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Wanata's Clothing in Edinburgh.

An early example of a Yanktonai Sioux Ceremonial Warrior Clothing?

Comparing The Man's Shirt With Other Surviving Similar Specimens. [1]

The National Museums of Scotland, in Edinburgh, has American Indian clothing reputed to have belonged to the famous Yanktonai Sioux chief Wanata. It consists of a shirt, a pair of leggings, a pair of moccasins, and a pair of mittens [2]. The clothing, which is reported to have been in Scotland since before 1837, was acquired from the Kelso Museum in 1943 and had been given to the National Museums of Scotland by a Mrs. Monkhouse of Edinburgh.

The moccasins and mittens may be intrusive, perhaps nothing to do with the shirt and leggings, but were possibly given by the same donor and now share a common register number. This writer was fortunate to contact the late Thomas B. Lindsay, a retired employee of the Glasgow Museum Service, who took a great interest in the American Indian material culture holdings in the Scottish museums. Mr. Lindsay's account of the documentation is as follows:
      North American Indian Chief's Dress
   Presented by Mr. Thomas S. Rutherford of St. Louis, U.S.

      "The dress was the property of Wanatah (He That
   Rushes Ahead in Battle), a celebrated Sioux chief and
   given by him to Mr. Walker, an Indian trader after a
   successful battle with the "Minatarees" or Big Belly
   Indians, (Gros Ventre of the Missouri or Hidatsa), a
   representation of which is on the dress and to which is
   added an ornament part of the hair of the scalps that
   were taken. The leggings are stained with blood from
   the scalping operations.

      After one of their battles, this brave, found by his
   tribe apparently lifeless, scalped, with three arrows
   and four gunshot wounds in his body, each of which, to
   all appearance enough to prove fatal, but in four
   months he was well and at his old trade.

      A great deal more could be said of this celebrated
   brave who did not die as he had lived fighting the
   battles of his nation. He fell victim to the smallpox in
   1837 at the time when it was making great ravages
   among several of the Indian tribes. What renders this
   dress very valuable is its being genuine and having
   belonged to one of the greatest braves, of one of the
   finest tribes now in existence.

      The dress was obtained from Mr. Walker by Mr.
   Laidlaw, A Scotch fur trader when in the Indian
   country and afterwards presented by him to Mr.
   Rutherford. It was deemed very valuable in America
   and should be more so in Scotland, where there is
   probably not such another and it is also valuable as a
   relic of one of the brave's tribes of the Red Man, now
   fast disappearing from the face of the earth." [2]


It is interesting to note there is no mention of the moccasins or mittens with the "dress". Thomas Rutherford would have been one of Laidlaw's friends, probably with some Scottish connection in Kelso. There is no mention of Wanata's supposed visit to Great Britain and the date of his death is at variance with that given by Doane Robinson in Hodge (1910:910). However, as will be discussed, there were several reported "Wanatas" of Yanktonai or Sisseton origin. William Laidlaw was, next to Kenneth McKenzie, the ablest of the traders who went to the Missouri with the Columbia Fur Company. To him was assigned Fort Tecumseh, which later became the American Fur Company's Fort Pierre, named after Pierre Chouteau. He was of Scottish descent, a great buffalo hunter, with a veiy tyrannical temper. He retired wealthy and built a house at Liberty, Missouri, where he kept open house for all his friends. Further references to Laidlaw can be found in the works of George Catlin (1841 : Vol. 1:221).

The Clothing

The Shirt

The shirt (Fig. 1A-1F) is a typical early 19th century specimen from the Northern Plains and has been constructed from two large deer or antelope hides with only nominal tailoring. The bottom 2/3 of each hide forms the main front and rear body. The remaining hide forms the two sleeves. There are seams at the shoulders, lower arms and sleeves to body junction, leaving the main side, upper arms and neck junctions open.

There are quilled sleeve, shoulder sleeve and shoulder strips comprising three lanes of applied in a simple diagonal weave technique. There are quill-worked discs (rosettes) back and front (16 cm diameter) (Fig. 3) where the quills are applied parallel, and intermittently brown-colored areas of maidenhair-fern stems, or other vegetal material, are worked in. The neck flaps are rectangular pieces of red trade cloth sewn to the edges of the neck opening. The shirt is noted for distinctive realistic warrior figures painted both front and back. Around the edge of the main body are hourglass shaped designs in various colors, which may represent hides (Fig. 1A-1F).

Two other museum specimens; a shirt (Fig. 2) collected by John Mix Stanley, now in the National Museum of the American Indian, New York, and a robe (Fig. 4) in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, Germany, collected by Prince Maximilian also show similar stylistic paintings. The shirt, thought to be Blackfoot or Gros Ventre (presumably Atsina), and the robe, listed as Hidatsa, are so similar to the Wanata shirt in their painting characteristics that an investigation of a probable link has been conducted [3]. Both shirts have painted dots below the shoulders, and the popular hair lock fringes wrapped with quills at their bases. Pericardium binding was also used on the hair fringe [4], The Linden robe certainly is the closest to the Wanata shirt but the latter is in a much more sophisticated style; for example, the horses and the detail of their finish. This writer is therefore inclined to believe that the three specimens are not the work of the same artist, but a local "style" which shows perhaps some European influence.

The shirt clearly fits a style of the early 19th century which came from the Northern Plains tribes (Assiniboine, Yanktonai, Gros Ventre and probably branches of the northern bands of Teton). The diminutive shoulder strips give it a certain Assiniboine feel and the Assiniboine-Yanktonai origins are well known.

The Jarvis Collection in the Brooklyn Museum, New York, has several shirts collected from the Yanktonai and Santee in the 1830s which demonstrate the use of the traditionally constructed "war shirts" by these easterly branches of the Sioux [5].

The Leggings

The leggings are a fine pair of early 19th century "bottom tab" style which has been reported from most of the Northern Plains tribes (Fig. 5). They have quilled strips with discs, spaced edge beads and black horizontal painted strips as decoration. The quilled area suggests a possible Hidtasa origin (Fig. 6). The color combinations of yellow, orange, and faded blue (or black/purple) have been noted on early clothing examples in British collections. This form of legging was constructed from a complete skin. The bottom tabs were derived from the shape of the skinned-out head of the animal.

The Moccasins

These moccasins (Fig. 6) are a form usually associated with the Woodland and Subarctic tribes from where they probably originated. This form has a large "U" shaped hide vamp, gathered to a sole and uppers which has large gathers at the junction of the two pieces. A quilled floral design covers part of the vamp, which is of a type which has variously been attributed to old Assiniboine, Plains Cree and Metis styles of decoration. Certainly, the vamp construction form fits early examples from those peoples, and also from the Santee (Feder, 1964:49 and Feest and Kasprycki, 1999:199).

The Quillwork

Feder (1980:61) made the case that the Arapaho, and by association their kinsmen the Atsina (Gros Ventre of the Prairie), had developed tribally distinctive porcupine quilled rosette (disc) designs variously described as representing the Sun, Whirlwind, and other phenomena. The quilled rosettes on the Linden robe certainly fit Feder's Arapaho-Atsina attribution, but the robe collected by Maximilian is listed as Hidatsa (Gros Ventre of the Missouri), a tribe from whom he is known to have collected. Therefore, there must be some doubt about Feder's conclusions or the robe's documentation (or both). The quillwork and maidenhair? discs on the "Wanata" and John Mix Stanley shirts are remarkably similar. Both show probable Whirlwind designs. Another shirt with similar discs from the same period is in the Museo Preistorico Entografico L. Pigorini, Rome. It is not improbable that specialist quillworkers and quite different artists contributed to the overall construction of these impressive articles of clothing which were collected at establishments along the Missouri River during the first half of the 19th century. Wanata and his Wanktonai or their Assiniboine relatives and the Hidatsa were very much involved with the commercial fur trade activity of the period. Perhaps these "chiefs" dress shirts with their warrior paintings represent a particular style from "Northeastern Plains" rather than a definitively identifiable tribal style.

Description of Wanata's Cothing

Description of Wanata's dress refer to a robe of buffalo skin, "skillfully prepared by Indian women by a laborious process which renders it at once soft and white. Figures are traced upon this material with paint or worked into it with splinters of the porcupine, dyed with the most gaudy colors." There are also vague references to colored feathers, white hides, moccasins, jackets, and leggings, etc. (Hodge, 1907:910. McKenney & Hall, 1933:223).

George Catlin painted Wan-ee-ton (Charger) in 1832 at Ft. Pierre, South Dakota. The work was not published in his popular books, but has been illustrated in the Time Life Series, The Great Chiefs from the original painting in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The painting (Fig. 7) shows Wanata I (the first chief known bearing his name) in what is one of the earliest renderings of a circle bonnet [6].

The same kind of headdress was worn in Catlin's painting of Ha-na-tah-nu-manh, Wolf Chief, a Mandan; and also by Petalesharo the Pawnee in the McKenney and Halls volumes. The front of the cap is covered in ermine; the feathers appear to be attached high on the cap not over the brow as on later so-called "warbonnets".

Unfortunately there are no details of the decoration on the shirt and leggings which could possibly connect them with the National Museums of Scotland specimens but there can be no question that High Plains poncho and binary shirts and tube leggings decorated with quillwork and pictographic war records were used by the Yanktonai and Sisseton branches of the Sioux, and perhaps they were one source of the undocumented early shirts and leggings specimens in North American and European museums. There were no doubt sold, exchanged or given away to traders and travelers at various fur trade establishments such as Ft. Pierre, which was close to Yanktonai territory.

It was customary for visiting chiefs at trading posts to strip off and present the chief factor or trader with their best clothes at the opening ceremony of the trading. In turn it was the duty of the trader to clothe the chiefs with a new suit, usually red and green cloth called captain's or chief's coats (Ray, 1974:139). Although few of these coats are know to survive, a skin coat of the same type survives in the Berlin Museum collected by Prince Maximilian (Fig. 8). This displays the same "hourglass" type of design which is similar to the designs on the Wanata shirt. There are speculative suggestions that these designs, pictographs and their colors are of a style which flowered with the European influence of visiting artists, traders and explorers to the upper Missouri area, perhaps as an expression of personal prestige in warfare or the fur trade. Representations of Indian warriors wearing "trade coats" often appear in early pictographic Naive drawings of this period.

Biographical Details of Wanata

There have been several Yanktonai and Sisseton named Wanata, at least five from the Yanktonai. The Wanata referred here was the son of Shappa (Red Thunder) a pro-British chief in the War of 1812 and chief of the Pabaska band of the Upper-Yanktonai Sioux [7].

Wanata I was born on the Elm River, Brown County, South Dakota about 1795 and one report claims he died in Emmon County, North Dakota in 1848 (McKenney & Hall, 1933: Vol. 1: 230). He joined his father and the British trader, Robert Dickson, to fight the Americans in 1812, became a captain in the British Army and was wounded at Fort Sandusky, Ohio. He is believed to have obtained his name Wa-a-na-tan (One Who Makes An

Attack, or The Charger) during this period. After the war he is reputed to have visited England although no additional references have been found of this visit [8]. (He supported American interests after 1820, so if he did visit Great Britain it can be speculated that the visit was before 1819).

Another "Wanata" was born about 1828 and died in 1897. This man had four wives and 20 children and has descendants at Fort Totten, North Dakota today. We know Wanata II was half-Sisseton and extended his authority over at least part of the Sisseton. He was probably the son of Wanata I.

Wanata I was first signatory of the Atkinson-O'Fallon Treaty of 1825 and must have been an important and influential chief to have represented the "Saone" or "Sioune" (old terms which covered several northerly bands of Teton Sioux and the Yanktonai Sioux in the vicinity of the Missouri River fur trade posts).

The best published account of Wanata I is given by the trader Edwin Thomson Denig who reports that Wanata (Waanata or Wahnatah) was chief of three groups in 1833, the whole being 400 lodges which must have extended beyond his Pabaska band. He had recovered from nearly mortal wounds when Denig met him, which gave him additional standing as a person under supernatural protection, adding to his prestige as a chief. Denig wrote that Wanata was "Dressed in officer's clothing top boots, green spectacles, sword and pistols, his strange appearance contrasted greatly with that of his half-clad followers." [9]

Apparently the green spectacles were used by him to alleviate the effects of snow blindness which led to the total loss of sight from the formation of cataracts over both eyes. According to the late James H. Howard, this blindness ultimately led to his assassination by a disaffected follower in 1840 and is possibly illustrated in several winter counts for that year (Howard, 1979:48). It was a common fate for Sioux chiefs, who under the influence of the government agents and trading houses, to become tyrants, which led to the break-up of their bands, and to their murder by their own followers when frailty and old age finally overtook them.

The different dates given for Wanata's death add to the possibility of several disconnected Wanatas. The 1839-40 date is probably derived from a pictograph on several winter counts, which seems to indicate the death of a man with large eyes or glasses. The so-called No Two Horns, and Blue Thunder counts in the British Museum show this, as discussed by Howard (1979). There is, however, a suspicion that these counts are all derived from the so-called American Horse winter count which was copied at the Pine Ridge Agency in 1879. Referring to this count, Mallery states "left-handed Big Nose was killed by Shoshoni." The subject's left arm is shown extended while his nose is grotesquely conspicuous. This pictograph also shows the victim scalped. (A very unlikely thing to happen if Wanata was killed by his own people).)

It is possible, therefore, that later American Indian historians confused the killing of Left-Handed Big Nose with that of Wanata, so that the winter count pictographs for that year may not be that of our subject, as is often suggested. Thus, we are still left with an uncertain date for the death of Wanata.

Conclusion

The documentation which accompanies the Edinburgh specimens can hardly be ignored, particularly as the individuals associated with the transfer of the objects to Scotland were all well-known personnel in the Missouri River fur trade. What is less certain is that the objects represent the artistic traditions of the donor's people. The shirt allows comparison with other similar surviving examples all of which lack precise tribal attribution. However, the evidence suggests the "Wanata" shirt fits in style from the Missouri River area of present day North and South Dakota and the northern borders of the Great Plains and from one of the northern groups of Sioux or their Assiniboine relatives.

This style shows some European influence in the construction details (neck and shoulders) and the wider use of different colors and realism in the painting, also the probable use of cut-outs and templates for repeated designs. The Hidatsa (Gros Ventre of the Misouri) or Atsina (Gros Ventre of the Prairie) are offered as less likely alternatives for the shirt's origin. The leggings however, may prove to be Hidatsa but the moccasins and mittens are probably from much further north, but reflect the varied and mixed styles of material culture potentially available.

Many of these early specimens were collected on or near the Great Missouri waterway, and St. Paul was also a prime location for the collection of early materials. The documentation on such material, however, is often vague or disappointing. The painted figures on these shirts are particularly interesting. Some painted warriors hold gunstock war clubs and guns, some show horses or mounted warriors, other shirts have no equestrian figures; occasionally warriors with open-front coats are pictured. Many are simple line warrior figures of triangular form which may be related to the pictographs on robes and religious mnemonic devices of the Woodland border tribes. The more realistic representations of warriors probably indicate some non-Indian influences.

Brownstone (2014:58) reviewed the paintings on the Wanata shirt, the Stanley shirt, and the Stuttgart robe claiming a common artist presumably was un-impressed by the more accomplished work on the Wanata shirt and smaller figures on the robe. He did acknowledge the likely commissioning of objects enhanced by the Native artists influenced by European artists, traders and explorers. A paramount chief such as Wanata could also have commissioned his personal military history to be recorded in this manner, then proudly gifted to traders he was impressing. We are also faced with the probability of several individuals involved in making these objects, those preparing the skins, the quill-workers, and the artists, who could have been Hidatsa, Yanktonai or some other people. What does seem more important is the documentation connecting with Wanata. The continuum of pictographs of crafted horses and warriors as shown on the Wanata shirt continued among the Sioux to the period when similar images appear on beaded vest and cradles. However, despite the likely multi-tribal origins of the regalia, the firm documentation suggests a strong Yanktonai association.

Addendum

There maybe a continuum in the artistic imagery of the painted horses and warriors on both the Wanata (Edinburgh) shirt and the John Mix Stanley shirt with the beaded horses and warriors on later vests. Also on the work of Neilie Two Bear Gates who was the daughter of a Yantkonai chief.

Although not restricted to Yanktonai, such work also frequently appears on work attributed to the Northern Teton Sioux of Standing rock and Cheyenne River Reservations, including such items as scout jackets and tobacco bags. There are also a number of tipi covers and battle scenes in painted media from those reservations--a reflection of Sioux horse culture in particular, rather than Hidatsa?

As Bowers states (Bowers 1965, p. 281);
      In spite of the military 'veneer', there existed a
   central core of societal values based on other
   significant aspects of their culture. In this respect, it
   appears that the Hidatsa and their neighbors, the
   Mandan and Arikara, differed from the nomadic
   groups of the Plains who, in the years preceding the
   Reservation Period, measured social status largely on
   military records.


Feder and Brownstone seemed unconvinced by the Edinburgh shirt's known documentation which involved well known frontier personnel. However, this writer would offer the possibility of the pictographic works as Sioux.

Notes

[1] [Reprinted by kind permission of Dietmar Kuegler Publisher, Tatanka Press, Po Box 1332, D-25931, Wyk, Germany. From The People of the Buffalo, Vol. 2, The Plains Indians of North America, The Silent Memorials: Artifacts as Cultural and Historical Documents, Essays in Honor of John C. Evers. [2005]

[2] The regalia listed in their catalogue under reference numbers 1941, 1a,b,c,d,e and f was examined in detail by the author and Colin Taylor in the spring of 1979. At this time the original handwritten label '1941. Ig', describing the gift of Thomas Rutherford to the Museum in Kelso in 1844, was missing and presumed lost. However, following and inquiry from a descendant of Wanata in September 2000, the museum's staff located the original label in the stores and a photocopy was kindly provided by Chantai Knowles, the present Curator of Ethnography at the National Museums of Scotland, to the writer in July 2003. Despite some minor discrepancies the documentation provided by Thomas Lindsay was accurate. However, no additional information on Mrs. Monkhouse is as yet known. (Square, Kelso 1844 (1942.1G)).

[3] The late Norman Feder, formerly consultant to American Indian Art magazine, published a report on Plains pictographic painting and quilled rosettes in which he concludes that the John Mix Stanley shirt, the robe now in the Linden Museum, and a shirt in the U.S. National Museum, were all painted by the same artist and suggests a Gros Ventre attribution. However, this opinion was not shared by a number of experts with whom the proposition was discussed. John C. Ewers has given the Stanley shirt a likely Assiniboine provenance.

John C. Ewers wrote: "As for the Stanley shirt, most of my informants who said it was not Blackfoot cited the painting of the man on horseback in the front, and said they did not do that. I also showed this picture to Assiniboine oldsters. They seemed to think it might have been Assiniboine. At least their reactions were all relatively positive, while the Blackfoot ones were all negative. Stanley, of course, was among the Assiniboine as well as the Blackfeet in 1853 and I doubt if the 'Blackfoot' designation is his." (Letter to C. Taylor, January 1972.) Feder, however, had not the advantage of seeing the documentation provided by Mr. Lindsay.

[4] Pericardium is a membranous substance enclosing an animal's heart and was used to wrap the base of hair locks of the type fixed to shirt strip edges, over which quills were finally wrapped. These hair locks form fringes.

[5] One specimen was presented to Jarvis by "Wainitou", a Yanktonai chief 50.67.8 (70?) who was possibly Wanata I.

[6] Besides the Catlin painting of "Wan-ee-ton", whom he claimed to be Sisseton, painted at Ft. Pierre in 1832, there are at least three others: Samuel Seymour's "Wanatan and his Son", a frontispiece to William H. Keating's Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of the St. Peter's River (Philadelphia, 1824); and a portrait by James Otto Lewis from which Charles Bird King derived his portrait in 1826. Another image, dated 1823, perhaps another Seymour portrait appears in Robinson (1904:14). The portrait reproduced in the McKenney & Hall volumes appears to be an (Inman?) copy based on King's painting. Hodge's accompanying notes in McKenney and Hall suggest that the Catlin painting is not the same Indian as in the Lewis-King portrait. However, the writer is inclined to believe it is the same man.

[7] The term Pabaska means "Cut Head Sioux". The Yanktonai, properly Ihnktonwana, meaning "Little End Village" were the northern division of the two middle or Nakota branches of the Sioux and they were themselves further divided into the Upper Yanktonai and Lower Yanktonai or Hunkpatirta. The Assiniboine were also descended from them. Their principal location was the James River Country; chiefly eastern North Dakota and northern South Dakota.

Their dialectic cousins, the Yankton, lived to the south, the Teton to the west and southwest, and the Santee branch on the eastern flank. Associated with both Yanktonai and Yankton, sharing common Plains culture-oriented traits such as the bison skin lodge and the Sun Dance ceremony and often inter-marrying, were the (Isanti) Santce Sioux divisions of Sisseton and Wahpeton, particularly the former division. These two divisions of the Santee were often referred to as the "Upper Council", to distinguish between themselves and the "Lower Council", the Mdewakanton and Wapekute, a division which became particularly apparent during the 1862 uprising when the Upper Council took little part in the fighting.

So often have Yanktonai, Yankton and Wahpeton inter-married that the present-day reservation communities at Fort Totten and Standing rock in North Dakota and at Fort Peck, Montana, have adopted the Dakota-Santee dialect of the Eastern Sioux. It is probably, however, that they have always been essentially the same people since their migration from north of Mille Lacs, Minnesota in the early 18th century. DeMallie and Parks have recently insisted the Yanktonai and Yankton arc not Nakota speakers but Dakota speakers, (see "Sioux Until 1850", Part 2, Vol 13, Handbook of North American Indians; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 2001). DeMallie and Parks have concluded the Yanktonai-Yankton are actually 'D', Dakota speakers. However, this proposition is not shared by some scholars suggesting the merging of Nakota and Dakota speakers on several reservations has resulted in a mixed dialect.

[8] This visit is reported by Doane Robinson under "Wanata", Vol. II, Handbook of Americans of North America, p. 910.

[9] Denig was the most literate of the early traders and keen that his experiences of 21 years among the tribes of the Upper Missouri should not be wasted. He was at Fort Pierre in 1833, the same year as Prince Maximilian's party and his artist, Carl Bodmer, ascended the river to Fort Pierre. Denig was at Fort Union from 1837 and was of great assistance to all the scientists and explorers of the Upper Missouri in that year. He retired from the fur trade and settled at Red River to write a book on the ethnology of the Indian tribes, but his material was pillaged by Hayden, De Smet and others. In 1936 the Missouri Historical Society obtained the manuscripts of the trader, Culbertson, and among these was found Denig's chapters on Sioux, Arikara, Assiniboine, Cree and Crow which remain the best material yet published about these tribes.

Bibliography

[Bowers, Alfred W. (1965). Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 194. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Brownstone, Ami. (2014). European Influence in the Mandan-Hidatsa: Graphic Works Collected by Prince Maximilian of Wied. American Indian Art, 32:4.

Catlin, George. (1841). Letters and Notes on the Manners. Customs, Conditions of the North American Indians; 2 vols. London.

Denig, John C. (1956) George Catlin, Painter of Indian and the West. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

--(1982). Artist's Choices. American Indian Art, 7:2. Feder, Norman. (1962). Bottom Tab Leggings. American Indian Tradition, 8:4

--(1964). Art of the Eastern Plains Indians: The Nathan Sturges Jarvis Collection. New York: The Brooklyn Museum.

--(1980). Plains Pictographic Painting and Quilled Rosettes. American Indian Art, 5:2.

Feest, Christian F., ed. (2001). Studies in American Indian Art: A Memorial Tribute to Norman Feder. Altenstadt, Germany: European Review of Native American Studies.

Feest, Christian F. and Kasprycki, Sylvia S. (1999). People of the Twilight: European Views of Native Minnesota 1832 to 1862. Afton, Minnesota. Hodge, Frederick W., ed. (191). Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 2 vols. Bulletin 30. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Howard, James H. (1976). Yanktonai Ethnohistory and the John K. Bear Winter Count. Plains Anthropologies, 21:73, part 2. Lincoln Nebraska.

--(1979). The British Museum Winter Count. Occasional Paper No. 4. London: British Museum, Department of Ethnography.

Mallery, Garrick (1882-83). Picture Writing of the American Indians. 10th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Eghnology. Washington, D.C.

McKenney, Thomas L. & Hall, James. (1933). The Indian Tribes of North America, 3 vols. Edinburgh: John Grant.

Ray Arthur J. (1974). Indians in the Fur Trade. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Robinson, Doane. (1904). A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians. Minneapolis: Rep. Ross and Haines, Inc., 1956.

Taylor, Colin F. (1995). Sunka Wakan Sacred Horses of the Plains Indians. Germany: Verlag fur Amerikanis tik Wyk and Foehr.

Time Life Books. (1995). The Great Chiefs. Alexandria, Virginia.

Viola, Herman J. (1976). The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Caption: Figure 1A (above): Man's shirt attributed to Wanata, before 1837. Antelope or deer skins decorated with quillwork strips, discs, tradecloth and human hair. Painted fighting scenes showing horse mounted and pedestrian warriors in red, brown, yellow, green and purple. Length 134 cm. Courtesy National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1942.1.a.

Caption: Figure 1B (above): Color illustration of shirt front by the author.

Caption: Figure 1C (left): Lower portion of the Wanata shirt.

Caption: Figure 1D (above): Back of the shirt.

Caption: Figure 1E (inset): Detail of one of the mounted warriors on shirt front. Author photographs.

Caption: Figure 1F: Color illustration of back of shirt with dimensions. Illustration by the author.

Caption: Figure 2: Man's shirt, c. 1835, acquired from artist John Mix Stanley. Antelope or deer skins decorated with quillwork strips and discs, hair and painted scenes. However, the painted scenes are cruder than the Wanata shirt. National Museum of American Indian, New York. Cat.no. 16/5207.

Caption: Figure 3: Disc detail of porcupine quillwork and maidenhair fern stems(?) on the shirt attributed to Wanata. Feder's identification of the brown-black areas on discs as maidenhair has been recently queried by Bill Holm who suggests an alternative vegetal material (Feest, ed. 2001:60).

Caption: Figure 4: Man's robe, c. 1830s, labeled Hidatsa collected by Prince Maximilian of Weid. Bison hide with quillwork and painted with pictographs closest in style to those on the Wanata shirt. Linden Museum, Stuttgart, Germany.

Caption: Figure 5 (right): Man's leggings attributed to Wanata; Northern Plains, c. 1830. Antelope skin (?), paint, blood (?) and quillwork in three rows of lanes, possibly an Assiboine rait (see Ewers 1956:498). National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1942 1.b.c.

Caption: Figure 6: Moccasins, soft soled with 'u' shaped instep vamp decorated with floral quillwork, sharing the same reference number as the Wanata shirt and leggings. Dismissed by Lindsay as "intrusive", however, this construction was used by the Yankontais's close relatives, the Eastern Sioux or Santee. National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh.

Caption: Figure 8 (right): Wan-ee-ton, Sisseton Sioux (?), painted by Georg Catlin at Fort Pierre, South Dakota in 1832. Probably the same as Wanata, Wanatah, Waneta, etc. In all the images of the chief he wears a bear claw necklace. According to the trader Keating, who accompanied Major Long's expedition in 1823, Wanata killed the bear from which the claws were obtained. The Italian traveller, Beltrami, unsuccessfully tried to obtain the necklace from him (Robinson 1904:104).

Caption: Figure 8: Chief's coat, attributed to the Sioux, collected by Prince Maximilian during the 1830s. Note the painted "hourglass" devices which resemble the borders on the Wanata shirt in Edinburgh. Maxilmilian reported that the symbols referred to "treasures given away" (Taylor 1995:69). Museum fur Volkerdunde, Berlin.

Caption: Figure 9: Wanotan, The Charger. Samuel Seymour's sketch probably done on the Major Long expedition of 1823 at Lake Traverse when accompanied by the trader William H. Keating and used by Keating as a frontispiece of his two volumes publishing in Philadelphia, 1824.

Caption: Figure 10: Waneta, probably another sketch done on the long expedition of 1823 at Lake Traverse, which appears in A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians by Doane Robinson, 1904:104.

Caption: Above: Sioux decorated council tipis at Bull Head Standing Rock Reservation, July 4, 1912. Canvas tipi covers with painted horse and warrior pictographs continuing in the general style of earlier beadwork and painted shirts. Photograph by Frank Bennette Fiske (1882-1952); author's collection.

Upper Right: Solid color beaded horses on the back of a Sioux buckskin "scout jacket", c. 1890. An example of pictographic beaded designs, perhaps related to the earlier painted designs on the Wanata and Stanley shirts referred to in the text.

Right: Beaded horses and warriors on the back of a Sioux vest, c. 1880, possibly indicating a continuum with similar painted designs on the Wanata shirt. Notice how the horses and warriors are in a similar relationship to those on the Wanata shirt; i.e., facing horse and splayed legs. Formerly M.G. Johnson collection.

Caption: Far Left: George Two Lance, Minniconjou (Teton Sioux), 1913. He wears a solid beaded vest with geometric designs and mounted warrior figures facing in typical poses. Author collection.

Left: George Spotted Elk, Minniconju (Teton Sioux), c. 1908, wearing a fully beaded vest with horse motifs, back and front. Author collection.

Caption: Figure 11: Wanata, painted by Charles Bird King in 1826 based upon an original by James Otto Lewis painted at the Treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1825. King's copy was also probably recopied by Henry Inman for the McKenney & Hall volumes The Indian Tribes of North America published in 1836. All those paintings whare the similar details of hair decoration, bear claw necklace and robe.

Caption: Figure 12: Wa-na-ta or "The Charger Grand Chief of the Sioux". Another portrait of the chief reported to have been by King in 1826 (or a copy derived from King (see Figure 11). This is the image used in the McKenny & Hall volumes.
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Title Annotation:Edinburgh, Scotland
Author:Johnson, Michael G.
Publication:Whispering Wind
Geographic Code:4EUUS
Date:Nov 1, 2017
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