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What are the most important factors determining different vegetation types in the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil?/ Quais sao os fatores mais importantes na determinacao de diferentes tipos de vegetacao na Chapada Diamantina, Brasil?

1. Introduction

The Chapada Diamantina, the northern extension of the Serra of the Espinhaco Range in Brazil, is included within the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil and hosts a large diversity of vegetation types associated with its physiographic spectrum, including cerrado (neotropical savanna), campo rupestre (open, rocky field grasslands), forest, and caatinga (seasonally dry tropical forest thorny, deciduous shrub/arboreal vegetation) (Harley, 1995; Junca et al., 2005).

A number of floristic studies have already been undertaken in the Chapada Diamantina, including those considering: campo rupestre (Conceicao et al., 2007; Neves and Conceicao, 2010), cerrado (Costa et al., 2009), caatinga (Lima and Lima, 1998), submontane seasonal semi-deciduous forest, upper montane forest, and gallery forest (Funch et al., 2008; Nascimento et al., 2010; Couto et al., 2011). Rapid ecological surveys of diverse vegetation types have also been undertaken (Harley et al., 2005; Junca et al., 2005; Funch et al., 2009), although most of the studies considered only be shrub-arboreal layer and/or made collections on irregular schedules.

Funch et al. (2009) published a vegetation map of the Chapada Diamantina National Park and the surrounding region describing vegetation types, based on Harley (1995), and associated with different soil types distributed contiguously within a relatively limited area. In light of the intriguingly close dispositions of different vegetation types under apparently identical macro-climatic conditions, we investigated cerrado and caatinga vegetation sites and their ecotone along an E-W transect just west of the National Park to contribute to our understanding of the phytogeography of Brazil.

Our study focused on the floristic compositions of the herbaceous-subshrub and shrub-arboreal layers, life forms, rainfall, and soil properties in addressing the question of which factors are most important in defining the cerrado and caatinga vegetation along this transect.

We hypothesized that variations in the physiognomy, floristic compositions, and structures of natural ecosystems could occur due to variations in the chemical and physical properties of their soils (Haridasan, 2000; Amorim and Batalha, 2006; Juhasz et al., 2007; Silva et al., 2013), and that permeability and the proportions of fine particles would be the parameters most closely associated with species richness (Medinski et al., 2010). We also considered that: 1) climatic factors have a decisive role in determining species and plant community distributions (Terradas, 2001; Lavers and Field, 2006); 2) water availability is one of the principal determinants of vegetation cover (Silva and Batalha, 2008; Cianciaruso and Batalha, 2009), and; 3) life forms are important elements in vegetation descriptions (Raunkiaer, 1934).

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Study area

The Chapada Diamantina National Park has a much accentuated topography of low mountains with rocky peaks and steep slopes, narrow valleys with extensive plains to the west that are separated by long chains of hog-back mountains. Altitudes in the region vary from 400 to more than 2,000 m a.s.l. The isolated peaks and extended mountain chains have extensive rock outcrops and litholic neosols (thin, rocky soils of low fertility), while soils on the intermediary plains are predominantly latosols (deep, well-drained, acidic, with low fertility) (Junca et al., 2005).

The regional climate is mesothermic (Cwb) (Koppen, 1948), with average monthly temperatures varying between 18 and 25 [degrees]C, with the lowest temperatures occurring during driest months. The average annual precipitation is 1,218 mm (for the period between 1951-2011). The rainy season usually begins in November and extends until March, while the dry season initiates in June and continues until October (Junca et al., 2005).

The present study was conducted in two vegetation types: cerrado, represented by three local physiognomies (two sites of open cerrado-OP, rocky outcrop cerrado - ROC, and typical cerrado-TC) and caatinga (CAA). The cerrado-caatinga transition (CCT) between of these both vegetation types also was sampled (Table 1). These vegetation are contiguously distributed along a 10 Km E-W transect sampled (12[degrees] 26' 05" S to 12[degrees] 27' 7" S to 41[degrees] 31' 05" W to 41[degrees] 35' 52" W) just west of the Chapada Diamantina National Park in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. The phytophysiognomies of cerrado are included in cerrado stricto sensu (Ribeiro and Walter, 2008). Caatinga is characterized by a predominance of low shrubs and trees that are highly branched, often spiny, and deciduous in the dry season (Pennington et al., 2009).

2.2. Floristic composition and life forms

The vegetation types were selected along a 10 Km east-west transect based on the vegetation map of Funch et al. (2009) and identified in the field as distinct areas of well-conserved cerrado and caatinga. We established ninety 100 [m.sup.2] plots (15in each of the four vegetation types examined: the two types of cerrado, the cerrado/caatinga transition, and caatinga) for a total of 0.9 ha. Plant collections were performed monthly in all sites from April/2009 to March/2012 of both fertile and sterile plant material of herbaceous-subshrub and shrub-arboreal species (this period included three rainy seasons and three dry seasons). The voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of the State University at Feira of Santana (HUEFS) and identified with the aid of specialists and by comparison with previously identified material. The classifications of the plant families followed the proposal of the APG III (2009).

The life forms of the specimens were classified according to Raunkiaer (1934), excluding epiphytes and considering succulents separately from phanerophytes. The proportions of herbaceous-subshrub/shrub-arboreal (epiphytes, succulents, chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, and therophytes /phanerophytes) species were calculated for each of the vegetation types, for cerrado-caatinga transition, and for the different cerrado physiognomies. The importance values (IV) of the herbaceous-subshrub species (the sum of coverage and relative frequency) and shrub-arboreal layer (the sum of the density, dominance and relative frequency) were used to identify the five most important species of each layer in each vegetation type (Neves, 2013).

2.3. Rain fall and soils properties

Rainfall gauges were installed in each vegetation type and in the ecotone. Monthly precipitations levels were measured between January/2010 and March/2012 (Figure 1). Three composite soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in each vegetation type and in the ecotone. Each composite sample was taken by mixing soils from three random points, totaling 18 composite samples (12 in the cerrado, three in the caatinga and three in the cerrado-caatinga transition). The physical and chemical properties of these samples were analyzed in an agricultural laboratory (Embrapa Semi-Arido-PE), according Donagema et al. (2011).

2.4. Statistical analyses

To determine the floristic similarities between the cerrado, caatinga and ecotone sites (considering the different cerrado physiognomies), clustering analysis was performed based on their Jaccard similarity (JS) as derived from a binary matrix, using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) run on Past software (Hammer et al., 2001). The cut-off used in this study was 25% following Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg (1974). We compared the proportions of species in each life form class among the different vegetation types and the three cerrado physiognomies using the chi-square test ([chi square]). The average values and standard errors of each physical and chemical component of the soils in the different vegetation types were calculated and simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to detect statistical differences between them, utilizing Sisvar software (Ferreira, 2000). The Tukey test (P<0.05) was used to compare the observed averages. The rainfall indices in the vegetation areas were compared using the chi-square test ([chi square]).

3. Results

3.1. Floristic composition

The numbers of species, genera and families, as well as the proportions of monocotyledons and eudicotyledon species, and the ratio of herbaceous-subshrub/shrub-arboreal species of cerrado phytophysiognomies, caatinga vegetation and cerrado-caatinga transition are presented in Table 1. A total of 323 species of angiosperms belonging to 193 genera and 54 families were encountered (Appendix), with 253 species (78%) occurring in only one of the vegetation types, 68 species (21%) in two types, and only four species (1%; Casearia sylvestris [Salicaceae], Croton heliotropiifolius [Euphorbiaceae], Panicum sp. [Poaceae] and Syagrus sp. [Arecaceae]) occurring in all sampled vegetation. Of the 325 of species, 260 species (80%) were eudicotyledons and 65 (20%) monocotyledons. The cerrado vegetation type showed the greatest richness (190 spp.; 58%) (Appendix). The cerrado and cerrado-caatinga transition shared 57 (18%) species belonging to 20 families (37%) and 43 genera (22%). The cerrado-caatinga transition and the caatinga shared 15 (5%) species belonging to 10 (19%) families and 15 (8%) genera. The families more rich in species are in the Table 1.

3.2. Life forms

The floristic spectra of life forms in the sampled vegetation are presented in Figure 2. Chi-Square tests indicated significant differences in the percentages of chamaephytes, therophytes and phanerophytes species between the caatinga and the cerrado, and between the caatinga and the cerrado-caatinga transition areas. Significant statistical differences (using the same test) were also noted between the cerrado (except the rocky outcrop cerrado) and caatinga, and between the cerrado and the cerrado-caatinga transition for the hemicryptophyte.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

3.3. Similarities

The dendrogram demonstrated strong difference between the floristic compositions of the cerrado and caatinga, sharing 2% of similarity (Figure 3). Caatinga is the most distinct physiognomy and the cerrado-caatinga transition area is more similar with cerrado (24%). The cerrado physiognomies form a coherent group with 39% similarity.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

3.4. Rainfall and soil properties

The chi-square test did not demonstrate any significant statistical differences between the monthly values of recorded rainfall. The average values and standard errors of the physical-chemical parameters of the soils of each vegetation type and the different cerrado phytophysiognomies are presented in Table 2. The cerrado soil was predominately sandy, while cerrado-caatinga transition and caatinga areas were sandy clay loams. The soils in all of the vegetation types were dystrophic (base saturation < 50%), acidic (pH < 5, except in the open cerrado, site I) and had relatively low Al contents (Al < 1.3 cmol/[dm.sup.3], except in the cerrado-caatinga transition) and with exchangeable retention capacities less than 13, with high H+ e Al+3 loads.

4. Discussion

The cerrado and caatinga vegetation sites as well as their transition, were well delimited in terms of their floristic compositions, life form spectra and soil properties. The cerrado vegetation demonstrated plant communities with ample varieties of three-dimensional structures and spatial heterogeneities, as reflected in the three different phytophysiognomies identified. Pennington et al. (2009) noted that cerrado vegetation physiognomies can be found under the same (or slightly more humid) climatic conditions as seasonal tropical dry forests, and that these vegetation types are often be found relatively close to one another.

Changes in the floristic compositions of the cerrado, cerrado-caatinga transition, and caatinga were accompanied by changes in the proportions of total sand, clay, and organic matter of their soils. Although high species-richness is often found in ecotone areas due to their greater environmental heterogeneity (Rodrigues and Nave, 2000), the transition zone studied here was less richness than the cerrado and caatinga surveyed. It is probable that the environmental conditions in that area are more rigorous and limit the occurrence of larger numbers of species (Mota et al., 2011).

The cerrado-caatinga transition area shared a greater percentage of species with the cerrado (approximately 70%) than with the caatinga (approximately 16%), indicating a high floristic similarity between them. More than 50% of the life forms shared between these two sites were therophytes --thus making essentially insignificant contributions to the overall differences in physiognomies between those vegetation types. Approximately 60% of the species shared by these two vegetation types were phanerophytes, which demonstrated deciduousness as a strategy to reduce water losses during the dry period (Neves, 2013).

The best represented life-form in the cerrado vegetation studied here was that of therophytes-a situation different from other cerrado sensu stricto areas that generally show high proportions of phanerophytes (Batalha and Martins, 2004; Costa et al., 2004). Phanerophytes were the most representative life forms in the caatinga vegetation studied - which was also different from the findings of Costa et al. (2007) in shrub caatinga communities growing in "warm and low latitude and altitude steppe climates (Bsh, according to the Koppen (1948) system)" that were well-represented by therophytes. While the principal strategy used in Caatinga phytoclimates to avoid water loss during the dry season is a predominance of therophytes, the caatinga studied here adapted a phanerophyte strategy of leaf-fall (Larcher, 2000).

The systematic collections undertaken in the present study, which covered three rainy seasons, three dry seasons, and three intermediate seasons, may have been responsible for the contrast between our life form data and those of studies by Batalha and Martins (2004) and Costa et al. (2004, 2009) who all made shorter and less frequent collections. Batalha and Martins (2004) noted that species whose buds are not exposed to the open air (i.e. hemicryptophytes, cryptophytes, and therophytes) tend to be under-represented among collections undertaken during just a single period. Consecutive collections during a 36 month period (in the present study) allowed for ample sampling of the floristic composition.

No significant differences were observed between the three different cerrado phytophysiognomies in terms of their soil properties (principally in relation to physical parameters) and their respective floristic spectrums of life forms. Dantas and Batalha (2011) encountered relationships between edaphic conditions and floristic composition and richness in a fine-scale study of a cerrado area. Marimon Junior and Haridasan (2005) noted that soil fertility did not support the hypothesis of the contiguous occurrence of cerradao vegetation and cerrado sensu stricto vegetation. The same authors reported that the greater percentage of clay in the cerradao site allowed the establishment of greater densities of trees due to greater soil-water availability. Ruggiero et al. (2002) reported that campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto and cerradao could not be distinguished based on soil chemical parameters. The greater species richness and densities of shrub-arboreal individuals in the typical cerrado site in the present study appeared to be associated with the greater proportions of clay and organic material there that would presumably increase water retention, aid the growth of soil microorganisms, and increase nutrient availability for plant growth (Motta et al., 2002). The presence of blocks of stone in the rocky outcrop cerrado, the occurrence of wild-fires in the typical cerrado, and the densities of arboreal individuals and the interactions between different species in each phytophysiognomy appear to be factors generating the distinct cerrado phytophysiognomies.

While low precipitation levels (less than 700 mm/year) concentrated into as few as three consecutive months during the summer in the southern hemisphere and associated with average temperatures of 26 [degrees]C (Nimer, 1989) are considered typical conditions for the establishment of caatinga vegetation (Andrade-Lima, 1981; Sampaio, 1995), rainfall was not a useful factor for delimiting cerrado and caatinga vegetation, such as their transition, in the present study. The soil-water relationships in these vegetation sampled may be influenced by their respective proportions of total sand and clay, because although the cerrado-caatinga transition and caatinga sites had rainfall levels slightly less than that of the cerrado, the water retentions of their soils would presumably be greater due to their larger proportions of clay and organic matter-thus favoring the establishment of greater plant abundances and species richnesses in the shrub-arboreal layer (Motta et al., 2002).

This study demonstrates that the floristic compositions, floristic life form spectra, and the heterogeneity of the soil were elements that delimited cerrado, cerrado-caatinga transition, and caatinga. The soil was the principal conditioning factor determining the different vegetation types, independent of precipitation levels. As the organic matter and clay contents of the soil increased and the percentages of sand decreased the proportions of therophytes, hemicryptophytes and chamaephytes diminished, while phanerophytes increased. The importance of edaphic conditions, and not just the scarcity and irregularity of rainfall, as is usually supposed, must be considered as a factor in establishing caatinga vegetation.

It must also be emphasized that no single variable determined the occurrence of each vegetation type, but rather the interactions between them. Species interactions themselves likewise influence the establishment of vegetation formations, as species richness depends on a mix of factors that can alter the effects of other variables.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.13814

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico for financing this research project (CNPq 480508/2008-09) and for the productivity grants to the third and final authors, and the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB 5303/2009) and the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior for the doctoral study grant awarded to the first author.

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TERRADAS, J., 2001. Ecologia de la vegetacionde la ecofisiologia de las plantas a la dinamica de comunidades y paisajes. Espana: Editorial Omega. 703 p.
Appendix. Species list in the vegetation types and cerrado
physiognomies, such as in the cerrado-caatinga transition, Chapada
Diamantina, NE Brazil.

                   Species                      Voucher   LF   OP I

Acanthaceae

Ruellia incomta Lindau                            230     Ch    x
Thyrsacanthusramosissimus (Moric.)                229     H
VM.Baum

Agavaceae

Herreria sp.                                              Th

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera cf. brasiliana Kuntze               327     Th    x
Gomphrena agrestis Mart.                          214     Th    x
Gomphrena mollis Mart.                            202     Th
Pfaffia acutifolia O. Stutzer                             Th

Anacardiaceae

Astronium sp.                                             Ph
Spondias sp.                                      439     Ph

Annonaceae

Annona coriacea Mart.                             199     Ph    x
Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Saff.           210     Ch    x

Apocynaceae

Blepharodon nitidum (Vell.) Macbr.                397     Th
Ditassa retusa Mart.                              231     Ph
Hancornia speciosa Gomez                          265     Ph    x
Oxypetalum capitatum Mart.                        433     Th    x
cf. Prestonia coalita (Vell.) Woodson                     Th
Secondatia floribunda A.DC.                               Th

Araceae

Philodendron lundii Warm.                                 H

Arecaceae

Syagrus sp.                                               Ph

Asteraceae

Acanthospermum australe Kuntze                            Ch    x
Aspilia hispidantha H. Rob.                       398     Th    x
Calea harleyi H.Rob.                              377     Ch    x
Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC.) R.M. King &      381     Ch    x
  H. Rob.
Chaptaliaintegerrima (Vell.) Burkart              302     Th    x
Chaptalia sp. 2                                           Th    x
Chromolaena sp.                                   301     Th    x
Elephantopus hirtiflorus DC.                      376     H     x
Eremanthus capitatus (Spreng.) MacLeish           383     Ph
Lasiolaena blanchetti (Baker) R.M.King &          379     Th
  H. Rob.
Lepidaploa chalybaea (Mart. ex. DC.) H.Rob.       375     Ch    x
Lepidaploa cotoneaster Willd ex. Spreng.          374     Ch    x
Platypodanthera melissifolia (DC.) R.M.King       473     Th
& H. Rob.
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.                384     Th
Stilpnopappus tomentosus Gardner                  380     Th    x
Trichogonia salviifolia Gardner                   473     Th
Tridax procumbens L                               474     Th    x

Bignoniaceae

Arrabidaea selloi (Spreng.)                               Ph
Bignonia binata Thunb.                            457     Ph
Bignonia convolvuloides (Bureau &                 466     Ph
K.Schum.) L.G.Lohmann
Bignonia erubescens S.Moore                               Ph
Fridericia chica (Bonpl.) L.G.Lohmann             465     Ph
Fridericia cinerea (Bureau ex K.Schum.)           308     Ph
  L.G.Lohmann
Fridericiaplatyphylla (Cham.) L.G.Lohmann         313     Ph
Mansoa hirsuta DC.                                        Ph
Neojobertia candolleana Bureau & K.Schum.                 Ph
Proterantha glandulosa A.H. Gentry                310     Ph
Tabebuia spongiosa Rizzini                        463     Ph
Bignoniaceae 1                                            Ph
Bignoniaceae 2                                            Ph
Bignoniaceae 3                                            Ph
Bignoniaceae 4                                            Ph
Bignoniaceae 5                                            Ph
Bignoniaceae 6                                            Ph

Boraginaceae

Cordia cf. rufescens A.DC.                        24      Ch
Varronia leucomalloides (Taroda) J.S.Mill         410     Th
HeliotropiumscorpioidesWilld. ex Roem. &          246     Th    x
  Schult.

Bromeliaceae

Billbergia porteana Brongn. ex. Beer              469     H
Cryptanthus sp.                                   343     H
Hohenbergia cf. caatingae var. eximbricata        470     Cr
L.B. Smith & Read
Neoglaziovia variegata Mez                        342     H
Tillandsia loliacea Mart. Ex Schult.f.                    Ep
Tillandsia streptocarpa Baker                             Ep
Tillandsia cf. tenuifolia L.                      309     Ep

Burseraceae

Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart.) J.B. Gillett      462     Ph

Cactaceae

Arrojadoa penicillata (Gurke) Britton & Rose      471     Su
Cereus albicaulis Luetzelb.                               Su
Species                                         Voucher   LF   OP I
Pilosocereus glaucochrous (Werderm.) Blyles               Su
  & G.D.Rowley
Stephanocereus leucostele A.Berger                        Su
Tacinga funalisBritton & Rose                             Su
Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose)                        Su
N.P.Taylor & Stuppy
Tacinga werneri (Eggli) N.P.Taylor & Stuppy               Su

Capparaceae

Cynophalla flexuosa (L.) J.Pres                           Ph
Cynophalla jacobinaeMoric. ex Eichler                     Ph
Neocalyptrocalyx longifolium (Mart.)                      Ph
X.Cornejo & H.H.Iltis

Caricaceae

Jacaratia corumbensis Kuntze                              Ph
Caricaceae 1                                              Ph

Combretaceae

Terminalia sp.                                            Ph

Commelinaceae

Commelina erecta L.                               200     Th

Convolvulaceae

Bonamia burchellii Hallier f.                     369     Ph
Evolvulus elegans Moric.                          314     Ch
Evolvulus elaeagnifolius Dammer                   311     Th
Evolvulus glomeratus Choisy                       227     Ch    x
Ipomoea subtomentosa (Chodat & Hassl.)            221     Ph    x
  O'Donell
Jacquemontiaagrestis Meisn.                       209     Ch    x
Jacquemontia montana Meisn.                       226     Ph    x
Jacquemontia nodiflora G.Don                      370     Ph

Cyperaceae

Bulbostylis capillaris Nees                       442     H     x
Bulbostylis fasciculata Cherm.                    315     H     x
Bulbostylis junciformis C.B.Clarke.               316     H     x
Cyperus agregatus (Willd.) Endl.                  317     Th    x
Rhynchospora sp.                                  351     H     x
Cyperaceae                                        444     Th

Ericaceae

Agarista cf. chapadensis (Kin.-Gouv.) Judd        332     Ph
Gaylussacia brasiliensis Meisn.                   232     Ch

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum betulaceum Mart.                     335     Ch
Erythroxylum oxypetalum O.E. Schulz               338     Ph
ErythroxylumsuberosumA.St.-Hill.                  339     Ch    x
Erythroxylum sp.                                          Ch

Euphorbiaceae

Actinostemonconcolor Mul.Arg.                     271     Ph
Actinostemonsp.                                           Ph
Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg.                     236     Ch
Croton argyrophyllus Kunth                                Ch
Croton compressus Lam.                                    Ph
Croton echioideus Baill.                          329     Ph
Croton glandulosus L.                                     Th
Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth.                   234     Ph
Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales & P.E.        331     Ph
  Berry
Croton velutinus Baill.                           233     Ch
Euphorbia potentilloides Boiss.                   208     Ch    x
Jatropha sp.                                              Ph
Maprounea guianensis Aubl.                        235     Ph
Microstachys daphinoides Mull.Arg.                333     Ch
Microstachys serrulata Mull.Arg.                  401     Ph    x
Sapium glandulosum Druce                          394     Ph
Sebastiania corniculata Pax                       401     Ch    x
Sebastiania salicifolia Pax                               Ch    x
Stillingia saxatilis Mull.Arg                     307     Ch    x
Tragia friesii Pax & K.Hoffm.                     303     Th    x

Icacinaceae

Emmotum nitens (Benth.) Miers                     238     Ph

Iridaceae

Sisyrinchiumluzula Klotzsch ex Klatt              440     Th

Lamiaceae

Eriope hypenioides Mart. Ex Benth.                321     Ph
Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.         363     H     x
Hyptis macrantha A.St.-Hil.                       197     Ch
Hyptisplatanifolia Mart.                          320     Ch    x
Hyptis rugosa Benth.                              409     Ch    x
Hypenia vitifolia Pohl.                           322     Ch    x

Fabaceae

Aeschynomene brevipes Benth.                      247     Ph    x
Aeschynomene histrix Poir.                        282     Ch    x
Aeschynomene martii Benth.                                Ph
Andira humilis Mart.                              276     Th    x
Bauhinia catingae Harms                                   Ph
Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.                  Ph
Chamaecrista flexuosa Greene                      248     Ch    x
Chamaecrista repens var. multijuga (Benth.)       249     Ch    x
H.S.Irwin & Barneby.
Chamaecrista rotundifolia Greene                  228     Ch
Crotalaria holosericea Nees & Mart.               275     Ph
Dalbergia cearensis Ducke                                 Ph
Species                                         Voucher   LF   OP I
Dalbergia miscolobium Benth.                      203     Ph
Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul.                     253     Ph
Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. Ex Hayne              212     Ph
Lonchocarpus obtusus Benth.                               Ph
Machaerium acutifolium Vogel                              Ph
Machaerium brasiliense Vogel                              Ph
Machaerium nictitans Benth.                       461     Ph
Mimosa hirsutissima Mart.                         287     Th
Mimosa paludosa Benth. (P1)                       286     Th    x
Mimosa quadrivalvis L.                            274     Th
Mimosa somnians Humb. & Bonpl. ex.Willd.          213     Ph    x
Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub.              349     Ph
Phanera microstachya (Raddi) L.P.Queiroz                  Ph
Piptadenia irwinii G.P.Lewis                              Ph
Poeppigiaprocera C.Presl                          281     Ph
Pseudopiptadeniabrenanii G.P.Lewis &                      Ph
  M.P.Lima
Senegalia langsdorffii (Benth.) Bocage &          425     Ph
  L.P.Queiroz
Senegalia piauhiensis (Benth.) Bocage &           428     Ph
  L.P.Queiroz
Senegalia riparia (Kunth) Britton & Rose in       254     Ph
  Britton & Killip
Senegalia tenuifolia Britton & Rose               426     Ph
Senna esplendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin &                      Ph
  Barneby
Senna macranthera (Coll) H.S.Irwin &              399     Ph
  Barneby
Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby          400     Ph
Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart.                       Ph    x
Stylosanthes gracilis Kunth                       262     Ch
Stylosanthes macrocephala M.B.Ferreira &          250     Ch    x
Sousa Costa
Stylosanthes scabra Vogel.                        251     Ch    x
Stylosanthes seabrana B.L.Maass & 't              371     Ch
  Mannetje
Tachigali sp.                                             Ph
Zornia gemella Vogel.                             252     Th    x
Zornia sericea Moric.                             284     Th    x

Lythraceae

Cuphea sessilifolia Mart.                         225     Ch    x

Loganiaceae

Antonia ovata Pohl                                218     Ph
Spigelia cf. anthelmia L.                                 Th

Loranthaceae

Struthathus cf. flexicaulis Mart.                 319     Th

Malpighiaceae

Banisteriopsis stellaris (Griseb.) B.Gates        293     Th
Byrsonima sericea DC.                             292     Ph
Byrsonima correifolia A.Juss.                     337     Ph
Byrsonima sp. (caatinga)                                  Ph
Heteropterys sp.                                          Ph
Mascagnia sp.                                             Ph
Stigmaphyllon auriculatum A.Juss.                 456     Th
Stigmaphyllon paralias A.Juss.                    211     Th    x
Tetrapterys sp.                                   352     Ph
Malpighiaceae 1                                   458     Ph
Malpighiaceae 2                                           Ph
Malpighiaceae 3                                           Ph
Malpighiaceae 4                                           Ph

Malvaceae

Ceiba erianthos (Cav.) K.Schum.                   344     Ph
Helicteres velutina K.Schulz.                     435     Ph
Herissantia crispa (L.) Briz.                     396     Th
Luehea sp.                                                Ph
Gossypium sp.                                     475     Ph
Pavonia cancellata Cav.                           360     Th    x
Pavonia glazioviana Gurke                         387     Th
Pavonia martii Mart. ex Colla                     391     Th
Sida angustissima Miq.                            390     Th    x
Sida cordifolia L.                                389     Th
Sida galheirensis Ulbr.                           395     Th
Sida linifolia Cav.                               392     Th    x
Sida spinosa L.                                   387     Th
Waltheria indica L.                               362     Ch    x
Waltheria macropoda Turcz.                        361     Ch    x
Wissadula hirsuta C. Presl                        386     Ch    x

Melastomataceae

Marcetia macrophylla DC.                          240     Ph
Miconia cf. albicans Steud.                       273     Ph
Miconia alborufescens Naudin                      241     Ph
Tibouchina blanchetiana Cogn.                     239     Ph

Moluginaceae

Mollugo verticillata L.                           207     Th

Myrtaceae

Campomanesia guaviroba Benth. & Hook.f.                   Ph
Campomanesia cf. sessiliflora var. lanuginosa     345     Ph
  (Chodat. & Hassl.) Landrum
Eugenia cf. cerasiflora Miq.                      406     Ph
Eugenia cf. punicifolia DC.                       204     Ph    x
Eugenia sonderiana O.Berg                         405     Ph
Myrciablanchetiana (O.Berg) Mattos                404     Ph
Myrcia cf. rufipes DC.                            346     Ph
Species                                         Voucher   LF   OP I
Myrcia splendes O.Berg.                           270     Ph
Myrciaria floribunda O.Berg.                              Ph
Psidium cf. brownianun Nied.                      216     Ph
Psidium grandifolium Mart.                        359     Ph
Psidiumschenckianum Kiaersk.                      403     Ph

Ochnaceae

Ouratea cf. floribunda Engl.                      245     Ph

Orchidaceae

Campylocentrum micranthum (Lindl.) Rolfe                  Ch
Epidendrum sp.                                            Ch
Oncidium sp.                                              Ch
Trichocentrum cebolleta (Jacq.) M.W. Chase &      328     Th
N.H.Williams

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis frutescens sub. frutescens Linnaeus        242     Th    x

Arecaceae

Syagrus sp.                                               Ph

Passifloraceae

Passiflora cincinnata Mast.                       295     Th
Passiflora edmundoi Sacco                         325     Th    x
Piriqueta duarteana (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss &       452     Th    x
  Cambess) Urb.
Piriqueta sidifoliavar.multiflora Urb.            289     Th    x
Turnera blanchetiana Urb.                         434     Ph
Turnera melochioides var.latifolia Urb.           288     Th    x

Phyllanthaceae

Astrocasia sp.                                            Ph
Phyllanthus orbiculatus Rich.                     353     Ch

Phytolacaceae

Microtea paniculata Moq.                          201     Th    x

Picramniaceae

Picramnia sp.                                             Th

Poaceae

Aristida sp. 1                                    421     H     x
Axonopus barbigerus Hitchc.                       260     H
Axonopuspolydactylus (Steud.) Dedecca             259     H     x
Dichanthelium sciurotis Trin.                             H     x
Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde                    258     H
Echinolaena inflexa Chase                         415     H     x
Eragrostis polytricha Nees                        257     H     x
Eragrostis solida Nees                                    H
Eragrostis sp.                                    300     H
Eragrostis sp.                                    418     H
Gymnopon sp. 1                                            H     x
Ichnanthus zehntneri Mez                          298     H
Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv.                      414     H
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka.                    261     H
Mesosetum loliiforme Chase                        255     H     x
Mesosetum sp. 1                                   297     H
Mesosetum sp. 2                                   417     H
Panicum sellowii Nees                             256     H
Panicum sp. 1                                     416     H
Panicum sp. 2                                     419     H     x
Paspalum arenarium Schrad.                        423     H
Raddia portoi Kuhlm.                              413     H
Schysachirium sp. 1                               422     H     x
Setaria gracilis Kunth                            412     H
Setaria parviflora Poir. Kerguelen                424     H
Setaria setosa P.Beauv.                           411     H
Setaria tenax Desv.                                       H
Setaria sp. 1                                     296     H
Setaria sp. 2                                     299     H
Setaria sp. 3                                             H
Streptostachys ramosa Zuloaga & Soderstr.         420     H     x
Streptostachys robusta Renvoize                   347     H     x
Trachypogon spicatus Kuntze                       156     H     x
Poaceae sp. 1                                             H     x
Poaceae sp. 2                                             H
Poaceae sp. 3                                             H     x

Polygalaceae

Polygala decumbens A.W.Benn.                      205     Th    x
Polygala obovata A.St.-Hil.                       206     Th    x
Polygala trichosperma Jacq.                       326     Th    x
Polygala sp. nova                                 220     Th    x

Portulacaceae

Portulaca hirsutissima Cambess.                   215     Th    x
Portulaca mucronata Link                          318     Th

Primulaceae

Myrsine guianensis (Aubl.) Kuntze.                336     Ph

Rubiaceae

Alseis floribunda Schott                          323     Ph
Borreria sp.                                      453     Th    x
Chomelia sp. 1                                    455     Ph
Chomelia sp. 2                                    459     Ph
Diodella apiculta (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.)     454     Th
  Delprete
Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze                       224     Th    x
Mytracarpus salzmannianus DC.                     223     Th    x
Species                                         Voucher   LF   OP I
Mytracarpus sp.                                   431     Th    x
Palicourea marcgravii A.St.-Hil.                  460     Ph
Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart.                   222     Th    x
Psyllocarpus sp.                                  334     Th    x
Randia armata DC.                                         Ph
Richardia grandiflora Steud.                      432     Ch    x
Simira sp.                                                Ph
Rubiaceae 1                                       430     Th    x
Rubiaceae 2                                               Ph

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum nannophyllum (Urb.) Alain                     Ph
Zanthoxylum sp.2                                          Ph

Salicaceae

Casearia cf. sylvestris Sw.                       237     Ph

Sapindaceae

Cupania oblongifoliaMart.                                 Ph
Diatenopteryx grazielae Vaz & Andreata            368     Ph
Serjania lethalis A.St.-Hil.                      268     Ph
Serjania pinnatifolia Radlk.                      269     Ph
Sapindaceae                                               Ph

Smilacaceae

Smilax elastica Griseb.                           324     Ph

Solanaceae

Schwenkia sp.                                     355     Th    x
Solanum buddlejifolium Sendtn.                    266     Ph    x
Solanum stenandrum Sendtn                         358     Th    x
Solanum cf. stipulaceum Brouss. Roem. &           357     Ph
  Schult.

Verbenaceae

Aegiphila verticillata Vell.                      354     Ph    x
Lippia microphylla Cham.                          198     Ph    x
Lippia sp.                                        467     Ph
Stachytarpheta crassifolia Schrad                 365     Ch    x
Vitex sp.                                                 Ph

Vitaceae

Cissus bahiensis Lombardi                         450     Th

Vochysiaceae

Vochysia thyrsoidea Phol                          290     Ph

Undetermined

Undetermined 1                                    437     Th    x
Undetermined 2                                    438     Th
Undetermined 3                                            Ph
Undetermined 4                                            Ph
Undetermined 5                                            Ph
Undetermined 6                                            Ph
Undetermined 7                                            Ph
Undetermined 8                                            Ph
Undetermined 9                                            Ph
Undetermined 10                                           Ph

                                                               100

                   Species                      OP II   ROC   TC   CCT

Acanthaceae

Ruellia incomta Lindau                            x      x    x
Thyrsacanthusramosissimus (Moric.)                                  x
VM.Baum

Agavaceae

Herreria sp.

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera cf. brasiliana Kuntze               x      x    x
Gomphrena agrestis Mart.                          x      x    x     x
Gomphrena mollis Mart.                                   x
Pfaffia acutifolia O. Stutzer                                 x

Anacardiaceae

Astronium sp.
Spondias sp.

Annonaceae

Annona coriacea Mart.                             x      x    x
Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Saff.           x      x    x

Apocynaceae

Blepharodon nitidum (Vell.) Macbr.                            x
Ditassa retusa Mart.                              x      x
Hancornia speciosa Gomez                          x      x
Oxypetalum capitatum Mart.
cf. Prestonia coalita (Vell.) Woodson
Secondatia floribunda A.DC.                                   x

Araceae

Philodendron lundii Warm.

Arecaceae

Syagrus sp.                                                   x     x

Asteraceae

Acanthospermum australe Kuntze                           x    x
Aspilia hispidantha H. Rob.                              x    x
Calea harleyi H.Rob.                              x      x    x
Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC.) R.M. King &      x      x    x     x
  H. Rob.
Chaptaliaintegerrima (Vell.) Burkart
Chaptalia sp. 2
Chromolaena sp.
Elephantopus hirtiflorus DC.                      x           x
Eremanthus capitatus (Spreng.) MacLeish                  x
Lasiolaena blanchetti (Baker) R.M.King &                 x
  H. Rob.
Lepidaploa chalybaea (Mart. ex. DC.) H.Rob.              x    x     x
Lepidaploa cotoneaster Willd ex. Spreng.                 x          x
Platypodanthera melissifolia (DC.) R.M.King                   x
& H. Rob.
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.                            x
Stilpnopappus tomentosus Gardner                  x      x
Trichogonia salviifolia Gardner                               x
Tridax procumbens L

Bignoniaceae

Arrabidaea selloi (Spreng.)
Bignonia binata Thunb.
Bignonia convolvuloides (Bureau &
K.Schum.) L.G.Lohmann
Bignonia erubescens S.Moore
Fridericia chica (Bonpl.) L.G.Lohmann
Fridericia cinerea (Bureau ex K.Schum.)                             x
  L.G.Lohmann
Fridericiaplatyphylla (Cham.) L.G.Lohmann
Mansoa hirsuta DC.
Neojobertia candolleana Bureau & K.Schum.                           x
Proterantha glandulosa A.H. Gentry
Tabebuia spongiosa Rizzini
Bignoniaceae 1
Bignoniaceae 2
Bignoniaceae 3
Bignoniaceae 4
Bignoniaceae 5
Bignoniaceae 6

Boraginaceae

Cordia cf. rufescens A.DC.                                    x     x
Varronia leucomalloides (Taroda) J.S.Mill                           x
HeliotropiumscorpioidesWilld. ex Roem. &
  Schult.

Bromeliaceae

Billbergia porteana Brongn. ex. Beer                                x
Cryptanthus sp.
Hohenbergia cf. caatingae var. eximbricata                          x
L.B. Smith & Read
Neoglaziovia variegata Mez
Tillandsia loliacea Mart. Ex Schult.f.
Tillandsia streptocarpa Baker
Tillandsia cf. tenuifolia L.

Burseraceae

Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart.) J.B. Gillett

Cactaceae

Arrojadoa penicillata (Gurke) Britton & Rose                        x
Cereus albicaulis Luetzelb.
Species                                         OP II   ROC   TC   CCT
Pilosocereus glaucochrous (Werderm.) Blyles                         x
  & G.D.Rowley
Stephanocereus leucostele A.Berger
Tacinga funalisBritton & Rose
Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose)
N.P.Taylor & Stuppy
Tacinga werneri (Eggli) N.P.Taylor & Stuppy                         x

Capparaceae

Cynophalla flexuosa (L.) J.Pres
Cynophalla jacobinaeMoric. ex Eichler
Neocalyptrocalyx longifolium (Mart.)
X.Cornejo & H.H.Iltis

Caricaceae

Jacaratia corumbensis Kuntze
Caricaceae 1

Combretaceae

Terminalia sp.

Commelinaceae

Commelina erecta L.                               x      x    x     x

Convolvulaceae

Bonamia burchellii Hallier f.                                       x
Evolvulus elegans Moric.                                      x     x
Evolvulus elaeagnifolius Dammer
Evolvulus glomeratus Choisy                       x      x    x     x
Ipomoea subtomentosa (Chodat & Hassl.)            x      x    x     x
  O'Donell
Jacquemontiaagrestis Meisn.                       x      x    x
Jacquemontia montana Meisn.                       x      x    x
Jacquemontia nodiflora G.Don                                        x

Cyperaceae

Bulbostylis capillaris Nees                       x      x
Bulbostylis fasciculata Cherm.                    x      x    x
Bulbostylis junciformis C.B.Clarke.               x      x
Cyperus agregatus (Willd.) Endl.                  x      x    x     x
Rhynchospora sp.                                  x      x
Cyperaceae                                                    x

Ericaceae

Agarista cf. chapadensis (Kin.-Gouv.) Judd        x
Gaylussacia brasiliensis Meisn.                   x      x

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum betulaceum Mart.                                       x
Erythroxylum oxypetalum O.E. Schulz
ErythroxylumsuberosumA.St.-Hill.                  x           x
Erythroxylum sp.

Euphorbiaceae

Actinostemonconcolor Mul.Arg.                                       x
Actinostemonsp.
Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg.                                       x
Croton argyrophyllus Kunth
Croton compressus Lam.
Croton echioideus Baill.
Croton glandulosus L.
Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth.                               x     x
Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales & P.E.
  Berry
Croton velutinus Baill.                           x      x
Euphorbia potentilloides Boiss.                   x      x    x
Jatropha sp.
Maprounea guianensis Aubl.                                          x
Microstachys daphinoides Mull.Arg.                x           x
Microstachys serrulata Mull.Arg.                         x
Sapium glandulosum Druce
Sebastiania corniculata Pax                       x      x    x
Sebastiania salicifolia Pax                              x    x
Stillingia saxatilis Mull.Arg
Tragia friesii Pax & K.Hoffm.                                 x     x

Icacinaceae

Emmotum nitens (Benth.) Miers                            x

Iridaceae

Sisyrinchiumluzula Klotzsch ex Klatt              x

Lamiaceae

Eriope hypenioides Mart. Ex Benth.                x      x
Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.         x           x
Hyptis macrantha A.St.-Hil.                       x
Hyptisplatanifolia Mart.                          x      x    x     x
Hyptis rugosa Benth.
Hypenia vitifolia Pohl.                           x      x    x

Fabaceae

Aeschynomene brevipes Benth.                      x      x    x
Aeschynomene histrix Poir.                        x      x    x     x
Aeschynomene martii Benth.
Andira humilis Mart.                              x      x    x
Bauhinia catingae Harms
Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.
Chamaecrista flexuosa Greene                      x      x    x
Chamaecrista repens var. multijuga (Benth.)       x      x    x     x
H.S.Irwin & Barneby.
Chamaecrista rotundifolia Greene                              x     x
Crotalaria holosericea Nees & Mart.                           x
Dalbergia cearensis Ducke
Species                                         OP II   ROC   TC   CCT
Dalbergia miscolobium Benth.                      x      x    x     x
Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul.                            x
Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. Ex Hayne                     x    x     x
Lonchocarpus obtusus Benth.
Machaerium acutifolium Vogel
Machaerium brasiliense Vogel
Machaerium nictitans Benth.
Mimosa hirsutissima Mart.                                     x
Mimosa paludosa Benth. (P1)                              x    x
Mimosa quadrivalvis L.                                        x
Mimosa somnians Humb. & Bonpl. ex.Willd.
Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub.                     x
Phanera microstachya (Raddi) L.P.Queiroz
Piptadenia irwinii G.P.Lewis
Poeppigiaprocera C.Presl
Pseudopiptadeniabrenanii G.P.Lewis &                                x
  M.P.Lima
Senegalia langsdorffii (Benth.) Bocage &
  L.P.Queiroz
Senegalia piauhiensis (Benth.) Bocage &
  L.P.Queiroz
Senegalia riparia (Kunth) Britton & Rose in                         x
  Britton & Killip
Senegalia tenuifolia Britton & Rose
Senna esplendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin &
  Barneby
Senna macranthera (Coll) H.S.Irwin &                          x
  Barneby
Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby                      x
Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart.               x
Stylosanthes gracilis Kunth                       x      x    x
Stylosanthes macrocephala M.B.Ferreira &                 x    x     x
Sousa Costa
Stylosanthes scabra Vogel.                        x      x    x     x
Stylosanthes seabrana B.L.Maass & 't                                x
  Mannetje
Tachigali sp.                                     x      x
Zornia gemella Vogel.                             x           x
Zornia sericea Moric.                             x           x

Lythraceae

Cuphea sessilifolia Mart.                         x      x    x

Loganiaceae

Antonia ovata Pohl                                       x
Spigelia cf. anthelmia L.                                x    x

Loranthaceae

Struthathus cf. flexicaulis Mart.                 x      x    x     x

Malpighiaceae

Banisteriopsis stellaris (Griseb.) B.Gates        x      x    x
Byrsonima sericea DC.                             x      x    x
Byrsonima correifolia A.Juss.                                 x
Byrsonima sp. (caatinga)
Heteropterys sp.
Mascagnia sp.
Stigmaphyllon auriculatum A.Juss.
Stigmaphyllon paralias A.Juss.                    x      x    x     x
Tetrapterys sp.                                          x
Malpighiaceae 1
Malpighiaceae 2
Malpighiaceae 3
Malpighiaceae 4

Malvaceae

Ceiba erianthos (Cav.) K.Schum.
Helicteres velutina K.Schulz.
Herissantia crispa (L.) Briz.                            x          x
Luehea sp.
Gossypium sp.
Pavonia cancellata Cav.                           x      x    x     x
Pavonia glazioviana Gurke
Pavonia martii Mart. ex Colla                                       x
Sida angustissima Miq.                            x           x     x
Sida cordifolia L.                                            x
Sida galheirensis Ulbr.                           x                 x
Sida linifolia Cav.                                      x          x
Sida spinosa L.                                               x
Waltheria indica L.                                           x     x
Waltheria macropoda Turcz.                                    x
Wissadula hirsuta C. Presl                               x    x

Melastomataceae

Marcetia macrophylla DC.                                 x
Miconia cf. albicans Steud.                              x
Miconia alborufescens Naudin                             x
Tibouchina blanchetiana Cogn.                     x      x

Moluginaceae

Mollugo verticillata L.                           x           x

Myrtaceae

Campomanesia guaviroba Benth. & Hook.f.
Campomanesia cf. sessiliflora var. lanuginosa                 x     x
  (Chodat. & Hassl.) Landrum
Eugenia cf. cerasiflora Miq.                                  x
Eugenia cf. punicifolia DC.                       x      x    x     x
Eugenia sonderiana O.Berg                         x           x
Myrciablanchetiana (O.Berg) Mattos                       x
Myrcia cf. rufipes DC.                                        x     x
Species                                         OP II   ROC   TC   CCT
Myrcia splendes O.Berg.                           x      x          x
Myrciaria floribunda O.Berg.                                        x
Psidium cf. brownianun Nied.                                        x
Psidium grandifolium Mart.                                    x
Psidiumschenckianum Kiaersk.                                        x

Ochnaceae

Ouratea cf. floribunda Engl.                      x      x    x

Orchidaceae

Campylocentrum micranthum (Lindl.) Rolfe
Epidendrum sp.
Oncidium sp.
Trichocentrum cebolleta (Jacq.) M.W. Chase &                        x
N.H.Williams

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis frutescens sub. frutescens Linnaeus        x      x    x     x

Arecaceae

Syagrus sp.                                                   x     x

Passifloraceae

Passiflora cincinnata Mast.                                   x     x
Passiflora edmundoi Sacco                                     x     x
Piriqueta duarteana (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss &              x
  Cambess) Urb.
Piriqueta sidifoliavar.multiflora Urb.                   x
Turnera blanchetiana Urb.
Turnera melochioides var.latifolia Urb.                  x    x     x

Phyllanthaceae

Astrocasia sp.
Phyllanthus orbiculatus Rich.

Phytolacaceae

Microtea paniculata Moq.                          x           x     x

Picramniaceae

Picramnia sp.

Poaceae

Aristida sp. 1                                    x           x     x
Axonopus barbigerus Hitchc.                              x          x
Axonopuspolydactylus (Steud.) Dedecca             x      x    x
Dichanthelium sciurotis Trin.                            x    x
Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde                                x
Echinolaena inflexa Chase                         x      x
Eragrostis polytricha Nees                        x                 x
Eragrostis solida Nees                                        x     x
Eragrostis sp.                                    x           x
Eragrostis sp.                                                x
Gymnopon sp. 1
Ichnanthus zehntneri Mez                                            x
Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv.                      x
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka.                    x           x     x
Mesosetum loliiforme Chase                        x      x    x
Mesosetum sp. 1                                          x
Mesosetum sp. 2                                          x
Panicum sellowii Nees                                         x     x
Panicum sp. 1
Panicum sp. 2                                                 x     x
Paspalum arenarium Schrad.                        x           x
Raddia portoi Kuhlm.
Schysachirium sp. 1                               x
Setaria gracilis Kunth                                        x
Setaria parviflora Poir. Kerguelen                            x
Setaria setosa P.Beauv.                                       x     x
Setaria tenax Desv.                                           x     x
Setaria sp. 1                                                 x     x
Setaria sp. 2                                                       x
Setaria sp. 3                                                       x
Streptostachys ramosa Zuloaga & Soderstr.         x
Streptostachys robusta Renvoize                          x    x     x
Trachypogon spicatus Kuntze                       x      x    x     x
Poaceae sp. 1                                     x
Poaceae sp. 2                                     x
Poaceae sp. 3                                     x           x     x

Polygalaceae

Polygala decumbens A.W.Benn.                      x      x    x     x
Polygala obovata A.St.-Hil.                              x    x     x
Polygala trichosperma Jacq.                       x      x    x
Polygala sp. nova

Portulacaceae

Portulaca hirsutissima Cambess.                   x      x    x     x
Portulaca mucronata Link                          x      x    x

Primulaceae

Myrsine guianensis (Aubl.) Kuntze.                x      x

Rubiaceae

Alseis floribunda Schott
Borreria sp.
Chomelia sp. 1
Chomelia sp. 2                                                      x
Diodella apiculta (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.)            x
  Delprete
Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze                              x
Mytracarpus salzmannianus DC.                     x      x    x     x
Species                                         OP II   ROC   TC   CCT
Mytracarpus sp.                                   x      x    x
Palicourea marcgravii A.St.-Hil.                              x
Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart.                   x      x    x     x
Psyllocarpus sp.                                  x      x
Randia armata DC.                                                   x
Richardia grandiflora Steud.                      x      x    x     x
Simira sp.
Rubiaceae 1                                       x
Rubiaceae 2

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum nannophyllum (Urb.) Alain
Zanthoxylum sp.2

Salicaceae

Casearia cf. sylvestris Sw.                                   x     x

Sapindaceae

Cupania oblongifoliaMart.                                     x
Diatenopteryx grazielae Vaz & Andreata
Serjania lethalis A.St.-Hil.                             x    x
Serjania pinnatifolia Radlk.
Sapindaceae

Smilacaceae

Smilax elastica Griseb.                                  x

Solanaceae

Schwenkia sp.                                     x      x    x     x
Solanum buddlejifolium Sendtn.                    x           x     x
Solanum stenandrum Sendtn                         x      x    x     x
Solanum cf. stipulaceum Brouss. Roem. &                       x
  Schult.

Verbenaceae

Aegiphila verticillata Vell.                             x
Lippia microphylla Cham.                          x      x
Lippia sp.                                                          x
Stachytarpheta crassifolia Schrad                 x      x
Vitex sp.

Vitaceae

Cissus bahiensis Lombardi

Vochysiaceae

Vochysia thyrsoidea Phol                                 x

Undetermined

Undetermined 1
Undetermined 2                                                      x
Undetermined 3                                                      x
Undetermined 4                                                      x
Undetermined 5                                                      x
Undetermined 6
Undetermined 7
Undetermined 8
Undetermined 9
Undetermined 10

                                                 93     105   121  94

                   Species                      CAA

Acanthaceae

Ruellia incomta Lindau
Thyrsacanthusramosissimus (Moric.)               x
VM.Baum

Agavaceae

Herreria sp.                                     x

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera cf. brasiliana Kuntze
Gomphrena agrestis Mart.
Gomphrena mollis Mart.
Pfaffia acutifolia O. Stutzer

Anacardiaceae

Astronium sp.                                    x
Spondias sp.                                     x

Annonaceae

Annona coriacea Mart.
Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Saff.

Apocynaceae

Blepharodon nitidum (Vell.) Macbr.
Ditassa retusa Mart.
Hancornia speciosa Gomez
Oxypetalum capitatum Mart.
cf. Prestonia coalita (Vell.) Woodson            x
Secondatia floribunda A.DC.

Araceae

Philodendron lundii Warm.                        x

Arecaceae

Syagrus sp.                                      x

Asteraceae

Acanthospermum australe Kuntze
Aspilia hispidantha H. Rob.
Calea harleyi H.Rob.
Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC.) R.M. King &
  H. Rob.
Chaptaliaintegerrima (Vell.) Burkart
Chaptalia sp. 2
Chromolaena sp.
Elephantopus hirtiflorus DC.
Eremanthus capitatus (Spreng.) MacLeish
Lasiolaena blanchetti (Baker) R.M.King &
  H. Rob.
Lepidaploa chalybaea (Mart. ex. DC.) H.Rob.
Lepidaploa cotoneaster Willd ex. Spreng.
Platypodanthera melissifolia (DC.) R.M.King
& H. Rob.
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.
Stilpnopappus tomentosus Gardner
Trichogonia salviifolia Gardner
Tridax procumbens L

Bignoniaceae

Arrabidaea selloi (Spreng.)                      x
Bignonia binata Thunb.                           x
Bignonia convolvuloides (Bureau &                x
K.Schum.) L.G.Lohmann
Bignonia erubescens S.Moore                      x
Fridericia chica (Bonpl.) L.G.Lohmann            x
Fridericia cinerea (Bureau ex K.Schum.)
  L.G.Lohmann
Fridericiaplatyphylla (Cham.) L.G.Lohmann        x
Mansoa hirsuta DC.                               x
Neojobertia candolleana Bureau & K.Schum.
Proterantha glandulosa A.H. Gentry               x
Tabebuia spongiosa Rizzini                       x
Bignoniaceae 1                                   x
Bignoniaceae 2                                   x
Bignoniaceae 3                                   x
Bignoniaceae 4                                   x
Bignoniaceae 5                                   x
Bignoniaceae 6                                   x

Boraginaceae

Cordia cf. rufescens A.DC.
Varronia leucomalloides (Taroda) J.S.Mill
HeliotropiumscorpioidesWilld. ex Roem. &
  Schult.

Bromeliaceae

Billbergia porteana Brongn. ex. Beer
Cryptanthus sp.                                  x
Hohenbergia cf. caatingae var. eximbricata
L.B. Smith & Read
Neoglaziovia variegata Mez                       x
Tillandsia loliacea Mart. Ex Schult.f.           x
Tillandsia streptocarpa Baker                    x
Tillandsia cf. tenuifolia L.                     x

Burseraceae

Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart.) J.B. Gillett     x

Cactaceae

Arrojadoa penicillata (Gurke) Britton & Rose     x
Cereus albicaulis Luetzelb.                      x
Species                                         CAA
Pilosocereus glaucochrous (Werderm.) Blyles      x
  & G.D.Rowley
Stephanocereus leucostele A.Berger               x
Tacinga funalisBritton & Rose                    x
Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose)               x
N.P.Taylor & Stuppy
Tacinga werneri (Eggli) N.P.Taylor & Stuppy      x

Capparaceae

Cynophalla flexuosa (L.) J.Pres                  x
Cynophalla jacobinaeMoric. ex Eichler            x
Neocalyptrocalyx longifolium (Mart.)             x
X.Cornejo & H.H.Iltis

Caricaceae

Jacaratia corumbensis Kuntze                     x
Caricaceae 1                                     x

Combretaceae

Terminalia sp.                                   x

Commelinaceae

Commelina erecta L.

Convolvulaceae

Bonamia burchellii Hallier f.
Evolvulus elegans Moric.
Evolvulus elaeagnifolius Dammer                  x
Evolvulus glomeratus Choisy
Ipomoea subtomentosa (Chodat & Hassl.)
  O'Donell
Jacquemontiaagrestis Meisn.
Jacquemontia montana Meisn.
Jacquemontia nodiflora G.Don

Cyperaceae

Bulbostylis capillaris Nees
Bulbostylis fasciculata Cherm.
Bulbostylis junciformis C.B.Clarke.
Cyperus agregatus (Willd.) Endl.
Rhynchospora sp.
Cyperaceae

Ericaceae

Agarista cf. chapadensis (Kin.-Gouv.) Judd
Gaylussacia brasiliensis Meisn.

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum betulaceum Mart.                    x
Erythroxylum oxypetalum O.E. Schulz              x
ErythroxylumsuberosumA.St.-Hill.
Erythroxylum sp.                                 x

Euphorbiaceae

Actinostemonconcolor Mul.Arg.                    x
Actinostemonsp.                                  x
Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg.
Croton argyrophyllus Kunth                       x
Croton compressus Lam.                           x
Croton echioideus Baill.                         x
Croton glandulosus L.                            x
Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth.                  x
Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales & P.E.       x
  Berry
Croton velutinus Baill.
Euphorbia potentilloides Boiss.
Jatropha sp.                                     x
Maprounea guianensis Aubl.                       x
Microstachys daphinoides Mull.Arg.
Microstachys serrulata Mull.Arg.
Sapium glandulosum Druce                         x
Sebastiania corniculata Pax
Sebastiania salicifolia Pax
Stillingia saxatilis Mull.Arg
Tragia friesii Pax & K.Hoffm.

Icacinaceae

Emmotum nitens (Benth.) Miers

Iridaceae

Sisyrinchiumluzula Klotzsch ex Klatt

Lamiaceae

Eriope hypenioides Mart. Ex Benth.
Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.
Hyptis macrantha A.St.-Hil.
Hyptisplatanifolia Mart.
Hyptis rugosa Benth.
Hypenia vitifolia Pohl.

Fabaceae

Aeschynomene brevipes Benth.
Aeschynomene histrix Poir.
Aeschynomene martii Benth.                       x
Andira humilis Mart.
Bauhinia catingae Harms                          x
Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.         x
Chamaecrista flexuosa Greene
Chamaecrista repens var. multijuga (Benth.)
H.S.Irwin & Barneby.
Chamaecrista rotundifolia Greene
Crotalaria holosericea Nees & Mart.
Dalbergia cearensis Ducke                        x
Species                                         CAA
Dalbergia miscolobium Benth.
Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul.
Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. Ex Hayne
Lonchocarpus obtusus Benth.                      x
Machaerium acutifolium Vogel                     x
Machaerium brasiliense Vogel                     x
Machaerium nictitans Benth.                      x
Mimosa hirsutissima Mart.
Mimosa paludosa Benth. (P1)
Mimosa quadrivalvis L.
Mimosa somnians Humb. & Bonpl. ex.Willd.
Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub.
Phanera microstachya (Raddi) L.P.Queiroz         x
Piptadenia irwinii G.P.Lewis                     x
Poeppigiaprocera C.Presl                         x
Pseudopiptadeniabrenanii G.P.Lewis &             x
  M.P.Lima
Senegalia langsdorffii (Benth.) Bocage &         x
  L.P.Queiroz
Senegalia piauhiensis (Benth.) Bocage &          x
  L.P.Queiroz
Senegalia riparia (Kunth) Britton & Rose in      x
  Britton & Killip
Senegalia tenuifolia Britton & Rose              x
Senna esplendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin &             x
  Barneby
Senna macranthera (Coll) H.S.Irwin &
  Barneby
Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart.
Stylosanthes gracilis Kunth
Stylosanthes macrocephala M.B.Ferreira &
Sousa Costa
Stylosanthes scabra Vogel.
Stylosanthes seabrana B.L.Maass & 't
  Mannetje
Tachigali sp.
Zornia gemella Vogel.
Zornia sericea Moric.

Lythraceae

Cuphea sessilifolia Mart.

Loganiaceae

Antonia ovata Pohl
Spigelia cf. anthelmia L.

Loranthaceae

Struthathus cf. flexicaulis Mart.

Malpighiaceae

Banisteriopsis stellaris (Griseb.) B.Gates
Byrsonima sericea DC.
Byrsonima correifolia A.Juss.
Byrsonima sp. (caatinga)                         x
Heteropterys sp.                                 x
Mascagnia sp.                                    x
Stigmaphyllon auriculatum A.Juss.                x
Stigmaphyllon paralias A.Juss.
Tetrapterys sp.
Malpighiaceae 1                                  x
Malpighiaceae 2                                  x
Malpighiaceae 3                                  x
Malpighiaceae 4                                  x

Malvaceae

Ceiba erianthos (Cav.) K.Schum.                  x
Helicteres velutina K.Schulz.                    x
Herissantia crispa (L.) Briz.
Luehea sp.                                       x
Gossypium sp.                                    x
Pavonia cancellata Cav.
Pavonia glazioviana Gurke                        x
Pavonia martii Mart. ex Colla
Sida angustissima Miq.
Sida cordifolia L.
Sida galheirensis Ulbr.
Sida linifolia Cav.
Sida spinosa L.
Waltheria indica L.
Waltheria macropoda Turcz.
Wissadula hirsuta C. Presl

Melastomataceae

Marcetia macrophylla DC.
Miconia cf. albicans Steud.
Miconia alborufescens Naudin
Tibouchina blanchetiana Cogn.

Moluginaceae

Mollugo verticillata L.

Myrtaceae

Campomanesia guaviroba Benth. & Hook.f.          x
Campomanesia cf. sessiliflora var. lanuginosa
  (Chodat. & Hassl.) Landrum
Eugenia cf. cerasiflora Miq.
Eugenia cf. punicifolia DC.
Eugenia sonderiana O.Berg
Myrciablanchetiana (O.Berg) Mattos
Myrcia cf. rufipes DC.
Species                                         CAA
Myrcia splendes O.Berg.
Myrciaria floribunda O.Berg.                     x
Psidium cf. brownianun Nied.
Psidium grandifolium Mart.
Psidiumschenckianum Kiaersk.

Ochnaceae

Ouratea cf. floribunda Engl.

Orchidaceae

Campylocentrum micranthum (Lindl.) Rolfe         x
Epidendrum sp.                                   x
Oncidium sp.                                     x
Trichocentrum cebolleta (Jacq.) M.W. Chase &
N.H.Williams

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis frutescens sub. frutescens Linnaeus

Arecaceae

Syagrus sp.                                      x

Passifloraceae

Passiflora cincinnata Mast.
Passiflora edmundoi Sacco
Piriqueta duarteana (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss &
  Cambess) Urb.
Piriqueta sidifoliavar.multiflora Urb.
Turnera blanchetiana Urb.                        x
Turnera melochioides var.latifolia Urb.

Phyllanthaceae

Astrocasia sp.                                   x
Phyllanthus orbiculatus Rich.                    x

Phytolacaceae

Microtea paniculata Moq.

Picramniaceae

Picramnia sp.                                    x

Poaceae

Aristida sp. 1
Axonopus barbigerus Hitchc.
Axonopuspolydactylus (Steud.) Dedecca
Dichanthelium sciurotis Trin.
Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde
Echinolaena inflexa Chase
Eragrostis polytricha Nees
Eragrostis solida Nees
Eragrostis sp.
Eragrostis sp.
Gymnopon sp. 1
Ichnanthus zehntneri Mez
Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv.
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka.
Mesosetum loliiforme Chase
Mesosetum sp. 1
Mesosetum sp. 2
Panicum sellowii Nees
Panicum sp. 1                                    x
Panicum sp. 2                                    x
Paspalum arenarium Schrad.
Raddia portoi Kuhlm.                             x
Schysachirium sp. 1
Setaria gracilis Kunth
Setaria parviflora Poir. Kerguelen
Setaria setosa P.Beauv.
Setaria tenax Desv.
Setaria sp. 1
Setaria sp. 2
Setaria sp. 3
Streptostachys ramosa Zuloaga & Soderstr.
Streptostachys robusta Renvoize
Trachypogon spicatus Kuntze
Poaceae sp. 1
Poaceae sp. 2
Poaceae sp. 3

Polygalaceae

Polygala decumbens A.W.Benn.
Polygala obovata A.St.-Hil.
Polygala trichosperma Jacq.
Polygala sp. nova

Portulacaceae

Portulaca hirsutissima Cambess.
Portulaca mucronata Link

Primulaceae

Myrsine guianensis (Aubl.) Kuntze.

Rubiaceae

Alseis floribunda Schott                         x
Borreria sp.
Chomelia sp. 1                                   x
Chomelia sp. 2
Diodella apiculta (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.)
  Delprete
Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze
Mytracarpus salzmannianus DC.
Species                                         CAA
Mytracarpus sp.
Palicourea marcgravii A.St.-Hil.
Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart.
Psyllocarpus sp.
Randia armata DC.                                x
Richardia grandiflora Steud.
Simira sp.                                       x
Rubiaceae 1
Rubiaceae 2                                      x

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum nannophyllum (Urb.) Alain            x
Zanthoxylum sp.2                                 x

Salicaceae

Casearia cf. sylvestris Sw.                      x

Sapindaceae

Cupania oblongifoliaMart.
Diatenopteryx grazielae Vaz & Andreata           x
Serjania lethalis A.St.-Hil.
Serjania pinnatifolia Radlk.                     x
Sapindaceae                                      x

Smilacaceae

Smilax elastica Griseb.

Solanaceae

Schwenkia sp.
Solanum buddlejifolium Sendtn.
Solanum stenandrum Sendtn
Solanum cf. stipulaceum Brouss. Roem. &
  Schult.

Verbenaceae

Aegiphila verticillata Vell.
Lippia microphylla Cham.
Lippia sp.
Stachytarpheta crassifolia Schrad
Vitex sp.                                        x

Vitaceae

Cissus bahiensis Lombardi                        x

Vochysiaceae

Vochysia thyrsoidea Phol

Undetermined

Undetermined 1
Undetermined 2
Undetermined 3
Undetermined 4
Undetermined 5
Undetermined 6                                   x
Undetermined 7                                   x
Undetermined 8                                   x
Undetermined 9                                   x
Undetermined 10                                  x

                                                117

LF = Life form; Ch: chamaephyte; H: hemicryptophyte; Ph: phanerophyte;
Th: therophyte; Cr: cryptophyte; Su: "suculenta"; Ep: epiphyte; OPI:
open cerrado (site I); OPII (site II): open cerrado II; ROC: rocky
outcrop cerrado; TC: typical cerrado; CCT: cerrado-caatinga
transition; CAA: caatinga.


S. P S. Neves (a) *, R. Funch (b), A. A. Conceicao (a), L. A. P Miranda (c) and L. S. Funch (a)

(a) Programa de Pos-graduacao em Botanica, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana-UEFS, Av. Transnordestina, s/n, Novo Horizonte, CEP 44036-900, Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil

(b) Fundacao Chapada Diamantina, Rua Pe da Ladeira, 212, CEP 46960-000, Lencois, BA, Brazil

(c) Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana-UEFS, Av. Transnordestina, s/n, Novo Horizonte, CEP 44036-900, Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil

* e-mail: samia_neves@yahoo.com.br

Received: July 28, 2014--Accepted: March 1, 2015--Distributed: May 31, 2016

(With 3 figures)
Table 1. Descriptions of vegetation types physiognomies
and vegetation types in the mosaic parameters
cerrado-caatinga, Chapada Diamantina, NE Brazil.

                                     Species more important

                                 Families more rich in species

                                                        Numbers of
                             Total        Numbers of     families
                            numbers       exclusive     (Number of
                           of species      species       genera)

cerrado ralo (site I)     101            13 (12.87%)    25(75)
12[degrees]26' 18" S
41[degrees]30' 53" W
Alt.: 857 m

open cerrado ralo         93             5 (5.37%)      31 (72)
(siteII)
12[degrees] 26' 05" S
41[degrees] 31' 05" W
Alt.: 889 m

rocky outcrop cerrado     105            17(16.19%)     33 (84)
12[degrees]26' 08" S
41[degrees]31' 04" W
Alt.: 884 m

typicalcerrado            119            25 (20.66%)    32 (85)
12[degrees]26' 16" S e
41[degrees]31' 11" W
Alt.: 843 m

cerrado-caatinga
transition                94             23 (24.46)     30(69)
12[degrees] 26' 34" S e
41[degrees] 32' 01" W
Alt.: 736 m

caatinga                  117            102 (87.17%)   (31)77
12[degrees]27' 07" S e
41[degrees]35' 58" W
Alt.: 697 m

                                     Species more important

                                 Families more rich in species

                          Herbaceous-subshrub   Monocotyledons
                            /shrub-Arboreal      Dicotyledons

cerrado ralo (site I)     9.10                  19 (19%)
12[degrees]26' 18" S                            82 (81%)
41[degrees]30' 53" W
Alt.: 857 m

open cerrado ralo         3.20                  22 (24%)
(siteII)                                        71 (76%)
12[degrees] 26' 05" S
41[degrees] 31' 05" W
Alt.: 889 m

rocky outcrop cerrado     2.82                  15 (14%)
12[degrees]26' 08" S                            90 (86%)
41[degrees]31' 04" W
Alt.: 884 m

typicalcerrado            3.95                  25 (21%)
12[degrees]26' 16" S e                          94 (79%)
41[degrees]31' 11" W
Alt.: 843 m

cerrado-caatinga                                25 (26%)
transition                2.44                  69 (74%)
12[degrees] 26' 34" S e
41[degrees] 32' 01" W
Alt.: 736 m

caatinga                  3.03                  21 (18%)
12[degrees]27' 07" S e                          96 (82%)
41[degrees]35' 58" W
Alt.: 697 m

                                     Species more important

                                 Families more rich in species

                                           Species        Density
                                                        (individuals
                                           No    %     tree-shrub/ha)

cerrado ralo (site I)     Poaceae          14   14     2.380
12[degrees]26' 18" S      Asteraceae       12   12
41[degrees]30' 53" W      Fabaceae         12   12
Alt.: 857 m               Rubiaceae        8    8
                          Euphorbicaeae    6    6

open cerrado ralo         Poaceae          15   16     2.160
(siteII)                  Fabaceae         12   13
12[degrees] 26' 05" S     Rubiaceae        6    6,5
41[degrees] 31' 05" W     Cyperaceae       5    5,5
Alt.: 889 m               Lamiaceae        5    5,5

rocky outcrop cerrado     Fabaceae         14   13,5   4.960
12[degrees]26' 08" S      Asteraceae       9    9
41[degrees]31' 04" W      Poaceae          9    9
Alt.: 884 m               Rubiaceae        7    7
                          Cyperaceae       5    5

typicalcerrado            Poaceae          20   17     5.250
12[degrees]26' 16" S e    Fabaceae         19   19
41[degrees]31' 11" W      Asteraceae       8    7
Alt.: 843 m               Malvaceae        7    6
                          Euphorbiaceae    6    5

cerrado-caatinga          Poaceae          16   17     3.680
transition                Fabaceae         10   11
12[degrees] 26' 34" S e   Malvaceae        7    7,5
41[degrees] 32' 01" W     Myrtaceae        6    6,5
Alt.: 736 m               Convolvulaceae   5    5.5
                          Euphorbiaceae    5    5,5
                          Rubiaceae        5    5,5

caatinga                  Fabaceae         16   15     6.520
12[degrees]27' 07" S e    Bignoniaceae     15   13
41[degrees]35' 58" W      Euphorbiaceae    13   11
Alt.: 697 m               Malpighiaceae    8    7
                          Cactaceae        7    6

                                   Species more important

                              Families more rich in species

                             Herbaceous-subshrub      IV(%)

cerrado ralo (site I)     Trachypogon spicatus        54
12[degrees]26' 18" S      Bulbostylis fasciculata
41[degrees]30' 53" W      Pavonia cancelata
Alt.: 857 m               Calea harleyi
                          Jacquemontia evolvuloides

open cerrado ralo         Trachypogon                 43
(siteII)                  spicatusStigmaphyllom
12[degrees] 26' 05" S     paraliasAxonopus
41[degrees] 31' 05" W     polydactylus
Alt.: 889 m               Ruellia incompta
                          Bulbostylis fasciculata

rocky outcrop cerrado     Trachypogon spicatus        31
12[degrees]26' 08" S      Echinolaena inflexa
41[degrees]31' 04" W      Axonopus polydactilus
Alt.: 884 m               Stigmaphyllom
                           paraliasSebastiania
                          corniculata

typicalcerrado            Trachypogon spicatus        46
12[degrees]26' 16" S e    Stylosanthes scabra
41[degrees]31' 11" W      Pavonia
Alt.: 843 m               cancellataStigmaphyllom
                          paralias
                          Mimosa somnians
cerrado-caatinga
transition                Hohenbergia cf. caatingae   29
12[degrees] 26' 34" S e   Panicum sp
41[degrees] 32' 01" W     Streptostachys robusta
Alt.: 736 m               Ari s ti da sp.
                          Billbergia portearia

caatinga                  Neoglaziovia variegata      52
12[degrees]27' 07" S e    Poaceae
41[degrees]35' 58" W      Tacinga werneri
Alt.: 697 m               Cryptanthussp.
                          Tacinga funalis

                                     Species more important

                                 Families more rich in species

                                  Shrub-arboreal           IVI(%)

cerrado ralo (site I)     Annona coriacea                  98
12[degrees]26' 18" S      Eugenia punicifolia
41[degrees]30' 53" W      Dugueti a fu rfuracea
Alt.: 857 m               Lippi a microphylla
                          Stryphnodendron sp.

open cerrado ralo         Croton velutinus                 64
(siteII)                  Annona coriacea
12[degrees] 26' 05" S     Agarista cf. chapadensis
41[degrees] 31' 05" W     Hyptis macranta
Alt.: 889 m               Eugenia punicifolia

rocky outcrop cerrado     Croton velutinus                 53
12[degrees]26' 08" S      Annona coriacea
41[degrees]31' 04" W      Lippi a microphylla
Alt.: 884 m               Vochysia thyrsoidea
                          Marcetia taxifolia

typicalcerrado            Annona coriacea                  84
12[degrees]26' 16" S e    Dalbergia miscolobium
41[degrees]31' 11" W      Cordia rufescens
Alt.: 843 m               Solanum stipulaceum
                          Croton heliotropiifolius

cerrado-caatinga          Senegalia riparia                65
transition                Croton adamantinus
12[degrees] 26' 34" S e   Bignoniaceae
41[degrees] 32' 01" W     Croton
Alt.: 736 m               heliotropiifoliusActinostemon
                          concolor

caatinga                  Senegalia tenuifolia             38
12[degrees]27' 07" S e    Maprounea guianensis
41[degrees]35' 58" W      Actinostemon sp.
Alt.: 697 m               Erythroxylum oxypetalum
                          Dalbergia cearensis

Table 2. Averages and standard deviations of the physical and chemical
characteristics of the soils in the different vegetation type areas,
Chapada Diamantina, NE Brazil.

                                  OPI                    OPII

Physical characteristics

DP (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])       2.58 [+ or -] 0.02a     2.59 [+ or -] 0.02a
DS (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])       1.34 [+ or -] 0.02a     1.45 [+ or -] 0.05ab
Porosity (%)             47.99 [+ or -] 0.44a    44.01 [+ or -] 2.69 ab
Total sand (%)           88.66 [+ or -] 1.14a    93.93 [+ or -] 22.84a
Silt (%)                  7.51 [+ or -] 1.06a     3.33 [+ or -] 1.61a
Clay (%)                  3.82 [+ or -] 9.51a     2.74 [+ or -] 1.80a

Chemical characteristics

MO (g/kg)                 4.45 [+ or -] 1.64a     3.51 [+ or -] 2.31a
pH                         5.2 [+ or -] 0.10a     4.73 [+ or -] 0.05bc
P (mg/[dm.sup.3])         0.62 [+ or -] 0.11ab    0.52 [+ or -] 0.07a
Al (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.43 [+ or -] 0.07a     0.48 [+ or -] 0.07a
K (cmol/[dm.sup.3])       0.05 [+ or -] 0.02a     0.05 [+ or -] 0.002a
Ca (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.35 [+ or -] 0.05a     0.51 [+ or -] 0.13a
Mg (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.78 [+ or -] 0.02a     0.36 [+ or -] 0.24a
Na (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.01 [+ or -] 0.005ab   0.01 [+ or -] 0a
Potential acidity         11.6 [+ or -] 1.19b     4.78 [+ or -] 1.86a
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
Sum of bases              1.19 [+ or -] 0.04ab    0.90 [+ or -] 0.15a
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
CEC (cmolc/[dm.sup.3])   12.80 [+ or -] 1.14c     6.01 [+ or -] 1.55ab
Base saturation (%)       9.66 [+ or -] 1.15ab   16.67 [+ or -] 5.03bc

                                  ROC                     TC

Physical characteristics

DP (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])       2.58 [+ or -] 0.005a     2.55 [+ or -] 0.02a
DS (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])       1.40 [+ or -] 0.08ab     1.46 [+ or -] 0.02b
Porosity (%)             44.48 [+ or -] 2.22 ab   42.54 [+ or -] 1.35b
Total sand (%)           91.73 [+ or -] 3.21a     91.28 [+ or -] 2.89a
Silt (%)                  6.89 [+ or -] 2.10a      4.58 [+ or -] 2.99a
Clay (%)                  1.37 [+ or -] 1.12a      4.13 [+ or -] 4.03a

Chemical characteristics

MO (g/kg)                 4.51 [+ or -] 1.90a      7.08 [+ or -] 1.36ab
pH                        4.83 [+ or -] 0.05b      4.36 [+ or -] 0.11d
P (mg/[dm.sup.3])         0.87 [+ or -] 0.11b      1.24 [+ or -] 0.11c
Al (cmol/[dm.sup.3])       0.4 [+ or -] 0.08a      0.77 [+ or -] 0.15b
K (cmol/[dm.sup.3])       0.03 [+ or -] 0.005a     0.04 [+ or -] 0.005a
Ca (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.37 [+ or -] 0.05a      0.47 [+ or -] 0.15a
Mg (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.80 [+ or -] 0.68a      0.56 [+ or -] 0.18a
Na (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.01 [+ or -] 0a         0.01 [+ or -] 0.005ab
Potential acidity         9.29 [+ or -] 1.99b      4.40 [+ or -] 1.65a
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
Sum of bases              0.87 [+ or -] 0.12a      1.08 [+ or -] 0.14a
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
CEC (cmolc/[dm.sup.3])   10.16 [+ or -] 2.03bc     5.48 [+ or -] 1.75a
Base saturation (%)       9.00 [+ or -] 1.73a     19.00 [+ or -] 2.64c

                                  CCT                     CAA

Physical characteristics

DP (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])       2.55 [+ or -] 0.04a      2.58 [+ or -] 0.05a
DS (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])       1.39 [+ or -] 0.02ab     1.45 [+ or -] 0.017ab
Porosity (%)             45.44 [+ or -] 0.44 ab   43.68 [+ or -] 1.25 ab
Total sand (%)           71.87 [+ or -] 4.07b     67.07 [+ or -] 3.91b
Silt (%)                  7.11 [+ or -] 2.17a     12.51 [+ or -] 7.69a
Clay (%)                 21.01 [+ or -] 2.1b      20.42 [+ or -] 3.41b

Chemical characteristics

MO (g/kg)                15.59 [+ or -] 8.34b      8.65 [+ or -] 0.24ab
pH                        4.00 [+ or -] 0.1e       4.56 [+ or -] 0.05cd
P (mg/[dm.sup.3])         0.77 [+ or -] 0.11ab     0.70 [+ or -] 0.19b
Al (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      1.32 [+ or -] 0.07c      0.50 [+ or -] 0.10ab
K (cmol/[dm.sup.3])       0.12 [+ or -] 0.04b      0.12 [+ or -] 0.004b
Ca (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.64 [+ or -] 0.14ab     0.92 [+ or -] 0.17b
Mg (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.80 [+ or -] 0.10a      0.82 [+ or -] 0.42a
Na (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      0.02 [+ or -] 0.005b     0.01 [+ or -] 0.00a
Potential acidity         5.17 [+ or -] 0.34a      4.67 [+ or -] 1.27a
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
Sum of bases              1.58 [+ or -] 0.07bc     1.87 [+ or -] 0.26c
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
CEC (cmolc/[dm.sup.3])    6.74 [+ or -] 0.41ab     6.55 [+ or -] 1.53ab
Base saturation (%)      23.67 [+ or -] 0.57cd    29.00 [+ or -] 2.64d

                           F

Physical characteristics

DP (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])      0.90
DS (Kg/[dm.sup.-3])      3.43
Porosity (%)             3.97
Total sand (%)           42.81
Silt (%)                 2.20
Clay (%)                 37.20

Chemical characteristics

MO (g/kg)                4.36
pH                       70.29
P (mg/[dm.sup.3])        12.15
Al (cmol/[dm.sup.3])     38.12
K (cmol/[dm.sup.3])      19.01
Ca (cmol/[dm.sup.3])     7.96
Mg (cmol/[dm.sup.3])     2.18
Na (cmol/[dm.sup.3])     4.80
Potential acidity        12.44
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
Sum of bases             21.19
(cmolc/[dm.sup.3])
CEC (cmolc/[dm.sup.3])   10.84
Base saturation (%)      25.05

Different letters in the same lines indicate significant differences
between the vegetation types (ANOVA, P<0.05). Densities of particles
(DP), soil density (DS), porosity and proportions of total sand, silt,
and clay and the chemical characteristics (organic matter (MO),
phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium
(Mg), sodium (Na), Potential acidity, sum of bases (SB), cationic
exchange capacity (CEC), and base saturation. Chapada Diamantina, NE
Brazil. OPI = open cerrado I, OP II = open cerrado II, ROC = rocky
outcroup cerrado, TC = typical cerrado, CCT = cerrado-caatinga
transition, and CAA = caatinga. F values from ANOVA.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Neves, S.P.S.; Funch, R.; Conceicao, A.A.; Miranda, L.A.P.; Funch, L.S.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Date:Apr 1, 2016
Words:11378
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