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Weaving a theoretical tapestry supporting pandimensionality: deep connectedness in the multiverse.

All science begins in the imagination

Pandimensionality may be the most elusive postulate in Rogerian science. Perhaps our full understanding of pandimensionality is limited because it may be difficult to imagine or visualize a "nonlinear domain without spacial or temporal attributes" (Rogers, 1992, p.29). Humans often find it difficult to imagine "domains" beyond their own three-dimensional experience. Furthermore, language may also limit one in fully comprehending and expressing pandimensional experiences or describing a pandimensional universe. Some students of Rogerian science have found it useful to read Abbott's (1984) Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions and Dionys Berger's (1983) Sphereland as way of better understanding the experiencing of a pandimensional universe.

The root meaning of the preface "pan" refers to "all"; "involving all of or the union of;" and "whole" (American Heritage Dictionary, 1992, p. 1306). Pandimensionality suggests an infinite domain that spans and is a union of all dimensions which characterizes the human and environmental field. Thus, all reality is postulated to be pandimensional. The purpose of this paper is to explore the most recent scientific theories that may shed new light on understanding pandimensionality. Most recently there has been a proliferation of new theories describing multiple and parallel universes (Deutsch, 1997; Hawking, 1993; Linde, 1998; Rees, 1997; Smolin, 1997) and paranormal phenomena (Mitchell, 1996; Radin, 1997). Taken together, these major works begin to form a tapestry providing support for Rogers' notion of pandimensionality.

Quantum Cosmology and the Multiverse

Stephen Hawking is one of the founders of a new scientific discipline referred to as quantum cosmology. Quantum cosmology is a synthesis of quantum mechanics (the study of the very small) with cosmology (the study of the universe as a whole). Quantum cosmologists believe that questions concerning cosmology can only be answered by quantum theory. Hawking's (1993) insight is to view the universe as a quantum particle. Since a particle has a wave function, the universe starts off as a wave function. According to quantum cosmology, the wave function of the universe spreads over all possible universes. In other words, there is an infinite number of possible universes coexisting with our universe. Furthermore, Hawking's quantum cosmology proposes that the infinite number of parallel or "baby universes" are connected to each other by an infinite series of wormholes. Particles that fall into blackholes fall off into "baby universes that branch off from our universe (Hawking, 1993).

Russian quantum cosmologist, Andrei Linde, has proposed a new model of what he refers to as the "multiverse." Our universe is one of an infinite number of "inflationary bubbles" each of which continuously sprouts other inflationary bubbles (Linde, 1998). The embryo of new universes can form within existing ones (Rees, 1997). The total volume of all these domains will grow without end. In essence, the multiverse is an eternally self-reproducing universe. Thus, the multiverse contains innumerable bubbles, like our own universe, and other regions even larger than our own universe. These universes or inflationary bubbles may remain connected by intercosmic umbilical openings or wormholes. Our universe may not be the most complex. Others may have a richer structure beyond anything we can imagine, and each universe may have its own unique structure, fundamental forces, particles, and physical laws (Rees, 1997).

Lee Smolin is a Professor of Physics at the Center of Gravitational Physics and Geometry at Pennsylvania State University and earned his PhD at Harvard University. In his recent book, The Life of the Cosmos, Smolin argues that the laws of black holes indicate that they spawn new universes.
 A collapsing star forms a black
 hole, within which it is compressed
 to a very dense state. The universe
 began in a similarly very dense
 state from which it expands. Is it
 possible that these are one in the
 same dense state? That is, is
 it possible that what is beyond the
 horizon of a black hole is the beginning
 of another universe? (Smolin, 1997, p. 87-88)

There are an enormous number of black holes in our universe, each creating new universes. A universe such as ours may have as many as 1011 black holes. In this way, the universes can perpetually keep reproducing themselves. Thus, all of "reality" consists of a vast number of universes.

David Deutsch (1997) of Oxford University, an authority on the theory of parallel universes, also proposes that the whole of reality contains a vast number of parallel universes. Deutsch speculates the interpretation of the "double slit" experiment as evidence that photons are both particles and waves is incorrect. Rather, photons are prevented from landing on parts of the film because they are being interfered with by invisible "shadow" photons from a parallel universe.

Furthermore, Deutsch states that time does not flow because "nothing moves from one moment to another ... to exist at all in a particular moment means to exist there for ever" (p. 263). Humans experience the differences between present perceptions and present memories of past perceptions and experience these differences as changes over time. However, we misinterpret the differences as a movement through time. Each present moment or snapshot is a parallel universe with its own spacetime. The "multiverse" or the whole of co-existing parallel spacetimes is a collection of interacting parallel universes. We exist in multiple versions, in universes called 'moments,' and each version of us is not directly aware of the others, but has evidence of their existence because physical laws of cause and effect link the contents of different universes (Deutsch, 1997). So which one of the infinite number of copies are you? Deutsch explains that you are all of them all at once. An important distinction to make is Rogers' notion of pandimensionality is comparable with the idea of infinite universes but rejects the notion of causality. However, Deutsch (1997, p. 286) states that there is nothing in his definition of causality or view of the multiverse that requires causes to necessarily precede their effects.

The notion that we are integral to an infinite and eternal multiverse within which new and infinite domains continuously and creatively sprout into new universes resonates with Rogers' postulate of pandimensionality. Pandimensionality, like the infinite multiverse, refers to a union of infinite domains beyond temporal and spacial attributes. Each universe may have its own set of unique scientific laws and constants characterized by different notions of time and dimensions.

Quantum Nonlocality and the Paranormal

Rogers (1980, 1986, 1992) postulated that a pandimensional reality, a nonlinear domain, provides a framework for understanding paranormal phenomena. In a nonlinear domain beyond the constraints of space and time, the integrality of infinite human and environmental energy fields provides an explanation of seemingly unexplainable events and processes. Rogers Visions (1992) even asserted that within the Science of Unitary Human Beings, psychic phenomena become "normal" rather than "paranormal." Emerging quantum theories incorporating the idea of nonlocality provide a deeper understanding of Rogers' postulate of pandimensionality.

In an attempt to demonstrate that Bohr's interpretation of quantum theory was inconsistent, Einstein proposed a thought experiment that is known as the EinsteinPodolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment. Thirty years later John Bell derived a theorem (Bell's Theorem) proving the existence of local hidden variables is inconsistent with statistical predictions of quantum mechanics (Capra, 1982). The results of the theorem were not demonstrated by decisive experimental evidence until 1982 when physicist Alain Aspect led a team that demonstrated that particles (polarized photons) in Princeton and Bangkok were interconnected nonlocally. Changing the spin of a particle in one location will instantly change the spin direction of the paired particle even though its thousands of miles away. Thus the multiverse must be an interconnected web of nonlocal connections.

In his scholarly book The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena, Radin (1997) reviews the amassed, irrefutable scientific evidence of psi phenomena such as telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, and precognition. Radin is the director of the Consciousness Research Laboratory at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas, and he suggests that an understanding of nonlocal connections along with the relationship between awareness and quantum effects provides a framework for understanding paranormal phenomena. "Deep interconnectedness" demonstrated by Bell's Theorem embraces the interconnectedness of everything unbounded by space and time. Similarly, Rogers' principle of integrality postulates a "deep interconnectedness" of infinite pandimensional human and environmental fields. Within a nonlinear-nonlocal context, paranormal events are our experience of the deep nonlocal interconnections that bind the universe together.

Mitchell (1996) provides a more complete framework for understanding paranormal phenomena consistent with Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Mitchell's "dyadic model" of reality unites existence (matter or physicality) with knowing (consciousness or mentality). Like Rogers, Mitchell recognizes that everything in the universe, including mind and matter, are inseparable aspects of a single evolving reality. Energy is the foundation of all matter and information is the foundation of all knowing. However, according to Mitchell (1996), existence and knowing (matter and information) are coupled or inextricably related because they both have their origins and owe their existence to the field of energy that underlies everything in the universe.

Moreover, existence and knowing are linked locally and nonlocally through the processes of awareness, intentionality, and interpretation. Nonlocal processes and perceptions are beyond the limitations of space and time. Mitchell (1996, p. 155) prefers the terms "awareness" and "intentionality," because both are "irreducible" concepts. Typically, the terms mentality and consciousness are often reduced to brain function. Awareness is the perception of energy and intentionality is an active process of desiring or intending an action. Intention is the volitional propogation of energy (Mitchell, 1996). Action is a process of movement or transformation of energy. Patterns of energy provide information. Information is stored in the universe in various ways yet to be discovered and requires interpretation or evaluation to give it meaning. The universe exists as patterns of energy and is known by its patterns of energy. Interpreting the meaning of information is a function of the awareness and intentionality of the interpreter and the existing information base.

Within Mitchell's (1996) dyadic model, paranormal events are naturally occuring processes that are perceived or intended by gifted and/or well trained persons who are more aware of energy patterns. ESP, telepathy, and clairvoyance are everyday functions of awareness and intentionality.

For example Mitchell (1996, p. 205) describes precognition as a function of intentionality in the following manner:
 Because time moves only forward
 and all life processes are nonlinear
 and include choice, the future is not
 fixed and therefore not knowable.
 But it can be influenced or even
 created to a certain extent. Accurate
 prophecy is more often
 self-fulfilled prophecy. What is
 knowable through nonlocal intuition
 and expanded awareness is an
 expanded sense of now, not a
 sense of the future.

Gifted persons have a greater range of actions and can intentionally become more aware or change nonlocal patterns of energy. Mitchell's dyadic model departs from the Science of Unitary Human Beings by including notions of causality although Mitchell does state that nonlocality, relativity theory, and quantum theory call causality into question. The context of intentionality within a Rogerian Science perspective is mutual process. While unitary human beings participate knowingly and intentionally in the process of change, the changes are mutual and unpredictable. Both the human and environmental field patterns are changed through intentionality. In addition, the dyadic model does not address multiple dimensions or universes. However, Mitchell does speculate about their existence and states they are not readily accessible through any experiential or physical knowing processes. On the other hand, Rogerian science acknowledges the multiverse which may be knowable through pandimensional awareness and experiences.

A theoretical tapestry supporting pandimensionality can be constructed by weaving together models of the multiverse with the dyadic model of reality. In the dyadic model, existence and knowing are locally and nonlocally linked through deep connections of awareness, intentionality, and interpretation. Pandimensionality embraces the infinite nature of the multiverse in all its dimensions and includes processes of being more aware of naturally occurring changing energy patterns. Pandimensionality also includes intentionally participating in mutual process with a nonlinear-nonlocal potential of creating new energy patterns.

The strength of a conceptual system is its ability to provide scientific explanations. The postulate of pandimensionality provides a means for better understanding the processes associated with a wide range of common phenomena in human-environment-health experiences. Distance healing, the healing power of prayer, Therapeutic Touch, out of body experiences, phantom pain, precognition, deja vu, intuition, tacit knowing, mystical experiences, clairvoyance, and telepathic experiences are a few of the energy field manifestations that can be better understood as natural events in a pandimensional universe involving increased awareness and intentionality in an infinite mutiverse with deep nonlinear-nonlocal human-environmental field integrality.


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Deutsch, D. (1997). The fabric of reality: The Visions science of parallel universes and its implications. New York: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press.

Hawking, S. (1993). Black holes and baby universes and other essays. New York: Bantam Books.

Linde, A. (1998). The self-reproducing inflationary universe. Scientific American Presents. Magnificent Cosmos, 9, (1), 98-104.

Mitchell. E. (1996). The way of the explorer. New York: Putnam.

Radin, D. (1997). The conscious universe: The scientific truth of psychic phenomena. San Francisco: HarperEdge.

Rees, M. (1997). Before the beginning: Our universe and others. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

Rogers, M. E. (1980). Nursing: A science of unitary man [sic]. In J.P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds). Conceptual models for nursing practice. (2nd ad., pp. 329-337). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Rogers, M.E. (1986). The science of unitary human beings. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.). Explorations in Martha Rogers' science of unitary human beings. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Rogers, M.E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 2734.

Smolin, L. (1997). The life of the cosmos. New York: Oxford Press.

Howard K. Butcher, RN; PhD, CS

Assistant Professor

College of Nursing

University of Iowa

Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1121

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Author:Butcher, Howard K.
Publication:Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science
Geographic Code:1U4IA
Date:Jan 1, 1998
Previous Article:Patterns of Rogerian Knowing.
Next Article:Bela Horvath.

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