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What can graham flour do for breads and muffins?

What can graham flour do for breads and muffins?

Back in the 1800s, Sylvester Graham--a strong advocate of healthful living--introduced a radically new flour made using the entire wheat kernel. Originally, graham flour was less finely milled (ground) and coarser in texture than regular whole-wheat flour. But as interest in the flavor and nutritional value of whole-grain flours has increased, the precise distinction between graham flour and whole-wheat flour has blurred. You may find that your market carries graham flour, whole-wheat flour that's also labeled graham, or just whole-wheat flour. The first two will usually be coarser in texture than the last, but all three can be used interchangeably. We take advantage of the distinctive toasted flavor of graham or whole-wheat flour in three breads: two quickly leavened by baking powder, and one more slowly lightened by yeast. The sturdy muffins, made with graham flour only, are dotted with tart bites of dried apricot. The loaf, studded with bits of chocolate, is more tender because it contains part all-purpose flour. Both these breads are good with butter or cream cheese for breakfast; or offer them as a mid- or late-day snack with tea or coffee. The yeast bread is a hearty mix of graham flour, cornmeal, and all-purpose flour; slices are particularly good toasted.

Apricot Graham Muffins

1 1/2 cups graham or whole-wheat flour
1/2 cup toasted wheat germ
3 tablespoons granulated sugar
2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup chopped dried apricots
1/2 cup chopped pecans or walnuts
5 tablespoons butter or margarine,
 melted and cooled
2 large eggs
1 cup unflavored yogurt

About 3 tablespoons firmly packed

brown sugar

In a bowl, mix graham flour, wheat germ, granulated sugar, baking powder, soda, apricots, and nuts. In another bowl, beat to blend butter, eggs, and yogurt; add to dry mixture and stir just until moistened. Spoon batter into well-greased 2 1/2-inch muffin-pan cups, filling to the rim. Sprinkle brown sugar evenly over each muffin. Bake in a 375 [degrees] oven until edges are golden brown and center is firm to touch, about 20 minutes. Let cool slightly, then tip muffins out of pan. Serve warm, or cool on racks. If made ahead, store cool muffins airtight and hold at room temperature until next day; freeze to keep longer (thaw wrapped). To reheat, wrap a single layer of muffins in foil and place in a 325 [degrees] oven until hot, about 10 minutes. Makes about 12.--Ayako Hill, Sacramento. Per muffin: 206 cal.; 5.9 g protein; 10 g fat; 25 g carbo.; 218 mg sodium; 60 mg chol.

Graham and Chocolate Loaf
2 cups graham or whole-wheat flour
1 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup (6-oz. package) semisweet
 chocolate baking chips or raisins
1/2 cup chopped almonds or walnuts
1/2 cup firmly packed brown sugar

1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 large eggs

1 1/2 cups buttermilk In a large bowl, mix graham flour, all-purpose flour, chocolate, nuts, sugar, soda, and salt. In a small bowl, beat eggs and buttermilk to blend; add to dry ingredients, stirring until moistened. Pour batter into a buttered 5- by 9-inch loaf pan. Bake in a 350 [degrees] oven until edges begin to pull from pan sides and toothpick inserted in center of loaf comes out clean, about 1 hour. Let cool in pan 10 minutes. Tip bread out of pan and let cool on a rack. Slice to serve; if made ahead, store loaf airtight at room temperature up to 3 days; freeze to store longer (thaw wrapped). Makes 1 loaf, about 2 1/2 pounds. Per ounce: 80 cal.; 2.2 g protein; 2.8 g fat; 13 g carbo.; 73 mg sodium; 14 mg chol.

Graham and Cornmeal Yeast Bread

2 packages active dry yeast

1 1/2 cups warm water (110 [degrees])
1 cup evaporated milk
2 tablespoons honey
1 tablespoon salad oil
1 teaspoon salt

About 3 cups all-purpose flour

2 cups graham or whole-wheat flour

1 1/2 cups yellow cornmeal

1 large egg, beaten to blend

In a large bowl, sprinkle yeast over the water; let stand until yeast is softened, about 5 minutes. Add milk, honey, oil, salt, and 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour. Beat mixture with a heavy spoon until dough is well mixed and slightly stretchy. Add graham flour and cornmeal; mix with spoon until ingredients are moistened. Cover bowl with plastic wrap and let stand in a warm place until dough doubles in volume, about 1 1/2 hours. To knead with a dough hook, beat on high speed until dough no longer sticks to bowl, about 10 minutes; add remaining all-purpose flour as required. To knead by hand, scrape dough onto a board coated with remaining all-purpose flour. Knead until dough is elastic and no longer sticky, about 10 minutes. Divide kneaded dough in half. Shape each piece into a 6-inch round and place each on an oiled 12- by 15-inch baking sheet. Cover lightly with plastic wrap and let rise in a warm place until puffy, about 30 minutes. Remove plastic and brush loaves with egg. Bake loaves in a 350 [degrees] oven until richly browned, 45 to 50 minutes. (If using 1 oven, switch pan positions after 25 minutes.) Cool loaves on racks; serve warm or cool. If made ahead, wrap cool loaves airtight and hold at room temperature up until next day; freeze to store longer (thaw wrapped). Makes 2 loaves, each about 1 1/2 pounds. Per ounce: 73 cal.; 2.3 g protein; 1 g fat; 14 g carbo.; 53 mg sodium; 7.2 mg chol.

PHOTO : Graham or whole-wheat flour imparts toasty flavor, hearty texture to round yeast bread

PHOTO : with cornmeal, muffins with apricots, loaf with chocolate
COPYRIGHT 1990 Sunset Publishing Corp.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1990 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Title Annotation:recipes
Date:Apr 1, 1990
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