborate our findings (Merke 2005). Since we approached the IR field via the publication side, and not the education one, differences in the figures are expected and are actually quite illuminating on the congruities and discrepancies between what is taught and what gets published.

The findings of this paper do not reveal why South American IR looks like European and North American IR, as its aim was to offer a descriptive view, not an analytical one. Nevertheless, they show this similarity is real. Whether this likeness shows some improvement of IR theories developed in the region, it remains to be seen. It is not possible to evaluate what the data collected means for theory-building in a Lakatosian way (Elman and Elman 2003). A future research agenda should seek to investigate if this situation is a conscious option or, on the contrary, is the result of the incapacity to produce and maintain new epistemologies. A broader analysis, with a greater sample of journals from countries that had few titles matching our criteria in this study, such as Uruguay and Venezuela, could also increase the accuracy of the picture presented here.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7329201600104

Received: January 13, 2016

Accepted: March 7, 2016

Bibliographic references

Almeida, Paulo Roberto de. O estudo das relagoes internacionais do Brasil: um dialogo entre a diplomacia e a academia. Brasilia: LGE Editora, 2006.

Aronowitz, Stanley. "Science, objectivity and cultural studies." Critical Quarterly, 40, no. 2 (1998): 19-28.

Bedin, Gilmar Antonio. "O Realismo Politico e as Relates Internacionais: algumas reflexoes sobre o paradigma tradicional das relagoes internacionais." In Paradigmas das relagoes internacionais, edited by Gilmar Antonio Bedin et al, 61-158. Ijuf: Unijuf, 2000.

Bernal-Meza, Raul. America en el mundo: elpensamiento latinoamericano y la teoria de las relaciones internacionales. Buenos Aires, Grupo Editor Latinoamericano, 2005.

Brady, Henry E., David Collier (eds.). Rethinking social inquiry: diverse tools, shared standards. 2nd ed. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, 2010.

Brandao, Zaia. "Indagacao e convicao: fronteiras entre a ciencia e a ideologia." Cadernos de Pesquisa, 40, no. 141 (2010): 849-856.

Bulcourf, Pablo Alberto. "Algunas reflexiones sobre la ensenanza de la ciencia polftica en la Argentina." Postdata, no. 13 (2008): 225-242.

Carr, Edward. Vinte Anos de Crise: 1919-1939. Brasilia: Editora da UnB e Imprensa Oficial do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2001.

Cervo, Amado Luiz. "Conceitos em Relagoes Internacionais". Revista Brasileira de Politica Internacional, 51, no. 2 (2008): 8-25.

Chasquetti, Daniel. "Construyendo instituciones: examen de las asociaciones de Ciencia Polftica del Cono Sur." In La ciencia politica en Colombia: juna disciplina en institucionalizacion?, edited by Santiago Leyva Botero, 287-308. Medellin: Colciencias, Asociacion Colombiana de Ciencia Polftica, Centro de Analisis Politico-Universidad Eafit, 2013.

Cox, Robert W. "Social forces, states and world orders: beyond international relations theory." Millennium--Journal of International Studies, 10, no. 2 (1981): 126-155.

Daza, Javier Duque. "Tres momentos de la institucionalizacion de la ensenanza de la Ciencia Polftica en Colombia, 1968-2012." In La ciencia politica en Colombia: juna disciplina en institucionalizacion?, edited by Santiago Leyva Botero, 57-100. Medellin: Colciencias, Asociacion Colombiana de Ciencia Polftica, Centro de Analisis Politico-Universidad Eafit, 2013.

Der Derian, James. "The boundaries of knowledge and power in international relations." In International/Intertextual relations: postmodern readings of world politics, edited by James Der Derian and Michael J. Shapiro, 3-10. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1989.

Deutsch, Karl W. et al. Political community and the North Atlantic Area: international organization in the light of historical experience. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Diaz, Angel Alvarez; Antar, Said Dahdah. "La ciencia polftica en Venezuela: fortalezas pasadas y vulnerabilidades presentes." Revista de Ciencia Politica, 25, no. 1 (2005): 245-260.

Elman, Colin, Elman, Miriam Fendius. "Lessons from Lakatos", in C. Elman and M.F. Elman (eds.). Progress in International Relations Theory. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003.

Fernandez, Arturo; Guardamagna, Melina. "El desarrollo de la Ciencia Polftica en la Argentina." ALACIP, (2011). <http://www.alacip.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/ artaculo-cs-pol-argentina-para-alacip.pdf>. Accessed February 24, 2016.

Figueiredo Filho, Dalson Brito et al. "O que e, para que serve e como se faz uma meta-analise?" IX ENCONTRO DA ABCP, 4-7 August 2014. < http://www.encontroabcp2014.ciencia politica.org.br/resources/anais/14/1403747262_arquivo_abcp_metaanalise.pdf>. Accessed September 8, 2015.

Fortou, J. A. et al. "Ciencia Polftica en Colombia: una revision de la literatura sobre el estado e historia de la disciplina en el pais." In La ciencia politica en Colombia: juna disciplina en institucionalizacion?, edited by Santiago Leyva Botero, 163-188. Medellin: Colciencias, Asociacion Colombiana de Ciencia Polftica, Centro de Analisis Politico-Universidad Eafit, 2013.

Frankfurter, George M., Elton G. McGoun. "Ideology and the theory of financial economics." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 39 (1999): 159-177.

Froio, Liliana Ramalho. "O estado da arte das pesquisas em Relates Internacionais na America Latina." In 8[degrees] Encontro da Associagao Brasileira de Ciencia Politica (2012). <http://www. cienciapolitica.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/12_7_2012_21_22_3.pdf>. Accessed May 7, 2015.

FUNAG. "O que e o IPRI." <http://funag.gov.br/ipri/index.php/o-que-e-o-ipri>. Accessed May 6, 2015.

FUNAG. "Cursos de relates internacionais." <http://funag.gov.br/ipri/index.php/cursos-de-relacoes -internacionais>. Accessed May 6, 2015.

Fuentes, Claudio, Graciela Santana. "El 'boom' de la ciencia polftica en Chile: escuelas, mercado y tendencias."Revista de Ciencia Politica. 25, no. 1 (2005): 16-39.

Galeano, Eduardo. Las venas abiertas de America Latina. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 2009.

Gatica, Jose Viacava. "La Ciencia Polftica en Chile: una carrera en expansion y transformacion." Politica--Revista de Ciencia Politica, 50, no. 1 (2012): 93-110.

Gonzalez, Walter Sanchez. "Relaciones internacionales: de la clonacion a la creacion La mirada desde el Instituto de Estudios Internacionales de la Universidad de Chile (1966-2006)." Revista de Estudios Internacionales, 39, no. 155 (2006): 117-136.

Haas, Ernst B. The uniting of Europe: political, social and economic forces, 1950-1957. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958.

Henkin, Louis. How nations behave. Law and foreign policy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Hollis, Martin. The philosophy of social Science: an introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Hollis, Martin, Steve Smith. Explaining and understanding international relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Hurrell, Andrew. "How to Study Global IR?". Oral presentation. Department of Politics and International Relations-University of Oxford-11 to 12 May 2015.

Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus & Nexon, Daniel H. "Paradigmatic Faults in International Relations Theory", International Studies Quarterly 53, (2009): 907-930.

Keohane, Robert O. After hegemony: cooperation and discord in the world political economy. New York: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Keohane, Robert O., Joseph S. Nye Jr. Power and interdependence. 4thed. New York: Pearson, 2011.

Krasner, Stephen D. "Structural causes and regime consequences: regimes as intervening variables." International Organization, 36, no. 2 (1982): 185-205.

Kratochwil, Friedrich. Rules, norms and decisions: on the conditions of pratical and legal reasoning in international relations and domestic affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Lapid, Josef. "The third debate: on the prospects of international theory in a post-positivist era."International Studies Quarterly, 33, no. 3 (1989): 235-254.

Lebow, Richard Ned, Mark Irving Lichbach (eds.). Theory and evidence in comparative politics and international relations. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007.

Lessa, Antonio Carlos. "Institutes, atores e dinamicas do ensino e da pesquisa em Relates Internacionais no Brasil: o dialogo entre a historia, a ciencia polftica e os novos paradigmas de interpretacao (dos anos 90 aos nossos dias)." Revista Brasileira de Politica Internacional, 48, no. 2 (2005): 169-184.

Linklater, Andrew. "The Achievements of Critical Theory", in S. Smith, K. Booth e M. Zalewski (orgs.), International Theory: Positivism and Beyond. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Maliniak, Daniel, Susan Peterson, Michael J. Tierney. TRIP around the world: teaching, research, and policy views of international relations faculty in 20 countries. The Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations. 2012.The College of William and Mary. Williamsburg, Virginia

Martiniere, Guy. Les Ameriques latines. Grenoble: PUG, 1978.

Medeiros, Anny Karine de, Tamara Ilinsky Crantschaninov, Fernanda Cristina da Silva. "Estudos sobre accountability no Brasil: meta-analise de periodicos brasileiros das areas de administracao, administracao publica, ciencia polftica e ciencias sociais." Rev. Adm. Publica, 47, no. 3, (2013): 745-775.

Merke, Frederico. Relaciones Internacionales: el Estado de la Disciplina en la Argentina. Trabajo presentado en las Terceras Jornadas de Investigacion del IDICSO-USAL. 2005. <http://www. fts.uner.edu.ar/secretarias/academica/rev_plan_estudio_cp/ materiales_de_lectura/ciencia_politica/Ciencia_Politica_en_Argentina/11_Merke_F-El_Estado_ de_las_RRII_en_la_Argentina_2005.pdf>. Accessed February 24, 2016.

Miyamoto, Shiguenoli. "O estudo das relates internacionais no Brasil: o estado da arte." Revista de Sociologia e Politica, 12 (1999): 83-98.

Morgenthau, Hans. Politics Among Nations: the struggle for power and peace. 6thed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Nelson, John S. "Ashcraft's problem of ideology." The Journal of Politics, 42, no. 3 (1980): 709-715.

Nogueira, Joao Pontes &Messari, Nizar. Teoria das Relagoes Internacionais. Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 2005.

Onuf, Nicholas. World of our making: rules and rule in social theory and international relations. Columbia: Universityof South Carolina Press, 1989.

Rouquie, Alain. Amerique latine. Introduction a l'Extreme-Occident. Paris: Seuil, 1987.

SCIELO. Criterios, politica eprocedimentospara a admissao e a permanencia deperiodicos cientificos na Colegao SciELO Brasil. Sao Paulo: September 2014. <http://www.scielo.br/avaliacao/20l4l 003NovosCriterios_SciELO_Brasil.pdf>. Accessed August 26, 2015.

Salomon, Monica. "La teoria de relaciones internacionales en los albores del siglo XXI: dialogo, disidencia, aproximaciones." Revista CIDOB DAffairs Internacionales, no. 56 (2001): 7-52.

Schmidt, Brian C. "On the History and Historiography of International Relations", In W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse and B.A. Simmons (eds.). Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage, 2013.

Tickner, Arlene B. et al. "La ensenanza, Investigation y Politica Internacional (TRIP) en America Latina". BJIR, Marilia, 2, no. 1, (2013): 6-47.

Tickner, Arlene B. Los estudios internacionales en America Latina: subordination intelectual o pensamiento emancipatorio? Bogota: Universidad de los Andes, CESO, Departamento de Ciencia Politica: Alfaomega Colombiana, 2002.

Tinker, Anthony M., Barbara D. Merino, Marilyn Dale Neimark."The normative origins of positive theories: ideology and accounting thought."Accounting, Organizations and Society, 7, no. 2 (1982): 167-200.

Trifonas, Peter Pericles. "Deconstructing science." Cultural Studies of Science Education, 7 (2012): 1027-1036.

Weber, Max. Metodologia das ciencias sociais. Parte 1. 4a ed. Sao Paulo: Cortez Editora, 1973.

Wendt, Alexander. "Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics." International Organization, 46, no. 2 (1992): 391-425.

Wight, Colin. "Philosophy of Social Science and International Relations", in W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse and B.A. Simmons (eds.). Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage, 2013.

Marcelo de Almeida Medeiros Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Ciencia Politica, Recife-PE, Brazil. (mam14@uol.com.br)

ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0001-8385-03 58

Israel Barnabe Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Relagoes Internacionais, Aracaju-SE, Brazil. (israelbarnabe@gmail.com)

ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0880-1481

Rodrigo Albuquerque Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Relagoes Internacionais, Aracaju-SE, Brazil. (albuquerque.rodrigo@gmail.com)

ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2315-9095

Rafael Lima Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Ciencia Politica, Recife-PE, Brazil (rafaelmesquita_5688@hotmail.com)

ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0001-6042-1606

(1) We agree with Fernand Braudel when he says: "En verite, lAmerique latine nest une, avec une nettete aveuglante, que vue du dehors... Elle est une par contraste, par opposition, prise dans sa masse continentale, mais a condition d'opposer celle-ci aux autres continents, sans que cela l'empeche jamais, d'etre profondement divisee" (Braudel, 1949, apud Martiniere 1978, 41). In order to mitigate those differences, we opted to use the Latin America subset called South America.

(2) See Jackson and Nexon (2009).

(3) It is also worth pointing out that though there are not as many undergraduate IR courses at Colombian universities, IR is the second most relevant subject within the curricula of political science undergraduate courses in the country (Fortou et al. 2013).

(4) According to the Global Go To Think Tank Index (2014) published by the University of Pennsylvania

(5) For instance, Cox (1981) and Linklater (1996).

(6) See for instance Nelson (1980), Brandao (2010), Aronowitz (1998), Tinker, Merino, and Neimark (1982), Frankfurter and McGoun (1999) and Trifonas (2012).

(7) For the full list of admission standards of SciELO Brazil, see SCIELO (2014).

(8) The high quality of SciELO journals can be verified via a cross-reference with the Qualis index (available at http://qualis.capes.gov.br). The majority of the journals that make it to SciELO are ranked B2 and above (upper half of eight possible grades).

(9) The complete description of the reasons for choosing this period, the selection procedure applied to the journals, and method of analysis can be found on ResearchGate, "Methodological appendix to paper accepted for publication in RBPI--Revista Brasileira de Poli'tica Internacional, July 2016 edition", DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4441.2561.

(10) For a brief review of what is meta-analysis and its procedures, see Figueiredo Filho et al. (2014).

(11) For instance, Medeiros, Crantschaninov and Silva (2013).

(12) Our process of categorization sought to observe both what the Brazilian International Relations Association (ABRI) presents as the main subareas in International Relations and what the TRIP Survey (2012) presents as research methods.

(13) The full list of terms and context rules used for each category of this dictionary can be found in ResearchGate, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4441.2561.

(14) Jaccard's Index between two categories is calculated by WordStat as a/(a + b + c), in which a represents the number of cases where both items occur, and b and c represent cases where one item is found but not the other. Perfect similarity between two categories would yield 1, while no intersection between them would yield 0. This is a measure that allows one to interpret how similar are two groups of articles.

(15) It might sound strange to one who has not read these references. Schmidt, in particular, places Marxism under "positivism" and the English School under "post-positivism" regarding the theory's approach to materialism; as Marxism is essentially materialistic and the English School rejects it, they were placed under the labels presented.

(16) The sum is not equal to 100% as some articles made no mention to explicit theory.

(17) Not only in South America. As Sprinz and Wohlinsky-Nahmias (2004) argue, the history of quantitative methodology in IR is very similar to its history in political science, with very few adepts at the beginning, but with a consistent and growing body of knowledge on the long run.

(18) On this debate, although Soares (2005) sees a critical condition when he examines political science development and methodological training in Brazil, Barboza and Godoy (2014) show a much more optimistic ten-year scenario evolution, noting that several graduate programs have been teaching specific courses on methodology, most of them on its quantitative branch.

Caption: Figure 1-Theory frequency by country

Caption: Figure 2-Number of articles citing Dependency Theory

Caption: Figure 3-Positivism/Post-Positivism epistemic continuum

Caption: Figure 4-Number of articles citing a specific method (2006-2014)

Caption: Figure 5--Method frequency by country

Caption: Figure 6--Qualitative technique frequency per country

Caption: Figure 7-Area frequency per country

Caption: Figure 8-Scatter plot of 35 South American journals classified according to their epistemology (% of positivist articles) and method (% of qualitative methods)

Caption: Figure 9-Distribution of 35 South American journals according to predominant research area, epistemology and method
Table 1-List of all countries, journals and number of articles in
the corpus

COUNTRIES          JOURNALS           N. DOWNLOADED   % OF TOTAL
                                        ARTICLES       ARTICLES

ARGENTINA   TEMAS Y DEBATES                125          1.59%
            REVISTA SAAP                   110          1.40%
            CICLOS HIST. ECON. SOC.        35           0.45%
SUBTOTAL               3                   270          3.44%
BRAZIL      ESTUDOS AVANCADOS              561          7.14%
            REV. ESTUDOS FEMINIST.         448          5.70%
            REV. ECONOM. POLI'TICA         352          4.48%
            CADERNO CRH                    336          4.28%
            REV. DE SOCIOL. E POL.         318          4.05%
            VARIA HISTORIA                 300          3.82%
            HISTORIA                       299          3.81%
            REV. BRAS. CIENC. SOC.         292          3.72%
            SOCIOLOGIAS                    283          3.60%
            DADOS                          257          3.27%
            ECONOMIA E SOCIEDADE           227          2.89%
            REV. BRAS. POL. INT.           223          2.84%
            LUA NOVA                       215          2.74%
            REV. DE ECON. CONTEMP.         180          2.29%
            CONTEXTO INTERNAC.             147          1.87%
            BRAZ. POL. SCI. REVI.          97           1.23%
SUBTOTAL              16                  4535          57.72%
CHILE       POLIS                          540          6.87%
            REVISTA DE CIENCIA POL.        270          3.44%
            UNIVERSUM                      231          2.94%
            ESTUDIOS INTERNAC.             151          1.92%
            SI SOMOS AMERICANOS            101          1.29%
SUBTOTAL               5                  1293          16.46%
COLOMBIA    REV. ESTUDIOS SOCIALES         281          3.58%
            CIVILIZAR                      196          2.49%
            ANALISIS POLITICO              180          2.29%
            INTERNATIONAL LAW              172          2.19%
            INVESTIG. Y DESAROLLO          160          2.04%
            REV. REL. INT. ESTR.           157          2.00%
              Y SEG.
            COLOMBIA INTERNAC.             154          1.96%
            DESAFI'OS                      142          1.81%
            PAPEL POLITICO                 105          1.34%
SUBTOTAL               9                  1547          19.69%
URUGUAY     REV. URUG. CIENC. POL.         89           1.13%
SUBTOTAL               1                   89           1.13%
VENEZUELA   CUADERN. DEL CENDES            123          1.57%
SUBTOTAL               1                   123          1.57%
TOTAL                 35                  7857         100.00%

COUNTRIES          JOURNALS           N. ARTICLES W/   % OF TOTAL
                                      MATCHING TERMS    ARTICLES

ARGENTINA   TEMAS Y DEBATES                 59           1.62%
            REVISTA SAAP                    60           1.64%
            CICLOS HIST. ECON. SOC.         23           0.63%
SUBTOTAL               3                   142           3.89%
BRAZIL      ESTUDOS AVANGADOS              148           4.06%
            REV. ESTUDOS FEMINIST.         103           2.82%
            REV. ECONOM. POLI'TICA         118           3.23%
            CADERNO CRH                    130           3.56%
            REV. DE SOCIOL. E POL.         154           4.22%
            VARIA HISTORIA                  59           1.62%
            HISTORIA                        67           1.84%
            REV. BRAS. CIENC. SOC.          98           2.69%
            SOCIOLOGIAS                    102           2.80%
            DADOS                          118           3.23%
            ECONOMIA E SOCIEDADE           104           2.85%
            REV. BRAS. POL. INT.           220           6.03%
            LUA NOVA                       102           2.80%
            REV. DE ECON. CONTEMP.          71           1.95%
            CONTEXTO INTERNAC.             145           3.97%
            BRAZ. POL. SCI. REVI.           59           1.62%
SUBTOTAL              16                   1798          49.29%
CHILE       POLIS                          205           5.62%
            REVISTA DE CIENCIA POL.        172           4.71%
            UNIVERSUM                       68           1.86%
            ESTUDIOS INTERNAC.             118           3.23%
            SI SOMOS AMERICANOS             58           1.59%
SUBTOTAL               5                   621           17.02%
COLOMBIA    REV. ESTUDIOS SOCIALES          99           2.71%
            CIVILIZAR                       89           2.44%
            ANALISIS POLITICO              136           3.73%
            INTERNATIONAL LAW              151           4.14%
            INVESTIG. Y DESAROLLO           72           1.97%
            REV. REL. INT. ESTR.           135           3.70%
              Y SEG.
            COLOMBIA INTERNAC.             105           2.88%
            DESAFI'OS                       85           2.33%
            PAPEL POLITICO                  98           2.69%
SUBTOTAL               9                   970           26.59%
URUGUAY     REV. URUG. CIENC. POL.          59           1.62%
SUBTOTAL               1                    59           1.62%
VENEZUELA   CUADERN. DEL CENDES             58           1.59%
SUBTOTAL               1                    58           1.59%
TOTAL                 35                   3648         100.00%

Source: Elaborated by the authors.

Table 2-Overall frequency of theories

THEORY               NO. MATCHING    NO.    % CASES
                        TERMS       CASES

LIBERALISM              10421       1139    31.22%
REALISM                  9937        982    26.92%
CONSTRUCTIVISM           5444        467    12.80%
POST-MODERNISM/          2721        435    11.92%
  POST-COLONIALISM
MARXISM                  8702        424    11.62%
CRITICAL_THEORY          2191        368    10.09%
ENGLISH_SCHOOL           3734        357     9.79%
FEMINISM                 1532        152     4.17%

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 3-Theory frequency by country

THEORY               ARGENTINA   BRAZIL    CHILE    COLOMBIA

CONSTRUCTIVISM         7.10%     11.54%    9.31%     10.94%
CRITICAL_THEORY       11.48%     8.79%     8.97%     6.64%
ENGLISH_SCHOOL         3.83%     10.31%    6.38%     6.56%
FEMINISM               4.37%     2.84%     2.93%     4.75%
LIBERALISM            26.23%     26.00%   26.55%     26.55%
MARXISM               13.66%     8.70%    10.34%     10.63%
POST-MODERNISM/       14.21%     9.93%    10.86%     9.13%
  POST-COLONIALISM
REALISM               19.13%     21.89%   24.66%     24.81%

THEORY               URUGUAY   VENEZUELA

CONSTRUCTIVISM       10.61%      6.25%
CRITICAL_THEORY      22.73%      9.38%
ENGLISH_SCHOOL        4.55%      7.81%
FEMINISM              3.03%      3.13%
LIBERALISM           27.27%     26.56%
MARXISM               6.06%     15.63%
POST-MODERNISM/      12.12%     10.94%
  POST-COLONIALISM
REALISM              13.64%     20.31%

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 4-Overall frequency of methods

                        NO. MATCHING    NO.    % CASES
                           TERMS       CASES

QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS        645         226     6.20%
QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS       390         176     4.82%
MIXED_METHODS               144         55      1.51%
FORMAL_MODELS                24         15      0.41%

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 5-Method frequency by country

                ARGENTINA   BRAZIL   CHILE    COLOMBIA

FORMAL_MODELS       0       3.32%    4.00%     2.68%
MIXED_METHODS    18.75%     6.22%    10.00%    18.12%
QUALITATIVE      37.50%     52.28%   46.00%    44.97%
  _ANALYSIS
QUANTITATIVE     43.75%     38.17%   40.00%    34.23%
  _ANALYSIS

                 URUGUAY    VENEZUELA

FORMAL_MODELS    10.00%         0
MIXED_METHODS    20.00%      50.00%
QUALITATIVE      40.00%         0
  _ANALYSIS
QUANTITATIVE     30.00%      50.00%
  _ANALYSIS

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 6-Overall frequency of qualitative techniques

                       NO. MATCHING    NO.    % QUALI
                          TERMS       CASES    CASES

HISTORICAL_ANALYSIS        378         152    67.26%
DISCOURSE_ANALYSIS         171         50     22.12%
ETNOGRAPHY                  62         25     11.06%
HERMENEUTICS                33         13      5.75%
ANALYTIC_DESCRIPTION        4           4      1.77%
  /NARRATIVE

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 7-Qualitative technique frequency per country

                       ARGENTINA   BRAZIL   CHILE

ANALYTIC_DESCRIPTION     7.69%     0.28%      0
  /NARRATIVE
DISCOURSE_ANALYSIS      23.08%     29.48%   26.47%
ETNOGRAPHY              15.38%     11.02%     0
HERMENEUTICS               0       2.20%    14.71%
HISTORICAL_ANALYSIS     53.85%     57.02%   58.82%

                        COLOMBIA    URUGUAY

ANALYTIC_DESCRIPTION       0        16.67%
  /NARRATIVE
DISCOURSE_ANALYSIS       20.25%     16.67%
ETNOGRAPHY               12.03%      8.33%
HERMENEUTICS             4.43%      25.00%
HISTORICAL_ANALYSIS      63.29%     33.33%

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 8-Overall frequency of quantitative technique

                      NO. MATCHING    NO.    % QUANTI
                         TERMS       CASES    CASES

STATISTICAL_METHODS       156         44      25.00%
CONTENT_ANALYSIS           40         13      7.39%

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 9-Overall frequency of areas

                                    NO. MATCHING    NO.    % CASES
                                       TERMS       CASES

INSTITUTIONS_AND_INTERNATIONAL         15892       1878    51.48%
  _REGIMES
REGIONAL_INTEGRATION                   21891       1585    43.45%
SECURITY_STRATEGY_DEFENSE              20556       1270    34.81%
INTERNATIONAL_LAW                       9128       1044    28.62%
FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS                10570       1000    27.41%
HISTORY_OF_IR_AND_FOREIGN_POLICY        289         132     3.62%

Source: Elaborated by the authors

Table 10-Area frequency per country

                            ARGENTINA   BRAZIL   CHILE

FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS      19.25%     15.27%   15.20%
HISTORY_OF_IR_AND_            4.18%     2.38%    1.63%
  FOREIGN_POLICY
INSTITUTIONS_AND_            28.03%     27.64%   28.33%
  INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
INTERNATIONAL_LAW            10.46%     12.31%   13.03%
REGIONAL_INTEGRATION         22.59%     24.10%   25.52%
SECURITY_STRATEGY_DEFENSE    15.48%     18.31%   16.29%

                            COLOMBIA   URUGUAY   VENEZUELA

FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS      12.46%    12.50%     12.77%
HISTORY_OF_IR_AND_           1.18%      1.25%        0
  FOREIGN_POLICY
INSTITUTIONS_AND_            24.88%    38.75%     37.23%
  INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
INTERNATIONAL_LAW            21.42%    10.00%     11.70%
REGIONAL_INTEGRATION         19.76%    20.00%     27.66%
SECURITY_STRATEGY_DEFENSE    20.28%    17.50%     10.64%

Source: Elaborated by the authors


Table 11-Co-occurrence between theories, methods and areas for
all articles

                                             THEORIES

                                     CONSTRUCTIVISM   CRITICAL
                                                      _THEORY

           CONSTRUCTIVISM                  --            89
           CRITICAL_THEORY                 89            --
           ENGLISH_SCHOOL                 105            60
THEORIES   FEMINISM                        42            29
           LIBERALISM                     284           178
           MARXISM                        107           101
           POST--MODERNISM/POST           118            87
             --COLONIALISM
           REALISM                        266           154
           FORMAL_MODELS                   3             2
METHODS    MIXED_METHODS                   16            7
           QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS            71            45
           QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS           38            23
           FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS        241            97
           HIST ORY_OF_IR_AND_             34            13
             FOREIGN_POLICY
AREAS      INSTITUTIONS_AND_              318           167
             INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
           INTERNATIONAL_LAW              213           127
           REGIONAL_INTEGRATION           245           129
           SECURITY_STRATEGY_             299           155
             DEFENSE

                                                THEORIES

                                     ENGLISH   FEMINISM   LIBERALISM
                                     _SCHOOL

           CONSTRUCTIVISM              105        42         284
           CRITICAL_THEORY             60         29         178
           ENGLISH_SCHOOL              --         31         195
THEORIES   FEMINISM                    31         --          94
           LIBERALISM                  195        94          --
           MARXISM                     78         54         325
           POST--MODERNISM/POST        65         56         241
             --COLONIALISM
           REALISM                     180        73         619
           FORMAL_MODELS                2         1           14
METHODS    MIXED_METHODS                7         11          37
           QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS        43         35         146
           QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS       27         17         107
           FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS     155        69         599
           HIST ORY_OF_IR_AND_         32         14          88
             FOREIGN_POLICY
AREAS      INSTITUTIONS_AND_           205        94         811
             INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
           INTERNATIONAL_LAW           147        84         546
           REGIONAL_INTEGRATION        174        73         654
           SECURITY_STRATEGY_          209       116         785
             DEFENSE

                                              THEORIES

                                     MARXISM   POST--MODERNISM/
                                               POST--COLONIALISM

           CONSTRUCTIVISM              107           118
           CRITICAL_THEORY             101            87
           ENGLISH_SCHOOL              78             65
THEORIES   FEMINISM                    54             56
           LIBERALISM                  325           241
           MARXISM                     --            146
           POST--MODERNISM/POST        146            --
             --COLONIALISM
           REALISM                     263           198
           FORMAL_MODELS                3             4
METHODS    MIXED_METHODS               17             17
           QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS        87             86
           QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS       41             35
           FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS     191           130
           HIST ORY_OF_IR_AND_         46             26
             FOREIGN_POLICY
AREAS      INSTITUTIONS_AND_           268           230
             INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
           INTERNATIONAL_LAW           197           171
           REGIONAL_INTEGRATION        217           154
           SECURITY_STRATEGY_          344           245
             DEFENSE

                                     THEORIES       METHODS

                                     REALISM    FORMAL_   MIXED_
                                                MODELS    METHODS

           CONSTRUCTIVISM              266         3        16
           CRITICAL_THEORY             154         2         7
           ENGLISH_SCHOOL              180         2         7
THEORIES   FEMINISM                     73         1        11
           LIBERALISM                  619        14        37
           MARXISM                     263         3        17
           POST--MODERNISM/POST        198         4        17
             --COLONIALISM
           REALISM                      --         9        28
           FORMAL_MODELS                9         --         2
METHODS    MIXED_METHODS                28         2        --
           QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS        130         3        14
           QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS        83         6         9
           FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS     522         5        22
           HIST ORY_OF_IR_AND_          94         0         2
             FOREIGN_POLICY
AREAS      INSTITUTIONS_AND_           641         9        41
             INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
           INTERNATIONAL_LAW           472         5        33
           REGIONAL_INTEGRATION        523         4        26
           SECURITY_STRATEGY_          702        11        37
             DEFENSE

                                              METHODS

                                     QUALITATIVE   QUANTITATIVE
                                      _ANALYSIS     _ANALYSIS

           CONSTRUCTIVISM                71             38
           CRITICAL_THEORY               45             23
           ENGLISH_SCHOOL                43             27
THEORIES   FEMINISM                      35             17
           LIBERALISM                    146           107
           MARXISM                       87             41
           POST--MODERNISM/POST          86             35
             --COLONIALISM
           REALISM                       130            83
           FORMAL_MODELS                  3             6
METHODS    MIXED_METHODS                 14             9
           QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS          --             30
           QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS         30             --
           FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS       99             74
           HIST ORY_OF_IR_AND_           39             11
             FOREIGN_POLICY
AREAS      INSTITUTIONS_AND_             131           115
             INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
           INTERNATIONAL_LAW             101            80
           REGIONAL_INTEGRATION          93             84
           SECURITY_STRATEGY_            165           126
             DEFENSE

                                         METHODS

                                        FOREIGN_
                                     POLICY_ANALYSIS

           CONSTRUCTIVISM                  241
           CRITICAL_THEORY                 97
           ENGLISH_SCHOOL                  155
THEORIES   FEMINISM                        69
           LIBERALISM                      599
           MARXISM                         191
           POST--MODERNISM/POST            130
             --COLONIALISM
           REALISM                         522
           FORMAL_MODELS                    5
METHODS    MIXED_METHODS                   22
           QUALITATIVE_ANALYSIS            99
           QUANTITATIVE_ANALYSIS           74
           FOREIGN_POLICY_ANALYSIS         --
           HIST ORY_OF_IR_AND_             112
             FOREIGN_POLICY
AREAS      INSTITUTIONS_AND_               680
             INTERNATIONAL_REGIMES
           INTERNATIONAL_LAW               457
           REGIONAL_INTEGRATION            648
           SECURITY_STRATEGY_              654
             DEFENSE

Source: Elaborated by the authors
COPYRIGHT 2016 Instituto Brasileiro de Relacoes Internacionais
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Articulo en ingles
Author:Medeiros, Marcelo de Almeida; Barnabe, Israel; Albuquerque, Rodrigo
Publication:Revista Brasileira de Politica
Article Type:Ensayo
Date:Jan 1, 2016
Words:11292
Previous Article:The European union and the member states: two different perceptions of border.
Next Article:Contemporary Latin American thinking on international relations: theoretical, conceptual and methodological contributions.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |