Views of physical education teachers in primary and secondary schools on in- service activities and their frequencies of participation in these activities.
Teachers have necessities for in-service training so as to renew themselves, to acquire the
knowledge about their fields, to benefit from new technological instruments throughout the education process, to have a modern education understanding, to be capable of using modern methods and techniques
and to carry on a teaching process in which they could protect mental health of the students and pave the way for them to use their potentials at top levels (I. Yildirim, 2001).
Teachers, first of all should not settle for their knowledge and skills but renew themselves continuously in order to reflect the innovations on educational institutions. The necessity that the innovations in teaching method and techniques, arising as a result of the studies made on teaching and learning process so as to provide more efficient learning and to ensure the stability of knowledge should be employed is one of the major factors making in in-service training compulsory (R.R. Parker, 1997).
The aims of in-service training are to accommodate the teachers coming from pre-service training into the system, to understand the goals of national education, school and lessons and to have a common opinion in practice, to provide what is inadequate in pre-service training, to furnish them with the information, skills and attitudes required by the educational innovations and to enable brilliant ane competent personnel make an advance and their progress in their careers (B. Mehmet, 2004).
Research Methods and Procedure
The voluntary participation of total 117 physical education teachers who work in 67 primary and 50 secondary schools in Ankara in 2006-2007 academic year makes up the study group. The data were obtained via questionnaire method in the study.
The views which are in the questionnaire were obtained from various sources with regards to the point and then they were made to be referred to specialist. The questionnaire is made up of five chapters and total 34 questions. Likert Scale method was used for the questionnaire. Levels of the scale are 1:Strongly disagree, 2:Disagree, 3:Neither disagree nor agree, 4:Agree, 5: Strongly agree. Crombach Alpha confidence coefficient was found a:.864 in the second part of the questionnaire, while it was found a:.788 in the third part of the questionnaire.
Avarages, standart deviations, frequencies and percentage distributions were notated in tables for the evaluation of the data obtained from the questionnaires. "t test" was used in order to determine whether there were differences among answers of teachers to the questions about their age and gender whilst Single way Variance Analysis was made and found in p< 0.05 significance level in order to determine whether there were differences among the answers of these teachers to the questions about their age and period of inservice training. Tukey HDS test was used in order to determine from which the differences.
It has been determined in the study that 47% of the teachers are women while 53% are men, and 65% of them have Bachelor's Degree while 35% of them have Master's Degree (Table 1). The general conditions and the percentage of physical education teachers participating in in-service trainings such as courses and seminars were 3,83% whereas the peak participation was realized in "Computer and Internet Use" in the rate of 60,7%. On the other hand, the rate of not participating in this kind of trainings was 95,93%. The seminar which rendered most participation according to gender, age, educational background and period of service was "Computer and Internet Use".
In their suggestions about in-service training the physical education teachers have stated that they would like to get their in-service training in the form of "seminar" (48.7%), and the most appropriate time period for getting in-service training is "June--September" period (33.3%). (Table 2)
A statistically meaningful difference has been found as the result of the t-test, made in order to compare the answers that physical education teachers gave about the in-service training activities, according to their genders. According to these results, the average of the answers given by the female physical education teachers about the in-service activities is higher than the average of the answers of the male physical education teachers. Female physical education teachers have stated that they agree with the views abovementioned more than male teachers.
A statistically meaningful difference (p<0.05) has been found as the result of the t-test, made in order to compare the answers given by the physical education teachers to the questions about in-service training activities, according to their academic backgrounds. According to these results, the physical education teachers who have M.A. degree agree with the opinions about in-service training activities more than the physical education teachers having B.A. degree. (Table 3)
In our country, educational process contains in service and pre service training. In public establishment in service training includes two groups. The first group is the new staff and the secons group is the staff still working. The aim is to teach the changes in the work and to learn changes. But, the studies on in service training is not successful and are thought to remain on a theoretical level (G. Hiiseyin, 2000). Although in service training is thought to be necessary in our country, activity level is not enough. There are two reasons why in service training activities are not popular. First reason is that labor cost is not reflected in and the second reason is that additional training is not reflected in employee rights (A. Tufan, 2002).
HUSEYIN, G., 2000, In-Service Training in Public Administration in Turkey, Social Sciences Institute Journal, Vol: 2, No: 3, P:47
MEHMET, B., 2004, In-Service Training of Elementary Teachers, Moders Education Journal, P:27-33.
PARKER, R.R., 1997, Journal of Technology and Teacher Educations, Increasing Faculty Use In Techonology In Teaching,, Vol: 5,2/3.
TUFAN, A., 2002, Hizmet igi Egitim Kavrami ve Kars.ilas.ilan Sorunlar.
YILDIRIM, I, 2001, "Training Qualified Teacher and The Place Of In-Service Training" Panel on Training Teacher and Quality in Education, Ministry of National Education, P: 104
Gunduz, N (1)., Arslan E (1)., Gokyurek B (2).,
(1) The School of Physical Education and Sports in Ankara Universities, TURKEY
(2) The School of Physical Education and Sports in Gazi Universities, TURKEY
Table 1. Personal Features of the Respondent Physical Education Teachers AGE N F % Ages of 20-29 19 16,2 Ages of 30-39 68 58,1 Ages of 40-49 18 15,4 Ages of 50 and more 12 10,3 TOTAL 117 100 SERVICE PERIOD N F % 0-5 years 17 14,5 6-10 years 29 24,8 11-15 years 28 23,9 16 years or more 43 36,8 TOTAL 117 100 GENDER FEMALE 55 47 MALE 62 53 TOTAL 117 100 ACADEMIC Bachelor's Degree (BA) 76 65 BACKGROUND Master's Degree (MA) 41 35 TOTAL 117 100 Table 2. Suggestions of Physical Education Teachers about In-Service Training NO 3. SURVEY QUESTIONS N X SS 1 Through which way 117 2,40 0,83 would you like to get the in-service training you are in need of? 1- Course 2- Seminar 3- Professional Conference 4- Internet 2 Can you write the N X SS most appropriate time periods for 117 2,95 1,08 physical education teachers for the in-service training activities to be held in? (PERCENTAGE) AND (N) DISTRIBUTIONS NO 3. SURVEY QUESTIONS 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 1 Through which way % 11,1 %48,7 % 29,1 % 11,1 would you like to 13 57 34 13 get the in-service training you are in need of? 1- Course 2- Seminar 3- Professional Conference 4- Internet 2 Can you write the (PERCENTAGE) AND (N) most appropriate DISTRIBUTIONS time periods for physical education n 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 5* teachers for the in-service training % 10,3 % 23,9 % 33,3 %25,6 % 6,8 activities to be 12 28 39 30 8 held in? 1 * Weekend in Education Period 2 * Weekday in Education 4 * Summer holiday 5 * Half term holiday Table 3. T-Test Results Of the Physical Education Teachers About In-Service Training According to Their Academic Backgrounds Academic Questions Background N X Ss 5- Some kind of knowledge and BA 76 3,36 0,97 skills can only be achieved MA 41 3,58 0,77 through the in-service training to be received. 6- In-service training BA 76 3,81 0,84 activities increase the MA 41 3,82 0,54 efficiency of physical education teachers in teaching-learning process. 7- In-service training BA 76 3,61 0,90 activities contribute to the MA 41 4,09 0,49 personal development of physical education teachers. 16- In-service training BA 76 3,52 0,70 activities prevent physical MA 41 3,48 0,92 education teachers from being engaged with unnecessary details. 19- In-service training BA 76 3,57 0,69 activities assist physical MA 41 3,58 0,92 education teachers in solving the problems they come across. 20- Training and practices BA 76 3,65 0,66 included in the in-service MA 41 3,46 0,89 training program are employed in schools. Questions T Sd P 5- Some kind of knowledge and -1,22 115 0,011 * skills can only be achieved through the in-service training to be received. 6- In-service training -0,09 115 0,009 * activities increase the efficiency of physical education teachers in teaching-learning process. 7- In-service training -3,13 115 0,000 ** activities contribute to the personal development of physical education teachers. 16- In-service training 0,25 115 0,005 ** activities prevent physical education teachers from being engaged with unnecessary details. 19- In-service training 0,04 115 0,020 * activities assist physical education teachers in solving the problems they come across. 20- Training and practices 1,33 115 0,006 * included in the in-service training program are employed in schools. * (p<0.05), ** (p<0.01)
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|Title Annotation:||PHYSICAL EDUCATION|
|Author:||Gunduz, N.; Arslan, E.; Gokyurek, B.|
|Publication:||Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2010|
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