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Vegetation of the Verdiana River valley in the northern Apennines, Italy.

INTRODUCTION

The Verdiana River valley is characterised by vegetation which is scarcely influenced by human activity, having been preserved from excessive sylvicultural exploitation due to the steepness of the terrain and the consequent difficulty of access. This has allowed the particular plant communities to maintain a good state of preservation. Their study is fundamental for determining the best management systems and in order to document and increase our knowledge of plant biodiversity at

the local level. Since the upper Verdiana Valley belongs to SIC Monte Spigolino--Monte Gennaio (code IT5130006) it is characterised as a high-altitude habitat and its preservation value is therefore enhanced.

The Verdiana valley is steep and flanks the river which, like many mountain rivers, cuts deeply into the rock. The riverbed is narrow, with turbulent water flow almost all year round due to the steep gradient along most of the river course. These geomorphological characteristics influence the kinds of vegetation present, which include species affected by the presence of running water. The steep slope allows lateral light penetration and heliophilous species to grow even within multilayer forest-like phytocoenoses. This location gives rise to a kind of 'edge effect' which is particularly acute in some forest communities and involves an increase in the internal heterogeneity of the communities, favouring many species with quite different ecological requirements. This creates a high species richness in these communities as well as posing some difficulty for referencing them to the familiar vegetation types, particularly with regard to phytosociological collocation. It was therefore decided in some cases not to formalise the vegetation types identified, as they are not strictly comparable to research carried out under similar conditions but in other areas.

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the phytosociological knowledge of the plant communities in the Verdiana River Valley which are relevant for conservation, and also to contribute to knowledge of other plant communities that thrive in the vicinity of steep mountain streams.

STUDY AREA

Geographic location

The Verdiana Valley is located in the north of Pistoia province (northern Tuscany). The stream follows a course of 10.5 km running roughly northeast to southwest, and is a tributary of the Lima River. It has a 19 km2 catchment which represents 6.2% of the Lima Stream. The Verdiana originates below the Cancellino Pass (1634 m) and joins a branch descending from Monte Cornaccio (1881 m) and another from Monte Gennaio (1813 m). The river headwaters are at the Tyrrhenian/Adriatic watershed and the general course of the valley runs parallel to that of the high Reno Valley, although the two rivers flow in opposite directions.

Climate features

From the analysis of data from 20 thermometric and 40 pluviometric stations in the Pistoiese Apennines (source: Ibimet and ARPA EMR) a climate map has been constructed following the Rivas-Martinez bioclimatic classification (RIVAS-Martinez, 1995, 2008). The altitude factor creates several climate zones which follow in a sequence from the highest altitude of the Corno alle scale, where yearly rainfall exceeds 2100 mm and the yearly average temperature is about 3[degrees]C, down to the valley floor where the climate has sub-Mediterranean characteristics such as the S Marcello station (625 m) with a mild water shortage in August (36 mm) even though the average yearly temperature is 11.9[degrees]C, with January as the coldest month (4.2[degrees]C) and July the warmest (20.5[degrees]C). In the next highest zone is the Maresca station (1043 m) with a higher rainfall (1997 mm), and an average yearly temperature of 9.4[degrees]C (January 1.8[degrees]C, August 18.0[degrees]C). Table 1 shows the bioclimatic types within the study area.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Geological and geomorphological features

The valley is characterised by a major altitude gradient. In little over 10 km, the river drops from an elevation of over 1800 m to 465 m where it flows into the Lima Stream. The erosion of the valley forms a typical deep V-shape, with steep sides along most of its length. The higher part of the drainage basin splits into two main branches: the branch partially originating in Monte Cornaccio and partially in Monte Gennaio follows an approximately NE-SW course. On its left hydrographic bank, 2.5 km from the source as the crow flies, it is joined by Fosso Selvori which flows from east to west. The Verdiana stream flows on a rocky base made up of quartz-feldspar turbiditic sandstone rocks alternating with silt schists related to the Macigno formation, alternating with marlstone which is typical of the central part of its course.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The vegetation study is based on 134 releves carried out along the valley between March 2006 and July 2009, from an altitude of 600 m to the mountain top at 1800 m. The releves were made following the classic phytosociological methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school (Braun-Blanquet, 1928). The releves of some vegetation types (woodbine and megaforb communities) are characterised by a particularly high and apparently continuous internal variability, among which it was not easy to find homogenous groups, and they have therefore been analysed by mean cluster analysis performed by the Syntax V software (PoDANI, 2002) in order to highlight structures in the data. The cluster analysis was done on a "species x releves" matrix with abundance-dominance data modified according to Van der Maarel (1979), using the chord distance as the similarity index, and the complete link as the agglomeration method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

EUTROPHIC BEECHWOODS (TABLE 2)

As mentioned above, the sites surveyed are on the banks and in the riverbed. Under these conditions no fine deposits are formed as the current is strong enough to carry huge boulders downhill and the banks are severely eroded, and landslips occur frequently. Since the forest vegetation is often directly influenced by the river, species with different ecologies are often found in the same phytoceonosis. Although homogeneity was always sought in the main site, the microsites produced a notable richness of flora (Di Pietro, 2009). While larger trees -and to some extent shrubs- are able to withstand flowing water, smaller plants such as grasses are highly affected by these variable and locally changeable conditions, making it difficult to classify them according to classical syntaxonomy. Beech woods are found at elevations below 1000 m on less steep sites where soils of colluvial origin can be found. The floral composition comprises eutrophic species in the association Cardamino heptaphyllae-Fagetum sylvaticae Oberd. & Hoffman 1967 (Gabellini & al., 2006; Foggi & al., 2008). All the coenoses sampled, however, are affected by surface water flow depending on their proximity to the river. This is indicated by the presence of Salix caprea, S. elaeagnos and Petasites albus.

Hornbeam woods (Table 3)

Hornbeam woods can be found near to Ostrya carpinifolia woods but at lower altitudes. They are localised in fresh sites but more elevated in comparison with the river. The species composition of the herbaceous layer is very similar to that of the beech woods. The dominance of hornbeam in the tree layer leads us to ascribe our coenoses to the association Geranio nodosi-Carpinetum betuli described by Pedrotti, Ballelli & Biondi 1982 for the ancient lake waterbasin of Gubbio (Pedrotti & al., 1982), and not to the association Carpino-Coryletum Ballelli, Biondi, Pedrotti 1980 which groups shrub coenoses dominated by Corylus avellana, whose characteristic species are not present in our stands (Ballelli & al., 1980). Here, the association differs from the typical one due to the presence of Sesleria argentea, which configures a variant of superficial soils. As Pirone (2000) already pointed out for Abruzzo, in the Geranio nodosi-Carpinetum betuli association, Corylus avellana is well represented in the shrub layer. From the table we can see a group of typical higher-altitude species due to the very deep valley that severely limits access by sunlight and to the connection with species typical of higher-altitude coenoses such as: Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Lathyrus vernus, Laburnum alpinum, Polysticum aculeatum.

OSTRYA CARPINIFOLIA WOODS (TABLE 4)

Black-hornbeam woods are frequently found in southern exposures and on medium to gentle slopes, but not always on fully-developed soils formed by deep river sediments covered by thin layers of soil. From the phytosociological point of view they show affinities with the woods referred to by Gabellini & al. (2006) as a variant of Roso caninae-Ostyetum, with Sesleria argentea and Hepatica nobilis. The floral composition of these woods is in an intermediate position to several syntaxa of superior rank, and in particular among the woods referred to by Blasi & al. (2004) such as Campanulo-Ostryenion Ubaldi (1986) 1995 and to the woods that Ubaldi (2003) refers to as Laburno Ostryenion (Ubaldi 1986) Blasi, Di Pietro & Filesi 2004. Both these suballiances belong to Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis, which suggests acceptance of the presence of this alliance in the area under examination. We concur with Arrigoni (1998) in considering that the characteristic species of the Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis are not present, at least in north-western Tuscany. Accordingly, we prefer to assign this Ostrya dominated forest to the alliance Crataego-Quercion cerridis Arrigoni 1997 (Arrigoni, 1997), recently reconsidered by Di Pietro & al. (2010). In the herbaceous layer we found some species which can be referred to the order Fagetalia sylvaticae and indicate the passage to beech wood. As in the case of beech woods, there are certain aspects that show a remarkable number of species linked to light and water-flow due to proximity to the river. The block of releves 6-8, for example, clusters species of forest margins and megaforbs such as Petasites albus, Aruncus dioicus and Adenostyles alpina that can be found here due to the light and the effect of running water.

Shrubby riparian willow groves (Table 5)

Starting from the minimum flow riverbed there are mainly coenoses with willow forming the first band of woody vegetation which is not generally able to develop into new coenoses due to frequent disturbance by flooding.

The willow groves along the Verdiana are dominated by Salix elaeagnos, sometimes found in association with S.purpurea. They have been referred to the association Salicetum incano-purpureae Sillinger 1933. As indicated by Pirone (2000) for Abruzzo, the differences between Salicetum incano-purpureae Sillinger 1933 (=Salicetum elaeagni Hag 1916 ex Jenig 1955) and Saponario-Salicetum purpureae (Br.-Bl.,1930) Tchou 1946 are that the first can found on elevated, steep mountainous terrain on sandy/gravelly substrates and with boulders of various sizes, while the second is usually located at lower elevations (400-500 m) mainly on silty, sandy or sometimes gravelly alluvial soils. in our surveys a mixture of species was observed which does not allow identification of all aspects of the Salicetum incano-purpureae association described by Pirone (2000), Oriolo & Poldini (2002) or Silc (2003). Nevertheless, at least two surveys include Petasites hybridus, Eupatorium cannabinum and Cirsium oleraceum and can be ascribed to the subassociation petasitetosum hybridi Oriolo & Poldini 2002 typical of a mesophylous mesophilous environment.

White alder riparian woodlands (Table 6)

Some groves dominated by white alder (Alnus incana Moench) have been sampled at an elevation of about 600 m. These phytocoenoses can be referred to the association Alnetum incanae Liidi belonging to the alliance Alion incanae (= Alno-Padion Knapp 1942; Alno-Ulmion Br.-Bl. & Tuxen 1943). The classification of Rivas-Martinez & al. (2002) is here followed to determine the syntaxonomic position, although its collocation is still complicated and somewhat equivocal (Blasi & Frondoni, 1998; Biondi & al., 2004; Ceschin & Salerno, 2008; Landi & Angiolini 2010; Di Pietro & al., 2010). In many releves Fraxinus ornus is present in many releves, making these alder groves different from those in the Lima Valley (Arrigoni & Papini, 2003) at higher elevations (900-1200 m) where Fraxinus excelsior is found. The Verdiana alder groves are on reasonably well-lit gentle slopes at the foot of steep, sometimes almost vertical hillsides. In these circumstances it is possible for material of colluvial origin, water and mineral nutrients to accumulate in considerable quantities. Under these ecological conditions many nitrophilous, perennial species and several species of Fagetalia have been noted in the herbaceous layer. In the last two releves in the table, Salix elaeagnos indicates a degree of continuity with the shrubby willow groves of the riparian zone.

Linear mantle formation with woodbine (Table 7)

Outside the beech woods there are phytocoenoses dominated by Lonicera nigra, in shadier locations, and Lonicera alpigena in better-lit stands. These two species are local and quite rare in Tuscany. These shrub groves have not been fully studied because of their rarity, not only in Tuscany but also more widely in Italy and even in Europe.

The cluster analysis (Figure 2) shows two principal clusters of releves, each characterised by the dominance of one of the two species of Lonicera. The two groups show a set of species in common such as Geranium nodosum, Dryopteris filix-mas, Polystichum aculeatum, Geranium robertianum and Saxifraga rotundifolia, which are typical of the herbal synusia of the humid beech woods of the area, in sites with rocks and often near streams. interestingly, many of these species can often be found in black and white alder groves.

Lonicera alpigena and L. nigra are species found in beech and fir woods, and in shady environments that may include gorges, or inside megaforb vegetation (Rameau & al., 1993). A significant number are included in the association Lonicero alpigenae-Fagetum oberd. in oberd. et Th. Muller 1984, as we found in Willner (2002); however we cannot use this syntaxa due to the dominance of the two scrubby Lonicera species. in the phytocoenoses we recorded alongside these beech wood species, there were several species of humid megaforbs with good cover values indicating their proximity to streams and rocks.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

In view of the unusualness of the coenoses and their ecological context, we propose the new association Geranio nodosi-Loniceretum alpigenae hoc loco (holotypus: rel. 9, Table 7). Furthermore, the floral composition highlights the presence of a typical subassociation loniceretosum alpigenae hoc loco holotypus rel. 9, Table 6, characterised by the presence of Geranium nodosum, Dryopteris filix-mas and Stellaria nemorum. Moreover, a subassociation with dominance of Lonicera nigra was observed for which the name loniceretosum nigrae hoc loco (holotypus: rel. 23, Table 7) is proposed. The subassociation loniceretosum nigrae differs from the typical one due to semi-heliophile species of rocky substratum and with flowing water such as Adenostyles alpina and Athyrium filix-foemina. The new association is typical of a beech wood mantle or riparian alder groves. Due to its physiognomic and structural character we propose to refer this new association to the class Rhamno Prunetea, order Sambucetalia racemosi (Rivas-Martinez & al., 2002). Although some communities reported for the central Apennines are dubiously referred to Amelanchierion ovalis Arlot 1985 (De Focault 1991; Stanisci, 1997) or more recently to Berberidion sensu Tuxen 1952 (Cutini & al., 2002), these contain Lonicera alpigena, which makes their floral composition different from that of our coenoses, and the ecological conditions generally reported for this alliance are also quite different. In our opinion, this vegetation type can satisfactorily include any alliance.

Megaforbs (Table 8)

Communities of tall herbs, dominated by graminoids or herbs and distributed along forest margins and in shrubby formations in contact with streams, have been treated as megaforbs. The communities formed by these species are never distributed over large areas, also recalling the particular geomorphology of the phytocoenoses. The syntaxonomic study of this type of vegetation is defined here due to a lack of data referenced to southern Europe. The syntaxonomy of these communities has only recently been determined by Michl & al. (2010) in research focused on central Europe, including the Alps, where we have been working. The shortage of phytosociological data for areas in italy underlines the need for further study of these vegetation types.

Cluster analysis splits our releves into two main groups (Figure 3). The first is characterised by the presence of Galio-Urticetea species and is found below 800 m, while the second is distinguished by Mulgedio-Aconitetea species and is generally located at higher altitudes. The first group is dominated by Petasites hybridus, a semiheliophilous geophyte that finds its optimum conditions on small, steep surfaces and on mineral substrates covered with a thin layer of soil. under these conditions it develops in luxuriant populations covering 100% of the surface, leaving very little space for other species to establish. Such coenoses appear similar to those reported along the Lima-Serchio system by Arrigoni & Papini (2003) ascribed to the association Phalarido-Petasitetum hybridi Schwick. 1933 (Table 8, group A), frequent in the middle course of many Apennine watercourses (Hruska, 1988). Pedrotti (1995) highlights some of the problems in the interpretation of Petasites hybridus vegetation. indeed, some authors such as Oberdorfer (1983) give the association Phalarido-Petasitetum a wide ecological circumscription and recognise different associations within it. other authors separate the coenoses of mountain plains and refer them to another association: Chaerophyllo-Petasitetum officinalis Kaiser 1926.

The absence of stenoecious species in our sampling and comparison with the data in the literature do not allow us to refer to associations or other syntaxa already present, nor do they permit us to describe new syntaxons. For this reason, we prefer to refer these communities to a Petasites hybridus basal phytocoenon (sensu Poldini & Sburlino, 2005).

Communities recorded above 800 m are dominated by Petasites albus, which forms dense mats also in the herbaceous layer of Fagus and Ostrya forests (Table 2 and 4 respectively). The cluster (Figure 3) shows three different situations: Table 8, groups B1, B2 and B3.

Group B1 clusters the releves characterised by Calamaogrostis arundinacea which forms nume rous populations on very steep, stony surfaces, well exposed to light and often located in small ravines among the rocks near the river. Calamaogrostis arundinacea is considered characteristic of the association Digitalo ambiguae-Calamaogrostietum arundinaceae Sillinger 1933 (Michl. & al., 2010) and is ascribed to the alliance Calamaogrostion arundinaceae (Luquet 1926) Oberd. 1957. However we cannot refer to this association due to the absence of the other characteristic species. The presence of Eupatorium cannabinum distinguishes our coenoses so we recognise a particular grouping. The surveys of the B1 group reveal two situations. Set 6-13 is characterised by forest margin species such as Galium mollugo subsp. erectum, Dactylis glomerata and Solanum dulcamara. These are more or less influenced by human activity and are found on substrates rich in mineral nutrients. on the other hand, set 16-18 differs in the presence of acidophilous and oligotrophic species located on higher-altitude sites (Parnassia palustris, Saxifraga aizoides, Valeriana tripteris). All the phytocoenoses of the B1 group are characterised by Petasites albus and Adenostyles alpina which fall into two different syntaxa belonging to the order Calamaogrostietalia villosae Pawl. & al. 1928: Calamaogrostion arundinaceae and Arunco-Petasition albi Br.-Bl. & Sutter 1977. on this basis our releves evidence a state of transition between these two alliances.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Groups B2 and B3 can be referred to the association Doronico austriaci-Aruncetum vulgaris (=Arunco dioici-Petasitetum albi Br.-Bl. & Sutter 1977) already reported for the Lima-Serchio system by Arrigoni & Papini (2003, sub: Arunco-Petasitetum albi), and particularly to the subassociation geranietosum nodosi Vagge 1996 described in the Ligurian Apennines as beech wood margins with Geranium nodosum (Geranio nodosi-Fagion sylvaticae Gentile 1975). Such a subassociation is also reported in the Piedmont Apennines by Castelli & al. (2001). Group B3, in particular, represents the typical variant with Aruncus dioicus, while group B2 clusters the releves that are depleted in characteristic species of association and enriched by species such as Saxifraga rotundifolia, typical of cool, partially-shaded sites which are rich in mineral nutrients such as Urtica dioica, Circaea intermedia and Geranium robertianum characterised by a gentle slope and less affected by flooding. These releves can be recognised as a particular group defined by Adenostyles alpina and Petasites albus.

Brachypodium genuense Grasslands (Table 9)

The non-forested steeper slopes above 1500 m are characterised by small patches of grassland dominated by Brachypodium genuense. This vegetation type grows in rocky areas, and thus many lithophilous species such as Seseli libanotis and Alchemilla saxatilis can be found. These two species with Galium lucidum and Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum can be used to characterise a typical grouping of these habitats. We observed that in the most eroded areas glareicolous species are widespread; these may indicate a variant towards conditions typical of the associations of Thlaspietea rotundifolii class without forming coenoses referable to this class. Similar coenoses located in the Aemilian Apennines have been defined as Brachypodium genuense and Seseli libanotis and temporarily ascribed to the alliance Bromion erecti by Tomaselli & al. (1996). The Brachypodium genuense grasslands in the Tuscan-Aemilian Apennines are currently being studied, but from the initial analysis they show numerous affinities with the Nardetea strictae class (Foggi & al., 2010). Additionally, both mountainous Brachypodium grasslands of the high Garfagnana Valley, referred to a Brachypodium genuense and Anthoxanthum odoratum grouping by Gabellini & al. (2006), and the Pratomagno grasslands dominated by Brachypodium (Viciani & Gabellini, 2000), are both attributed to the Nardetea class. Furthermore, the communities of the Modena Apennines (Tomaselli & al., 1996) and those growing in the upper Sestaione Valley (Foggi & al., 2007) have also been referred to the same class. Nevertheless, the Brachypodium genuense grasslands of the Central Apennines are also included in Nardetea strictae (Di Pietro& al., 2005).

This treatment should therefore be considered provisional and pending a more thorough syntaxonomic study of these grasslands considering the dynamic role of these communities.

Vegetation of wet rocky faces (Table 10)

As already mentioned, the river banks are often almost vertical. There are many north-facing, shady and humid sites mainly along the Fosso Selvori. The phytocoenoses of this vegetation type, dominated by ferns, can be ascribed to the Cystopteridetum fragilis association (Foggi & al., 2007, 2008). A peculiar aspect was observed inside the association, which differs due to the presence of Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia, and develops on intraforestal rocks with some surface water flow and a higher-than-average topographic position for the association, which is more usually abundant at the base of rocks and in moister, shadier sites. This aspect of the community we interpret as subassociation saxifragetosum cuneifoliae subass. nova hoc loco (holotypus: rel. 3, Table 8).

In both cases, besides the species characteristic of stony site syntaxa, there is a group of species more typical of megaforb communities such as Veronica urticifolia, Adenostyles alpina, Chaerophyllum hirsutum and Calamagrostis arundinacea.

Alpine stream vegetation (Tables 11 and 12)

We can distinguish two kinds of sites along small streams; the rocks in the middle and the banks. On a mossy carpet, generally dominated by Brachytecium rivulare, and on the stones in contact with flowing water, coenoses are characterised by Carex frigida and Silene pusilla. These communities can also be found near the sources, together with Pinguicola vulgaris, Saxifraga aizoides and Epilobium anagallidifolium (Table 10). This vegetation type is widespread in the Tuscan-Aemilian Apennines, and its phytosociological situation is currently under study (Constanzo & al., 2009). Al most monospecific populations of Cardamine asarifolia grow on the stream banks in close contact with the above-mentioned conenoses (Table 11). These coenoses are strictly related to well-oxygenated, fast-flowing water (Tomaselli & al., 1996). We refer these coenoses to the Chaerophyllo-Cardaminetum asarifoliae association described by Gerdol & Tomaselli (1988) for the Apuane Alps and reported by Tomaselli & al. (1996) and Foggi & al. (2007, 2008) in the Tuscan--Aemilian Apennines. Both these vegetation types are ascribed to the Montio Cardaminetea class.

CONCLUSIONS

This phytosociological research has detected 18 types of vegetation in the Verdiana River Valley referable to different rank syntaxa. A new associa tion is described for the forest canopy vegetation characterised by Lonicera nigra and Lonicera alpigena, species which are rare in the Apennines but well represented in the area under study.

The Doronico austriaci-Aruncetum vulgaris association has been confirmed for the megaforb communities. other vegetation types investigated are considered to be distinct plant communities but due to scant information in the literature, we prefer not to assign them syntaxonomical status and they are instead interpreted as groupings.

A new subassociation on rock faces is described for the association Cystopteridetum fragilis, dominated by Saxifraga cuneifolia. It represents coenoses of rocks and boulders located in the understory of the beech woods of the northern Apennines.

These surveys enable the identification of habitats of considerable interest for conservation, and these are listed in Annex I of Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC (reported in Table 12) as defined in the Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats (EC, 2007) and in Manuale italiano di interpretazione (Biondi & Blasi, 2009). Two of these habitats (indicated with asterisc *) are of priority value.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank Thomas Michl (Senckeberg Research Institute, Gelnhausen, Germany) for the revision of the megaforb syntaxonomy and two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments. This research was supported by the Province of Pistoia and University of Florence (ex 60%).

SYNTAXONOMIC SCHEME

Montio-Cardaminetea Br.-Bl. & Tuxen ex Br.-Bl. 1948 Montio-Cardaminetalia Pawlowski in Pawlowski, Sokolowski & Wallisch 1928 Cardamino-Montion Br.-Bl. 1926 Aggr. Silene pusilla e Carex frigida Cratoneurion commutatae Koch 1928 Chaerophyllo-Cardaminetum asarifoliae Gerdol & Tomaselli 1988

Asplenietea trichomanis (Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934) Oberdorfer 1977 Potentilletalia caulescentis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926 Cystopteridion (Nordhagen 1936) J.L. Rich. 1972 Cystopteridetum fragilis Oberdorfer 1938 subass. saxifragetosum cuneifoliae subass. nova

Galio-Urticetea Passarge ex Kopecky 1969 Galio aparines-Alliarietalia petiolatae Gors & Muller 1969 Aegopodion podagrariae Tuxen 1967 Aggr. Petasites hybridus

Mulgedio-Aconitetea Hadac & Klika in Klika & Hadac 1944 Calamagrostietalia villosae Pawlowski in Pawlowski, Sokolowski & Wallisch 1928 Arunco dioici-Petasition albi Br.-Bl. & Sutter 1977 Doronico austriaci-Aruncetum vulgaris Kornas in Kornas & Medwecka-Kornas 1967 subass. geranietosum nodosi (Vagge 1996) comb. nov. Aggr. Adenostyles alpina e Petasites albus Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum e Calamaogrostis arundinacea

Nardetea Strictae Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday and Rivas Martinez 1963 Nardetalia strictae Oberdorfer ex Preising 1949 Aggr. Brachypodium genuense e Seseli libanotis

Rhamno-Prunetea Rivas Goday & Borja ex Tuxen 1962 Sambucetalia racemosae Oberdorfer ex Passarge in Scamoni 1963 Geranio nodosi-Loniceretum alpigenae ass. nova subass. loniceretosum alpigenae subass. nova subass. loniceretosum nigrae subass. nova

Salici Purpureae-Populetea Nigrae (Rivas-Martinez & Canto ex Rivas-Martinez, Bascones, T.E. Diaz, Fernandez Gonzalez & Loidi 1991) Rivas-Martinez & Cantoo 2002 Salicetalia purpureae Moor 1958 Salicion incanae Aichinger 1933 Salicetum incano-purpureae Sillinger 1933 subass. petasitetosum hybridi Oriolo & Poldini 2002

Populetalia albae Br.-Bl. 1931 ex Tchou 1948 Alnion incanae Pawlowski in Pawlowski, Sokolowski & Wallisch 1928 Alnetum incanae Ludi 1921

Querco-Fageeea Br.-Bl. & Vlieger 1937 Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawlowski in Pawlowski, Sokolowski & Wallisch 1928 Fagion sylvaticae (Luquet 1926) Tuxen & Diemont 1936 Cardamino heptaphylla-Fagetum sylvaticae Oberd. & Hoffman 1967 Carpinion betuli issler 1931 em. Oberd. 1957 Geranio nodosi-Carpinetum betuli Pedrotti, Ballelli & Biondi 1982

Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae Klika 1933 Crataego laevigatae-Quercion cerridis Arrigoni 1997 Roso caninae-Ostryetum carpinifoliae (Barbero & Bono 1971) Ubaldi 1995

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2011.v32.37818

Recibido: 18 mayo 2010

Aceptado: 6 julio 2011

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Bruno Foggi *, Lorenzo Lastrucci *, Piera Papini **, Simone Vergari **, Matilde Gennai *, Davide Gervasoni *, Daniele Viciani * & Giulio Ferretti *

* Department of Evolutionary Biology--Plant Biology. University of Florence. Via La Pira 4. 50121 Florence. Italy.

** Nature and Archeological Centre of the Pistoia Apennines. Via Nazionale 100. 51028 Campo Tizzoro. Pistoia. Italy.
Table 1

Bioclimatic belts of the Verdiana valley. For every belt the range
of Altitude (m.a.s.l.), Annual precipitation in
mm (P) and annual mean temperature ([degrees]C) is presented.

Bioclimatic belt                 Altitude     P            T

Lower orotemperate,              > 1700       >2100        3-5
  upper hyperhumid climate
Upper supratemperate,            1200-1700    2000-2100    5-8
  upper hyperhumid climate
Inferior supratemperate,         700-1200     1800-2000    8-11
  inferior hyperhumid climate
Upper supratemperate,            < 700        < 1800       >11
  upper humid climate

Table 2

Eutrophic beech woodlands

Cardamino heptaphyllae-Fagetum sylvaticae Oberd. & Hoffman 1967

(Fagion sylvaticae, Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (m)                               1140   1040    930    880
Slope ([degrees])                            10     10     10      5
Aspect                                        W    WNW      N     SW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          80     60     60     70
Cover (%)                                   100    100    100    100
N. releve                                     1      2      3      4

characteristics of association

Geranium nodosum                              +      1      +      +
Cardamine bulbifera                           +      1      +      r
Cardamine heptaphylla                         .      1      1      r
Euphorbia dulcis                              .      +      +      +
Geranium robertianum                          .      1      r      .
Ecological variant on running water           .      .      .      .
Salix caprea                                  3      3      .      2
Petasites albus                               .      2      3      r
Adenostyles alpina                            +      +      1      .
Salix eleagnos                                .      1      2      .
Aruncus dioicus                               .      1      .      .

characteristics of higher syntaxa

Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica              5      4      4      4
Dryopteris filix-mas                          +      1      2      .
Sanicula europaea                             .      +      r      .
Viola reichenbachiana                         .      .      r      r
Festuca heterophylla                          .      .      +      2
Oxalis acetosella                             .      1      r      .
Lactuca muralis                               .      r      .      r
Laburnum alpinum                              2      .      .      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana              .      .      1      .
Campanula trachelium subsp. trachelium        .      .      .      1
Ostrya carpinifolia                           .      .      1      3

Other species:

Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                   +      r      +      .
Salvia glutinosa                              .      +      +      +
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                 .      .      r      1
Gentiana asclepiadea                          .      r      r      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena             2      1      .      .
Lonicera nigra                                +      +      .      .
Hieracium lachenalii                          .      r      .      +
Dactylis glomerata                            .      r      .      +
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp. sylvaticum     .      .      .      3

Other species: Circaea alpina subsp. alpina and Daphne mezereum + in
1; Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense, Polystichum aculeatum and
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia r, Anemonoides nemorosa,
Circaea x intermedia, Milium effusum, Mnium hornum, Polypodium
interjectum and Sesleria argentea + in 2; Angelica sylvestris subsp.
sylvestris, Luzula nivea y Ranunculus platanifolius, Clematis vitalba,
Doronicum pardalianches, Myrrhis odorata, Rubus idaeus subsp. Idaeus
and Sorbus aria +, Melica uniflora 1 in 3; Aegopodium podagraria,
Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. fuchsii, Galium laevigatum, Scrophularia
nodosa and Stachys sylvatica r, Abies alba, Cephalanthera longifolia,
Crataegus monogyna, Cruciata glabra, Emerus major, Euphorbia
cyparissias, Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca, Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus,
Knautia drymeia, Lathyrus vernus subsp. vernus and Salix purpurea +
in 4. Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]05'91", 10[degrees]49'23"; 2: 44[degrees]05'91",
10[degrees]49'23"; 3: 44[degrees]05'08", 10[degrees]49'06";
4: 44[degrees]04'56", 10[degrees]49'06".

Table 3

Hornbeam woodlands

Geranio nodosi-Carpinetum betuli Pedrotti, Ballelli &
Biondi 1982

(Carpinion betulii, Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (m)                       680     720     700     610
Sllope ([degrees])                  35      35       5      45
Aspect                               S     SSE     SSE      NE
Surface ([m.sup.2])                 60      25     150     120
Cover (%)                          100     100     100     100
N. releve                            1       2       3       4

Characteristics of association

Carpinus betulus                     5       5       5       4
Geranium nodosum                     2       +       +       +

Variant on thin soils with Sesleria argentea

Sesleria argentea                    3       4       3       2

Characteristics of higher syntaxa

Hedera helix                         2       1       1       +
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus          +       1       3       1
Festuca heterophylla                 1       1       1       2
Lactuca muralis                      r       r       +       +
Corylus avellana                     3       .       2       3
Melica uniflora                      +       .       1       +
Cruciata glabra                      +       +       +       .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca          r       r       +       .
Solidago virgaurea                   r       +       r       .
Crataegus monogyna                   1       .       r       .
Euphorbia dulcis                     .       +       +       .
Rubus hirtus                         r       .       r       .
Campanula trachelium
  subsp. trachelium                  r       .       .       r
Sorbus aria                          .       r       r       .
Cephalanthera longifolia             .       r       r       .
Castanea sativa                      r       .       r       .
Pulmonaria hirta/apennina            .       r       r       .
Asarum europaeum                     .       .       3       .
Acer opalus subsp. opalus            2       .       .       .
Acer campestre                       .       .       .       2
Galium laevigatum                    .       .       .       2
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica     .       .       2       .

Other species:

Trochiscanthes nodiflora             +       .       .       1
Hepatica nobilis                     +       +       .       .
Asplenium trichomanes                +       r       .       .
Anemonoides nemorosa                 .       r       .       +
Polypodium interjectum               +       .       .       r

Other species: Neottia nidus-avis, Cardamine impatiens
subsp. impatiens and Prenanthespurpurea r, Adenostyles
alpina, Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris, Brachypodium
sylvaticum subsp. sylvaticum, Daphne laureola and
Laburnum alpinum +, Lathyrus vernus subsp. vernus 1 in
1; Asplenium adiantum-nigrum subsp. adiantum-nigrum,
Campanula persicifolia subsp. persicifolia, Saxifraga cuneifolia
subsp. cuneifolia, Hieracium murorum and Rosa
canina r, Cyclamen hederifolium subsp. hederifolium,
Emerus major, Ilex aquifolium and Rubus caesius + in 2;
Hieracium bifidum, Knautia drymeia and Salvia glutinosa
r, Geranium robertianum and Viola reichenbachiana + in
3; Gentiana asclepiadea r, Dryopteris filix-mas, Gymnocarpium
dryopteris, Luzula nivea, Polystichum aculeatum
and Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia + in 4.
Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana
river; geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are:
1: 44[degrees]04'06", 10[degrees]47'59"; 2: 44[degrees]03'59",
10[degrees]47'48"; 3: 44[degrees]04'16", 10[degrees]48'16"; 4:
44[degrees]04'17", 10[degrees]48'22".

Table 4

Black hornbeam woodlands

Roso caninae-Ostryetum carpinifoliae

(Barbero & Bono 1971) Ubaldi 1995

(Crataego laevigati-Quercion cerridis, Quercetalia pubescenti-petreae,
Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (m)                                 840    960    880    880
Slope([degrees])                              <5     <5     <5     <5
Aspect                                         S      S    SSW      S
Surface ([msup.2])                            75     50     18     80
Cover (%)                                    100    100    100    100
N releve                                       1      2      3      4

Characteristics and differentials of association

Ostrya carpinifolia                            5      4      5      5
Sesleria argentea                              4      +      +      .
Corylus avellana                               1      .      3      .
Cephalanthera longifolia                       +      .      +      .
Campanula trachelium subsp. trachelium         .      r      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                           .      .      .      .
Hepatica nobilis                               .      +      .      .
Ecological variant on running water            .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                                .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                              .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                                .      .      r      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                    .      .      .      .
Adenostyles alpina                             .      .      .      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense               .      .      .      .
Solanum dulcamara                              .      .      .      .
                                               .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa              .      .      .      .
                                               .      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                           3      3      3      3
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus                    2      1      .      1
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica               .      3      1      1
Geranium nodosum                               .      +      +      +
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                    +      r      r      +
Hedera helix                                   1      r      .      .
Sorbus aria                                    .      .      r      +
Rubus hirtus                                   +      .      .      .
Cruciata glabra                                .      +      +      r
Viola reichenbachiana                          .      r      .      r
Hieracium gr. murorum                          r      .      .      +
Lathyrus vernus subsp. vernus                  +      1      1      .
Solidago virgaurea                             r      +      +      .
Melica uniflora                                .      1      r      .
Crataegus monogyna                             +      .      .      +
Luzula nivea                                   .      .      +      1
Emerus major                                   .      .      3      r
Gentiana asclepiadea                           .      .      .      +
Laburnum anagyroides subsp. anagyroides        1      .      .      1
Geranium robertianum                           .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                                .      .      .      .
Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens           .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                               .      +      .      +
Pulmonaria hirta/apennina                      +      r      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                            .      .      .      +
Cardamine heptaphylla                          .      .      .      .
Castanea sativa                                .      .      .      r
Epipactis helleborine                          r      .      .      .
Laburnum alpinum                               .      .      .      .

Other species

Salix eleagnos                                 1      .      1      2
Dactylis glomerata                             +      .      +      +
Salvia glutinosa                               .      .      .      +
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                  +      .      .      +
Knautia drymeia                                .      .      +      +
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp. sylvaticum      .      .      .      3
Salix caprea                                   1      .      .      1
Juniperus communis                             .      .      .      +
Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. fuchsii           .      .      1      .
Circaea x intermedia                           .      .      .      .
Hieracium bifidum                              .      +      +      .
Vicia cracca                                   .      .      +      .

Altitude (m)                                 1000   870    850    990
Slope([degrees])                               -     <5     10     10
Aspect                                         -    SSW      W      W
Surface ([msup.2])                            15     40     45     30
Cover (%)                                    100     90     80    100
N releve                                       5      6      7      8

Characteristics and differentials of association

Ostrya carpinifolia                            5      5      4      4
Sesleria argentea                              4      .      +      1
Corylus avellana                               .      .      .      1
Cephalanthera longifolia                       1      +      .      +
Campanula trachelium subsp. trachelium         .      r      .      r
Dryopteris filix-mas                           r      +      +      +
Hepatica nobilis                               .      .      .      .
Ecological variant on running water            .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                                .      3      5      4
Oxalis acetosella                              .      +      +      +
Aruncus dioicus                                .      1      .      +
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                    .      .      +      r
Adenostyles alpina                             .      +      r      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense               .      r      +      .
Solanum dulcamara                              .      .      +      r
                                               .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa              .      .      .      .
                                               .      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                           1      2      1      3
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus                    2      .      r      +
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica               2      .      .      .
Geranium nodosum                               .      +      +      1
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                    .      r      .      +
Hedera helix                                   +      r      .      r
Sorbus aria                                    .      +      .      1
Rubus hirtus                                   .      +      +      +
Cruciata glabra                                .      .      .      +
Viola reichenbachiana                          r      .      .      r
Hieracium gr. murorum                          r      .      .      r
Lathyrus vernus subsp. vernus                  .      .      .      .
Solidago virgaurea                             .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                                .      .      r      .
Crataegus monogyna                             r      .      .      .
Luzula nivea                                   .      +      .      .
Emerus major                                   +      .      .      .
Gentiana asclepiadea                           .      +      .      +
Laburnum anagyroides subsp. anagyroides        .      r      .      .
Geranium robertianum                           .      +      +      +
Lactuca muralis                                .      r      r      r
Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens           .      r      r      +
Euphorbia dulcis                               .      .      .      .
Pulmonaria hirta/apennina                      .      .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                            .      .      .      r
Cardamine heptaphylla                          .      r      .      +
Castanea sativa                                r      .      .      .
Epipactis helleborine                          .      r      .      .
Laburnum alpinum                               3      .      .      .

Other species

Salix eleagnos                                 .      1      .      3
Dactylis glomerata                             .      +      +      .
Salvia glutinosa                               .      1      +      .
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                  .      +      r      .
Knautia drymeia                                .      .      r      r
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp. sylvaticum      .      +      +      .
Salix caprea                                   .      .      .      .
Juniperus communis                             .      .      .      .
Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. fuchsii           .      .      .      +
Circaea x intermedia                           .      +      +      .
Hieracium bifidum                              .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                   r      .      .      .

Other species: Melittis melissophyllum subsp. melissophyllum and,
Polystichum aculeatum r in 1; Anemonoides nemorosa, Glechoma hederacea
and Polypodium cambricum Pteridium aquilinum subsp. aquilinum r,
Corallorhiza trifida + and Asarum europaeum 1 in 2; Calamintha
grandiflora, Carduus carlinifolius subsp. carlinifolius, Lotus
corniculatus, Valeriana tripteris and Carex remota r in 3, Cirsium
erisithales and Pyrola minor + in 3; Epipactis persica subsp.
gracilis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Lapsana communis subsp. communis and
Trifolium pratense r, Agrostis capillaris, Campanula persicifolia
subsp. persicifolia, Daphne mezereum, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Salix
purpurea + in 4; Listera ovata and Platanthera chlorantha 1 in 5;
Aegopodium podagraria, Clematis vitalba and Cardamine hirsuta r,
Athyrium filix-femina, Chaerophyllum hirsutum and Mnium hornum +
in 7; Acer pseudoplatanus, Cephalanthera damasonium, Galium mollugo
subsp. erectum, Polypodium interjectum and Stellaria nemorum subsp.
montana r, Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris, Carex pendula and
Conocephalum conicum + in 8.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]04'57", 10[degrees]48'59"; 2: 44[degrees]05'26",
10[degrees]49'08"; 3: 44[degrees]05'03", 10[degrees]49'04"; 4:
44[degrees]05'03", 10[degrees]49'04"; 5: 44[degrees]05'28",
10[degrees]49'21"; 6: 44[degrees]05'07", 10[degrees]49'00"; 7:
44[degrees]05'02", 10[degrees]49'00"; 8: 44[degrees]05'27",
10[degrees]49'18".

Table 5

Riparian willow open woodlands Salicetum incano-purpureae Sillinger
1933

Salicetum incano-purpureae subass. petasitetosum hybridi Oriolo &
Poldini 2002

(Salicion incanae, Salicetalia purpureae, Salici purpureae-Populetea
nigrae)

Altitude (m)                               580    580    580    580
Slope ([degrees])                            -      -      -      -
Aspect                                       -      -      -      -
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         45     35     35     25
Cover (%)                                  100    100     80    100
N releve                                     1      2      3      4

Characteristics and differentials of assoc. & higher syntaxa

Salix eleagnos                               5      5      5      5
Salix purpurea subsp. purpurea               .      .      .      1
Solanum dulcamara                            +      1      .      .
Carex pendula                                .      .      .      .
Saponaria officinalis                        r      1      .      +
Carex remota                                 .      .      .      .
Circaea lutetiana subsp. lutetiana           .      .      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      .      .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        .      .      .      r
Populus nigra                                .      .      r      1
Salix triandra s.l.                          .      .      .      .
Alnus incana                                 .      .      .      1
Salix alba                                   .      .      .      .

Differentials of subass.

Eupatorium cannabinum subsp. cannabinum      +      +      +      +
Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      .      .
Hygrophilous species                         .      .      .      .
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                +      +      +      +
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      .      .      .
Mentha aquatica subsp. aquatica              .      .      2      +
Artemisia vulgaris                           .      .      .      .
Ranunculus repens                            .      .      .      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      .      .
Barbarea vulgaris subsp. vulgaris            .      .      r      .
Epilobium hirsutum                           .      .      +      r
Lysimachia punctata                          .      .      .      .
Myosotis scorpioides subsp. scorpioides      .      .      .      .
Nasturtium officinale subsp. officinale      .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                              .      .      .      1
Arctium lappa                                .      .      .      .

Other species

Cardamine hirsuta                            .      .      .      .
Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens         .      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             .      1      +      1
Cruciata laevipes                            .      .      .      r
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus                  .      +      .      .
Geranium nodosum                             .      r      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      r      .      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      +      .      r
Melica uniflora                              .      +      .      .
Prunella vulgaris subsp. vulgaris            .      .      .      +
Salvia glutinosa                             1      +      .      .
Scrophularia nodosa                          .      r      r      .
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      .      .
Tussilago farfara                            .      .      r      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      r      .      .

Altitude (m)                               800    850    850    800
Slope ([degrees])                            -      -      -      -
Aspect                                       -      -      -      -
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         60    120     40     80
Cover (%)                                   90     90     90    100
N releve                                     5      6      7      8

Characteristics and differentials of assoc. & higher syntaxa

Salix eleagnos                               4      4      4      5
Salix purpurea subsp. purpurea               2      2      3      .
Solanum dulcamara                            .      r      .      r
Carex pendula                                1      2      1      +
Saponaria officinalis                        .      .      .      .
Carex remota                                 .      1      .      +
Circaea lutetiana subsp. lutetiana           .      r      .      1
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      +      +
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        .      .      .      r
Populus nigra                                .      .      .      .
Salix triandra s.l.                          .      2      .      .
Alnus incana                                 .      .      .      .
Salix alba                                   .      1      .      .

Differentials of subass.

Eupatorium cannabinum subsp. cannabinum      r      .      +      r
Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      +      1
Hygrophilous species                         .      .      .      .
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                r      .      +      r
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             +      4      1      +
Mentha aquatica subsp. aquatica              +      .      3      .
Artemisia vulgaris                           r      .      +      .
Ranunculus repens                            +      .      r      r
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      +      .      r
Barbarea vulgaris subsp. vulgaris            .      .      .      r
Epilobium hirsutum                           .      .      .      .
Lysimachia punctata                          +      .      r      .
Myosotis scorpioides subsp. scorpioides      .      .      r      r
Nasturtium officinale subsp. officinale      .      r      r      .
Petasites albus                              .      .      .      .
Arctium lappa                                .      .      .      3

Other species

Cardamine hirsuta                            .      r      .      r
Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens         .      r      .      r
Clematis vitalba                             .      .      .      +
Cruciata laevipes                            .      .      .      r
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus                  .      .      .      r
Geranium nodosum                             .      .      .      r
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      r
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      2
Lactuca muralis                              .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              .      .      .      r
Prunella vulgaris subsp. vulgaris            +      .      .      r
Salvia glutinosa                             .      .      .      +
Scrophularia nodosa                          .      +      .      +
Stachys sylvatica                            .      1      1      +
Tussilago farfara                            +      .      1      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      .      r      .

Other species: Bromus ramosus r in 1; Chaerophyllum temulum, Euphorbia
cyparissias, Galeopsis tetrahit, Lathyrus sylvestris subsp. Sylvestris
and Silene latifolia subsp. alba r, Helleborus foetidus subsp.
foetidus, Ostrya carpinifolia and Schedonorus giganteus + in 2;
Hypericum maculatum subsp. maculatum r in 3; Hedera helix and Salix
Caprea r in 4; Taraxacum officinale r, Inula conyzae + in 5; Plantago
major s.l. r in 6; Achillea millefolium s.l., Crataegus monogyna,
Digitalis lutea subsp. australis, Hypericum perforatum, Lapsana
communis subsp. communis, Persicaria lapathifolia subsp. lapathifolia,
Rumex sanguineus, Scrophularia auriculata subsp. auriculata, Symphytum
tuberosum subsp. angustifolium, Trifolium pratense subsp. pratense,
Valeriana tripteris s.l. and Viola reichenbachiana r, Agrostis
capillaris and Cirsium oleraceum +, Poa nemoralis subsp. nemoralis and
Rosa canina s.l. 1 in 7; Alchemilla glabra, Chaerophyllum hirsutum,
Dactylis glomerata, Festuca heterophylla, Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca,
Poa trivialis and Sambucus nigra r, Laburnum alpinum +, Alnus cordata
1 in 8.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]04'10", 10[degrees]47'00"; 2: 44[degrees]04'10",
10[degrees]47'00"; 3: 44[degrees]04'10", 10[degrees]47'00"; 4:
44[degrees]04'10", 10[degrees]47'00"; 5: 44[degrees]04'36",
10[degrees]48'54"; 6: 44[degrees]04'53", 10[degrees]49'02"; 7:
44[degrees]04'53", 10[degrees]49'02"; 8: 44[degrees]04'46",
10[degrees]48'54".

Table 6

White alder riparian woodlands

Alnetum incanae Ludi 1921

(Alnion incanae, Populetalia albae, Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae)

Altitude (m)                                 620    620    620    690
Slope ([degrees])                            <5      15      5      -
Aspect                                       SW     SSW    SSE    SSE
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          100     40     75     80
Cover (%)                                    90     100    100    100
N releve                                      1       2      3      4

Characteristic species of association and higher syntaxa

Alnus incana                                  5       5      4      4
Circaea x intermedia                          +       +      +      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana              +       +      .      +
Solanum dulcamara                             .       r      1      .
Carex pendula                                 .       .      .      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp. sylvaticum     .       .      +      .
Stachys sylvatica                             .       +      r      .
Salix eleagnos                                .       .      .      .
Rubus caesius                                 .       .      1      .
Salix purpurea subsp. purpurea                .       .      .      .
Salix alba                                    .       .      .      .
Circaea lutetiana subsp. lutetiana            .       .      r      .

Other species

Geranium robertianum                          1       1      +      +
Cardamine heptaphylla                         +       +      +      +
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus                   1       4      4      2
Melica uniflora                               3       3      4      1
Salvia glutinosa                              1       2      1      .
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                 +       1      1      .
Clematis vitalba                              .       3      2      .
Hedera helix                                  1       2      1      +
Lactuca muralis                               .       r      +      +
Lamium galeobdolon                            1       1      .      r
Rosa canina s.l.                              .       .      r      +
Cornus sanguinea s.l.                         r       .      .      2
Geranium nodosum                              .       +      +      +
Geum urbanum                                  +       r      .      1
Sambucus nigra                                2              1      2
Stellaria media subsp. media                  1       2      1      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp. cannabinum       .       .      1      .
Galium aparine                                .       +      1      r
Ostrya carpinifolia                           1       .      2      .
Carpinus betulus                              .       1      .      2
Acer pseudoplatanus                           1       .      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp. trachelium        .       .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                           .       .      .      r
Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens          +       r      .      r
Arabis turrita                                .       r      .      .
Calamogrostis arundinacea                     +       .      .      .
Chaerophyllum temulum                         +       +      .      r
Corylus avellana                              1       .      1      2
Crataegus monogyna                            1       .      .      1
Petasites albus                               .       .      1      1
Rubus hirtus                                  .       .      .      3
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                   .       .      r      2
Aegopodium podagraria                         .       .      .      .
Alnus cordata                                 .       .      .      .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris         .       .      r      .
Arctium lappa                                 .       .      1      .
Asarum europaeum                              .       .      .      1
Bromus ramosus                                .       .      +      .
Dactylis glomerata                            .       .      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                          .       .      .      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense              .       .      .      .
Hypericum perforatum                          .       .      r      .
Mentha aquatica subsp. aquatica               .       .      .      .
Robinia pseudacacia                           .       .      .      .
Saponaria officinalis                         .       .      .      .
Scrophularia auriculata subsp. auriculata     .       .      .      .
Scrophularia nodosa                           .       +      +      .
Silene latifolia subsp. alba                  .       .      .      .
Castanea sativa                               .       .      .      2
Galeopsis tetrahit                            .       .      .      .
Helleborus foetidus subsp. foetidus           .       .      .      1
Laburnum anagyroides subsp. anagyroides       .       .      2      .
Lysimachia punctata                           .       .      .      .
Mentha suaveolens subsp. suaveolens           .       .      .      .
Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus            .       .      .      .
Prunus spinosa subsp. spinosa                 .       .      .      .
Tussilago farfara                             .       .      .      .

Altitude (m)                                 610    600    590
Slope ([degrees])                             5      <5     <5
Aspect                                        W      NW      S
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          40     100     80
Cover (%)                                    100    100     90
N releve                                      5       6      7

Characteristic species of association and higher syntaxa

Alnus incana                                  5       4      3
Circaea x intermedia                          .       +      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana              1       .      .
Solanum dulcamara                             .       r      +
Carex pendula                                 +       .      +
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp. sylvaticum     +       1      .
Stachys sylvatica                             .       .      .
Salix eleagnos                                .       3      2
Rubus caesius                                 .       .      .
Salix purpurea subsp. purpurea                .       .      1
Salix alba                                    .       .      1
Circaea lutetiana subsp. lutetiana            .       .      .

Other species

Geranium robertianum                          +       1      +
Cardamine heptaphylla                         +       +      .
Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus                   1       2      .
Melica uniflora                               2       2      .
Salvia glutinosa                              1       +      +
Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                 +       +      1
Clematis vitalba                              1       2      +
Hedera helix                                  1       .      .
Lactuca muralis                               .       +      +
Lamium galeobdolon                            2       1      .
Rosa canina s.l.                              r       r      +
Cornus sanguinea s.l.                         1       +      .
Geranium nodosum                              +       .      .
Geum urbanum                                  r       .      .
Sambucus nigra                                1       1      .
Stellaria media subsp. media                  2       1      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp. cannabinum       +       +      3
Galium aparine                                1       .      .
Ostrya carpinifolia                           .       1      3
Carpinus betulus                              .       2      .
Acer pseudoplatanus                           .       +      r
Campanula trachelium subsp. trachelium        r       r      r
Cardamine bulbifera                           r       r      .
Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens          .       .      .
Arabis turrita                                .       r      r
Calamogrostis arundinacea                     .       +      +
Chaerophyllum temulum                         .       .      .
Corylus avellana                              .       .      .
Crataegus monogyna                            1       .      .
Petasites albus                               1       .      .
Rubus hirtus                                  +       .      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                   .       .      .
Aegopodium podagraria                         +       .      .
Alnus cordata                                 .       1      1
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris         .       .      +
Arctium lappa                                 .       +      .
Asarum europaeum                              .       .      .
Bromus ramosus                                .       .      +
Dactylis glomerata                            .       .      r
Dryopteris filix-mas                          r       .      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense              .       +      2
Hypericum perforatum                          .       .      +
Mentha aquatica subsp. aquatica               +       .      +
Robinia pseudacacia                           .       +      r
Saponaria officinalis                         1       +      .
Scrophularia auriculata subsp. auriculata     .       +      r
Scrophularia nodosa                           .       .      .
Silene latifolia subsp. alba                  r       +      .
Castanea sativa                               .       .      .
Galeopsis tetrahit                            .       1      .
Helleborus foetidus subsp. foetidus           .       .      .
Laburnum anagyroides subsp. anagyroides       .       .      .
Lysimachia punctata                           .       1      .
Mentha suaveolens subsp. suaveolens           .       .      .
Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus            1       .      .
Prunus spinosa subsp. spinosa                 1       .      .
Tussilago farfara                             .       .      2

Other species: Agrostis stolonifera r, Astragalus glycyphyllos and
Vicia cracca + in 2; Aquilegia vulgaris, Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca,
Helleborus vididis subsp. viridis, Hieracium gr. murorum, Medicago
lupulina and Trifolium pretense subsp. pratense r, Prenanthes purpurea
+ in 3; Polygonatum multiflorum, Polystichum setiferum and Rubus idaeus
subsp. idaeus r, Athyrium filix-femina, Hypericum androsaemum, Acer
opalus subsp. obtusatum and Trochiscanthes nodiflora + in 4;
Alliaria petiolata r, Humulus lupulus and Pulmonaria hirta/apennina +
in 5; Artemisia vulgaris, Ranunculus repens, Teucrium scorodonia, Viola
reichenbachiana r, Euphorbia dulcis and Knautia drymeja + in 6;
Artemisia verlotiorum, Cirsium vulgare, Daucus carota s.l., Lathyrus
sylvestris subsp. sylvestris, Melilotus alba and Populus tremula r,
Barbarea vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Dipsacus fullonum, Epilobium
hirsutum, Heracleum sphondylium s.l., Juncus inflexus, Lapsana communis
subsp. communis, Picris hieracioides s.l, Salix caprea and Schedonorus
giganteus + in 7.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]04'08", 10[degrees]47'24"; 2: 44[degrees]04'08",
10[degrees]47'24"; 3: 44[degrees]04'08", 10[degrees]47'24"; 4:
44[degrees]04'16", 10[degrees]48'13"; 5: 44[degrees]04'08",
10[degrees]47'18"; 6: 44[degrees]04'08", 10[degrees]47'12"; 7:
44[degrees]04'09", 10[degrees]47'05".

Table 7

Linear mantle formation with woodbine

Geranio nodosi-Loniceretum alpigenae ass. nova hoc loco (1-16)

Geranio nodosi-Loniceretum alpigenae loniceretosum nigrae subass. Nova
hoc loco (17-25)

(Sambucetalia racemosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Altitude (m)                                  1140   880    900    860
Slope ([degrees])                              50     60     40     20
Aspect                                          N     NW    NNE      W
Surface ([m.sup.2])                            15      5     20     10
Cover (%)                                      80     90     75     80
Number in Cluster                               1     14      9     16
N releve                                        1      2      3      4

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            1      1      2      1
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               4      5      3      3
Geranium nodosum                                +      .      +      +
Polystichum aculeatum                           .      .      .      +
Geranium robertianum                            .      .      1      r
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      .      .      .      r

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  2      +      2      3
Adenostyles alpina                              .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                           .      .      .      .

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                r      r      r      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     +      +      +      +
Oxalis acetosella                               .      .      +      +
Lactuca muralis                                 .      .      .      r
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .      .      .      +
Euphorbia dulcis                                .      .      .      .

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .      +      .      +
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    +      +      .      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          +      .      .      .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                                 .      .      .      1
Aruncus dioicus                                 .      .      .      .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .      .      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .      .      .      .
Asplenium viride                                .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      r      .      .      r
Daphne mezereum                                 +      .      .      .
other species                                   .      .      .      .
Agrostis capillaris                             .      +      .      .
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .      .      .      .
Epipactis sp.                                   .      .      r      .
Sesleria argentea                               .      .      +      .

Altitude (m)                                  950   1100   1120   1075
Slope ([degrees])                              50     45     50     30
Aspect                                        SSW     NW    NNE    NWN
Surface ([m.sup.2])                            10     10      8      5
Cover (%)                                      70     70     70     90
Number in Cluster                               2      3      4      5
N releve                                        5      6      7      8

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            1      r      r      +
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               3      4      4      5
Geranium nodosum                                +      r      .      .
Polystichum aculeatum                           +      .      .      .
Geranium robertianum                            .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      +      .      .      .

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  .      .      .      +
Adenostyles alpina                              .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                           .      .      .      .

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                r      .      r      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     .      .      .      +
Oxalis acetosella                               .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                                 .      .      .      .
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                                +      .      .      r

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .      .      .      .
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    .      .      .      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          .      .      .      .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                                 .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                                 2      .      .      .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .      .      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .      .      .      .
Asplenium viride                                .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      .      .      .      .
Daphne mezereum                                 .      .      .      .
other species                                   .      .      .      .
Agrostis capillaris                             .      .      .      r
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .      .      .      .
Epipactis sp.                                   .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                               .      .      .      .

Altitude (m                                  1110    900    900    890
Slope ([degrees])                              40     25     45     60
Aspect                                         NW      N     NW      N
Surface ([m.sup.2])                             8      8     10      4
Cover (%)                                      90     50     75     75
Number in Cluster                               6      8     10     11
N releve                                       9*     10     11     12

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            +      +      1      1
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               5      3      4      4
Geranium nodosum                                r      r      +      .
Polystichum aculeatum                           r      .      .      .
Geranium robertianum                            .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      .      .      .      +

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  +      .      .      .
Adenostyles alpina                              .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                           .      .      .      .

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                .      r      .      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                               r      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                                 .      .      .      +
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .      r      r      +
Euphorbia dulcis                                .      .      +      .

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .      .      r      .
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    .      .      .      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          .      .      .      .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .      r      .      .
Petasites albus                                 .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                                 .      .      .      .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .      .      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .      .      .      .
Asplenium viride                                .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      .      .      .      .
Daphne mezereum                                 .      .      .      .
other species                                   .      .      .      .
Agrostis capillaris                             .      .      .      .
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .      .      .      .
Epipactis sp.                                   .      .      r      .
Sesleria argentea                               .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                                  900    890    890    860
Slope ([degrees])                              40     60     60     40
Aspect                                        NNW     NW    SSE      N
Surface ([m.sup.2])                             5      7     12      4
Cover (%)                                      70     70     70     70
Number in Cluster                               7     12     13     15
N releve                                       13     14     15     16

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            +      +      .      +
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               4      4      4      4
Geranium nodosum                                +      .      r      +
Polystichum aculeatum                           +      .      .      .
Geranium robertianum                            1      r      +      r
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      .      +      .      r

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  .      .      .      .
Adenostyles alpina                              .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                           .      +      .      .

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                .      .      .      1
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     +      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                               .      1      1      +
Lactuca muralis                                 .      r      r      .
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                                .      .      .      .

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .      r      +      .
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    .      +      .      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          .      .      .      .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .      r      +      .
Petasites albus                                 .      .      .      r
Aruncus dioicus                                 .      .      .      .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .      r      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .      .      .      .
Asplenium viride                                .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      .      .      .      .
Daphne mezereum                                 .      .      .      .
other species                                   .      .      .      .
Agrostis capillaris                             .      .      .      .
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .      .      .      .
Epipactis sp.                                   .      .      .      r
Sesleria argentea                               .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                                 1150   1150   1095   1115
Slope ([degrees])                              60     60     50     40
Aspect                                         NW     NE    NWN    NNW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                             8     10      2      6
Cover (%)                                      65     70     90     66
Number in Cluster                              17     24     21     18
N releve                                       17     18     19     20

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            r      +      .      +
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               .      .      .      r
Geranium nodosum                                +      .      r      r
Polystichum aculeatum                           r      r      .      .
Geranium robertianum                            .      .      r      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      .      .      .      r

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  4      4      4      4
Adenostyles alpina                              1      1      2      r
Athyrium filix-femina                           1      .      +      .

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                .      .      .      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                               .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                                 .      .      .      .
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                                .      .      .      .

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .      .      .      .
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    .      r             r
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          .      +      .      .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                                 .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                                 .      .      .      .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .      r      .      r
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .      .      .      .
Asplenium viride                                .      .      +      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      +      +      .      .
Daphne mezereum                                 .      .      .      r
other species                                   .      .      .      .
Agrostis capillaris                             .      +      .      .
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .      .      .      .
Epipactis sp.                                   .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                               .      .      1      .

Altitude (m)                                  900   1080    900    880
Slope ([degrees])                              60     50     45     45
Aspect                                         NE      S    NNW      W
Surface ([m.sup.2])                            10      5      4      3
Cover (%)                                      90     68     70     70
Number in Cluster                              20     23     19     22
N releve                                       21     22     23*    24

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            +      r      +      1
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               +      .      2      .
Geranium nodosum                                .      r      .      .
Polystichum aculeatum                           .      .      .      r
Geranium robertianum                            .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      r      .      +      .

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  5      4      4      4
Adenostyles alpina                              r      .      r      r
Athyrium filix-femina                           .      r      .      +

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                .      .      .      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     .      r      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                               .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                                 .      .      r      r
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .      r      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                                .      .      .      +

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .      .      .      .
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    .      .      .      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          .      r      .      .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .      .      .      .
Petasites albus                                 .      .      .      1
Aruncus dioicus                                 .      .      .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .      .      r      .
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .      .      r      .
Asplenium viride                                .      .      .      .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      .      .      .      .
Daphne mezereum                                 .      .      +      .
other species                                   .      .      .      .
Agrostis capillaris                             .      .      .      .
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .      .      2      +
Epipactis sp.                                   .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                               1      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                                  890
Slope ([degrees])                              30
Aspect                                        SSW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                             5
Cover (%)                                      50
Number in Cluster                              25
N releve                                       25

Characteristics of Geranio-Loniceretum loniceretosum aligenae

Dryopteris filix-mas                            1
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena               .
Geranium nodosum                                .
Polystichum aculeatum                           r
Geranium robertianum                            r
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia      .

Differentials of loniceretosum nigrae

Lonicera nigra                                  3
Adenostyles alpina                              .
Athyrium filix-femina                           .

Woodland species

Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana                +
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                     r
Oxalis acetosella                               .
Lactuca muralis                                 .
Anemonoides nemorosa                            .
Euphorbia dulcis                                .

Species of wet edge

Cardamine impatiens subsp. impatiens            .
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina                    .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                          .
Lamium galeobdolon                              .
Petasites albus                                 .
Aruncus dioicus                                 .

Species from rocky wet habitat

Cystopteris fragilis                            .
Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                      .
Asplenium viride                                .
Characteristics of higher syntaxa               .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                      .
Daphne mezereum                                 .
other species                                   .
Agrostis capillaris                             .
Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica                .
Epipactis sp.                                   .
Sesleria argentea                               .

Other species: Festuca heterophylla r in 6, 24 and 25; Luzula nivea
r in 1, 1 in 5; Cardamine heptaphylla + in 4 and 5, Cardamine
bulbifera + in 4 and 13; Impatiens noli-tangere + in 4 and 17;
Doronicum pardalianches + in 1, r in 20; Angelica sylvestris subsp.
sylvestris r in 16, + in 24; Gentiana asclepiadea r in 17, + in 24;
Viola reichenbachiana + in 24 and 25. Cardamine hirsuta + in 1;
Crataegus monogyna and Polygonatum multiflorum r, Sorbus aucuparia
subsp. aucuparia 1 in 4; Emerus major and Galium aparine r, Hedera
helix s.l, Laserpitium latifolium and Melica uniflora + in 5;
Polypodium interjectum + in 14; Imperatoria ostruthium and Myosotis
Sylvatica subsp. sylvatica r in 16; Epilobium montanum and Phyteuma
scorzonerifolium r, Salvia glutinosa + in 17; Campanula trachelium
subsp. trachelium r, Calamagrostis arundinacea 1 in 19; Veronica
urticifolia + in 21; Carex remota 1 in 22; Cruciata laevipes, Equisetum
arvense subsp. arvense, Euphorbia cyparissias, Senecio germanicus and
Valeriana tripteris r in 24; Prenanthes purpurea and Rubus hirtus r
in 25.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]05'21", 10[degrees]49'56"; 2: 44[degrees]05'21",
10[degrees]49'10"; 3: 44[degrees]05'20", 10[degrees]49'12";
4: 44[degrees]05'13", 10[degrees]49'00"; 5: 44[degrees]05'18",
10[degrees]49'12"; 6: 44[degrees]05'19", 10[degrees]49'47"; 7:
44[degrees]05'20", 10[degrees]49'51", holotypus ass.;
8:44[degrees]05'20" 44[degrees]05'19", 10[degrees]49'49";
10: 44[degrees]05'20", 10[degrees]49'12"; 11: 44[degrees]05'20",
10[degrees]49'12"; 12: 44[degrees]05'13", 10[degrees]49'01";
13:44[degrees]05'20", 10[degrees]49'12"; 14: 44[degrees]05'20",
10[degrees]49'12"; 15: 44[degrees]05'20", 0[degrees]49'12";
16:44[degrees]05'13", 10[degrees]49'00"; 17: 44[degrees]04'09",
10[degrees]49'57"; 18: 44[degrees]04'09", 10[degrees]49'57";
19:44[degrees]05'19", 10[degrees]49'46"; 20: 44[degrees]05'19",
10[degrees]49'50"; 21: 44[degrees]05'20", 10[degrees]49'12";
22: 44[degrees]05'19", 10[degrees]49'44"; 23: 44[degrees]05'20",
10[degrees]49'12", holotypus subass.; 24: 44[degrees]05'21",
10[degrees]49'10"; 25: 44[degrees]05'13", 10[degrees]49'01".,
10[degrees]49'12"; 9:

Table 8

Megaforbs

Aggr. Petasites hybridus (Group A)

(Aegopodion podagrariae, Galio aparines-Alliarietalia petiolatae,
Galio-Urticetea)

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea (Group B1)

Aggr.--Adenostyles alpina-Petasites albus (Group B2)

Doronico austriaci-Aruncetum vulgaris Kornas in Kornas &
Medwecka-Kornas 1967 subass. geranietosum nodosi (Vagge 1996) comb.
nov. (Group B3)

(Arunco dioici-Petasition albi, Calamagrostietalia villosae,
Mulgedio-Aconitetea)

Altitude (1=10m)                            61     58     58     80
Slope ([degrees])                            -     10     10     25
Aspect                                       -     SW     SW    ESE
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         25      6     10     25
Cover (%)                                  100    100    100    100
Cluster                                      A      A      A      A
N. releve                                    1      2      3      4

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           5      4      5      5
Clematis vitalba                             +      r      r      r

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    .      .      .      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 +      +      r      .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                .      .      .      r
Dactylis glomerata                           .      .      .      .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      .      .      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      r      r      .
Solanum dulcamara                            .      .      .      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga aizoides                           .      .      .      .

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           .      .      .      .
Geranium nodosum                             .      .      .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         .      .      .      .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .
Luzula nivea                                 .      .      .      .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      .      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      .
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      .      .
Stachys sylvatica                            r             r      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          .      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              .      .      .      .
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                        .      .      .      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      .      .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          +      .      .      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .      .      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .      .      .      .
Crepis paludosa                              .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                         .      .      .      .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  .      .      .      .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            .      .      .      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              +      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .      .      .      r
Salvia glutinosa                             +      r      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .      .      .
Taraxacum officinale                         .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      .      .      r

Altitude (1=10m)                            58    104     88    107
Slope ([degrees])                            -      5      6     35
Aspect                                       -     SE      S     NW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                           6    35     30     15
Cover (%)                                  100    100    100     80
Cluster                                      A     B1     B1     B1
N. releve                                    5      6      7      8

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           5      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             r      .      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    .      2      1      2
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 .      +      1      +

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                r      r      +      +
Dactylis glomerata                           .      +      +      +
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        .      +      1      +
Lactuca muralis                              .      .      r      +
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      +      .      +
Solanum dulcamara                            .      2      1      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga aizoides                           .      .      .      .

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           .      .      +      r
Geranium nodosum                             .      .      .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         .      .      r      .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .
Luzula nivea                                 .      .      .      .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      .      +      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      .
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      .      .
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      .      r
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          .      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              .      4      4      4
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                        .      .      .      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      .      +

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          .      .      +      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .      .      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .      .      .      .
Crepis paludosa                              .      .      +      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .      .      .      +
Festuca heterophylla                         .      .      .      +
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  .      .      .      r
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   3      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            .      .      r      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              .      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .      .      .      +
Salvia glutinosa                             .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .      .      .
Taraxacum officinale                         .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      r      +      .

Altitude (1=10m)                           107     84    106    107
Slope ([degrees])                           60     <5     40     25
Aspect                                     SSE     SW    SSW    SSW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         20      6     20     25
Cover (%)                                   60     70     40     40
Cluster                                     B1     B1     B1     B1
N. releve                                    9     10     11     12

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             .      .      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    2      4      3      2
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 2      2      +      +

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                .      +      +      +
Dactylis glomerata                           +      1      +      +
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        1      .      +      1
Lactuca muralis                              +      +      r      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             +      .      +      +
Solanum dulcamara                            .      +      .      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      +
Saxifraga aizoides                           .      .      .      r

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           1      +      .      .
Geranium nodosum                             .      .      .      r
Veronica urticifolia                         .      .      .      r
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .
Luzula nivea                                 .      .      .      .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      2      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      .
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      .      .
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          .      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              3      1      1      1
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                        .      .      .      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      .      .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          +      +      .      +
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .      r      .      r
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      1      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .      r      .      .
Crepis paludosa                              r      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                         .      .      .      .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  r      .      .      .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            r      .      .      r
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              .      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              1      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .      .      .      .
Salvia glutinosa                             .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      +      .      .
Taraxacum officinale                         .             .      r
Vicia cracca                                 .      r      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                           104     79     77    135
Slope ([degrees])                           20     60     60     15
Aspect                                      SW      N     NW      E
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         50     16      5     15
Cover (%)                                   90     50     45     70
Cluster                                     B1     B1     B1     B1
N. releve                                   13     14     15     16

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           1      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             .      .      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    3      2      2      4
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 +      .      .      .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                +      .      .      +
Dactylis glomerata                           +      .      .      .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        +      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      +      .      r
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      .      .      .
Solanum dulcamara                            .      .      .      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     +      .      .      r
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      1
Saxifraga aizoides                           .      .      .      2

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           .      1      2      1
Geranium nodosum                             .      .      +      .
Veronica urticifolia                         .      +      +      .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      r      .      .
Luzula nivea                                 .      .      .      .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      +      +      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      .
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      .      .
Stachys sylvatica                            r      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          .      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              2      1      2      1
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             .      .      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                        .      .      .      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      .      .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          .      .      .      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 +      .      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .      .      r      .
Crepis paludosa                              .      1      +      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             +      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                         +      .      .      .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  .      .      .      .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            .      r      .      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              .      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               +      .      .      .
Salvia glutinosa                             .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            1      +      .      .
Taraxacum officinale                         r      r      r      .
Vicia cracca                                 1      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                           133    115    115    117
Slope ([degrees])                           10     60      5     10
Aspect                                      NW     NW      S     SW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         40     20      7     10
Cover (%)                                  100     50    100     70
Cluster                                     B1     B1     B2     B2
N. releve                                   17     18     19     20

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             .      .      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    3      3      +      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 .      .      .      .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                +      .      .      +
Dactylis glomerata                           .      .      r      +
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        .      .      .      +
Lactuca muralis                              .      .      .      r
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             +      .      .      .
Solanum dulcamara                            .      .      .      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     +      r      r      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         +      +      .      .
Saxifraga aizoides                           1      r      .      .

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           3      2      +      1
Geranium nodosum                             .      +      .      +
Veronica urticifolia                         r      +      +      r
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      r      .
Luzula nivea                                 r      .      .      +

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      .      1      1
Geranium robertianum                         .      +      +      +
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      r      1
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      .      +
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      1      1
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      +      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          .      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              3      2      5      3
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      +      +
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      2      +
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             .      .      2      2
Athyrium filix-femina                        .      1      .      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      +      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      +
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      1      .      .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          .      .      +      +
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      1      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .      .      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      +      2      2
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .      .      .      .
Crepis paludosa                              .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                         .      .      .      .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  .      .      .      .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            r      .      .      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      1      .      .
Melica uniflora                              .      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              .      .      2      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      r      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               1      .      .      .
Salvia glutinosa                             .      +      1      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .      .      +
Taraxacum officinale                         .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                            91     90    109    110
Slope ([degrees])                           <5     <5      8     10
Aspect                                      SW    NEW     SW     SW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         12     40     30     50
Cover (%)                                   90    100     70     90
Cluster                                     B2     B2     B2     B2
N. releve                                   21     22     23     24

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             r      +      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    .      .      .      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 .      .      .      .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                r      .      .      .
Dactylis glomerata                           .      .      .      .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        +      1      1      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      +      +      +
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      .      .      +
Solanum dulcamara                            .      .      .      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga aizoides

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           .      r      2      +
Geranium nodosum                             +      +      +      +
Veronica urticifolia                         .      .      .      .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      r      .
Luzula nivea                                 .      .      .      .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       +      .      1      2
Geranium robertianum                         .      r      +      r
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      .      1
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      +      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               +      .      +      1
Circaea x intermedia                         1      1      1      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          +      +      .      2

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              4      4      3      4
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  +      1      1      1
Dryopteris filix-mas                         r      +      .      +
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             +      +      3      2
Athyrium filix-femina                        +      .      +      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       1      3      +      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      +      .      +
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      .      .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          r      .      .      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      .      +
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .      r      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        +      1      .      .
Crepis paludosa                              .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .      .      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                         .      +      .      +
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  +      .      .      r
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            .      .      .      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              .      r      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              .      .      +      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .      .      .      .
Salvia glutinosa                             .      1      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .      .      .
Taraxacum officinale                         .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                            91     91     85     87
Slope ([degrees])                           <5     <5      5     <5
Aspect                                       N      W     NW    SSW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         45     25     15     40
Cover (%)                                   90     90     85     90
Cluster                                     B2     B2     B3     B3
N. releve                                   25     26     27     28

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             .      .      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    .      +      .      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 .      .      +      .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                r      .      +      +
Dactylis glomerata                           .      .      1      +
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        +      1      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      +      +      r
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      .      .      r
Solanum dulcamara                            .      .      r      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga aizoides

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           1      +      +      +
Geranium nodosum                             +      .      +      +
Veronica urticifolia                         .      .      .      .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              .      .      1      1
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .
Luzula nivea                                 r      .      r      +

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      +      +      .
Geranium robertianum                         r      +      .      +
Doronicum pardalianches                      +      2      .      .
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         +      .      +      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          +      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              5      5      4      3
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  +      1      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      +
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             +      +      .      .
Athyrium filix-femina                        2      .      1      .
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            +      .      .      +
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      .      +

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          .      .      .      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      r      +
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .      .      .      r
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .      +      .      r
Crepis paludosa                              .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .      .      r      .
Festuca heterophylla                         +      .      1      .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  +      .      +      .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            .      .      r      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      .      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              r      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              1      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   +      1      +      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .      .      .      .
Salvia glutinosa                             +      .      1      1
Sesleria argentea                            +      .      .      .
Taraxacum officinale                         .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      .      r      .

Altitude (1=10m)                            94    107     84    107
Slope ([degrees])                           35     60     60     15
Aspect                                       W    NNW    /NN    WNW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         15     12      4     40
Cover (%)                                   50     50     80     95
Cluster                                     B3     B3     B3     B3
N. releve                                   29     30     31     32

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .      .      .      .
Clematis vitalba                             .      .      .      .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    .      +      1      .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 .      .      .      .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                .      .      .      .
Dactylis glomerata                           +      .      .      .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        1      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              r      .      +      .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .      .      .      .
Solanum dulcamara                            .      .      .      .
Altitudinal variant                          .      .      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     +      +      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga aizoides

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           +      r      1      +
Geranium nodosum                             +      +      +      .
Veronica urticifolia                         r      +      +      .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .      .      .      .
Aruncus dioicus                              1      3      2      4
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      +      .      r
Luzula nivea                                 .      .      .      .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       +      .      .      r
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      .
Doronicum pardalianches                      .      .      .      .
Stachys sylvatica                            .      .      .      +
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      r      .      .
Circaea x intermedia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine bulbifera                          .      .      .      .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              3      2      4      3
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  .      .      .      2
Dryopteris filix-mas                         +      .      +      1
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             .      .      .      +
Athyrium filix-femina                        .      +      .      1
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .      .      .      +
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .      .      +      .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          .      .      .      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .      .      .      .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 r      .      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .      .      .      .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        +      .      .      .
Crepis paludosa                              .      .      .      .
Euphorbia dulcis                             r      +      .      .
Festuca heterophylla                         .      .      .      .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  .      .      .      .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .      .      .      .
Hieracium murorum                            .      .      r      .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .      2      .      .
Lonicera nigra                               .      .      .      .
Melica uniflora                              1      .      .      .
Myrrhis odorata                              .      .      .      .
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   .      .      .      1
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .      .      .      .
Salvia glutinosa                             .      .      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      1      1      +
Taraxacum officinale                         .      .      .      .
Vicia cracca                                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                           107
Slope ([degrees])                           10
Aspect                                     /NW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                         45
Cover (%)                                  100
Cluster                                     B3
N. releve                                   33

Characteristics of Aggr. Petasites hybridus andalio-Urticetea

Petasites hybridus subsp. hybridus           .
Clematis vitalba                             .

Aggr. Eupatorium cannabinum-Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea                    .
Eupatorium cannabinum subsp.
  cannabinum                                 .

Typical variant

Galium mollugo subsp. erectum                .
Dactylis glomerata                           .
Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris        .
Lactuca muralis                              .
Equisetum arvense subsp. arvense             .
Solanum dulcamara                            .
Altitudinal variant                          .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     +
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .
Saxifraga aizoides

Characteristics of Doronico-Aruncetum geranietosum nodosi

Adenostyles alpina                           +
Geranium nodosum                             +
Veronica urticifolia                         .
Typical variant with Aruncus dioicus         .
Aruncus dioicus                              3
Prenanthes purpurea                          r
Luzula nivea                                 .

Aggr. Adenostyles alpina--Petasitesalbus

Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       r
Geranium robertianum                         .
Doronicum pardalianches                      .
Stachys sylvatica                            +
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .
Circaea x intermedia                         +
Cardamine bulbifera                          .

Characteristics and differentials of Mulgedio-Aconitetea

Petasites albus                              5
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica                  1
Dryopteris filix-mas                         3
Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana             3
Athyrium filix-femina                        1
Impatiens noli-tangere                       .
Oxalis acetosella                            .
Gentiana asclepiadea                         .

Other species

Agrostis capillaris                          .
Brachypodium sylvaticum subsp.
  sylvaticum                                 .
Campanula trachelium subsp.
  trachelium                                 .
Cardamine asarifolia                         .
Cardamine heptaphylla                        .
Crepis paludosa                              .
Euphorbia dulcis                             .
Festuca heterophylla                         .
Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca                  .
Heracleum sphondylium s.l.                   .
Hieracium murorum                            .
Lonicera alpigena subsp. alpigena            .
Lonicera nigra                               .
Melica uniflora                              .
Myrrhis odorata                              1
Rubus idaeus subsp. idaeus                   1
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus               .
Salvia glutinosa                             +
Sesleria argentea                            .
Taraxacum officinale                         .
Vicia cracca                                 .

Other species: Lathyrus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris r in 4, + in 9
and 13, Silenepusilla subsp.pusilla + in 11, 12 and 16; Hepatica
nobilis + in 16 and 29, r in 28; Cardamine impatiens subsp. Impatiens
+ in 18 and r in 22 and 28; Asplenium viride + in 18 and 30, r in
23; Cardamine hirsuta r in 20, 22 and 24; Myosotis sylvatica subsp.
Sylvatica r in 21, 23 and 33. Hypericum perforatum + in 1, r in 4;
Arabis turrita r in 4 and 8; Seseli libanotis subsp. libanotis r in
4 and 13; Brachypodium rupestre r in 4, + in 8; Mentha aquatica
subsp. aquatica r in 2 and 5; Milium effusum + in 20 and 23; Prunella
vulgaris subsp. vulgaris + in 8 and 13; Dryopteris filix-mas + in 8,
r in 18; Imperatoria ostruthium r in 9 and 20, Inula conyzae r in 8
and in 29; Juncus articulatus + in 11 and 12; Linum catharticum + in
11 and 12; Agrostis stolonifera + in 8, 12 and 13; Epilobium dodonei +
in 8, r in 13; Epilobium anagallidifolium r in 11, + in 12; Leontodon
hispidus r in 12 and 17; Brachypodium genuense + in 13 and 17;
Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. fuchsii r in 17 and 29; Epilobium
montanum r in 18 and 24; Sambucus nigra r in 3 and 23; Scrophularia
nodosa r in 22 and 23; Hedera helix r in 27 and 29; Myosotis decumbens
subsp. florentina + in 18 and 20; Phyteuma scorzonerifolium r in 18
and 27; Festuca rubra + in 16 and 17; Ranunculus lanuginosus r in 7 and
29; Pimpinella saxifraga r in 12 and 13. Barbarea vulgaris subsp.
vulgaris, Potentilla erecta and Verbena officinalis r, Arctium lappa,
Dipsacus fullonum, Picris hieracioides s.l. and Salix eleagnos + in 1,
Emerus major r in 3; Artemisia vulgaris, Scrophularia canina, Silene
vulgaris s.l. and Tussilago farfara r in 4; Viola reichenbachiana r,
Lotus corniculatus and Schedonorus pratensis subsp. Apenninus + in 8;
Aegopodium podagraria + in 10; Carex frigida and Epilobium parviflorum
+, Veronica beccabunga 1 in 11; Hieracium tomentosum, Hypericum richeri
subsp. richeri and Trifolium pratense r, Carex viridula and Cruciata
glabra + in 12; Erysimum cheiri r, Cirsium bertolonii and
Thymuspulegioides + in 13; Carexpendula + in 14; Senecio vulgaris,
Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia and Saxifraga paniculata + in
17; Asplenium trichomanes s.l., Polystichum setiferum, Sedum acre and
Sedum album r in 18; Daphne mezereum r in 20; Circaea lutetiana subsp.
Lutetiana and Arum maculatum + in 21; Aquilegia atrata, Pulmonaria
hirta/apennina and Sanicula europea r in 22; Carex remota and
Scrophularia auriculata, subsp. Auriculata r in 23; Gymnocarpium
dryopteris, Luzula pilosa and Polypodium interjectum r, Deschampsia
cespitosa subsp. cespitosa + in 24; Vicia altissima r in 26;
Cephalanthera longifolia and Geum urbanum r in 27; Polystichum
lonchitis and Senecio ovatus r in 29; Moehringia muscosa r in 30;
Lamium galeobdolon + in 32.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]04'04", 10[degrees]47'20"; 2: 44[degrees]04'10",
10[degrees]47'03"; 3: 44[degrees]04'10", 10[degrees]47'03"; 4:
44[degrees]04'45", 10[degrees]48'53"; 5:
44[degrees]04'10", 10[degrees]47'03"; 6: 44[degrees]05'34",
10[degrees]49'12"; 7: 44[degrees]05'08", 10[degrees]49'01"; 8:
44[degrees]05'20", 10[degrees]49'12"; 9: 44[degrees]05'42",
10[degrees]49'16"; 10: 44[degrees]05'42", 10[degrees]49'16"; 11:
44[degrees]05'39", 10[degrees]49'15"; 12: 44[degrees]05'42",
10[degrees]49'16"; 13: 44[degrees]05'51", 10[degrees]49'26"; 14:
44[degrees]04'36", 10[degrees]48'45"; 15: 44[degrees]04'32",
10[degrees]48'42"; 16: 44[degrees]06'23", 10[degrees]49'47"; 17:
44[degrees]06'23", 10[degrees]49'47"; 18: 44[degrees]05'54",
10[degrees]49'32"; 19: 44[degrees]05'54", 10[degrees]49'32"; 20:
44[degrees]05'57", 10[degrees]49'34"; 21: 44[degrees]05'17",
10[degrees]49'03"; 22: 44[degrees]05'17", 10[degrees]49'03";
23: 44[degrees]05'48", 10[degrees]49'18"; 24: 44[degrees]05'49",
10[degrees]49'20"; 25: 44[degrees]05'17", 10[degrees]49'03"; 26:
44[degrees]05'17", 10[degrees]49'03"; 27: 44[degrees]04'56",
10[degrees]48'58"; 28: 44[degrees]05'05", 10[degrees]48'59";
29: 44[degrees]05'25", 10[degrees]49'08"; 30: 44[degrees]05'42",
10[degrees]49'16"; 31: 44[degrees]04'55", 10[degrees]48'59"; 32:
44[degrees]05'42", 10[degrees]49'16"; 33: 44[degrees]05'42",
10[degrees]49'16".

Table 9

Brachypodium genuense grasslands

Aggr. Brachypodium genuense--Seseli libanotis

(Nardetalia strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (1=10m)                                154    154    153
Slope ([degrees])                                60     60     40
Aspect                                           SE      E     NE
Surface ([ms.up.2])                              10     10     10
Cover (%)                                        70     45     70
N. releve                                         1      2      3

Aggr. Seseli libanotis--Brachypodium genuense

Seseli libanotis subsp. libanotis                 1      1      1
Galium lucidum subsp. lucidum                     r      +      +
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum            .      .      +

Variant on screes with Cirsietum bertolonii

Cirsium bertolonii                                .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus                    .      .      .

Characteristic species of higher syntaxa

Brachypodium genuense                             4      3      4
Rhinanthus minor                                  r      r      1
Festuca rubra                                     .      .      1
Alchemilla saxatilis                              2      +      2
Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri          .      .      r
Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides               .      .      .
Carex frigida                                     .      .      .
Species of the neutro-basophilous grasslands      .      .      .
Acinos alpinus                                    .      .      .
Asperula aristata subsp. oreophila                .      +      .
Saxifraga paniculata                              +      +      .
Avenula praetutiana                               .      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                      .      .      .
Sedum album                                       .      .      .
Silene saxifraga                                  +      .      .

Other species

Thymus pulegioides                                +      2      +
Lotus corniculatus subsp. alpinus                 +      .      .
Hieracium villosum                                .      +      r
Carduus carlinifolius subsp. carlinifolius        .      .      .
Arenaria bertolonii                               .      .      .
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum             .      .      .
Leucanthemum coronopifolium subsp.                .      .      .
  ceratophylloides
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                          .      .      .
Cerastium holosteoides                            .      .      .
Robertia taraxacoides                             .      r      .
Trifolium repens                                  +      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                                166    160    153
Slope ([degrees])                                60     40     35
Aspect                                           NE      E    ESE
Surface ([ms.up.2])                              10     10     10
Cover (%)                                        50     60     60
N. releve                                         4      5      6

Aggr. Seseli libanotis--Brachypodium genuense

Seseli libanotis subsp. libanotis                 1      2      1
Galium lucidum subsp. lucidum                     +      +      +
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum            r      .      .

Variant on screes with Cirsietum bertolonii

Cirsium bertolonii                                .      r      2
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus                    +      .      r

Characteristic species of higher syntaxa

Brachypodium genuense                             3      3      4
Rhinanthus minor                                  +      +      +
Festuca rubra                                     .      .      +
Alchemilla saxatilis                              1      .      .
Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri          r      .      .
Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides               .      +      .
Carex frigida                                     .      r      .
Species of the neutro-basophilous grasslands      .      .      .
Acinos alpinus                                    1      r      2
Asperula aristata subsp. oreophila                1      +      +
Saxifraga paniculata                              r      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                               .      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                      +      .      .
Sedum album                                       .      +      +
Silene saxifraga                                  +      .      .

Other species

Thymus pulegioides                                1      1      .
Lotus corniculatus subsp. alpinus                 +      .      .
Hieracium villosum                                +      r      .
Carduus carlinifolius subsp. carlinifolius        .      +      .
Arenaria bertolonii                               +      +      1
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum             .      +      .
Leucanthemum coronopifolium subsp.                .      .      .
  ceratophylloides                                r             r
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                          .      .      .
Cerastium holosteoides                            .      +      .
Robertia taraxacoides                             r      .      .
Trifolium repens                                  .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                                154    155    156
Slope ([degrees])                                30     45     40
Aspect                                           SW      E      E
Surface ([ms.up.2])                              10     10     10
Cover (%)                                        60    100     80
N. releve                                         7      8      9

Aggr. Seseli libanotis--Brachypodium genuense

Seseli libanotis subsp. libanotis                 3      +      1
Galium lucidum subsp. lucidum                     +      +      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum            +      +      +

Variant on screes with Cirsietum bertolonii

Cirsium bertolonii                                1      3      2
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus                    1      r      r

Characteristic species of higher syntaxa

Brachypodium genuense                             3      3      1
Rhinanthus minor                                  +      1      r
Festuca rubra                                     +      +      +
Alchemilla saxatilis                              1      4      4
Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri          .      .      .
Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides               .      .      .
Carex frigida                                     .      .      r
Species of the neutro-basophilous grasslands      .      .      .
Acinos alpinus                                    +      +      +
Asperula aristata subsp. oreophila                .      .      .
Saxifraga paniculata                              .      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                               .      .      r
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                      .      .      +
Sedum album                                       .      .      .
Silene saxifraga                                  .      .      .

Other species

Thymus pulegioides                                +      .      1
Lotus corniculatus subsp. alpinus                 .      +      .
Hieracium villosum                                .      .      .
Carduus carlinifolius subsp. carlinifolius        +      .      .
Arenaria bertolonii                               .      .      .
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum             .      .      .
Leucanthemum coronopifolium subsp.                .      .      .
  ceratophylloides
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                          .      .      r
Cerastium holosteoides                            +      .      .
Robertia taraxacoides                             .      .      .
Trifolium repens                                  .      .      1

Altitude (1=10m)                                156    154
Slope ([degrees])                                35      5
Aspect                                           SE      S
Surface ([ms.up.2])                              10     10
Cover (%)                                        40     60
N. releve                                        10     11

Aggr. Seseli libanotis--Brachypodium genuense

Seseli libanotis subsp. libanotis                 r      1
Galium lucidum subsp. lucidum                     +      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum            +      .

Variant on screes with Cirsietum bertolonii

Cirsium bertolonii                                1      1
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus                    r      +

Characteristic species of higher syntaxa

Brachypodium genuense                             3      4
Rhinanthus minor                                  r      +
Festuca rubra                                     +      1
Alchemilla saxatilis                              .      .
Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri          .      .
Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides               .      .
Carex frigida                                     .      .
Species of the neutro-basophilous grasslands      .      .
Acinos alpinus                                    .      .
Asperula aristata subsp. oreophila                .      +
Saxifraga paniculata                              .      .
Avenula praetutiana                               .      r
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                      .      .
Sedum album                                       .      .
Silene saxifraga                                  .      .

Other species

Thymus pulegioides                                .      .
Lotus corniculatus subsp. alpinus                 .      .
Hieracium villosum                                .      .
Carduus carlinifolius subsp. carlinifolius        +      .
Arenaria bertolonii                               .      .
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum             .      +
Leucanthemum coronopifolium subsp.                .      .
  ceratophylloides
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                          .      .
Cerastium holosteoides                            .      .
Robertia taraxacoides                             .      .
Trifolium repens                                  .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                                156    161
Slope ([degrees])                                40     40
Aspect                                          SSE     NE
Surface ([ms.up.2])                              10     10
Cover (%)                                       100    100
N. releve                                        12     13

Aggr. Seseli libanotis--Brachypodium genuense

Seseli libanotis subsp. libanotis                 3      r
Galium lucidum subsp. lucidum                     .      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum            .      +

Variant on screes with Cirsietum bertolonii

Cirsium bertolonii                                2      2
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus                    +      +

Characteristic species of higher syntaxa

Brachypodium genuense                             4      4
Rhinanthus minor                                  +      +
Festuca rubra                                     .      1
Alchemilla saxatilis                              .      .
Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri                 r
Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides               +      r
Carex frigida                                     .      .
Species of the neutro-basophilous grasslands      .      .
Acinos alpinus                                    +      .
Asperula aristata subsp. oreophila                .      .
Saxifraga paniculata                              .      .
Avenula praetutiana                               .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                      .      .
Sedum album                                       .      .
Silene saxifraga                                  .      .

Other species

Thymus pulegioides                                .      .
Lotus corniculatus subsp. alpinus                 +      +
Hieracium villosum                                +      .
Carduus carlinifolius subsp. carlinifolius        .      +
Arenaria bertolonii                               .      .
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum             .      +
Leucanthemum coronopifolium subsp.                .      .
  ceratophylloides
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                          .      r
Cerastium holosteoides                            .      .
Robertia taraxacoides                             .      .
Trifolium repens                                  .      .

Other species: Draba aizoides and Erigeron alpinus subsp. alpinus
r, Viola calcarata subsp. cavillieri + in 4; Orchis
mascula subsp. mascula r in 5, Leucanthemum heterophyllum r,
Trifolium pratense + in 6; Cystopteris fragilis and
Euphrasia minima r in 8; Alchemilla glabra r in 9;
Hypericum richeri subsp. richeri r, Phleum alpinum + in 11;
Achillea tomentosa r, Anthyllis vulneraria s.l. and
Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. fuchsii + in 12; Dryopteris filixmas r,
Geranium phaeum and Allium schoenoprasum + in 13.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]06'37", 10[degrees]49'40"; 2: 44[degrees]06'37",
10[degrees]49'40"; 3: 44[degrees]06'37", 10[degrees]49'40"; 4:
44[degrees]06'42", 10[degrees]49'34"; 5: 44[degrees]06'42",
10[degrees]49'34"; 6: 44[degrees]06'42", 10[degrees]49'34"; 7:
44[degrees]06'37", 10[degrees]49'40"; 8: 44[degrees]06'38",
10[degrees]49'41"; 9: 44[degrees]06'39", 10[degrees]49'40"; 10:
44[degrees]06'39", 10[degrees]49'40"; 11: 44[degrees]06'38",
10[degrees]49'41"; 12: 44[degrees]06'39", 10[degrees]49'40"; 13:
44[degrees]06'41", 10[degrees]49'37".

Table 10

Rocky wet habitat

Asplenio viridi-Cystopteridetum fragilis Oberdorfer (1936) 1949

Asplenio viridis-Cystopteridetum fragilis Oberdorfer (1936) 1949
subass. saxifragetosum cuneifoliae subass. nova hoc loco

(Cystopteridion, Potentilletalia caulescentis, Asplenietea trichomanis)

Altitude (1=10m)                           109    110    115    105
Slope ([degrees])                           90     90     90     90
Aspect                                      NW      N     NW     NW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          2      1      2      1
Cover (%)                                   40     50     30     40
Cover of musci (%)                          <5     35     <5     15
N. releve                                    1      2    3 *      4

Characteristics of association

Cystopteris fragilis                         +      r      r      .
Asplenium viride                             +      .      +      .

Differentials of subassociation

Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia       2      2      2      1

Characteristics of higher syntaxa

Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                   +      r      +      r
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     +      r      .      .
Saxifraga paniculata                         2      r      1      2
Species of wet edge                          .      .      .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         r      1      +      r
Adenostyles alpina                           .      .      +      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       +      .      .      .
Calamogrostis arundinacea                    +      .      .      1

Other species

Geranium nodosum                             .      r      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .      .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      r      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      +      .
Hieracium sylvaticum                         +      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              +      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            +      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      +      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                            98    103     98    115
Slope ([degrees])                           90     50     90     90
Aspect                                     NNW     NW     NW     NE
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          1      2      2      2
Cover (%)                                   70     40     50     30
Cover of musci (%)                          35      -     15      -
N. releve                                    5      6      7      8

Characteristics of association

Cystopteris fragilis                         .      +      .      .
Asplenium viride                             .      .      r      +

Differentials of subassociation

Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia       1      2      3      2

Characteristics of higher syntaxa

Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                   +      +      .      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      +
Saxifraga paniculata                         2      .      .      .
Species of wet edge                          .      .      .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         .      +      +      1
Adenostyles alpina                           .      .      r      r
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      .      .      +
Calamogrostis arundinacea                    .      .      .      +

Other species

Geranium nodosum                             .      +      +      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      1      .      +
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      +      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      +      .      .
Hieracium sylvaticum                         .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                            94    102    104    110
Slope ([degrees])                           90     90     90     90
Aspect                                     NNE     NW     NW    NNE
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          1      2      1      1
Cover (%)                                   80     30     50     65
Cover of musci (%)                          65     35     <5     15
N. releve                                    9     10     11     12

Characteristics of association

Cystopteris fragilis                         .      .      3      1
Asplenium viride                             .      .      .      +

Differentials of subassociation

Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia       3      1      1      +

Characteristics of higher syntaxa

Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                   +      +      .      1
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     1      .      .      +
Saxifraga paniculata                         .      .      .      .
Species of wet edge                          .      .      .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         .      +      .      r
Adenostyles alpina                           .      .      .      2
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      .      .      .
Calamogrostis arundinacea                    .      .      .      .

Other species

Geranium nodosum                             .      +      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .      .      +
Dryopteris filix-mas                         .      .      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               .      .      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .      .      .
Hieracium sylvaticum                         .      .      .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      .      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      +
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      +      +      .

Altitude (1=10m)                           111    114    110    105
Slope ([degrees])                           90     50     90     90
Aspect                                     NNE      N    NNE    NNW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          1      2      1      1
Cover (%)                                   40     30     60     50
Cover of musci (%)                          <5      -     15     15
N. releve                                   13     14     15     16

Characteristics of association

Cystopteris fragilis                         1      2      1      2
Asplenium viride                             r      .      1      .

Differentials of subassociation

Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia       .      .      .      .

Characteristics of higher syntaxa

Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                   .      +      1      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      .      .      2
Saxifraga paniculata                         2      .      .      .
Species of wet edge                          .      .      .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         r      .      r      .
Adenostyles alpina                           .      .      2      .
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      +      .      .
Calamogrostis arundinacea                    .      .      .      .

Other species

Geranium nodosum                             +      1      .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      1      .       1
Dryopteris filix-mas                         r      r      .      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               r      +      .      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      +      .      .
Hieracium sylvaticum                         r             .      .
Lactuca muralis                              .      +      .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         .      .      .      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .      .      .

Altitude (1=10m)                            96    1050
Slope ([degrees])                           90     90
Aspect                                      NW    NNW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                          1      1
Cover (%)                                   50     40
Cover of musci (%)                          15      -
N. releve                                   17      18

Characteristics of association

Cystopteris fragilis                         1      2
Asplenium viride                             1      .

Differentials of subassociation

Saxifraga cuneifolia subsp. cuneifolia       .      .

Characteristics of higher syntaxa

Asplenium trichomanes s.l.                   +      .
Valeriana tripteris s.l.                     .      2
Saxifraga paniculata                         .      .
Species of wet edge                          .      .
Veronica urticifolia                         .      .
Adenostyles alpina                           +      +
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                       .      .
Calamogrostis arundinacea                    .      .

Other species

Geranium nodosum                             .      .
Sesleria argentea                            .      .
Dryopteris filix-mas                         r      .
Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp.
  rotundifolia                               1      .
Geranium robertianum                         .      .
Hieracium sylvaticum                         .      +
Lactuca muralis                              .      .
Oxalis acetosella                            .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustris         +      .
Prenanthes purpurea                          .      .

Other species: Senecio ovatus + in 2; Saxifraga aizoides r, Cardamine
asarifolia + in 3; Alchemilla cf. saxatilis r in 4; Anogramma
leptophylla r in 5; Angelica sylvestris subsp. sylvestris r, Hepatica
nobilis + in 7; Emerus major + in 10; Polypodium vulgare r, Athyrium
filix-femina, Cardamine hirsuta, Circaea alpina subsp. alpina and
Cruciata glabra + in 14; Petasites albus + in 16.

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana
river; geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]05'48", 10[degrees]49'17"; 2: 44[degrees]05'49",
10[degrees]49'20"; 3: 44[degrees]05'55", 10[degrees]49'32"; 4:
44[degrees]05'37", 10[degrees]49'14"; 5: 44[degrees]05'26",
10[degrees]49'19"; 6: 44[degrees]05'33", 10[degrees]49'11"; 7:
44[degrees]05'26", 10[degrees]49'19"; 8: 44[degrees]05'54",
10[degrees]49'32"; 9: 44[degrees]05'24", 10[degrees]49'09"; 10:
44[degrees]05'30", 10[degrees]49'17"; 11: 44[degrees]05'34",
10[degrees]49'11"; 12: 44[degrees]06'37", 10[degrees]49'40"; 13:
44[degrees]05'50", 10[degrees]49'21"; 14: 44[degrees]05'35",
10[degrees]49'13"; 15: 44[degrees]05'37", 10[degrees]49'14"; 16:
44[degrees]05'37", 10[degrees]49'14"; 17: 44[degrees]05'24",
10[degrees]49'12"; 18: 44[degrees]05'37", 10[degrees]49'14".

Table 11

Alpine little river
Aggr. with Silene pusilla and Carex frigida

(Cardamino-Montion, Montio-Cardaminetalia, Montio-Cardaminetea)

Altitude (m)                          1530   1540   1560   1580
Slope ([degrees])                        5     30     50     40
Aspect                                 SSE     SE      S      E
Surface ([m.sup.2])                      3      1      1      1
Cover (%)                               60    100    100    100
Cover of musci (%)                             <5
N releve                                 1      2      3      4

Characteristics of aggr.

Carex frigida                            3      4      2      1
Silene pusilla subsp. pusilla            1      +      2      4

Characteristic and differential species of higher syntax      a

Saxifraga aizoides                       +      1      4      1
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                   1      .      .      .
Cardamine asarifolia                     .      .      .      .

Differentials of Caricetea nigrae

Crepis paludosa                          1      2      1      2
Pinguicula vulgaris                      +      +      .      r
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustri     s.             r      .
Epilobium anagallidifolium               .      .      +      .
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                 .      .      .      .

Other species

Alchemilla glabra                        .      .      .      .
Deschampsia cespitosa subsp.
  cespitosa                              +      .      .      2
Euphrasia minima                         .      .      .      .
Festuca trichophylla subsp.
  trichophylla                           .      .      +      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna             .      .      .      .
Tussilago farfara                        +      +      1      .

Altitude (m)                          1540   1650   1600   1640
Slope ([degrees])                       35     30     50     50
Aspect                                   W      S     SE      S
Surface ([m.sup.2])                    1.5      1      1      1
Cover (%)                               80    100    100    100
Cover of musci (%)                             35     <5     15
N releve                                 5      6      7      8

Characteristics of aggr.

Carex frigida                            +      1      1      2
Silene pusilla subsp. pusilla            2      .      1      1

Characteristic and differential species of higher syntax

Saxifraga aizoides                       4      2      3      4
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                   .      .      .      +
Cardamine asarifolia                     +      .      .      .

Differentials of Caricetea nigrae

Crepis paludosa                          .      3      4      1
Pinguicula vulgaris                      r      +      .      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustri      1      .      .      .
Epilobium anagallidifolium               +      .      .      .
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                 .      r      .      .

Other species

Alchemilla glabra                        +      .      .      +
Deschampsia cespitosa subsp.
  cespitosa                              +      .      .      .
Euphrasia minima                         +      r      .      .
Festuca trichophylla subsp.
  trichophylla                           .      .      +      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna             .      1      .      .
Tussilago farfara                        3      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                           1650   1640   1640
Slope ([degrees])                        5     50      5
Aspect                                   S     SE     SE
Surface ([m.sup.2])                    0.5      1    0.3
Cover (%)                              100     85    100
Cover of musci (%)                      65     65     35
N releve                                 9     10     11

Characteristics of aggr.

Carex frigida                            1      1      2
Silene pusilla subsp. pusilla            +      r      3

Characteristic and differential species of higher syntax

Saxifraga aizoides                       2      3      3
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                   .      .      +
Cardamine asarifolia                     .      .      .

Differentials of Caricetea nigrae

Crepis paludosa                          +      +      2
Pinguicula vulgaris                      +      +      .
Parnassia palustris subsp. palustri      +      +      .
Epilobium anagallidifolium               .      r      .
Juncus alpinoarticulatus                 r      .      .

Other species

Alchemilla glabra                        .      r      r
Deschampsia cespitosa subsp.
  cespitosa                              .      .      .
Euphrasia minima                         .      .      .
Festuca trichophylla subsp.
  trichophylla                           .      2      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna             .      .      .
Tussilago farfara                        .      .      .

Other species: Myosotis sylvatica subsp. sylvatica + in 1; Rhinanthus
minor r, Adenostyles alpina + in 2; Brachypodium genuense and
Pedicularis tuberosa r in 4; Phyteuma orbiculare r in 6; Alchemilla
saxatilis r in 9; Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri and
Hypericum richeri subsp. richeri r, Lotus corniculatus subsp. Alpinus
+ in 10. Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana river;
geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are: 1:
44[degrees]06'37", 10[degrees]49'41"; 2: 44[degrees]06'38",
10[degrees]49'41"; 3: 44[degrees]06'39", 10[degrees]49'42"; 4:
44[degrees]06'39", 10[degrees]49'38"; 5: 44[degrees]06'38",
10[degrees]49'41"; 6: 44[degrees]06'44", 10[degrees]49'39"; 7:
44[degrees]06'40", 10[degrees]49'37"; 8: 44[degrees]06'44",
10[degrees]49'39"; 9: 44[degrees]06'44", 10[degrees]49'39"; 10:
44[degrees]06'44", 10[degrees]49'39"; 11: 44[degrees]06'44",
10[degrees]49'39".

Table 12

Alpine little river with Asarum leaved bittercress

Chaerophyllo-Cardaminetum asarifoliae
Gerdol & Tomaselli 1988

(Cratoneurion commutatae, Montio-Cardaminetalia,
Montio-Cardaminetea)

Altitude (m)                           1540     1140     1140
Slope ([degrees])                        30       <5        5
Aspect                                   SW      NNW      SSW
Surface ([m.sup.2])                       4        3      1.5
Cover (%)                                90       70       90
N. releve                                 1        2        3

Characteristics of assoc.

Cardamine asarifolia                      3        4        5
Chaerophyllum hirsutum                    .        2        .
Differentials of Caricetea nigrae         .        .        .
Crepis paludosa                           1        .        .
Carex frigida                             1        .        .

Other species

Adenostyles alpina                        2        .        .
Tussilago farfara                         1        .        .
Stellaria nemorum subsp. Montana          .        +        .
Urtica dioica subsp. Dioica               .        .        r

Localities: All from the surroundings of the Verdiana
river; geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude) are:
1: 44[degrees]06'38", 10[degrees]49'41"; 2: 44[degrees]05'52",
10[degrees]49'26"; 3: 44[degrees]05'52", 10[degrees]49'26".
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Author:Foggi, Bruno; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Papini, Piera; Vergari, Simone; Gennai, Matilde; Gervasoni, Davide
Publication:Lazaroa
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Words:15239
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