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Video and the Web, part 2: sharing and social networking.

From videos taken on a cell phone to high-quality independent films, it seems that anyone with a camera has become a videographer. Although watching videos of wedding goers doing the chicken dance may be fun, there are many more educational applications of video sharing.

WHAT'S VIDEO SHARING?

In recent years, video-sharing sites have emerged as a popular source of online video. Sometimes called video-hosting services, these sites allow participants to upload and store video clips on a remote web sewer. Most services then allow anyone to view, link to, and embed these videos into their own web sites and blogs. Some services allow one to choose who can see which videos. In June 2007, Wikipedia listed over 70 video-sharing web sites. These web sites house predominately free user-generated video clips. Vimeo is an example of an easy-to-use video-sharing site that works well for sharing family videos and class projects. Others contain advertising, such as blip.tv, Daily Motion, Kewego, Lulu TV, and Revver. Our Media provides space for people to share copyright-cleared video footage.

WHAT'S A VIDEO-SHARING SOCIAL NETWORK?

Some sites simply provide a place to upload and download video clips, whereas others are entire social networks incorporating options for user profiles, video ratings, a list of favorites, tagging, and comments. Such sites may also provide options for e-mailing links to videos, as well as embedding the videos in a web site or blog. The most popular example is a site known as YouTube. This video-enhanced social network contains thousands of videos. Keep in mind that YouTube was not designed for young people. Whereas you can find great examples of student productions, a majority of the content is for adults. For Google users, the Google Video program is a nice option for sharing videos.

A growing number of these networks are emerging for educators, including SchoolTube and TeacherTube. Even if your school filters YouTube, you may be able to convince administrators to unblock these educational web sites. SchoolTube is an online community where students, educators, and industry members work together to foster video production and web publishing in a safe environment (Figure 1). Organized by subject and topic area channels, the site is easy to navigate, allowing one to quickly locate quality student-produced videos. The web site provides a way to organize and rate favorite videos. Each program is moderated or teacher approved for viewing. The project uses the Student Television Network Code of Ethics to maintain high standards that focus on the important role of student journalists in teaching and learning. The code states that young people should seek truth and report it, minimize harm, act independently, and be accountable. The web site also sponsors contests to promote student video production.

TeacherTube looks a lot like YouTube. The front page lists the newest entries and provides a way to search for videos. You can watch videos on topics such as making bar and circle graphs in Excel, essay writing, and black holes. It ago contains channels focusing on spedfic grade levels and subject areas. For example, you can see all the videos in world languages or math. Discussion groups can be established for teacher groups, schools, and others. Young people can upload their projects and teachers can share their educational materials.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

With all video-sharing sites, it is important that teacher and student video producers and users read the terms of use for the site and be aware of the intellectual property rights for user-submitted video clips and programs. It is also necessary to check to see how inappropriate videos are flagged or filtered.

HOW DO I ACCESS VIDEO ON THE WEB?

Web-based videos can be downloaded to your computer or streamed directly from the Web. Think about what will work best for your classroom. There are pros and cons each approach: Streaming does not take hard drive space on your server, but it takes lots of bandwidth and can slow down your network. Downloading requires storage space and time to copy the file onto your computer.

Digital video is captured and delivered in a variety of file formats; there are literally dozens of file types used to handle video programming. To view a video file, a matching media or video player must be installed on the computer. You may also need to download extensions for your web browser. The videos may play directly in your browser or in a separate window.

The following commonly used video file formats can be played on both the Mac and the Windows operating system (some are also supported on Linux systems).

MOV AND QT: QUICKTIME

This Apple-developed video file format can be displayed within your web browser or in a separate window. Some versions of OuickTime movies are streamed (played and downloaded at the same time), whereas others are downloaded. It depends on how they are saved.

MPEG: MOVING PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP

This file type is downloaded to your computer as a small-size high-quality file. The MPEG format for audio and video has evolved and now incorporates MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-3, and MPEG-4 "lossy" compression algorithms. These files can be played using the QuickTime Player as well as the Windows Media Player.

RAM OR RM: REAL MEDIA

This media file format can be set up to download or stream. Streamed video begins playing as the video file continues to download. On slow connections the playback-viewing process may pause occasionally as the stream catches up, so they may not have the smooth flow of some other video files. Streamed files are only temporarily played through the computer; therefore, an Internet connection is needed for viewing. Downloaded files may be played over and over again because they are housed on the desktop.

WMA AND WMV WINDOWS MEDIA AUDIO/VIDEO

These video files are compressed with the Windows Media Audio and Windows Media Video codec. There's also a newer file type know as WMV HD For high-definition video.

SWF: ADOBE FLASH ANIMATION

This format is often identified as a video format. Flash files are sometimes video files, or they contain large portions of video content. However, some SWF files are primarily multimedia and/or animation that can incorporate text and both vector and raster graphics.

An increasing number of people are storing files in the OGG multimedia container. This open-source Format uses Ogg Theora for video compression. Users can download the free MPlayer.

WHAT IF I WANT TO DOWNLOAD A STREAMING VIDEO FROM THE WEB?

Before you decide whether you will stream or download videos, consider the producer's intention and the copyright implications. Although there are software packages that allow you to capture and download streaming video, the producer may want you to view the video through a web page that is supported by advertisers. In many cases, the advertising pays for the storage space. Before you grab and download the video, think about the copyright implications and your use of the video.

Whereas most video-sharing web sites do not provide an option to download videos, a few hosting services, such as Eyespot, support a download option. There are dozens of tools to enable downloads from other video host sites, Well-known examples are web-based tools such as SaveTube, GetTube for Mac OSX users, and the popular ZamZar file format-conversion site. GetTube can download video or audio files from YouTube, DailyMotion, and Kewego sites. You can also get add-ons for your web browser. For example, VideoDownloadHelper allows you to download videos from most services in Firefox. There are also flee desktop applications such as VDownloader and KeepV Flash Converter that can convert videos from .fly to .avi, .mov, .mp4 or .3gp formats.

ARE ONLINE VIDEO EDITORS AVAILABLE?

You may be familiar with software packages such as Adobe Premiere, Apple iMovie, and Microsoft Windows MovieMaker for video editing. However, a growing number of online tools are available for basic video editing. Eyespot and Yahoo!'s Jumpcut are two examples. The services are slightly different. At Jumpcut you can upload your digital video clips and photographs, then create a movie from your raw footage, incorporate still images using the online editor, remix your video with clips pulled from existing movies at the site, and share your production with a group or make it public to all viewers (Figure 2}. The editing allows trimming of the start and end of video clips, reordering of clips on a timeline, and the adding of music and photographs. Jumpcut's online editing also supports adding transitions and other effects to a video production. Eyespot's editing does not offer as many special effects, but it does allow editing and mixing. Unlike Jumpcut, Eyespot facilitates the download of videos from the site to your desktop. The downside to using Eyespot is that file sizes of stored videos are limited to 25 Mb.

Provide students with some practice with the video-editing process using the My Pop Studio web site. This web site gives young people a behind-the-scene look at television and the editing process.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

WHAT IF MY STUDENTS AND TEACHERS WANT TO SHARE VIDEO?

From television clips to music videos, you can find many examples of people who have not thought about the copyright implications of video sharing. Although these videos are often identified and withdrawn, others continue to be shared, leading some students to think that it is okay to ignore the law. An essential element of any video-sharing project is a discussion with teachers and students about ethics.

Many young people are carrying their cameras everywhere. On-the-spot teens have recorded wonderful acts of kindness and the devastating impact of natural disasters. However, they have also recorded embarrassing footage of friends as well as dangerous dares and pranks. It is important to talk with students about the appropriate use of cameras and video, the consequences of getting caught up in a moment, and the importance of gaining permission before posting video.

As you plan video projects that might be shared with the global audience, determine whether you will be able to legally share these works on the Web. In his online article "New Copyright Law for Distance Education: The Meaning and Importance of the TEACH Act," Crews (2003) describes what you need to know when sharing educational content online.

As you design videos for use on the Web, also examine the Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia web site (Consortium of College and University Media Centers, 1996), then think about the copyright issues. Do you have the rights to the music you are playing in the background of your video? When your theater department purchased the rights to do the annual school play, did they also get permission to record and distribute it? Do you have permission to use the still photographs or video dips that you are integrating into the project? It is not enough to simply credit sources: You need to get permission for copyrighted materials.

TeacherTube (2007) provides a page of copyright tips that focus on respecting the rights of artists and creators and that provide some guiding principles for using copyrighted materials.

HOW DO I DESIGN EFFECTIVE VIDEO-SHARING PROJECTS?

Video-rich projects are a wonderful way for the teacher-librarian to collaborate with classroom teachers. Begin by exploring video-sharing web sites to identify good examples of student projects. For quality student-produced videos, seek out ongoing video projects, such as the Apple Student Gallery and the Digital Kids Club from Adobe. Another option is to search the video social networks (e.g., YouTube) using words such as library orientation, book reviews, and summer reading to find projects.

Talk with students about the different genres of video, including public service announcements, promotional videos, and documentaries. Identify the key elements of successful videos in each category. Use state media fair award winners and school web sites for examples in each category. For instance, Mabry Middle School posts their best videos each year as part of their annual film contest and festival. The Sacramento Educational Cable Consortium sponsors a student digital video project and posts informative video segments on its web site.

When possible, design authentic projects that involve students' designing a project for a real-world audience. Consider collaborating with another school for a global perspective. Although the possibilities are endless, the following five projects will get you started.

DIGITAL STORYTELLING

Ask students to share their understanding through storytelling, from historical reenactments to personal life stories. For instance, the School Shoebox Stories web site from the BBC tells the stories of favorite objects. To learn how to create your own digital storytelling tales, explore Bemajean Porter's DigiTales web site (see Figure 3). Her StoryKeeper's Gallery contains dozens of high-quality examples, as well as ideas for creating and evaluating projects.

LEARNING OBJECTS

A safety guide for the chemistry classroom, a geometry tutorial, and a set of step-by-step instructions for art projects are just a few of the possible projects that involve students in creating learning experiences for others. For more ideas, go to Springfield Township High School's Video Blog for short learning object videos created by high school students.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

PROMOTIONS

Create movie trailers for your favorite books. Joyce Valenza, a media specialist at Springfield Township High School, posted student-produced trailers promoting reading-list books at the school library web site.

PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS

Provide students with opportunities to share their knowledge of social issues through the creation of public service announcements. For example, students in Vancouver, WA, shared their "Want to Stop Smoking?" public service announcements on their ESD1l2 Prevention Center web site. The Ad Council web site contains lots of great professionally produced examples as well (Figure 4).

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

REENACTMENTS

Whether re-creating a dinner party from colonial times or imagining life in ancient China, students enjoy dressing up and reenacting historical events. Use web sites such as Colonial Williamsburg to show video examples of reenactors at work.

Last, share your videos online. Consider submitting your projects to state and national media festivals, such as the International Student Media Festival and the National Student Television Awards.

WEB SITE RESOURCES

Ad Council: www.adcouncil.org/

Apple Student Gallery: http://edcommunity .apple.com/gallery/student/collection.php ?collectionlD= I

Blip.iv: http://blip.tv

Colonial Williamsburg: www.history.org/ Media/videos.cfm

Daily Motion: www.dailymotion.com/us

DigiTales: www.digitales.us/

Digital Kids Club from Adobe: www .adobe.com/education/digkids/showcases/

ESDl12: Prevention Center: www.esdll2 .org/prevention/quit.html

Eyespot: http://eyespot.com/

GetTube: http://web.mac.com/simonvrel/ iWeb/software/v. 1.0.html

Google Video: http://video.google.com/

International Student Media Festival: www.ismf.net/

Jumpcut from Yahoo: www.jumpcut.com/

KeepV Flash Converter: http://keepv.com/

Kewego: www.kewego.com/

Lulu TV: http://lulu.tv

Mabry Middle School Film Festival: http:// mabryonline.org/archives/2007/04/2007_film_festi.html

My Pop Studio: www.mypopstudio.com/

National Student Television Awards: www .nationalstudent.tv/

Our Media: www.ourmedia.org/

Revver: http://one.revver.com/

Sacramento Educational Cable Consortium: www.secctv.org/video_gallery.html

SaveTube: www.savetube.com/

School Shoebox Stories from BBC: www.bbc.co.uk/wales/digitalstorytelling/ sites/schoolshoebox/index.shtml

Schoo]Tube: http://schooltube.com/

Springfield Township High School Virtual Library Movie Trailers: www.sdst.org/ shs/library/movietrailers.html

Springfield Township Video Blog: http:// springfieldvideo.edublogs.org/

TeacherTube: http://teachertube.com/

VDownloader: www.softpedia.com/prog Download/VDownloader-Download51327.html

VideodownloadHelper: https://addons .mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/3006

Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/

YouTube: http://youtube.com/

ZamZar: www.zamzar.com/

REFERENCES

Consortium of College and University Media Centers. (1996, July). Fair use guidelines for educational multimedia. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from www.ccumc.org/ copyri9htJcc9uides.html

Crews, K. D. (2003, November). New copyright law for distance education: The meaning and importance of the TEACH Act. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from www.copyright .iupui.edu/teach_summary.htm

Teacher Tube. (2007). Copyright tips. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from www.teachertube .com/copyrighttips.php

Wikipedia. (2007). List of video sharing web sites. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of video_sharing_web sites
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Title Annotation:infotech
Author:Lamb, Annette; Johnson, Larry
Publication:Teacher Librarian
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2007
Words:2664
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