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Views of physical education teachers in primary and secondary schools on in- service activities and their frequencies of participation in these activities.

Introduction

Teachers have necessities for in-service training so as to renew themselves, to acquire the

knowledge about their fields, to benefit from new technological instruments throughout the education process, to have a modern education understanding, to be capable of using modern methods and techniques

and to carry on a teaching process in which they could protect mental health of the students and pave the way for them to use their potentials at top levels (I. Yildirim, 2001).

Teachers, first of all should not settle for their knowledge and skills but renew themselves continuously in order to reflect the innovations on educational institutions. The necessity that the innovations in teaching method and techniques, arising as a result of the studies made on teaching and learning process so as to provide more efficient learning and to ensure the stability of knowledge should be employed is one of the major factors making in in-service training compulsory (R.R. Parker, 1997).

The aims of in-service training are to accommodate the teachers coming from pre-service training into the system, to understand the goals of national education, school and lessons and to have a common opinion in practice, to provide what is inadequate in pre-service training, to furnish them with the information, skills and attitudes required by the educational innovations and to enable brilliant ane competent personnel make an advance and their progress in their careers (B. Mehmet, 2004).

Research Methods and Procedure

Subjects

The voluntary participation of total 117 physical education teachers who work in 67 primary and 50 secondary schools in Ankara in 2006-2007 academic year makes up the study group. The data were obtained via questionnaire method in the study.

The views which are in the questionnaire were obtained from various sources with regards to the point and then they were made to be referred to specialist. The questionnaire is made up of five chapters and total 34 questions. Likert Scale method was used for the questionnaire. Levels of the scale are 1:Strongly disagree, 2:Disagree, 3:Neither disagree nor agree, 4:Agree, 5: Strongly agree. Crombach Alpha confidence coefficient was found a:.864 in the second part of the questionnaire, while it was found a:.788 in the third part of the questionnaire.

Statistical Analysis

Avarages, standart deviations, frequencies and percentage distributions were notated in tables for the evaluation of the data obtained from the questionnaires. "t test" was used in order to determine whether there were differences among answers of teachers to the questions about their age and gender whilst Single way Variance Analysis was made and found in p< 0.05 significance level in order to determine whether there were differences among the answers of these teachers to the questions about their age and period of inservice training. Tukey HDS test was used in order to determine from which the differences.

Results

It has been determined in the study that 47% of the teachers are women while 53% are men, and 65% of them have Bachelor's Degree while 35% of them have Master's Degree (Table 1). The general conditions and the percentage of physical education teachers participating in in-service trainings such as courses and seminars were 3,83% whereas the peak participation was realized in "Computer and Internet Use" in the rate of 60,7%. On the other hand, the rate of not participating in this kind of trainings was 95,93%. The seminar which rendered most participation according to gender, age, educational background and period of service was "Computer and Internet Use".

In their suggestions about in-service training the physical education teachers have stated that they would like to get their in-service training in the form of "seminar" (48.7%), and the most appropriate time period for getting in-service training is "June--September" period (33.3%). (Table 2)

A statistically meaningful difference has been found as the result of the t-test, made in order to compare the answers that physical education teachers gave about the in-service training activities, according to their genders. According to these results, the average of the answers given by the female physical education teachers about the in-service activities is higher than the average of the answers of the male physical education teachers. Female physical education teachers have stated that they agree with the views abovementioned more than male teachers.

A statistically meaningful difference (p<0.05) has been found as the result of the t-test, made in order to compare the answers given by the physical education teachers to the questions about in-service training activities, according to their academic backgrounds. According to these results, the physical education teachers who have M.A. degree agree with the opinions about in-service training activities more than the physical education teachers having B.A. degree. (Table 3)

Discussion

In our country, educational process contains in service and pre service training. In public establishment in service training includes two groups. The first group is the new staff and the secons group is the staff still working. The aim is to teach the changes in the work and to learn changes. But, the studies on in service training is not successful and are thought to remain on a theoretical level (G. Hiiseyin, 2000). Although in service training is thought to be necessary in our country, activity level is not enough. There are two reasons why in service training activities are not popular. First reason is that labor cost is not reflected in and the second reason is that additional training is not reflected in employee rights (A. Tufan, 2002).

References

HUSEYIN, G., 2000, In-Service Training in Public Administration in Turkey, Social Sciences Institute Journal, Vol: 2, No: 3, P:47

MEHMET, B., 2004, In-Service Training of Elementary Teachers, Moders Education Journal, P:27-33.

PARKER, R.R., 1997, Journal of Technology and Teacher Educations, Increasing Faculty Use In Techonology In Teaching,, Vol: 5,2/3.

TUFAN, A., 2002, Hizmet igi Egitim Kavrami ve Kars.ilas.ilan Sorunlar.

YILDIRIM, I, 2001, "Training Qualified Teacher and The Place Of In-Service Training" Panel on Training Teacher and Quality in Education, Ministry of National Education, P: 104

Gunduz, N (1)., Arslan E (1)., Gokyurek B (2).,

(1) The School of Physical Education and Sports in Ankara Universities, TURKEY

(2) The School of Physical Education and Sports in Gazi Universities, TURKEY

Email: Nevin.Gunduz@sports.ankara.edu.tr
Table 1. Personal Features of the Respondent
Physical Education Teachers

AGE                        N                F       %
                     Ages of 20-29         19     16,2
                     Ages of 30-39         68     58,1
                     Ages of 40-49         18     15,4
                  Ages of 50 and more      12     10,3

                         TOTAL             117     100

SERVICE PERIOD             N                F       %
                       0-5 years           17     14,5
                       6-10 years          29     24,8
                      11-15 years          28     23,9
                    16 years or more       43     36,8

                         TOTAL             117     100

GENDER                   FEMALE            55      47
                          MALE             62      53

                         TOTAL             117     100

ACADEMIC         Bachelor's Degree (BA)    76      65
BACKGROUND        Master's Degree (MA)     41      35

                         TOTAL             117     100

Table 2. Suggestions of Physical Education Teachers about
In-Service Training

NO   3. SURVEY QUESTIONS      N       X      SS

1    Through which way       117    2,40    0,83
     would you like to
     get the in-service
     training you are in
     need of?

1- Course 2- Seminar 3- Professional Conference 4- Internet

2    Can you write the        N       X      SS
     most appropriate
     time periods for        117    2,95    1,08
     physical education
     teachers for the
     in-service training
     activities to be
     held in?

                                    (PERCENTAGE) AND (N)
                                       DISTRIBUTIONS

NO   3. SURVEY QUESTIONS      1 *      2 *      3 *      4 *

1    Through which way      % 11,1   %48,7    % 29,1   % 11,1
     would you like to        13       57       34       13
     get the in-service
     training you are in
     need of?

1- Course 2- Seminar 3- Professional Conference 4- Internet

2    Can you write the              (PERCENTAGE) AND (N)
     most appropriate                  DISTRIBUTIONS
     time periods for
     physical education n     1 *      2 *      3 *      4 *      5*
     teachers for the
     in-service training    % 10,3   % 23,9   % 33,3   %25,6   % 6,8
     activities to be         12       28       39       30      8
     held in?

1 * Weekend in Education Period 2 * Weekday in Education
4 * Summer holiday 5 * Half term holiday

Table 3. T-Test Results Of the Physical Education Teachers
About In-Service Training According to Their Academic Backgrounds

                                  Academic
Questions                        Background     N         X        Ss

5- Some kind of knowledge and        BA         76       3,36     0,97
skills can only be achieved          MA         41       3,58     0,77
through the in-service
training to be received.

6- In-service training               BA         76       3,81     0,84
activities increase the              MA         41       3,82     0,54
efficiency of physical
education teachers in
teaching-learning process.

7- In-service training               BA         76       3,61     0,90
activities contribute to the         MA         41       4,09     0,49
personal development of
physical education teachers.

16- In-service training              BA         76       3,52     0,70
activities prevent physical          MA         41       3,48     0,92
education teachers from being
engaged with unnecessary
details.

19- In-service training              BA         76       3,57     0,69
activities assist physical           MA         41       3,58     0,92
education teachers in solving
the problems they come across.

20- Training and practices           BA         76       3,65     0,66
included in the in-service           MA         41       3,46     0,89
training program are employed
in schools.

Questions                            T          Sd         P

5- Some kind of knowledge and      -1,22       115      0,011 *
skills can only be achieved
through the in-service
training to be received.

6- In-service training             -0,09       115      0,009 *
activities increase the
efficiency of physical
education teachers in
teaching-learning process.

7- In-service training             -3,13       115      0,000 **
activities contribute to the
personal development of
physical education teachers.

16- In-service training             0,25       115      0,005 **
activities prevent physical
education teachers from being
engaged with unnecessary
details.

19- In-service training             0,04       115      0,020 *
activities assist physical
education teachers in solving
the problems they come across.

20- Training and practices          1,33       115      0,006 *
included in the in-service
training program are employed
in schools.

* (p<0.05), ** (p<0.01)
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Author:Gunduz, N.; Arslan, E.; Gokyurek, B.
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7TURK
Date:Jun 1, 2010
Words:1649
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