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Western management training in Poland: a case study.

Academics, consultants and functional specialists have recognized the great need for developing managers in all the countries of the former Soviet bloc and have flocked to those countries in great numbers. This need has become the focus of western attention. One example is the U.S. Congressional Aid Program for Poland which contains a provision for management education.

In Poland. many persons speak humorously, sometimes amusingly and sometimes cynically, about the "Marriott Brigade." They refer to the host of short time specialists who descend upon Warsaw, lodge at the very expensive and very American Marriott, deliver advice or a lecture, and remain safely isolated at the Marriott until they return home. What Poland needs is less short term and more sustained efforts and management development programs in cities outside the capital.

Numerous U.S. colleges and universities have responded to the opportunity for cooperative efforts and joint programs in management development, and numerous models of cooperation have begun to emerge. This article will define some of the options, identify some existing models of cooperation, indicate some of the universities involved and conclude with a case study illustration of the variety of cooperation programs designed and undertaken by DePaul University.

Toward the end of 1990 more than thirty existing Polish institutions had begun to offer training in management, industry and commerce. Most schools are oriented toward general management, but some programs specialize in capital markets. securities, privatization. corporate restructuring and entrepreneurship. Many training programs are short term. Some of these programs are designed to prepare managers in state enterprises for the transition to privatization. Other programs take longer (10 to 12 months), while the newly developing business curricula in the state universities are long term programs (up to 5 years).

In Poland today the various models of management training include:

1. Management Schools with country links, i.e. Polish American Business School or the Polish-German Business School.

2. Newly established training centers for business and industry i.e. International Business School, Warsaw; International Management School and International Management Centre of Warsaw University.

3. Newly established University Departments of Business Studies, i.e. Business Administration, School of Law and Administration, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan; Business Studies, Catholic University, Lublin; and the Department of Organization and Management, University of Lodz.

4. Separate schools of business linked to an established university, i.e. Torun Business School affiliated with Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun.

5. Separate schools of business with loose affiliations with specific academic institutions, i.e. Lublin Business School with Catholic University of Lublin. The "loose affiliation" here means a tie primarily because some of the Lublin Business School faculty are also present or former Catholic University faculty.

6. Essentially private (proprietary) schools organized with faculty from a specific university but not formally a part of the university. Faculty from the University of Lodz are affiliated with two satellite centers. The Business School at Belchatow is, in fact, organized by the local newspaper. The School of Management at Tomasztow-Mas is also privately organized and staffed by University of Lodz faculty. In Poland, faculty often teach at more than one institution. Today, because of the shortage of faculty qualified to teach free market economics and to relate Western European or American experiences in the functional areas of business, those few faculty are in great demand.

7. A local foundation is established by individuals, or by a group of business leaders who, in turn, establish a "not-for-profit" but proprietary school of management, i.e. Poznan School of Management. For example, a university professor, in this case an American-trained Professor of Marketing and Economics at Adam Mickiewicz University is an officer of the Foundation and educational advisor to the School. The Poznan School of Management, however, has a residential Director who reports to the Board of Directors of the Foundation. In this case, the Educational Advisor is in addition Chairman of the Department of Marketing and Economics, at the Adam Mickiewicz University and also director of the newly established university five year curriculum in Business Studies. The Poznan School of Management is an eight month program for persons already possessing degrees; whereas the university program is a five year curriculum designed for undergraduates that will result in a Magister degree. Thus, the faculty member avoids any conflict of interest.

8. Specific organizations established only to provide "short courses" of one, two, and occasionally three week courses i.e., Fundacja Na Rzecz Doradztwa Dla Polskich Przedsiebiorstw (Market Economy Enterrise Foundation). In these courses the focus is very specific, very local and very pragmatic.

These eight "models" may not exhaust all the possibilities because management education is an explosive and ever-expanding part of the new knowledge industry in Poland and new arrangements emerge regularly.

Most of these programs welcome visitors from overseas especially those faculty who can give more than single lectures and who can provide continuity of instruction because of repeat visits. Especially welcome are faculty who are willing to teach in centers outside Warsaw, Krakow, and other key cities.

American universities have become very active in the process of delivering management training throughout Poland. The United States Information Agency (USIA) has been active in sponsoring USIA Academic Specialist grants to individuals as well as USIA institutional grants. The latter category covers U.S. institutional collaboration with Polish programs for direct management education, specific long and/or short courses; curriculum development; formation of undergraduate and/or MBA programs; faculty training in economics and management and materials preparation.

Jacek Kalabinski, Washington, D.C. correspondent for Gazeta Wyborcza (N. 172, 25 July 91) reported that 32 U.S. universities had been awarded USIA contracts for preparing Polish students and faculty in the areas of economics and management. The newspaper published the names of the schools by geographic areas; ten universities from the Northeast; fourteen from the Midwest; three from the South; and five Western universities.

The ten Northeastern universities include: State University of New York-Albany, Babson and Boston Colleges, Columbia University, Central Connecticut State, Universities of Delaware, Hartford, Pittsburgh and Massachusetts (Amherst) and New York University/IACEE. Midwestern universities with USIA contracts for Poland include: DePaul, Iowa State, Kansas State and Michigan State; Indiana University, Ohio State, Purdue and the Universities of Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska (Lincoln), Nebraska (Omaha) and Wisconsin. (The greater concentration of Polish-Americans in the Midwest explains, in part, the extensive involvement of Midwestern universities.) In the South, the Universities of Kentucky and North Carolina and Florida International are involved. The Universities of Arizona, Southern California, Tulsa, Washington and Washington State represent the Western States.

DePaul University, located in the heart of Chicago has been active in Poland because Chicago is the world's largest Polish city after Warsaw; there is a large Polish ethnic student population; a common religious heritage; a significant number of Vincentians in Poland; DePaul's College of Commerce has a commitment to internationalization; and because of the initiative of the university to appoint an assistant to the President for International programs and Government Relations in the person of Ambassador John Kordek. Ambassador Kordek organized a faculty team consisting of Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, the Commerce Dean and faculty team to visit Poland in December 1990. The team subdivided upon arrival in Poland and visited various institutions in Warsaw, Krakow, Poznan, Lublin and Lodz to assess their needs and potential for collaboration.

Later, DePaul and the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL) and the Lublin Business School were awarded a USIA contract for a Certificate Program in Business Administration. The program also calls for teacher training by Polish faculty understudying DePaul finance, economics and marketing faculty who will be teaching in the Program and provides for the translation of course training materials into Polish. That program begins in late summer 1992.

Meanwhile, in March 1991 this author, under private foundation sponsorship, spent a week teaching at the Poznan School of Management with additional lectures at Adam Mickiewicz University. In April, Adam Mickiewcz University appointed him as Senior U.S. Curriculum Consultant for the new five year business program at the University. In April 1992 under a USIA Academic Specialist Grant, he was asked to undertake a feasibility visit to Poznan to confer with the Poznan Academy of Economics on the possibility of Polish faculty training in Western and free market economics.

DePaul was awarded a series of USlA Academic Speciaiists grants to bring six faculty in economics to Poland to teach a four week (July-August 1991) Summer School at a conference center outside Poznan. The course was a DePaul-Poznan Academy joint venture with support from the Polish Ministry of Education, USIA, and DePaul College of Commerce. The students were thirty eight young women and men faculty teaching economics or econometrics from twenty five different Polish universities and technical schools. The curriculum included one week each of macro and micro theory and one week each of macro and micro applications. Brother Ryan served as the DePaul Co-Director with Dr. Dorota Hadasik, Co-Director on behalf of the Poznan Academy of Economics. Subsequently, DePaul was awarded a three year retroactive institutional contract (1991-1993) for the training of Economics faculty in Poland through the Poznan Academy of Economics.

In November, this writer received a further USIA Academic Specialist grant to visit Poland. The purpose was to teach for one week at Poznan School of Management; to interview students selected for the new program at Adam Mickiewicz University; to meet with the AMU Faculty Oversight Committee (whom I had previously met in March, April and July), and to collaborate with the Poznan Academy of Economics on the 1992 Summer School. The USlA grant further provided for me to lecture, in addition to the three schools in Poznan, at Nicholas Copernicus University (Torun); Catholic University of Lublin; University of Lodz and at two satellite centers sponsored by Lodz economics/business faculty at Belchatow and Tomasztow-Mas. These university-sponsored lectures were on topics in General Management and Entrepreneurship and were designed for university students and the public.

These several DePaul University, Economics Department and College of Commerce projects have committed our University in a special way to the economic and management education component of Polish economic reform. These examples illustrate how the Vincentian commitment to service and personalism can begin to make a difference in both the short and long run. Multiple models for institutional cooperation exist and sources of private and public sector funding are available.

The task of management education in Poland is enormous, urgent and immensely important. The transition essentially demands changing attitudes, teaching, coaching and showing, setting priorities and developing specializations to insure the infrastructure necessary for economic reform to succeed.

Poland offers American business schools a "real world laboratory" in which to share our theories and practices which will be essential if Poland is to succeed as a free market, private property and politically democratic society. Poland invites all of us - universities and professionals - to help them individually and institutionally to meet the challenge of economic transformation.
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Title Annotation:Symposium: Business Education in Eastern Europe
Author:Ryan, Leo V., C.S.V.
Publication:Review of Business
Date:Mar 22, 1992
Previous Article:Management education in Poland.
Next Article:Educational exchanges: interview with Vitali Roussak.

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