Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas.
The Big Thicket of southeastern Texas has been repeatedly described as exceptionally rich in species, diverse in plant communities and a crossroads where adjacent ecological regions meet and mingle (see Cozine, 2004; MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2004, 2007, 2009; Callicott et al., 2006; Diggs et al., 2006 for history of this description and references). Probably the most cited example of this view is Eisner (1973: 595) when he wrote that the Big Thicket was
"a region of extraordinary biological exuberance ... ecologically unique not only to Texas, but to the entire North American expanse as well. Located at the crossroads between forests of the South and East and the vegetation of the West, the Thicket includes ... elements from all convergent zones. It is the way which diversity of kind is combined with diversity of association that gives the area its special mark."
This view has been and continues to be repeated despite the lack of evidence to support it (see Gunter, 1995; Peacock, 1994; Watson, 2006 for examples of the view and references, and National Park Service, 2009a, b; UNESCO Biosphere Reserves, 2009, for current on-line examples). Botanical research over the last decade shows that the Big Thicket is a continuum of the southeastern mixed pine-hardwood forest, harbors only a few western plants and is no more floristically rich or diverse than other areas of equal size across the southeast (Diggs et al., 2006; MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2004, 2007, 2008b, c; MacRoberts et al., 2007).
What about other organisms? How does the Big Thicket compare to other areas of North America? How does it compare to other areas of Texas? To see if our findings for plants hold for other groups of organisms, we examined the richness and regional association of the vertebrate fauna of the Big Thicket.
The Big Thicket is an ill-defined region of southeast Texas (see Cozine, 2004; MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2004, 2008a; Callicott et al., 2006; Diggs et al., 2006 for discussion and literature). However, it is generally agreed that it encompasses all or part of Newton, Jasper, Hardin, Tyler, San Jacinto, Polk and northern Liberty counties, an area of approximately 15,700 [km.sup.2] (Diggs et al., 2006). This six and a half county area includes almost all areas defined as the Big Thicket and includes all of the 14 scattered units of the Big Thicket National Preserve. We follow this definition here.
We used distribution maps, checklists and other sources to develop a list of fish (National Park Service, 1974a; Page and Burr, 1991), amphibians (Stebbins, 1966; National Park Service, 1974b; Conant and Collins, 1998; Dixon, 2000), reptiles (Stebbins, 1966; National Park Service, 1974b; Conant and Collins, 1998; Dixon, 2000), birds (National Park Service, 1996; Oberholser, 1974; Peterson, 1999; Sibley, 2000; Wolf et al., 2001) and mammals (McCarley, 1959; Burt and Grossenheider, 1964; Hall, 1981; Schmidly, 1983; Davis and Schmidly, 1994; Reid, 2006) that occur in the Big Thicket.
To determine the geographical affinities of Big Thicket vertebrates, using many of the previously cited resources we classified species according to the region of North America they occupied. All species were classified into one of five categories: (1) western: species that occur predominantly west of about 98[degrees] west longitude (e.g., roadrunner Geococcyx californianus), (2) central: species that are predominantly in the central plains area (e.g., Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad Gastrophryne olivacea), (3) widespread: species that occur in virtually all states and provinces in North America north of Mexico (e.g., pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps), (4) eastern-western: species that are not widespread but which occur in both the east and in the west (e.g., Mexican freetail bat Tadarida brasiliensis), (5) eastern: species that are exclusively or predominantly found in the east (e.g., alligator Alligator mississippiensis).
We surveyed the literature for information on vertebrate richness in North America and Texas and found it to be extensive (Simpson, 1964; Cook, 1969; Kiester, 1971; MacArthur, 1972; McAllister, 1986; Owen, 1990; Currie, 1991; Abell et al., 1999; Ricketts et al., 1999). Most of this information is presented in the form of equal area quadrants, with the number of species in each quadrant tabulated. The size of these quadrants is larger than the Big Thicket but allows for equal area/species matrix comparisons across all of North America. We used this information to compare Big Thicket region (i.e., the quadrant(s) in which the Big Thicket occurs) vertebrate richness to the remainder of North America. Unfortunately, comparable information on the distribution of Mexican vertebrates is not available.
To compare the Big Thicket in detail with another region we analyzed the vertebrate fauna of Bossier and Caddo parishes, Louisiana, in the same manner we did for the Big Thicket. We chose these two parishes because they have good species lists (Hardy, 1979, 1982; Hardy and LeGrande, 1979; Wiedenfeld and Swan, 2000) and because, like the Big Thicket, they are in the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Bossier and Caddo parishes are located 150 km northeast of the Big Thicket in northwestern Louisiana on the Texas and Arkansas border and consist of 4457 [km.sup.2], or an area between one-fourth and one-third the size of the Big Thicket.
Our analyses include only freshwater and terrestrial species and only breeding birds. Marine vertebrates and exotic species are not included. Species that were recorded from the 19th and 20th centuries but do not presently occur in the region were included.
Fishes.--Abell et al. (1999) and McAllister et al. (1986) map freshwater fish richness in North America. The regions with the highest fish richness in North America are all within the Mississippi River drainage, and each of these regions includes more than 200 species. Species richness tends to decline as a function of distance from the Mississippi drainage. As Conner and Suttkus (1986:455) have pointed out, "compared with those of the central and eastern portions of North America, the ichthyofauna of [east Texas and southwest Louisiana] is depauperate; it is somewhat richer, however, than those of more western parts of the continent." The Big Thicket has 86 species. The distributional relationships of Big Thicket fishes are concentrated in the Mississippi drainage, mainly in the east-central region of the United States (Table 1). There are 17 central region fish species in the Big Thicket (e.g., silverband shiner Notropis shumardi) but no western species.
Amphibians.--Kiester (1971) and Currie (1991) map amphibian richness in the United States and Canada. The highest concentration of amphibians is in the southeastern United States, with numbers dropping from a high of between 50 and 60 in Georgia and South Carolina to around 30 in the Big Thicket region. However, the Big Thicket does not stand out as exceptional in Texas. All areas of eastern Texas have as many amphibians. Even comparable areas in the Edwards Plateau match the Big Thicket region in number of species (Kiester, 1971; Currie, 1991). It is only in west Texas that the numbers fall off significantly. The vast majority of Big Thicket amphibians are eastern (Table 1). None is western. Four species, Gulf Coast waterdog (Necturus beyeri), Gulf Coastal toad (Bufo valliceps), Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophyne olivacea), and Strecker's chorus frog (Pseudacris steckeri) are central.
Reptiles.--Kiester (1971) and Currie (1991) map reptile richness for North America north of Mexico. These maps show a fairly constant east-to-west number of species across North America at the latitude of the Big Thicket, with between 50 and 60 species. However, there is a peak in central Texas to the west of the Big Thicket, with 70 to 80 species, which is the highest density in North America north of Mexico (Kiester, 1971; Currie, 1991). Within Texas, the Big Thicket area has about as low a number of reptiles as is found in the state except for the panhandle and plains area (Kiester, 1971; Currie, 1991). The majority of Big Thicket reptiles are eastern (Table 1). None is western. Six species are central: yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens), ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata), Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), Texas spiny lizard (Sceloperus olivaceus), flat-headed snake (Tantilla gracilis) and Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni).
Birds.--Cook (1969) and MacArthur (1972) map breeding bird richness across North America including Mexico and Central America. These maps show the Big Thicket area and the southeastern United States in general as having the lowest number of breeding birds in North America south of about 55[degrees]N. Although about 300 bird species are known to occur in the Big Thicket region, only about 112 breed there. Eastern breeding birds predominate, but there are many widespread and eastern-western species as well (Table 1). One species, the scissor-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus), is a central plains species and two, the Inca dove (Columbina inca) and roadrunner, are western. Three species that once occurred in the Big Thicket are now extinct: passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) and Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis). Only the ivory-billed woodpecker is known to have bred in the Big Thicket.
Mammals.--Simpson (1964) and Currie (1991) map mammal richness for North America including Mexico and Central America. The southeastern United States, including the Big Thicket area, has about as low a number of species (40 to 60) as anywhere in North America south of about 50[degrees]N. latitude and as low a mammalian density as is found in Texas (Owen, 1990). The majority of Big Thicket mammals are eastern (Table 1). Nonetheless, there are many widespread and eastern-western species. Five species, blacktail jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), ringtail (Bassariscus astutus), eastern hognose skunk (Conepatus leuconotus), coyote (Canis latrans) and fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), are western, and six, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), Baird's pocket gopher (Geomys bursairus), hispid pocket mouse (Perognathus hispidus), pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), jaguar (Felis onca) and ocelot (Felis pardalis) are central. Six species, jaguar, ocelot, red wolf (Canus rufus), eastern hognose skunk (Conepatus leuconotus), black bear (Ursus americanus) and bison (Bos bison), are extripated from the Big Thicket region.
The Big Thicket has no endemic vertebrate species.
The number and geographic affiliation of Bossier and Caddo Parish fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are almost identical to that of the Big Thicket (Table 1). These two parishes are as floristically diverse as the Big Thicket, with the same type of community proximity (e.g., the close proximity of many communities such as xeric sandylands, baygalls and upland pine forest) (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2008).
The geographical affinities of Big Thicket vertebrates vary among groups. The distribution of Big Thicket fishes is predominantly controlled by drainage patterns. Many are restricted to the Mississippi and Sabine River drainages, and all but one are restricted to various Gulf Coast drainages. Consequently, species with western affinities are essentially precluded. The geographical affinities of the remaining classes are somewhat less constrained. However, the location of the Big Thicket within the generally forested Austroriparian Province, well east of the steep gradient in precipitation from more arid areas to the west, limits the distribution of most western species adapted to more arid conditions and more open plant communities. Big Thicket amphibian and reptile faunas are predominantly eastern, with only 13% and 11% of species, respectively, with central affinities; inclusion of east-west and widespread species raises these percentages to 23% and 22%. Bird and mammal faunas exhibit a similar pattern, but birds have only 3% of species with western and central affinities, and mammals have a substantially higher 21% with similar affinities: inclusion of east-west and widespread species results in much higher percentages of 57% and 58%, respectively.
Our examination of the North American vertebrate species-richness maps shows that southeast Texas is in no way exceptional and certainly is not the richest area for vertebrates in North America. Within Texas itself, the Big Thicket region has fewer birds, mammals, reptiles and fishes than do many other areas and only ranks near the top of the state for number of amphibians. This is not surprising because southeast Texas, where the Big Thicket is located, is among the wettest areas in Texas and is edaphically, geologically, and climatically continuous with the southeastern United States (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2008b).
Our analysis of the vertebrates of Bossier and Caddo parishes, Louisiana, underlines these results. Although smaller in area than the Big Thicket, these two parishes support almost as many vertebrates as does the Big Thicket, of which 84% are the same. Their geographical affinities are almost identical to those of the Big Thicket.
These findings are reinforced by World Wildlife Fund conservation assessments, which do not recognize the Big Thicket as a unique area (Ricketts et al., 1999; Abell et al., 1999; see also Diamond et al., 1997; Dobson et al., 1997). Additionally, biogeographers do not recognize the Big Thicket as a crossroads or an independent or special ecological region (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2003; McLaughlin, 2007) but rather subsume it within a larger region or province.
While we have examined vertebrate species richness only at a large scale, it remains possible that at smaller scales, such as 100 [km.sup.2] or 1000 [km.sup.2], the fauna might be rich, but the data to test this possibility are not available: small scale species/area studies for animals simply have not been carried out. However, the data on Big Thicket plants do not support small-scale richness (MacRoberts et al., 2007). Small scale samples of plants (1 [m.sup.2] to 100 [km.sup.2]) in the Big Thicket show the same richness as equal sized-plots elsewhere across the south (MacRoberts et al., 2007). Additionally, the Big Thicket does not have any plant communities unique to it but is a floristic continuum with adjacent areas of Texas and Louisiana.
Reviewers and readers of our papers (including this one) that reevaluate the traditional view of the Big Thicket as a species rich, diverse
crossroads, sometimes accuse us of wanting to do away with the Big Thicket Preserve and of providing ammunition to opponents of the Big Thicket. Nothing could be further from our intention. That the traditional story about the Big Thicket is incorrect does not detract from its importance. For example, in 2004 we wrote: "... when all is said and done, what is important is that the conservationists saved not something atypical but something typical. The idea that only singularities are worthwhile is passe as far as conservation biology is concerned. The Big Thicket conservation movement achieved precisely this: by saving a representative sample of the Big Thicket, it saved a typical part of the West Gulf Coastal Plain--for which we must be eternally grateful" (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2004: 47-48). In 2009 we wrote: "... the most important reason for considering the Big Thicket immensely valuable was made by Donovan Correll." Testifying before the Senate committee in Beaumont in 1970 before a part of the Big Thicket became a national preserve, Correll pointed out that the vast pine-hardwood forest that characterized the southeastern United States had no areas that were preserved and that most, if not all, of the forest was rapidly vanishing. He then said: "We ought to have a representation of the great Southeastern pine hardwood forests somewhere, and since the development is so optimum here in Texas ... the Big Thicket would be ideal for that representation" (quoted in MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 2009: 403-404). The Big Thicket can and should be preserved but on its own merits, not on false ones.
Acknowledgments.--We thank C.E. Shackelford and D.E. Wolf for current information on the breeding birds of the Big Thicket region. Four anonymous reviewers made useful comments.
SUBMITTED 8 JUNE 2009
ACCEPTED 15 DECEMBER 2009
ABELL, R., D. M. OLSON, E. DINERSTEIN, P. T. HURLEY, J. T. DIGGS, W. EICHBAUM, S. WALTERS, W. WETTENGEL, T. ALLNUT, C. J. LOUCKS AND P. HEDAO. 1999. Freshwater ecoregions of North America: a conservation assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
BURT, W. H. AND R. P. GROSSENHEIDER. 1964. A field guide to the mammals. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
CALLICOTT, J. B., M. ACEVEDO, P. GUNTER, P. HARCOMBE, C. LINDQUIST AND M. MONTICINO. 2006. Biocomplexity in the Big Thicket. Ethics, Place and Envir., 9:21-45.
CONANT, R. AND J. T. COLLINS. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, New York, USA.
CONNER, J. V. AND R. D. SUTTKUS. 1986. Zoogeography of freshwater fishes of the western Gulf slope of North America, p. 413-456. In: C. H. Hocutt and E. O. Wiley (eds.). The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, USA.
COOK, R. E. 1969. Variation in species density in North American birds. Syst. Zool., 18:63-84.
COZINE, J. J. 2004. Saving the Big Thicket: from exploration to preservation, 1685-2003. University of North Texas Press, Denton, Texas, USA.
CURRIE, D.J. 1991. Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness. Am. Nat., 137:27-49.
DAVIS, W. B. AND D. J. SCHMIDLY. 1994. The mammals of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas, USA.
DIAMOND, D. D., C. D. TRUE AND K. HE. 1997. Regional priorities for conservation of rare species in Texas. Southwestern Nat., 42:400-408.
DIGGS, G. M., B. L. LIPSCOMB, M. D. REED AND R.J. O'KENNON. 2006. Illustrated flora of east Texas. Sida, Bot. Misc., 26:1-1594.
DIXON, J. R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, USA.
DOBSON, A. P., J. P. RODRIGUEZ, W. M. ROBERTS AND D. S. WILCOVE. 1997. Geographic distribution of endangered species in the United States. Science, 275:550-553.
EISNER, T. 1973. The Big Thicket National Preserve. Science, 179:525.
GUNTER, P. A. Y. 1993. The Big Thicket: an ecological reevaluation. University of North Texas Press, Denton, Texas, USA.
HALL, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, USA.
HARDY, L. M. 1979. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Caddo and Bossier parishes, Louisiana. Bull. Mus. Life Sci., Louis. State Univ. Shreveport, 2:1-11.
--. 1982. Checklist of the mammals of Caddo and Bossier parishes, Louisiana. Bull. Mus. Life Sci., Louis. State Univ. Shreveport, 5:1-11.
--AND W. H. LEGRANDE. 1979. Checklist of the fishes of Caddo and Bossier parishes, Louisiana. Bull. Mus. Life Sci., Louis. State Univ. Shreveport, 3:1-12.
KIESTER, A. R. 1971. Species density of North American amphibians and reptiles. Syst. Zool., 20:127-137.
MACARTHUR, R. H. 1972. Geographical ecology: patterns in the distribution of species. Harper & Row, New York, New York, USA.
MACROBERTS, B. R. AND M. H. MACROBERTS. 2008. Plant ecology and phytogeography of the West Gulf Coastal Plain: an overview, p. 7-28. In: L. M. Hardy (ed.). Freeman and Custis Red River expedition of 1806: two hundred years later. Bull. Mus. Life Sci., 14, Louisiana State University in Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.
MACROBERTS, M. H. AND B. R. MACROBERTS. 2003. West Gulf Coastal Plain ecoregions. Sida, 20:1247-1276.
--AND--. 2004. The Big Thicket: typical or atypical? East Tex. Hist. J., 42:42-51.
--AND--. 2007. Phytogeography of the Big Thicket, east Texas. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, 1:1149-1155.
--AND--. 2008a. Early historical references to the Big Thicket, Texas. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, 2:661-663.
--AND--. 2008b. The Big Thicket of Texas as floristically unique habitat. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, 2:665-671.
--AND--. 2008C. Rare and endemic plants of the Big Thicket: a phytogeographical analysis. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, 2:1475-1479.
--AND---. 2009. Vascular plant species richness of the Big Thicket, east Texas. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, 3:401-405.
---AND R. G. KALINSKY. 2007. Vascular plant species/area relationships (species richness) in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: a first approximation. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, 1:577-583.
MCALLISTER, D. E., S. P. PLATAMA, F. W. SCHUELER, M. E. BALDWIN AND D. S. LEE. 1986. Ichthyofaunal patterns on a geographic grid, p. 17-51. In: C. H. Hocutt and E. O. Wiley (eds.). The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, USA.
McCARLEY, H. 1959. The mammals of eastern Texas. Texas J. Sci., 11:385-426.
MCLAUGHLIN, S. P. 2007. Tundra to tropics: the floristic plant geography of North America. Sida, Bot. Misc., 30:1-58.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE. 1974a. A checklist of the fish for Big Thicket. National Park Service. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota, USA.
--. 1974b. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles for Big Thicket. National Park Service. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota, USA.
--. 1996. A checklist of the birds for Big Thicket. National Park Service. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota, USA.
--. 2009a. Big Thicket biological crossroads. (http://www.nps.gov/bith/bigthicketbiologicalcrossroads.htm)
--. 2009b. Big Thicket of Texas. (http://www.nps.gov/archive/bith/history.htm)
OBERHOLSER, H. C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, USA.
OWEN, J. G. 1990. Patterns of mammalian species richness in relation to temperature, productivity, and variance in elevation. J. Mammal., 71:1-13.
PACE, L. M. AND B. M. BURR. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
PEACOCK, H. 1994. Nature lover's guide to the Big Thicket. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, USA.
PETERSON, R. T. 1999. A field guide to the birds: eastern and central North America. Fifth edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
REID, F. A. 2006. Mammals of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
RICKETTS, T. H., E. DINERSTEIN, D. M. OLSON AND C. LOUCKS. 1999. Who's where in North America. BioScience, 49:369-381.
SCHMIDLY, D.J. 1983. Texas mammals east of the Balcones Fault Zone. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, USA.
SIBLEY, D. A. 2000. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, USA.
SIMPSON, G. G. 1964. Species density of North American recent mammals. Syst. Zool., 13:57-73.
STEBBINS, R. C. 1966. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
UNESCO BIOSPHERE RESERVES. 2009. Big Thicket. (http://www.unesco.org)
WATSON, G. E. 2006. Big Thicket plant ecology: an introduction. University of North Texas Press, Denton, Texas, USA.
WIEDENFELD, D. A. AND M. M. Sway. 2000. Louisiana breeding bird atlas. Louisiana Sea Grant Program, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
WOLF, D. E., C. E. SHACKELFORD, G. G. LUNEAU AND C. D. FISHER. 2001. Birds of the pineywoods of Eastern Texas: A field checklist. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. TPWD BK W7000-063 (01/01), Austin, Texas, USA.
MICHAEL H. MACROBERTS (1) AND BARBARA R. MACROBERTS (1)
Herbarium, Museum of Life Sciences, Louisiana State University in Shreveport, Shreveport 71115 and Bog Research, 740 Columbia, Shreveport, Louisiana 71104
D. CRAIG RUDOLPH
Wildlife Habitat and Silviculture Laboratory (maintained in cooperation with the College of Forestry, Stephen F. Austin State University), Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Nacogdoches, Texas 75962
(1) Corresponding author: Telephone: (318) 425-1727; e-mail: email@example.com
TABLE 1.--Geographical affiliation of Big Thicket and Bossier and Caddo Parish vertebrates. Figures are number of species Region Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Big Thicket West 0 0 0 2 Central 17 4 6 1 Widespread 0 1 2 30 East and West 1 2 4 31 East 68 23 43 48 Total 86 30 55 112 Bossier and Caddo parishes West 0 0 0 2 Central 24 3 4 2 Widespread 0 1 1 32 East and West 1 1 4 25 East 64 22 46 48 Total 89 27 55 109 Region Mammals Total % Big Thicket West 5 7 2 Central 6 34 10 Widespread 14 47 14 East and West 6 44 13 East 22 204 61 Total 53 336 100 Bossier and Caddo parishes West 4 6 2 Central 4 37 11 Widespread 15 49 15 East and West 5 36 11 East 24 204 61 Total 52 332 100
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||MacRoberts, Michael H.; MacRoberts, Barbara R.; Rudolph, D. Craig|
|Publication:||The American Midland Naturalist|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2010|
|Previous Article:||Variation in freshwater mussel shell sculpture and shape along a river gradient.|
|Next Article:||Development of equations predictive of size and condition for black bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado.|