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What's New in Minerals.

Tucson Show 2000

[Feb. 1-14]

As the new millennium opens, and no apocalyptic misfortunes have so far kicked in (unless you count certain presidential candidates), it is a pleasure to note that in the mineral world our greatest show has come over the cusp unchanged and undiminished: it is still great, and still a playland of fun and plenty for everyone. Marty Zinn's hotel show has expanded into big white tents between the Executive and Ramada Inns; the Main Show's mineral dealers, formerly situated on the leeward side of the hall, have switched to starboard, exchanging places with the gem/ lapidary dealers; there is still the background buzz of grousing by customers that "there's nothing much new here," and by some dealers of the slack time in business between the opening of the hotel show and the Main Show. But I can think of no significant qualitative changes to report on, which is the best of millennial news! (And, by the by, my broken foot is completely back up to speed, and I do mean this literally: hotel staffers could have clocked me at warp speed as I covered the corridor distance between, say, a nice stilbite and a nicer stibnite.)

I'll forego further introductory expostulation, because there is a great deal to report on. Not that the show exactly brimmed with dramatic new knockout discoveries, but there did seem to be a near-record number of interesting mineral offerings, both of the brand new kind and of things coming into their second or third reincarnation.

The first item up, as it happens, is a dramatic knockout discovery: probably the finest large topaz specimens ever found in North America. In earlier show reports I have mentioned Harvey Gordon's preliminary work on the pegmatites of the Zapot claim, near Hawthorne, Mineral County, Nevada. (And see the July--August 1999 issue with an article on the claim, published before the big topaz discovery.) Until recently the Zapot claim has been modestly productive of greenish blue microcline ("amazonite"), smoky quartz, and blue topaz specimens. The big breakthrough for Harvey and his crew came on October 28, 1999, when the "Trick or Treat Pocket" was opened; eventually it yielded about 100 large topaz specimens, with bluish gray to greenish blue to aquamarine-blue, sharp, highly lustrous, gemmy crystals. The three biggest measure 24 cm, 21 cm, and 15 cm across the tops; they are wedgeterminated and thick, with gemminess filling the better parts of their interiors, and they protrude from massive white feldspar matri x. Smaller sizes of this wonderful gem topaz, down to thumbnails, are available from Harvey Gordon Minerals (500 Ballentyne Way, Reno, NV 89502). Nor are the specimens of Zapot Claim smoky quartz at all shabby: single, thick, part-gemmy prisms, some with cathedral growth patterns, reaching 40 cm high. The Zapot topaz showcase at the Main Show, with several of the biggest and best matrix specimens, was a real attention-grabber, holding its own even against the Freilich Collection cases (see later) next door.

Partners Greg Ferdock and Scott Kleine of Great Basin Minerals (3895 Lisa Ct., #C, Reno, NV 89503-1125) have brought out some new Nevada barite, found five weeks ago at the Dee gold mine, just 4 miles north of the now-famous Barrick Meikle mine, Elko County. The Dee mine barites are fatter and more wedgy than the Barrick Meikle habit, and more orange. They are transparent, but not nearly as lustrous or as generally impressive as the Barrick Meikle specimens. The Dee crystals, which can reach 5 cm on edge, form solid clusters on a pale brown spongy limestone matrix up to 30 cm across. There was quite a generous lot of this material at the Great Basin room in the Executive Inn, and more specimens had already reached a few other dealers around the show.

But Casey and Jane Jones of Geoprime (120 E. Colorado Blvd., Monrovia, CA 91016) were not to be outdone in the Nevada barite department--nor in the Nevada stibnite department. This room in the InnSuites featured the products of the (take a deep breath) Anglogolds Jerritt Canyon Joint Venture Murray mine, near Elko, Elko County, where there was a good strike of stibnite a year and a half ago, but an even better strike last October, the stibnite this time accompanied by what the Joneses were familiarly calling "sugarcube" barite. The stibnite clusters from both mining epochs are some of the best ever found in the U.S., with lustrous prisms to 30 cm long, in shaggy clusters in jumbo sizes. The barite "sugarcubes" are equant pseudorhombs to 2.5 cm, solidly covered, and sugar-sparkling, with quartz micr[grave{o}]crystal coatings. These make a beautiful contrast with the metallic black stibnite spears which they perch on, encrust or are impaled by. About 100 excellent miniature and cabinet-sized specimens were col lected, and the Joneses plan to return soon for more.

You have already heard about the final Nevada item: the terrific strike of brilliantly lustrous clusters of orpiment cryst[grave{a}]ls, with sharp individuals reaching 2 or 3 cm, on black shaly matrix, from Cut 62 of the Twin Creeks mine, Humboldt County. We owe these to the miracle-workers of Bryan Lees' Collector's Edge mining crew, who extracted them last summer; when Wendell Wilson reported on them from Denver the specimens were not yet for sale. In Tucson they were: an amazing abundance of them, both in an InnSuites room and at the Collector's Edge stand at the Main Show. The smaller ones were refreshingly inexpensive for world--class specimens of a beautiful mineral: $25 or $50 could buy an outstanding thumbnail. Specimen sizes ranged from there up to 35 cm across. Bryan assures us that we need not worry unduly that the orpiment will deteriorate; he will tell you about his expert preparation and stabilization techniques, as well as about the locality generally, and his diggings there, in a forthcoming article.

Several flats of miniature and cabinet-sized specimens of magnetite, and of the unusual combination of magnetite and fluorapatite were offered by John Seibel of Seibel Minerals (P.O. Box 95, Tehachapi, CA 93581), who dug them last October from pockets in granite near Cedar City, Iron County, Utah. The magnetite octahedrons are sharp and very black with slightly curved, scalloped faces and bright luster; individuals reach 4.5 cm on edge, and they intergrow very nicely, with plenty of spaces to show crystal edges, in heavy, hunky groups. John also had many flats of loose, pale yellow, gemmy (though internally crazed) fluorapatite prisms with pyramidal terminations. The really elite specimens, though, are the ones on which the two species come together, with yellow apatite crystals rising from a jumble of magnetite; the very best of these, measuring 4 x 5 x 12 cm, went for $600.

Coming to Colorado, as I do now, is inevitably to revisit the Sweet Home mine, and the indefatigable Collector's Edge mining crew. Graham Sutton, the new mine manager, had a pocket named after him ("Graham's Pocket"), which was hit in December 1998, and which produced a fabulous rhodochrosite specimen displayed at the Main Show (see later). The best pocket of 1999 came in late September: an 18 x 20-inch vug called "Steve's Pocket," after marketer Steve Behling. These and other smaller, recent pockets have tended to yield deep gemmy red rhodochrosite crystals with preferential face-coatings of purple fluorite crystals, for a fine aesthetic effect. A bit more Sweet Home mine skinny: after its start-up in May 1999, the mine went on year-round working status; i.e. mining continued through the winter and is ongoing now (Tucson showtime), and after a brief pause in March/April 2000, it will reopen in May. The gorgeous new rhodochrosites at the Collector's Edge stand at the Main Show seemed adequately to explain wh y the work here is getting more intensive all the time--pretty good for a once highly speculative "specimen mine" which was to have been worked for only five seasons (1991-1996).

There are two bits of rare-zeolite news from Alaska. For one, late 1999 saw the collecting of many very fine large specimens of barrerite from Rocky Pass, Kuiu Island, Alaska. Barrerite is a sodium-rich member of the stilbite group, and the snow-white, slightly brown-stained sharp crystal blades and sheaves (individual blades reaching 3 cm) look just like stilbite. They form solid groups to 10 cm across, or cluster in seams in gray-green weathered basalt. A 1997 paper in The Canadian Mineralogist (Vol. 35, pp. 691--698) confirms that this material is indeed barrerite, for which Kuiu Island is only the second (and easily the better) world occurrence. There were three specimen sources in Tucson: the claim owner, Istvan Toth, had about a dozen cabinet-sized pieces at the Days Inn, while more and better ones reposed at the Executive Inn with Jordi Fabre and with Hungarian dealer Andras Lelkes (Hercegprimas u. 11, 1051 Budapest, Hungary).

Speaking of Alaska, my old college buddy Doug Toland has recently moved from Alaska to Idaho, but before doing so he collected something he would like the world to know more about: very fine crystals of yugawaralite, from an outcrop along the Chena Hot Springs Road, near Fairbanks, These were not available in Tucson, but a few northwesterners have specimens, and to inquire about them you may contact Doug at his woodsy retreat at 667 Meadow View Road, Sagle, ID 83860. The yugawaralite crystals are not quite the equals of the recent ones from India, but are probably second best in the world: very sharp, transparent and colorless toothy blades to 2 cm sitting up on a white quartzite matrix. Unfortunately they are often solidly coated with microcrystals of quartz, but specimens wherein the yugawaralite blades "show prism" (you know, like "showing leg") are very appealing. Specimen sizes are mostly thumbnail and miniature, Doug tells me.

The last American news is from my own corner of the country, New England, which still does corner the market on world-class babingtonite crystals. From Springfield I reported that Rocko Rosenblatt of Rocko Minerals (Box 3A Route 3, Margaretville, NY 12455) had a few nice thumbnails of babingtonite on prehnite, recently collected at the revived Lane quarry, Westfield, Massachusetts. He had a few more in Tucson, and rumors flew of extraordinarily fine, large/sharp/lustrous black crystals, although I saw only one of these (in the keeping of Rob Lavinsky). Further rumors had it that the Roncari quarry near East Granby, Connecticut had also lately turned out world-class babingtonite. I was unable to track down any of these "killers," although the mid-grade ones at Rocko's, all thumbnails, were still very nice to look at: sharp, slightly rough-surfaced, black terminated prisms to about 1.25 cm long, sitting nicely on little spheroids of brownish green prehnite. The Roncari quarry is known for its very fine datolit e crystals, but this is a first for babingtonite from this place. Oh yes, from the Lane quarry, Rocko also had ten miniatures with lustrous, very deep blackish green epidote in drusy coatings over quartz crystals and quartz/anhydrite casts. These sparkly little specimens were acid-etched out of calcite vein fillings, and were collected just this past winter (hence not seen in Springfield).

Several dealers offered mostly small, modest specimens of the pale green reniform smithsonite now coming from Level 8 of the San Antonio mine, Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua, Mexico. These are glistening little distorted droplets, with hemimorphite in tiny bladed crystals, and also in more glistening white droplets, on a matrix of iron-stained massive smithsonite. But much more rarely, the smithsonite here is blue, and then it looks almost exactly like Kelly mine, New Mexico, smithsonite at its best, and makes lovely specimens up to 35 cm across. Dave Bunk (1441 W. 46th Ave., Unit #8, Denver, CO 80211) brought together three different lots of the blue stuff, all dug within the last six months, and was offering about 100 pieces at his Main Show Stand.

Further, Dave gets an honorable mention for repeating his last year's shelf of exquisite small specimens of silver minerals from Mexico, and for yet another flamboyant single-shelf performance: about 50 superlative specimens of galena in all sizes, some from hot contemporary localities like Dalnegorsk and the Madan district, Bulgaria, and some from old hallowed places like Neudorf, Germany; Leadhills, Scotland; and Phoenixville, Pennsylvania.

Thomas Gary Nagin of Crystals Springs Mining (P.O. Box 40, Royal, AR 71968) had a showroom in the InnSuites lobby all full of quartz, of course; but the most interesting shelves held perhaps 175 specimens in all sizes from a new strike of Japan-law twins at the Pampa Blanca mine, Ica Department, Peru--dug within the last six months. The twins are all very sharp, with varying re-entrant angles, slightly milky to clear within but with an appealing frostiness of surface luster on many. The biggest individual twin I saw is 6 cm across the wingtips. There are many loose thumbnail twins for which the best word, I'm afraid, is "cute," but there are also amazing large groups with twins thrown together at all angles; one stunning 15 x 30-cm cluster is topped by a 1.5 x 5 x 5-cm twin ($8500). The matrix, when present (rarely), is an altered greenish-grayish white rock. I'd guess that this is the best, most abundant new find of Japan-twinned quartz from anywhere in a good long while.

Another new Peruvian find was being offered at the Executive Inn by Dr. Jaroslav Hyr[check{s}]l (Heverova 222, CZ-280 00 Kolin 4, Czech Republic). Here were about 10 miniatures and small cabinet-sized specimens of tennantite pseudomorphs after enargite, dug last September at the Julcani mine, Huancavelica. The crystals, which reach 7 cm high but are mostly around 2 or 3 cm, are sharp, excellent representations of the enargite form, except that they are now tennantite: broken ones reveal mealy, chewed-out-looking interiors where alteration was still under way, under the solid, bright metallic gray-black skins. The matrix, when present, consists of translucent subhedral gray-white barite crystals.

And speaking of Peruvian barite, Scott Werschky of Global Mineral Resources (30 High Ridge Court, Reno, NV 89511) had a couple of flats of excellent miniatures and thumbnails of lustrous milky white barite, in thin, stepped, compound bladed crystals to 2 cm, on black sulfide matrixes, from the Huanzala mine, Dos de Mayo Province, Huanuco Department. I vaguely remembered reading of these in the Peru Issue, but Scott's were the first I'd seen, and they are beautiful little specimens (which must be why I bought a thumbnail: only $15).

Just last month (January 2000), a small pocket in the Urupuca mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil, gave up about 100 specimens of what is probably the prettiest lepidolite I've ever seen; a few pieces were being offered in the Executive Inn by Paulo and Fabiano Vasconcelas (Rue Alfonso Pena, 3053, Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil). From a matrix of pale green parallel bladed crystals of cleavelandite, with garnishes of quartz and gemmy green elbaite crystals, rise dense forests of brilliant purplish pink lepidolite, the "trees" being compound prisms which fan a bit at the tops, where offset hexagonal pinacoid terminations show nicely. These few specimens, from about 3 to 12 cm, are beautiful things, with interlocked bright lilac lepidolite featherdusters glittering all over them.

Luiz Menezes (Rue Esmeralda, 534, Belo Horizonte 30410-080, Brazil) had the scoop on last October's new strike of stokesite at the Urucum mine, Galileia, Minas Gerais. We've known this occurrence in the form of loose, single thumbnail-sized spheres of tiny pinkish-grayish brown stokesite crystals, but the new specimens are much larger; indeed some are on matrix, up to 10 x 12 cm, of greenish cleavelandite with multiple stokesite spheres sitting in solution cavities. There are also loose clusters of spheres to 4 cm, and in some of the spheres the usual rough coating of cookeite or lepidolite is absent, so that colorless transparent stokesite crystals to 2 mm may be seen.

Edson Endrigo of Valadares Minerals (new address: Rua Dr. Jesuino Maciel 1358, Sao Paulo, Brazil) informed me that, yes, the Urucum mine is open and mining gems again: hence the new-improved stokesites, and hence too Edson's hundreds of thumbnails and miniatures of kunzite spodumene, in loose, typically etched crystals with rippled surfaces but total gemminess and a gorgeous lilac color. Edson says that he's seen newly dug, sharp, euhedral kunzite crystals a meter long from the Urucum mine.

Carlos Barbosa had about 20 specimens from a new find of variscite at an aluminum prospect pit near Itumbiari, Goias. Very oddly, these are shiny, 5-mm to 1-cm spheres of microcrystals of variscite, and they are a bright emerald green, presumably from trace chromium. They sit in vugs in a hard grayish chalcedony; some brown iron staining in localized spots on the little green spheres actually helps the aesthetic effect.

Finally from Brazil, I must mention two fine, lustrous floater crystals of emerald (long prisms and flat basal faces + tiny pyramids), from the Brumado mine, Bahia, lurking in one of the flats that Brad Van Scriver let me paw through in the Executive Inn room of Heliodor (P.O. Box 10, 19921 Prague 9, Czech Republic). The crystals are both 1.5 x 1.5 x 3.5 cm, internally somewhat crazed and clouded but a winning pale to deep green. Other dealers had more of these beautiful crystals.

Readers will have learned by now, from the January-February issue, about the major fluorite-mining project recently undertaken at the Rogerley mine, Weardale, County Durham, England, by an American consortium called UK Mining Ventures; Wendell Wilson mentioned the subject in his Denver report. At his Main Show stand, Cal Graeber, a member of the group, was selling some of the hundreds and hundreds of green fluorite specimens which came out of a series of pockets hit in June and July 1999. These pockets produced, Cal says, about 1800 pieces, from toenails to 2-foot plates, with classic sea-green penetration-twin fluorite cubes to 3.5 cm on a matrix of quartzite-replaced limestone. Also included are dull gray octrahedral galena crystals to 1 cm. None of the fluorites so far, unfortunately, come up in color or luster to the best of the old-timers from this place; Cal showed me an abundance of "almost" ones at the Main Show, while Bill Pogue showed an equal abundance of medium-range ones in the Executive Inn roo m of Pegmatite Mining Specialists (P.O. Box 989, Del Mar, CA 92014). Flats of specimens placed anywhere near this room's exposure to the sunlight began visibly to come alive with the glamorous/ghostly blue fluorescence for which this fluorite is noted. More work is planned for next summer at the locality.

Jordi Fabre had, as usual, some new things from Spain. One of these was "kongsbergite"--the varietal name some people give to native silver when it gets sufficiently high in mercury; these pieces have been found to contain 10% Hg. Jordi's 50 or so thumbnails and miniatures were found in September 1999 at a barite quarry called the Roza de Santa Matilde, Herrer[acute{i}]as, Almer[acute{i}]a. The specimens are pretty, but alarmingly delicate, with bright webworks of filiform silver rising from small matrixes of a brick-red jasper and/or white barite. Jordi says that microcrystalline chlorargyrite is interspersed also, helping, we hope, to hold these lacy little structures together.

Jordi also had 10 specimens, from 5 x 6 up to 10 x 10 cm, of flattish plates with mounds of prehnite in very lustrous, greenish gray spherical aggregates over quartz, with tiny acicular colorless crystals of clinozoisite sometimes showing on the undersides of the plates. These pieces were taken in February 1999 from "a pocket as big as a truck" in a granite quarry at La Cabrera, near Madrid. They are an odd color for prehnite, and very attractive.

The Van Scrivers of Heliodor (see under Brumado emerald) have just scored a buying coup: they are now the proud owners and offerers of the former private collection of Pierre Choulat of Chamonix, France--all fine French Alpine material of famous sorts. For example, there is a great variety of habits of quartz, in many miniatures and thumbnails, from the Mt. Blanc area: groups of amethystine-tinged bipyramids, or smoky gwindels, or dreamy little fadens. Also there are fine cabinet-sized specimens of smoky quartz, including some gwindels, to 10 cm across, and there are a few pink octahedral fluorite crystals, from 1 cm to 3.5 cm, with the smaller, more richly pink ones sitting on clear or smoky quartz crystals. Also from the same collection there are a few beautiful groups of very thin (almost "needle") prisms of clear quartz from the classic La Gardette mine, Is[acute{e}]re--these bristling specimens to 9 cm across.

Approaching the stand of Francois Lietard (Minerive) at the Main Show, I was expecting his usual exclusive focus on contemporary finds from the Himalayas, and indeed most of his stock was of this type. But as a Frenchman he seemed proud to be showing off also a hoard of 35 very fine specimens of pyromorphite from the Les Farges mine, Ussel, France. This mine operated only between about 1975 and 1980, so the world-class pyromorphites from here are already classics. Ussel pyromorphite is known for its playful quirkiness in the color department; even on the same specimen, crystals of different generations may range from a vivid medium apple-green, to dark green, to lustrous greenish brown, to duller brown. Francois had samples of nearly all such combinations, and even a few of the cherished "polka dot" specimens, with mustard-yellow tips on green-brown prisms. The fat, convex barrels with terminal hoppering can get to 1.5 cm; the matrix is a gossany quartz/limonite and/or white barite. Francois' specimens ran f rom thumbnails up to 20 cm long, and they were, in all, the best lot of this material I've seen since I lived in Europe during the mine's brief heyday.

In the Executive Inn, mining engineer Peter Tutt (Polsumer Str. 1,45894 Gelsenkirchen, Germany) was offering a couple of flats of what he called "black" fluorite, collected last year, just before final closing of the old Markus R[ddot{o}]hling silver mine, Annaberg, Obersachsen, Germany. Actually it isn't black, although at first glance it looks that way, because of a very, very dark purple surface zone on the amber-brown crystals. The specimens consist of plates, from 4.5 to 20 cm across, of interlocked simple sharp cubes, uniformly around 2 cm on edge, over massive fluorite. They are blackly attractive, unusual fluorite specimens, and a good miniature runs around $100.

From Italy this year comes a new barite occurrence--how much barite can you stand in a single report?--in a small open-pit mine near Carbonia, Sardinia. The barite crystals are very stout and wedge-terminated, to 5 cm, and of a lovely transparent yellow-orange color, nicely glassy and clean and bright; they make jumbled groups on massive barite/calcite matrix to 25 cm across. About 30 such cabinet specimens are available: the last which are likely to be collected, according to Riccardo Prato of Gemmologi Gia (Via del Piatti, 2, 20132 Milano, Italy).

From Switzerland this year comes a major replenishment of the sparse stock of fine specimens of cafarsite lately seen at diverse dealerships. The dozen small specimens offered this time by Heliodor are first-rate crystal examples of this rare arsenate species, whose only significant occurrence is in clefts on Monte Cervandonne (if you are on the south, Italian side of the mountain) or Mt. Cherbadung (if you are on the north, Swiss side). It seems that in the summer of 1999, a lucky/skillful Strahler broke into an ice-filled pocket on the Swiss side (the precise locality, as given by the conscientious labelers of Heliodor, is Wannigletscher, Cherbadung, Binntal, Canton Valais, Switzerland), where he found a handful of loose, very sharp single crystals and small crystal clusters. These have smooth faces, crisp edges, a rich chocolate-brown color, and a complexity of isometric forms, though on the largest crystals the octahedron predominates. Most of the single cafarsite crystals at Heliodor are at least two-th irds complete, and range from 1.5 to 2 cm; these cost around $150, while a 3.5-cm cluster is $750. I would suggest that such prices are reasonable, if not low, for top representatives of a rare, and even fairly attractive, Alpine species.

More modestly, Andre Gorsatt found, last July, a few smoky gray, pearly-translucent to transparent, twin crystals of dolomite, as thumbnail-size floaters, on the Turbenalp, Binntal, Valais. Good dolomite is rare from Switzerland, and a 2.5-cm twin (like the one I bought) is a bargain at $20. Andre could be found again in the "Swiss" room I went on so long about last year; the dealership is Swiss Minerals (CH-3996 Binn-Imfeld, Switzerland).

Leaving Europe, we pause briefly at the old classic locality called Z[ddot{o}]ptau (Czechs actually call it Sobot[acute{i}]na), in Moravia, central Czech Republic; and to see what is new/old from there we pause at the Main Show stand of Petr Korbel's Eastern Minerals (Vysokoskolska 488/8, 165 00 Praha 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic). Mineralized clefts of the Alpine type at Z[ddot{o}]ptau have long been known for fine epidote specimens, with minor albite, apatite, and prehnite; the locality has been reworked recently, and although no superlative epidote crystals have yet been found, Petr had a few very presentable ones, loose thumbnail-sized prisms and little clusters, of a pistachio-green color and high luster, although there's considerable fracturing of the crystals, and many terminations are missing. But, yes, someone is out there working on the old place, and who knows what they'll come up with tomorrow?

You can count on Dudley Blauwet of Mountain Minerals International to have a lot of scrumptious little gem crystals, usually from the Himalayas, although sometimes, like fellow Himalayas-man Francois Lietard, he surprises you with just-as-goodies from elsewhere too. The most impressive things at Dudley's Main Show stand this year, I thought, were from the Merelani mine, Tanzania, yes, "the tanzanite place." There were, of course, several ravishing thumbnail gem crystals of tanzanite, but more unusual were his three toenail clusters of grossular. These sharp dodecahedrons to 1.3 cm have a distinctive pale green color and are vividly lustrous and totally gemmy, piling up in brilliant loose groups. Rob Lavinsky of the Arkenstone also had several superb specimens. Blauwet also had equally brilliant and gemmy 2.5-cm diopside crystals from the Merelani, pale apple-green: one loose single, and one implanted on a silvery gray matrix of graphite.

Gilbert Gauthier, at the Main Show, had about 30 shining loose thumbnail-sized cassiterite specimens, in a style he was calling "quadruple twins": the fine morphological points escaped me, but it appears as if single blocky crystals grew on each of the four faces of a pseudo-octahedron, rising to make a roughly square shape. Just as unusual is the locality: the Kirengo mine, Rwanda, where, Gilbert said, Mr. Gordon Complain, an engineer at the mine, collected these specimens around 1970. They would be top-class cassiterites if their edges were not conspicuously abraded from their many years of adventures.

Top-class, though, is the word for the two specimens of "primary" malachite from the Kalengwa mine, Zambia, being shown in the Executive Inn by Norbert St[ddot{o}]tzel (Am Johannesseifen 19, 57076 Siegen, Germany). The larger specimen is a 10-cm massive chalcocite/cuprite matrix, with 4-cm lush green fans of parallel malachite crystals rising at many points; sadly, though, there is much damage to the fans. The killer is the smaller piece: a 4 x 4-cm matrix with a large open cavity, lined with quartz crystals, from which rises an undamaged 2.7-cm malachite spray of stunning aspect. Norbert said that a German collector took these specimens out two years ago, from this long-abandoned copper prospect somewhere in the Zambian bush; I hope he has sold the smaller piece to a major collection, as it is arguably one of the world's very best malachites.

Bryan Lees' mining crew last year launched a major assault on the Namibian pegmatites of Mile 72, Swakopmund, which are the source of those legendary blue jeremeyevite crystals. As of September 1999, Bryan's crew had completely dug out the pancake-shaped pegmatite pods and the small dikes from which the blue jeremeyevites once came, and had found dozens of jeremeyevite crystals. Unfortunately these are a wan pale yellow, very thin, singly terminated at best, and without much luster, though they are semi-gemmy. The longest crystal is about 4 cm long and 5 mm wide and thick; the majority are in 1.5 to 2-cm length range. Rob Lavinsky, who bought them, would like you to know that when they are cleaned a bit more they will be available through The Virtual Show and "in person" at Denver. I can't say they're very impressive to look at, but they are from a classic locality for one of the rarest of rare/desirable species. Rob Lavinsky, by the way, is honcho of The Arkenstone (P.O. Box 948627, La Jolla, CA 92037), whi le his partner, John Veevaert, owns Trinity Mineral Company (P.O. Box 2182, Weaverville, CA 96093-2182); together they run The Virtual Show (john@the-virtualshow.com). These guys have a very sophisticated and decidedly "coming" mineral operation; they are selling large numbers of specimens over the internet, not just for themselves and collector consignees, but also for other dealers. Oftentimes they advertise specimens on the net which are at that moment also for sale in some other dealer's room, so the home shopper can compete directly with the show-goer!

From Springfield I described the handsome new schorl crystals now beginning to come from the "Erongo Mountains," Namibia, and there were more in Tucson, both in the smaller sizes and up to 15-cm lustrous black subparallel fan-groups of terminated crystals. Rocko (again) had some, but the best were with Clive Queit (Box 1014, Fourways, 2055 Republic of South Africa). Clive also had a few nice, lustrous, greenish blue, gemmy, loose aquamarine crystals from this place.

The friendly Italians at Gemmologi Gia (see under Sardinian barite) also had about 20 fine chrysoberyl specimens found recently at Anzakobe, Madagascar--and a copy of a recent Lapis article about the find. These are bright yellow-green fishtail twins, tightly compact and not gemmy, but lustrous and of sharp, clean form, in miniature to small-cabinet sizes.

And everyone should be informed that many of the very large, very yellow and lustrous, very attractive crystals from Madagascar that heretofore have been called "rhodizite" have now been shown to be londonite, a new species which is the cesium analog of rhodizite, i.e. (Cs,K)[Al.sub.4][Be.sub.4][(B,Be).sub.12][O.sub.28]. According to Skip Simmons, a co-author of the IMA-approved but as yet unpublished formal description (who gave permission for us to mention the name), some of the crystals are rhodizite and some are londonite; some are white and some are yellow, but color does not correlate with composition. The most attractive specimens have shining yellow dodecahedrons to 4 cm embedded in a pegmatite vein material containing schorl, reddish purple tourmaline and quartz.

V[acute{a}]clav Budina of KARP Minerals (P.O. Box 54, 272 80 Kladno, Czech Republic) had some mineralogical news from, of all places, Iran. Last summer, he told me, some Czechs brought out a good supply of unusual hematite specimens from an iron mine on Hormuz Island, and he had samples to prove it, in the KARP room at the Executive Inn. The hematite crystals are mostly loose, horizontally striated hexagonal prisms with wavy faces (think corundum), black, with a medium-bright submetallic luster, all from 1.5 to 2.5 cm high. Also there are a few thumbnail and small-miniature groups of more conventional modified rhombohedrons of hematite: they are not especially remarkable-looking. More investigations are planned.

Much more exciting to look at are the new rutile specimens from Mount Kapudzhuk in Azerbaijan, reportedly quite near the Armenian border. Wendell Wilson provided the first notice of these (and a photograph) in his Denver report, and I'm pleased to say that specimens of the material were quite plentiful around the show. These are, at their best, dramatically fine rutile specimens, with brilliant, blocky, complex bright crystals to 3 cm sitting loosely on white quartz matrix with iron-stained milky quartz crystals. Except for the quartz association, these rutile crystals would strongly resemble those of Graves Mountain, Georgia--which is saying a lot for their quality. Among the dealers who had them in Tucson were KARP, John Attard, Gemmologia Gia, and Michel Jouty (in his new hideout in the Frontier Hotel), but there were many others.

On to Russia. In the Executive Inn room of the Urals Geological Museum I found none other than Dr. Evgeni Burlakov, whose two recent Mineralogical Record articles on the Puiva and Dodo mines I translated from their German versions in Lapis. We were glad to meet, and I was glad to know what to look for in his offerings of some recently dug specimens from both mines. The only species significantly represented was titanite, but in some fine pieces from both the Puiva and Dodo mines. The Dodo titanites (thumbnails and miniatures) are lustrous, sharp, translucent yellow-brown cyclic twins; in the matrix miniatures these twins reach 1.5 cm, and densely coat scaly gray-green amphibolite, while the thumbnails are floater twins of the same size, with flaring wings. Perhaps more scientifically interesting are the large matrix plates from the Puiva mine: same scaly amphibolite, but in pieces to 15 cm across, all studded with sharp, chlorite-dusted titanite twins to 1 cm, with tiny sharp gray calcite rhombs. Some of the other Puiva pieces show tight mounds of intergrown titanites over smoky quartz crystals.

Back again in the KARP room we find the show's only offering (that I noticed) of significant numbers of sperrylite specimens from the now-famous locality of Talnakh, near Noril'sk, Siberia. Word is that mining is ending now at this extraordinary platinum deposit, so we may soon see even fewer such specimens; even this lot, the KARP folks said, was collected more than two years ago. Familiar, by now, is the amazingly bright metallic luster of these sharp, complex, tin-white platinum arsenide crystals embedded in mineralogically complex, heavy, dense sulfide matrix. The KARP selection consisted of about a dozen thumbnails and miniatures, with the sperrylite crystals (5 mm to 1 cm) in varying states of completeness, and, stashed away in a drawer, a wonderful 4 x 4 x 9-cm iridescent matrix with a complete 2.2 cm sperrylite crystal, among many others arrayed along the top.

On the way out of the KARP room at last, let's pause to admire the new pyrite thumbnails from the Nikolay mine, Dalnegorsk: sharp, bright, lightly striated pyritohedrons to 1 cm that sit up, or nestle and hide, in a very peculiar matrix, of a gray-green, finely stalactiform calcite that looks like a cluster of little mud pillars such as are created by tunnelling insects. These are most odd-looking pyrite specimens--good for your Dalnegorsk suite--and the best of the thumbnails only runs around $25.

A major new find has just come out of Pakistan, escorted by Herb Obodda (P.O. Box 51, Short Hills, NJ 07078), who had 12 specimens at his Main Show stand. It is the rare pyroxene species clinoenstatite, from Astore, Nanga Parbat Area near Chilas, Pakistan, and it is very good-looking for a pyroxene: deep blackish green, resembling epidote, in thin-bladed to blocky, sharp crystals to 3 cm long. These crystals have light vertical striations, crisp monoclinic angles at the terminations, and a very bright glassy overall luster. Specimens ranged in size from a couple of thumbnails up to a 6 x 12-cm cluster. All were pricey, but these are certainly the world's best (maybe even the world's only presentable) crystal specimens of the species.

Upon wandering, one night, into the Executive Inn room occupied by Rob Lavinsky and John Veevaert's Virtual Show, I had a real learning experience about kunzite spodumene--and saw a couple of terrific kunzite crystals too. One of these monsters was 3.5 x 7 x 19 cm, the other 6 x 11 x 32 cm! They are both from Kunar, Nuristan, Afghanistan, and they both have typical kunzite form, and are gem-clear--except that their color is a fairly rich aquamarine-blue (or rather, pleochroic in blue, with the deeper shade down the c axis). According to John Veevaert, some Afghan kunzites actually emerge from the ground in this color, but a few days of sunlight turn them to the familiar lilac-pink hue. The darker the final pink, the more likely it is that they started out blue. The Virtual Guys, thus, have been careful to keep these two giant crystals out of sunlight, to see how long it takes them to change color anyway, or whether they will do so.

An attractive habit of apophyllite was found in a single pocket in the Mohodari quarry, Nasik, India, in September 1999, and specimens were on hand in the Executive Inn room of Dr. Arvind Bhale of Earth Science International (Yasham 166/1+2+3, Aundh Gaon, Pune 411 007, Maharashtra, India). The apophyllite crystals are "cubes," i.e. pseudocubes, some with "octahedral" truncations: they average about 2.5 cm across, and come either as perfect, loose floater singles or in great clusters and stacks.

The biggest piece is a 15 x 20-cm matrix with 3.5-cm crystals piled up on a deep bed of glistening greenish white natrolite prisms. Some of the crystals have colorless/transparent areas, but mostly their interiors look as if someone was sick in them--with great roiling clouds of a mottled gray-green-pink material. Scientifically speaking these inclusions are finely divided chlorite, chloritoid, montmorillonite and hematite, but they truly look barfy; and yet the specimens are oddly beautiful. About 30 pieces in all were available.

On a much more dignified note, as befits great gem crystals: a pegmatite near the town of Karur, Tamil Nadu State, southern India has yielded (so far) three magnificent crystals of aquamarine beryl having a choice deep blue gemminess throughout the interiors. One (singly terminated) crystal is the size of a forearm; the others are 5 x 5 and 3 x 4 cm; the big one was already "gone," but I was proudly shown the other two by K. C. Pandey of Superb Minerals (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Shyam Castle, Brahgiri, Nashik Road, Nashik-422 101, Maharashtra, India). Apparently these were very recently dug at Karur, already known as the source of fine large plates of deep purple amethyst crystals.

I got myself a nifty thumbnail specimen of a ruby spinel crystal pertly perched on matrix, from Pein Pyit, Myanmar (Burma). These spinels were widespread around the show, and I highly recommend them for their richly deep red, sharp octahedral crystals, especially when these sit on white marble matrixes (loose crystals are easy to find, good matrix-placed ones much harder). The crystals come in sizes up to 4 cm, and in a range of color (red to purple) and gemminess.

Sri Lanka excels this year, not so much for the usual gem crystals of this and that, as for very sharp, very black, blocky pargasite crystals embedded in vein calcite, from Kolonne, near Embilipitiya. Forsterite also occurs here, in sharp, greenish brownish black blades, sometimes several centimeters long; also the locality yields sharp black octahedrons of iron-rich spinel. Jaroslav Hyr[check{s}]l had the best of this suite of minerals, in several miniature and toenail-sized pieces.

Matters Chinese will take up considerable space this time, as great things continue to be discovered in China, and then to pour onto the market. One can easily lose track of all the colors, forms, habits, associations, etc. of Chinese fluorite and calcite alone. Many others of the new Chinese occurrences represent strikingly beautiful species-associations, and everyone, from the seekers after "decorator" specimens to the more mineralogical devotees of very large, very beautiful pieces are having a Chinese field day, every day, these days. Surely the best place to start is the InnSuites room where Debbie Meng of Debbie Meng's Minerals (P.O. Box 8393, Monterey, CA 93943) held court again this year. As I missed the Denver Show, I missed the further appearance there of the new Chinese pyromorphite of which I caught a whiff in Springfield. But Debbie and plenty of other dealers had wonderful specimens of this pyromorphite in Tucson; Debbie says that it comes from an old lead mine in Jiangxi Province. In color and luster this material closely resembles the best of the recent Spanish pyromorphite, i.e., it is bright yellow-green; the crystals are prisms and spindles, generally around 1 cm, scattered all over an iron-stained white quartz. According to Debbie, more than 1000 pieces, in all sizes and qualities, have come out in the past year.

Then there are the wondrously beautiful calcite/stibnite specimens from somewhere near the town of Lan Tan, Guangxi Province, which were widely available around the show this year. The calcite crystals are lustrous, complex, rounded, butterscotch-orange and gemmy, all a-glitter with a myriad of little faces, arid they can reach 5 cm across. Their matrix consists of massive stibnite with quartz, with brilliant stibnite needles rising from underneath and penetrating/surrounding the calcites. Debbie has heard of some stibnite crystals from this occurrence "thick as chopsticks." Together the metallic black stibnite and lustrous butterscotch calcite make a stunning combination, sometimes in huge cabinet-size specimens.

Just as stunning are the quartz/hematite combinations from somewhere in Jiangxi Province: Mike Bergmann had the best at the Main Show, but these too were liberally scattered about. They are sprays of thin-prismatic clear quartz with individuals sticking out porcupine-wise all over; an earlier quartz generation is colorless (its crystals often broken off), but a later generation is coated (rarely, included) with bright red hematite dust. The dusting is not enough to affect light transmission, only to render the quartz crystals a transparent brickish-crimson red, especially near their tips. Further, around the bases where the quartz crystals meet are very thin jet-black plates of hematite grouped in rosettes clustered in undulant waves covering the massive hematite matrix.

I first reported on the lustrous, transparent, whitish brown cassiterite crystals from Ximeng, Yunnan Province in 1998 (from Denver), when I saw them at Ken and Rosemary Roberts' stand. As Roberts Minerals is (sadly) now out of business (Ken's working for Bryan Lees these days), Debbie Meng has repossessed what was left of the Roberts stock of these beauteous cassiterite crystals, and added more. The specimens are mostly cyclic twins, either as sharp little floaters or on a gray-white matrix with quartz; the twinned clusters may reach 3 cm.

Just next door to Debbie Meng's room, another Chinese dealer, Dr. Liu of AAA Liu's Minerals (Franz[ddot{o}] Allee 24, 72072 T[ddot{u}]bingen, Germany), had still more transparent cassiterites from Yunnan, as well as some major large Lushi mine stibnite groups; sharp black stannite crystals to 1 cm with arsenopyrite; and a lot more Chinese stuff. But Michel Jouty was the one with the three champion (of those I saw) Lushi mine stibnites, the biggest a group easily a foot and a half across and a foot high, of highest luster and very little damage, with thick, terminated spears sticking out all over.

Although I've raved on and on about prolific China, it's only coincidental, really, that this next item also comes from there: it is a meteorite, and a very odd sort of meteorite at that, labeled "octahedrite," from a fall in 1516 A.D. in "Nantan County," China. Although "What's New in Minerals" rarely makes note of meteorites (because they are rocks), this one is remarkable, as its fragments actually resemble crude octahedral crystals, and are the closest things a collector is likely to get to natural crystals of iron. The distorted, rough-surfaced, lustrous metallic gray-white "octahedrons" are 4 to 5 cm on edge, in singles and groups of two or three. What happened, it seems, is that the meteorite shattered during its fall through the atmosphere, cleaving along its internal crystal domain boundaries. Larry Venezia (115 Coleridge St., East Boston, MA 02128) had a dozen pieces of this strange material in his room at the InnSuites--together with a flyer quoting venerable Chinese archives which say that in May of the eleventh year of the reign of the Emperor Zhengde, "stars fell down from a northwest direction [ldots] waving like snakes and dragons, bright as lightning; then they disappeared in seconds."

A classic locality in Japan comes up next, with the welcome news that it isn't so "classic," i.e. dead, as we have thought. The dealership of Oherikosha Inc. (Post No. 603-8376, Kinugasa, Kyoto, Japan) had a small tablefull of excellent, sharp, clear Japan-law twin crystals of quartz from the type locality for such twins: Narushima, Nagasaki, Japan. At $10 or $20 or $50 apiece these were among the show's best bargains: all between 2 and 2.5 cm except for four toenails. Most of them have fairly deep re-entrant angles, for distinct V shapes, and a few also have simple untwinned quartz prisms growing out at angles to the flat front faces of twins, for a nice effect. The Japanese gentleman in the room said that these specimens were quite recently found in diggings in veins in a sandstone on a mountainside--and any good field collector might go, presumably, and find more.

Australian collector Dehne McLaughlin (5 Tenth Avenue, West Moonah, Tasmania, Australia 7009) showed up at the InnSuites with, among other things, a generous lot of molybdenite from Wolfram Camp, Dimbulah, North Queensland, the lot mined in 1982. Thick, subhedral molybdenite rosettes to 6 cm cover massive white milky quartz in medium to large cabinet-size specimens, with the bright metallic gray, rose-like clusters of Mo[S.sub.2] standing out prominently. On some specimens, crude faces of native bismuth crystals to 3 cm spear up into the huge molybdenite plates.

This final item caused quite a buzz around the hotel show, and no wonder, for it is a marvelously vivid red, utterly gemmy cuprite, brought out in 1996, during the last days of mining at the Red Dome mine, Chillagoe, about 130 km west of Cairns, Queensland. Troy Cluss of the dealership of Euthedra (55 Hawksbury Rd., Westmead 2145, New South Wales, Australia) had a spread of thumbnails, plus three specimens between 5 x 5 and 7 x 7 cm: heavy masses of solid red cuprite with sharp crystals to 4 cm along the tops. The disadvantage is that they are tightly packed and rather mashed up, so that very few faces of individual crystals can show, and there is, besides, considerable damage. However, the color is a virtually insane deep red, the gemmy transparency is total, and the adamantine luster is high. Great Basin Minerals had three good thumbnails of the same material (with the same advantages and disadvantages). Word is that if gold prices go up enough, the waste piles of this old gold mine may be processed, and i n such a case, more good cuprites like these might appear. Also, Troy Cluss showed me some azurite in large, rich blue blades (always contacted, never terminated), and some miniatures with water-clear calcite crystals to 4 cm, from the same place.

The Main Show's theme this year was Brazilian minerals, and a great many exhibit cases took the viewer on dream trips to fabulous gem pegmatite fields. Three cases showed just a single Brazilian specimen: first, a pellucid gemmy blue topaz crystal from the Xanda mine, 40 cm or so across the termination (American Museum of Natural History); next, a portable-TV-sized Itatiaia "cranberry" elbaite/albite/quartz (John Lucking, Gene Meieran and Wayne Thompson); finally, an old and equally gargantuan cluster of green elbaite on quartz from the Cruzeiro mine (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County). A wide, deep, ethereally lighted case full of giant gem crystal specimens from Brazil was Gene and Roz Meieran's dazzling contribution. And then there was the erudite case on the minerals of Rio Grande do Sul, with geology, photos, specimens and faceted gems, by the Mineralogical Museum of Bonn; and the case showing Rio Grande do Sul calcites, by Victor Yount. Let's not forget two cases chockfull of Brazilian thumb nails, these respectively by Ron Pellar and Sharon Cisneros. Then there came illustrious Brazilian cases by illustrious institutions, all full of great things, of course, and worthy of much more than this mere listing: the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Cranbrook Institute, the French Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian (with the "Van Allen Belt" rose quartz!), the Carnegie Museum, Harvard, the Royal Ontario Museum [ldots] and others.

Beyond Brazil, as it were, lay riches in a parade of assorted topics. These included Bisbee Minerals (Phelps Dodge--two cases); Arizona Minerals (Les and Paula Presmyk); Prehnite (Henry and Patsy Schmidt); Minerals of the Northern Pennines (Manchester Museum, England--with superlative classic English fluorites, good photos, text, and a map of mine locales); Ural Gems (Urals Geological Museum--fine alexandrites, corundums and emeralds); the Keith and Mauna Proctor Collection (two wonder-full cases); Minerals of the N'Chwaning and Wessels mines (Treasure Chest, South Africa); Worldwide Pyrite (a donor case assembled by the University of Arizona Mineral Museum); Self-Collected [terrific!] Specimens (Wolfgang Mueller); Mexico cases by Blue Sky Mining and Top-Gem Minerals; Tsumeb Smithsonite (Bill and Diana Dameron); more Tsumeb minerals (Marshall Sussman); Arizona Quartz Collected by Bill & Carol & Rick & Alyce (Tucson Gem and Mineral Society); Calcite Pseudomorphs (Cincinnati Museum of Natural History); Twinnin g in Minerals (Kay Robertson); Southern African Thumbnails (Bruce Cairncross); Minerals From Mogok (American Museum of Natural History); and a small but heart-felt case by Jim Bleess memorializing the late Luis Leite.

Bryan Lees' Collector's Edge dealership/mining company put in three cases of special note. One was packed with newly collected orpiment specimens from the Twin Creeks mine, Nevada, even better than most for sale back at the Collector's Edge stand. In a second case there regally stood, all alone, "The Ice Dragon," a single foot-high aquamarine from Pedra Azul, Brazil, naturally etched and hollowed out in fantastic, surrealistic forms. In a third case reposed the best rhodochrosite specimen from the December 1998 "Graham's Pocket" at the Sweet Home mine, with deepest red gemmy rhombohedrons to 5 cm on edge, preferentially dusted with purple fluorite crystals, all in a circular, somewhat concave plate. Wondering why Bryan's crew had not named this tremendous piece, as it had named earlier ones, Tom Gressman suggested calling it "The Fruit Bowl." Since Bryan has--tentatively--approved this, let me, seizing the moment, suggest that "The Ice Dragon" aquamarine might be renamed "The Lava Lamp," in deference to thos e of us Senior Collectors who respond fondly to '60's connotations.

It must be said, though, that a single exhibitor quite dominated the show floor this year. Two large, back-to-back, opposite-facing cases contained 145 specimens (yes, I counted them) from the Joe Freilich Collection--the same great contemporary collection, assembled and curated by Dave Wilber, and featured in the January--February Special Issue of this magazine. The two big, glass-fronted cherrywood cases were themselves noteworthy: products of Williams Mineral Company (R.R. 1, Box 77, Dutch Hollow Road, Rio, WV 26755), a firm that promises in its brochure to custom-build collection cases just this handsome, for any sort of collector[ldots]and the Freilich cases made for the best kind of advertising. The lighting in the cases was carefully tuned to match the exact color of daylight, and was softened (some thought too much) in its intensity so as to avoid glare.

Readers who look again at the photos of Freilich specimens which filled the January-February issue may be assured that every piece looked at least that good in person. Every single one of these 145 pieces, whether pictured in the Special Issue or not, is a masterpiece of its kind. One of the two cases, crowned by a gigantic, lush Bisbee azurite plate, seemed nevertheless to center on a Peruvian pyrite, this crystal cluster itself crowned by a 4-cm modified octahedron so brilliantly mirror-faced and lustrous that it made my teeth ache (some say that this is the finest pyrite specimen in existence). The other case featured seven step-shelves of specimens, from large-cabinet size down to the winsome small-thumbnail corkscrew of Dzhezkazgan silver shown in the issue. Such a wide range of sizes was really not an aesthetic problem, since colors, shapes, lusters etc. were so harmoniously arranged (Dave Wilber said he devoted the better part of two days to the arrangement). Besides, as soon as the eye fixed on any o ne piece, mesmerization was apt to set in, and all surroundings, including the continuously milling crowds, went away.

Of course I can't reproduce the whole thing in print, i.e. set out to describe every piece, but I'll "label" a few I especially liked which were not pictured in the issue: arsenopyrite/stannite from China (12 x 12 cm); ilvaite/quartz from Dalnegorsk (12 x 15 cm); hambergite from Afghanistan (a transparent blade 7 cm high); childrenite from Afghanistan (a perfect, loose 4.5-cm twin); arsenic from Germany (a smooth, perfect sphere 3.5 cm in diameter); moschellandsbergite from Germany (many crystals to 1 cm covering a 7-cm matrix); silver from Michigan (an electric-white arborescent tree 12 cm high); elbaite from Afghanistan (an 8 x 10 x 12 cm blue-pink polished-treestump lookalike on matrix). Finally, it seemed that either Joe Freilich, Dave Wilber, or both were more or less constantly on hand to chat in the friendliest way with whomever wanted to do so--from "how did they cut that one?" tourists to all the ranking dealers, collectors, and curators, many of this group stopping by often to relive their roles in placing specimens in the collection. Perhaps it was by hanging out awhile in this traffic of expert voices, of pleasure and praise, that I got the feeling that no single collection ever presented at any Tucson Show had had quite the same general impact that this one was having.

Well, you had to be there. If you were (and I speak of the Tucson Show in general), you were lucky, and if you weren't, I do hope you'll make it next year.
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Author:Moore, Tom
Publication:The Mineralogical Record
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2000
Words:9086
Previous Article:The Smithsonian's Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems and Minerals.
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