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Water Quality 2:00 pm Saturday, April 6, 2002 Battelle Hall 289 Yung-Tse Hung-Presiding.

2:00 THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE TO THE HELLBRANCHR UN TRIBUTARY OF THE BIG DARBY WATERSHED. Andrew P Hudgins, ahudgins@capital.edu (Terry Lahm, tlahm@capital.edu), Capital University, Environmental Science Program, 2199 East Main St., Columbus OH 43209.

The Hellbranch Run is a small stream located in Franklin County, Ohio that drains 56.9 k[m.sup.2] from the western edge of the city of Hilliard to the village of Darbydale in the south. The upper part of the stream is composed of two main tributaries known as the Hamilton Ditch and the Clover Groff Ditch both draining the Darby Till Plain. This study examines the impact of urban development and the implementation of impervious surfaces on the groundwater discharge to the Hellbranch Run. The hypothesis is that the groundwater discharge to the stream will decrease as a result of increased areas of impervious surfaces and storm sewers that discharge water directly into the creek. The urbanization process can short circuit the hydrologic cycle limiting the amount of groundwater recharge. Stream flow measurements using the velocity-area method were gathered at five locations throughout the Hellbranch watershed over five sampling times throughout the summer and fall of 2001. The discharge measurements indicated a net groundwater influx of 2240 [m.sup.3]/d over the Clover Groff Ditch and 740 [m.sup.3]/d over the Hamilton Ditch. The land use in the Hamilton Ditch drainage is predominately agricultural compared with the Clover Groff Ditch drainage that is dominated by suburban development. The lower part of the Hellbranch had a groundwater discharge of 12,920 [m.sup.3]/d. Currently, a second methodology is being employed to examine the base flow recessions for any temporal changes in groundwater discharge over the entire watershed for a nine-year period of record.

2:15 EFFECT OF PHENOLON TREATMENT OF FOOD WASTE WATERS BY AEROBIC BATCH REACTOR. Yung-Tse Hung and Elizabeth Atu, Civil Engineering Dept, Howard H. Lo, Dept of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115.

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of phenol on the treatment performance of batch activated sludge reactors in treating food wastewater. The types of food wastewater investigated include potato wastewater, sugar wastewater and combined potato and sugar wastewater. The experimental parameters investigated in this study consist of 3 types of food waste strength, 3 levels of aeration tank biomass concentration, 3 levels of phenol concentration, and 4 aeration periods. Effect of yeast addition on the reactor treatment performance was compared to the LLMO (live liquid microorganisms) addition. The batch reactor run was conducted for 24 hours period. Two sets of experiments were conducted. Set 1 consisting of runs 1, 2 and 3 were without bioaugmentation with LLMO, while set 2 consisting of runs 4, 5, and 6 were with bioaugmentation of LLMO. TOC (total organic carbon) was determined for the reactor content at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours period. Three levels of phenol consisted of 55, 150, and 245 mg/L. The phenol level was low (55 mg/L), for runs 1 and 4, was medium (150 mg/L), for runs 2 and 5, and was high (245 mg/L) for runs 3 and 6. The percentage TOC removal at 12-hour aeration period ranged from 17.7 to 44.97% for set I without LLMO bioaugmentation and ranged from 8 to 73.9% for set 2 with LLMO bioaugmentation. The general trend indicated that TOC removal efficiencies decreased as phenol concentration increased. Food wastewater strength was found to have an important effect on the reactor performance. When aeration period was increased to 24 hours, the toxic effect of phenol was decreased. Bioaugmentation with LLMO improved batch activated sludge reactor performance. A 24 hours aeration period is necessary to overcome the toxic effect of phenols.

2:30 FOOD WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH ADSORPTION AND BIOAUGMENTATION. Yung-Tse Hung, and Indira Yaddanapudi, Civil Engineering Dept, Howard H. Lo, Dept of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh, Chemical Engineering Dept, Ming-Hsin Institute of Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of clay adsorption and bioaugmentation on the removal of organic pollutants from food wastewater. Shaking runs were conducted for the batch reactor for a period of 48 hours. There types of food wastewater investigated included potato wastewater, sugar wastewater and combined potato and sugar wastewater. The experimental parameters used in the study include 3 levels of wastewater strength, 5 dosages of clay adsorbent, and 3 levels of live liquid microorganisms (LLMO)dosages. The clay dosages used include 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g/L. Runs 2, 3 and 4 were with LLMO addition, while run 1 was without LLMO addition. For run 1, the ranking highest for TOC removal to the lowest was 54.67%, 30.18%, and 59.67%, for potato wastewater, sugar wastewater, and combined potato and sugar wastewater, respectively. In general the low strength wastewater had higher TOC removal than the medium and high strength wastewater. LLMO addition was found to improve TOC removal. The highest TOC removal for potato wastewater was 60.37% for medium strength wastewater at the highest LLMO dosage and highest clay dosage. For combined potato and sugar wastewater the highest TOC removal was 66.33% for low strength wastewater at the highest LLMO dosage and highest clay dosage. The general trend indicated that as wastewater strength increased the TOC removal decreased. Both clay adsorbent and bioaugmentation with LLMO improved the TOC removal for food wastewater.

2:45 BIORE MEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL WITH BIOSLURRY REACTOR PROCESS. Howard H. Lo, Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences Dept, Yung-Tse Hung and Vidyarani Velagandula, Civil Engineering Dept, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115.

This paper describes the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons using bioslurry reactor process. Petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most common soil pollutants in the U.S. Bioslurry reactor process is a relatively new treatment technology for destruction of soil contaminants. Pilot scale aerobic bioslurry reactor was used in this study. The soil samples were collected from around the leaking underground petroleum fuels storage tank. The solid concentration in the bioslurry reactor was 26.7%. Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients were added to the reactor. The study was conducted without bioaugmentation, Process-gas-recirculation system was used with the reactor for complete containment and eventually complete degradation of all contaminants. Results indicated that the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and of naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene decreased rapidly. The percentage removal after 2 days varied from 82 to 98% in the soil phase. About 100% removal was observed in the liquid phase of reactor after 8 days of treatment. However, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing more than 3 aromatic rings did not show significant removal. Addition of rapidly metabolizing substrates such as sodiumacetate, and phenanthrene did not improve the degradation of PAHs containing more than 3 aromatic rings. The augmented phenanthrene was rapidly metabolized. In conclusion, bioslurry reactor can be used for remediation of soils contaminated with BTEX chemicals and PAH with 3 or less aromatic rings. The bioslurry reactors may not achieve the required removal of low level of PAH containing 4 or more aromatic rings from contaminated soils.

3:00 TREATMENT OF CADMIUM AND ZINC WASTEWATER BY ELECTRO-COAGULATION/FLOTATION BATCH REACTOR. Yung-Tse Hung and Mario G. Cora-Hernandez, Civil Engineering Dept, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh, Chemical Engineering Dept, Ming-Hsin Institute of Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

The paper presents studies conducted on a bench scale electrocoagulation/flotation batch reactor used in the treatment of wastewater containing cadmium and zinc metal ions. The objective of the study was to examine the ability of this reactor to treat wastewater containing variable concentrations of one single metal at a time, or the combination of both. A 5-liter Plexiglas batch reactor was built and provided with two stainless steel plates. The entire unit was connected by electric cables to a direct current power supply capable of providing up to 13 volts. Experiments were conducted at detention times of 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes, and current values of 1, 3 and 6 amperes. Heavy metal concentrations ranged between 10 to 30 mg/l. The pH level in the solutions varied from 8 to 10.5 units, adjusted by the addition of lime (Ca[(OH).sub.2]). Sodium chloride (NaCl) was added to increase current transfer efficiency. Experimental results showed that the unit was capable of achieving 85 to 98% cadmium removal efficiency within 15 to 30 minutes of detention time. Zinc removal efficiency ranged between 99.80 to 99.83% under similar detention times. The reactor was capable of simultaneous removal of cadmium and zinc metal achieving values up to 99.96% and 99.10%, respectively. It also consistently achieved wastewater effluents with a cadmium and zinc concentration as low as 0.11 and 0.01 mg/l, respectively. These results comply with the current promulgated effluent pretreatment standard for industrial facilities. Ultimately, it was found that the anode served as a sacrificial electrode providing Fe(II) ions that formed iron complexes, which helped to enhance the coagulation process.

3:15 OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESS. Yung-Tse Hung, and Majid Zarrinafsar, Civil Engineering Dept, Howard H. Lo, Dept of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh, Chemical Engineering Dept, Ming-Hsin Institute of Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

This paper describes the investigation on the treatment of oily wastewater by ultrafiltration (UF) followed by membrane distillation (MD) as a final treatment process. A tubular UF module equipped with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and a capillary MD module with polypropylene membranes were used in the study. Bilge water was used in the treatment. The permeate obtained from the UF process usually contained less than 5 ppm of oil. Further treatment by membrane distillation removed 100% oil, 99.3% TOC (total organic carbon) and 99.9% TDS (total dissolved solids) with excellent treatment efficiency. The final effluent had very low electrical conductivity and very low value of 1.8 mg/L TOC. It is concluded that the combined ultrafiltration and membrane distillation process can be used in treating bilge water effectively.

3:30 COLOR REMOVAL FROM SECONDARY TREATED WASTEWATER EFFLUENT USING ULTRAFILTRATION. Yung-Tse Hung and Nagasekhar R. Gorla, Civil Engineering Dept, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh, Chemical Engineering Dept, Ming-Hsin Institute of Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

This paper describes the investigation of color removal from a wastewater treatment plant effluent with ultrafiltration (UF) combined with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to the aeration tank of an activated sludge plant. The treated effluent can be reused. The treatment system employed a rotating membrane UF module with a membrane UF module having a flux of 1 [m.sup.3]/[m.sup.2]-d. PAC was added at 50 mg/L to the aeration tank and the hydraulic detention time of aeration tank was maintained at 4.5 hours. The final effluent had a very low color level of less than 5 degree. The sludge had a mean diameter of 29.2 um and was readily dewaterable. Ultrafiltration process combined with PAC addition to an aeration tank can be used to remove color from wastewater treatment plant effluent effectively.

3:45 ORGANIC POLLUTANT REMOVALBY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION PROCESS. Yung-Tse Hung, and Madhu Latha Konduri, Civil Engineering Dept, Howard H. Lo, Dept of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh, Chemical Engineering Dept, Ming-Hsin Institute of Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

This paper describes the removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. Different amounts of granular activated carbon were tested for the removal of aliphatic and aromatic pollutants present in wastewaters. A batch adsorption shaking test was conducted. It was observed that about 75% of organic pollutants were removed by GAC adsorption after a shaking time of 1 hour. The Freundlich constant K was found to range from 0.09to 0.27, and the 1/n ranged from 0.19 to 0.58. The high K and 1/n values, calculated from the Freundlich equation, showed high adsorption capacity of GAC for the organic pollutants. The rate constant for adsorption using Lagergren's equation varied from 0.058 to 0.067 per min. Results indicated that the removal of aliphatic compoundshad better removal efficiency than aromatic compounds, and aromatic compounds show a lower affinity for the GAC. Results showed that GAC could be used in treating wastewater containing aliphatic and aromatic compounds effectively.

4:00 LANDFILL LEACHATE TREATMENT USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBONFLUIDIZED BED PROCESS. Yung-Tse Hung and Sudheer Gubba, Civil Engineering Dept, Howard H. Lo, Dept of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH 44115.

This paper examines the treatment performance of a granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed process in treating leachate from a sanitary landfill. The leachate contained a high COD (chemical oxygen demand) concentration of 500 to 2,700 mg/L, and a high N[H.sub.3] concentration of 220 to 800 mg/L. Prior to treatment by GAC fluidized bed process lime was added to the leachate to raise the pH to 9.0 to precipitate the heavy metals present in the leachate. Two GAC fluidized bed reactors were used in series to treat the limed softened leachate. The first reactor was used to remove BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), while the second reactor was used to remove ammonia by nitrification. At N[H.sub.3] loading rate of 1.56 kg N[H.sub.3]-N/[m.sup.3]-d, the reactors removed 70% N[H.sub.3], 60% COD and 100% BOD. The highest N[H.sub.3] removal of 90% was obtained at N[H.sub.3] loading rate of 0.7 kg N[H.sub.3]-N/[m.sup.3]-d. It was concluded that the GAC fluidized bed process could be used effectively in removing ammonia from landfill leachate with good BOD removal.
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Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2002
Words:2345
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