Vitamin D and vascular calcification.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascular calcification is frequently found in patients with osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The effects of vitamin D excess and deficiency on vascular calcification are reviewed in this article. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence from experimental studies that mediacalcinosis induced by vitamin D excess is an active and reversible process. Vitamin D excess, however, is rarely seen in the general human population. Experimental data also demonstrate that physiologic vitamin D actions include the inhibition of processes that are important for intimal and medial artery calcification such as pro-inflammatory cytokine release, adhesion molecule release, and proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. In uremic rats, low levels of the vitamin D hormone calcitriol are associated with massive vascular and soft tissue calcifications. Whereas retrospective studies already indicate a beneficial effect of active vitamin D on mortality rates in chronic kidney disease, little is yet known about the effect of vitamin D deficiency on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. SUMMARY: Available data indicate that vitamin D exerts a biphasic 'dose response' curve on vascular calcification with deleterious consequences not only of vitamin D excess but also of vitamin D deficiency.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007 Feb;18(1):41-6
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|Title Annotation:||Vitamin D & K|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2010|
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