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Vascular flora of the King Road Landfill in Northwest Ohio.

ABSTRACT. The vascular flora of the King Road Landfill (KRL), located in Sylvania, Ohio, was surveyed during the 2004 growing season to evaluate the development of the plant community and compare it with that of four mature woodlands typical of the native Oak Openings Region: floodplain, sand barren, oak savanna, and deciduous forest. All surveys were made using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis method for phase two plots. Of the 153 plant species identified at the KRL, 60% were native. It was interesting to note that threatened and endangered species (e.g., Digitaria filiformis, Lupinus perennis, and Panicum lindheimeri) also were present. Comparative analysis revealed little similarity with the regional woodlands (Jaccard Index values < 0.5). Two primary factors may have been responsible: (1) 30 years of inactivity at the KRL were insufficient to attain a mature plant community. Indeed, late successional plant species were observed only in the landfill section that had been dosed for the longest period of time. (2) The vegetation that surrounded and thus colonized the KRL was not similar to that of the regional woodlands (Jaccard Index values < 0.5). The results of this study were presented to the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency as part of a remedial option for the KRL, which includes creation of a nature preserve at the KRL and an opportunity to direct and study the long-term development of the maturing plant community.

INTRODUCTION

Current regulations for the final closure of municipal solid waste landfills require the use of constructed barriers (US EPA 1993) to prevent the infiltration of precipitation and subsequent formation of leachate. There are numerous landfills that ceased operations prior to 1976 when these requirements were first implemented. Many of these were inadequately capped, have only a thin layer of soil as cover material, and limited post-closure maintenance. These older landfills often develop diverse vegetation on the soil cover (Rebele 1992; Mannik & Smith Group 2002; Kim and others 2004; Martinez-Ruiz and Fernandez-Santos 2005), which suggests that they may serve as habitat for plant species that are native to the regions in which they are located.

In this paper, we include the results of a survey of the vascular flora which developed for the King Road Landfill (KRL) in Sylvania, Ohio, during the 30 years since the landfill ceased operations. The purpose was to determine whether the KRL was developing a plant community typical of the endangered and unique Oak Openings Region (OOR) of northwest Ohio. Of the numerous landfills that ceased operations prior to 1976 in this region, none have been studied for this purpose.

The Nature Conservancy lists the O OR as one of America's Last Great Places (Grigore 2004); unfortunately, only a small percentage of this regional, habitat remains (Green Ribbon Initiative 2002). Floristic surveys that have been completed for the OOR (Moseley 1928; Easterly 1969, 1972, 1973, 1979; Brewer and Vankat 2001, 2004; Neher and others 2004; Waiters unpublished) list a diversity of vascular plant species that compares favorably with the diversity found in any land area of equal size in Ohio (Wakers, personal communication 2005). In the study presented here, it was determined that the plant species composition at the KRL differed considerably from that of the woodland communities that are typical for the OOR as they exist in the Oak Openings Metropark (OOMP). However, the landfill contained several threatened and endangered plant species, which suggests that the KRL may serve as an important site for their preservation.

DESCRIPTION OF FIELD SITES

The KRL is located in Sylvania, Ohio, a suburb west of Toledo; the main entrance is located 41[degrees]40'47" North and 83[degrees]43'22" West. The landfill contains 104 acres; municipal solid waste was deposited onto 80 acres, which were divided into five sequentially used land parcels. Solid waste deposition began in 1954 with the land parcel located on the easternmost part of the landfill and progressed westward over time until 1976 (Fig. 1), when landfill operations ceased. The solid waste was covered with sandy soil obtained from a borrow pit located in the northwest section of the landfill site. Only a small, central area of the KRL was seeded with grass; the remaining vegetation occurred naturally (Michael Momenee, personal communication 2005).

The OOMP (www.metroparkstoledo.com/metroparks) was established in 1938; it is located nine miles southwest of Toledo at 41[degrees]32'48" North and 83[degrees]50'41" West. The OOMP contains 3,700 acres with six different plant communities representative of the OOR (John Jaeger, personal communication 2005): floodplain, sand barren, oak savanna, deciduous forest, and dry and wet prairies. The plant communities that contain predominantly woody species (i.e., floodplain, sand barren, oak savanna, and deciduous forest) were chosen for comparison to the KRL, because the landfill is dominated by woody vegetation (Mannik & Smith Group 2002). The floodplain area is frequently under water; controlled burnings are used in the oak savanna to control the growth of understory vegetation (John Jaeger, personal communication 2005).

SURVEY METHOD

Plant surveys were made for the KRL and OOMP from April through August in 2004, using the modified Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) for phase 2 plots (USDA Forest Service 2000). At the KRL, two study sites were selected within each of the five landfill parcels, the SE corner of the landfill, and the adjacent Ten-Mile Creek floodplain. Two locations adjacent to the landfill were surveyed to gain insight into the species of plants present, that could have provided a source of seeds for re-vegetation of the landfill itself: the SE region of the KRL that had not received solid waste and the floodplain often Mile Creek that is located across the street from the northwest corner of the KRL (Fig. 1). At OOMP, two survey sites were selected within each of the four woodland communities. Locations for the study sites were selected randomly, surface roads at the KRL and walking/hiking trails at the OOMP were intentionally avoided. Each site contained four individual plots (167 [m.sup.2]) in which all vascular plants were identified; plant nomenclature followed Cooperrider et al. (2001); plant characteristics were obtained from the PLANTS Database (USDA, NRCS 2004).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

During the survey, the observed plant species were placed into one of two groups: (1) woody species with a diameter at breast height (dbh) [greater than or equal to] 2.5 cm, and (2) understory species, including herbaceous plants and woody plants with a dbh < 2.5 cm. The mean number of individual woody species per survey site was calculated and extrapolated to obtain the number of individuals per hectare (Table 1). Understory species were reported as ground cover percentages (Table 2), due to the difficulty in separating and counting individual plants. The scale crafted by Daubenmire (1959) was used for this purpose, in which coverage estimates are placed within one of six ranges (0 - 5%, 5 - 25%, 25 - 50%, 50 - 75%, 75 - 95%, and 95 - 100%). The ground coverage for each plant species was then reported as the midpoint value for each range (i.e., 2.5%, 15%, 37.5%, 62.5%, 85%, and 97.5%). The degree of similarity in plant species composition between sites was calculated using the Jaccard Index (Real and Vargas 1996); values [greater than or equal to] 0.5 demonstrate significant similarity (Abella et al. 2001).

RESULTS

A complete list of all plant species observed at the KRL and the OOMP is presented in Tables 1 and 2. Both tables were designed to allow for easy comparisons of plant species between sites. For example, black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, which is intolerant of shade, can be observed at all sites at the KRL, but, as might be expected, not in the heavily forested woodland communities of the OOMP and the heavily wooded floodplain of Ten Mile Creek (Table 1).

Vascular plants native to Ohio accounted for 60% of the 153 species identified at the KRL. The most frequently observed woody species (Table 1) included: Papulus deltaides, R. pseudoaeacia, and Ulmuspumila. The most frequently observed understory species (Table 2) included: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Daucus carota, Melilotus albus, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, and Verbascum thapsus. The majority of these species are commonly associated with early stages of succession (e.g., Alliaria petiolata, Dianthus armeria, Lonicera tatarica, and U. pumila). Two late successional species (Hamamelis virginiana and Q uercus velutina) were observed less frequently and only in the section of the KRL that was the first taken out of use (1957) and has remained dormant for the longest period of time. Several threatened and endangered plant species also were observed as understory plants (Table 2).

The vegetation of the Ten-Mile Creek floodplain contained plant species commonly found in wet habitat, including Acer spp., Aesculus glabra, Comus racemosa, and Ulmus americana (Table 1), Asarum canadense, Impatiens capensis, Laportea canadensis, and Lysimachia nummularia (Table 2).

Prior to this study, the SE corner of the KRL and the Ten Mile Creek floodplain were believed to have been relatively non-disturbed. However, we observed a number of plant species commonly associated with earlier stages of succession (e.g., R. pseudoacacia, Sassafras albidum, and U. pumila) (Table 1). In addition, many understory species were invasive (Table 2). By analyzing Tables 1 and 2, it was apparent that neither site had significantly contributed to the flora of the KRL. In addition, Jaccard Index values that were used to compare the species composition for these sites with those for the KRL were relatively low (< 0.4, Table 3).

Plant species in the floodplain, sand barren, oak savanna, and deciduous forest communities of the OOMP were primarily native (86% of the species) and later successional species (e.g., H. virginiana and Quercus spp.). Of the woody plant species, Quercus spp. were the most common (Table 1); the composition of understory species varied widely between each community (Table 2).

Although many plant species present in the regional woodland communities of the OOMP were observed at the KRL, the Jaccard Index values (Table 3) suggested poor similarity in species composition. The greatest degree of similarity (Jaccard Index value (0.15) was for the KRL land parcel operated from 1960-1963 and the oak savanna community, where fire is regularly used to control understory vegetation; both sites contained many plant species common to earlier stages of succession.

DISCUSSION

When undertaking this study, one goal was to assess whether the KRL was developing a mature woodland community with plant species that are typical for the OOR. The data suggest that this has not occurred by this point in time. One reason may be that the landfill is in early stages of community development, during which plant species that are invasive (Johnson and others 2006) and those with short life spans (Odum 1969; Hudson 1980) would be expected to predominate. Indeed, species with these characteristics (e.g., L. tatarica, U. pumila, R. pseudoacacia) occurred throughout the KRL, while later successional species (e.g., H. virginiana and Q. velutina) common to northwest Ohio were found only in the oldest landfill parcel.

Other factors that could influence the occurrence of plant species at the KRL include: (1) the mound-shaped topography of the landfill which is not similar to the topography of its surroundings, creating different drainage characteristics; (2) the solid waste of the landfill was covered with soil excavated from a borrow pit, which would exclude plant species that require richer topsoil; and (3) the plant species in the sites surrounding the KRL are themselves not representative of an OOR woodland community. This last factor could play an important role, because plant colonization of an area requires an available seed source (Donath and others 2003; Foster and Tilman 2003), which is typically from nearby vegetation (Robinson and others 1992; Robinson and Handel 2000) and the existing soil (Egler 1954).

As noted previously, there has been an extensive diminution of native green space for the OOR. The data in this study suggest that older landfills such as the KRL might serve as habitat for native plant species. The most intuitive approach would be to seed and plant native species (Handel and others 1997; Dickinson 2000; Montalvo and others 2002; Rawlinson and others 2004; Matesanz and others 2006). The remedial option presented to the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency for the KRL notes that this could be accomplished by creating clusters of preferred species, which would then spread throughout the landfill site (Yarranton and Morrison 1974; Robinson and Handel 2000). As part of this option, researchers from the University of Toledo would help to select appropriate plant species, design the remedial approach and undertake long-term monitoring of the resultant cover. Attempts would be made to limit the growth of invasive plant species that could threaten the persistence of native species (Prieur-Richard and Lavorel 2000; Thomson 2005).

This remedial option could be used to protect the threatened and endangered plant species present at the KRL (Table 2) and create habitat for other ecologically important organisms. Lupinus perennis (Table 2) is a prime example of a potentially threatened plant species that also serves as a host for the larvae of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), itself a nationally endangered species (Grundel and others 1998). In addition, plant species that are presumed extirpated, such as Digitaria filiformis (Table 2), may find the conditions of the KRL very suitable.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (grant #2002-06143) and the Ohio State University Research Foundation (grant #743441) provided research funding. The authors thank the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and Lucas County for their assistance; Toledo Area Metroparks for access to the OOMP; John Jaeger and Tint Waiters for advice in identifying plant species; Tom Hays of Worster, Goldberg, & Hays and Michael Momenee of the Mannik & Smith Group for information and assistance at the KRL. This is contribution number 2008-001 of the University of Toledo Lake Eric Center.

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KRISTOPHER D. BARNSWELL AND DARYL F. DWYER (1), Department of Environmental Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH.

(1) Address correspondence to Daryl E Dwyer, Department of Environmental Sciences, 2801 W. Bancroft St., The University of Toledo, Toledo. OH 43606. Telephone: 419-530-2661. Email: daryl.dwycr@utoledo.edu
Table 1
Densities of woody plant species (dbh [greater than
or equal to] 2.5 cm) per hectare at the KRL and OOMP.

 KRL
 Waste Disposal Parcels

Name 1969- 1963- 1960- 1957- 1954-
 1976 1969 1963 1960 1957

Acer negundo (box 23 75 -- 15 8
elder) *

Acer rubrum (red -- -- -- -- --
maple) *

Acer saccharinum -- 15 -- -- --
(silver maple) *

Aesculus glabra -- -- -- -- --
(Ohio buckeye) *

Ailanthus altissima -- 8 75 -- 45
(tree of heaven)

Catalpa bignonoides -- -- -- -- --
(common catalpa)

Catalpa speciosa -- -- 8 -- 8
(northern catalpa)

Celtis occidentalis 8 8 -- -- --
(hackberry) *

Cornus amomum 15 -- -- -- --
(pale dogwood) *

Cornus drummondi -- -- -- -- 223
(roughleaf dogwood) *

Cornus racemosa -- 90 -- -- --
(gray dogwood)*

Fraxinus americana -- -- -- -- --
(white ash) *

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 23 52 -- -- 8
var. pennsylvanica
(green ash) *

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 60 -- -- 23 8
var. subintegerrima
(red ash) *

Fraxinus quadrangulata -- -- -- -- --
(blue ash) *

Gleditsia triacanthos 8 -- -- 8 --
(honey locust) *

Hamamelis virginiana -- -- -- -- 8
(witch hazel) *

Juglans nigra (black -- 23 -- -- --
walnut) *

Juniperus virginiana -- -- -- -- --
(eastern red cedar) *

Lindera benzoin -- -- -- -- --
(spice bush) *

Morus alba (white 45 -- 8 15 --
mulberry)

Prunus avium (sweet -- -- -- -- --
cherry)

Prunus serotina -- 37 8 15 15
(black cherry) *

Prunus virginiana 8 -- -- -- --
(choke cherry) *

Populus deltoides 45 217 105 105 225
(eastern cottonwood) *

Quercus alba -- -- -- -- --
(white oak) *

Quercus bicolor -- -- -- -- --
(swamp white oak) *

Quercus rubra -- -- -- -- --
(red oak) *

Quercus velutina -- -- -- -- 15
(black oak) *

Rhamnus cathartica 8 15 -- -- 8
(common buckthorn)

Rhus typhina -- 52 -- 15 --
(staghorn sumac) *

Robinia pseudoacacia 607 359 67 270 300
(black locust)

Salix nigra (black -- -- -- -- --
willow) *

Sassafras albidum -- -- -- -- --
(sassafras) *

Tilia americana -- -- -- -- --
(American basswood) *

Ulmus americana 15 23 -- -- --
(American elm) *

Ulmus pumila 981 344 314 23 23
(Chinese elm)

Ulmus rubra 45 -- -- -- --
(slippery elm) *

 KRL OOMP
 Surroundings Woodland Communities

Name SE Ten-Mile Flood- Sand
 Corner Creek plain Barren

Acer negundo (box 82 247 64 --
elder) *

Acer rubrum (red -- -- -- 30
maple) *

Acer saccharinum -- 142 8 --
(silver maple) *

Aesculus glabra -- 142 -- --
(Ohio buckeye) *

Ailanthus altissima 8 -- -- --
(tree of heaven)

Catalpa bignonoides 8 -- -- --
(common catalpa)

Catalpa speciosa -- -- -- --
(northern catalpa)

Celtis occidentalis -- 23 30 --
(hackberry) *

Cornus amomum 15 -- -- --
(pale dogwood) *

Cornus drummondi 15 -- -- --
(roughleaf dogwood) *

Cornus racemosa -- 45 82 --
(gray dogwood)*

Fraxinus americana -- -- 60 --
(white ash) *

Fraxinus pennsylvanica -- 52 -- --
var. pennsylvanica
(green ash) *

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 30 15 -- --
var. subintegerrima
(red ash) *

Fraxinus quadrangulata 8 -- -- --
(blue ash) *

Gleditsia triacanthos 15 -- -- --
(honey locust) *

Hamamelis virginiana 15 -- -- --
(witch hazel) *

Juglans nigra (black 8 -- 30 --
walnut) *

Juniperus virginiana 8 -- -- --
(eastern red cedar) *

Lindera benzoin -- 15 -- --
(spice bush) *

Morus alba (white 82 -- 15 --
mulberry)

Prunus avium (sweet 8 -- -- --
cherry)

Prunus serotina 82 -- -- --
(black cherry) *

Prunus virginiana 23 -- -- 37
(choke cherry) *

Populus deltoides 52 -- -- --
(eastern cottonwood) *

Quercus alba -- -- -- 37
(white oak) *

Quercus bicolor -- -- 30 --
(swamp white oak) *

Quercus rubra -- -- -- 217
(red oak) *

Quercus velutina 30 -- 8 --
(black oak) *

Rhamnus cathartica 8 -- -- --
(common buckthorn)

Rhus typhina -- -- -- --
(staghorn sumac) *

Robinia pseudoacacia 187 -- -- --
(black locust)

Salix nigra (black -- -- 8 --
willow) *

Sassafras albidum 45 -- -- 82
(sassafras) *

Tilia americana -- 30 -- --
(American basswood) *

Ulmus americana -- 127 75 --
(American elm) *

Ulmus pumila 374 -- -- --
(Chinese elm)

Ulmus rubra 8 -- -- --
(slippery elm) *

 OOMP
 Woodland Communities

Name Savanna Deciduous
 Forest

Acer negundo (box -- --
elder) *

Acer rubrum (red 30 503
maple) *

Acer saccharinum -- --
(silver maple) *

Aesculus glabra -- --
(Ohio buckeye) *

Ailanthus altissima -- --
(tree of heaven)

Catalpa bignonoides -- --
(common catalpa)

Catalpa speciosa -- --
(northern catalpa)

Celtis occidentalis -- --
(hackberry) *

Cornus amomum -- --
(pale dogwood) *

Cornus drummondi -- --
(roughleaf dogwood) *

Cornus racemosa -- --
(gray dogwood)*

Fraxinus americana -- --
(white ash) *

Fraxinus pennsylvanica -- --
var. pennsylvanica
(green ash) *

Fraxinus pennsylvanica -- --
var. subintegerrima
(red ash) *

Fraxinus quadrangulata -- --
(blue ash) *

Gleditsia triacanthos -- --
(honey locust) *

Hamamelis virginiana -- 97
(witch hazel) *

Juglans nigra (black -- --
walnut) *

Juniperus virginiana -- --
(eastern red cedar) *

Lindera benzoin -- 8
(spice bush) *

Morus alba (white -- --
mulberry)

Prunus avium (sweet -- --
cherry)

Prunus serotina 52 52
(black cherry) *

Prunus virginiana -- --
(choke cherry) *

Populus deltoides -- --
(eastern cottonwood) *

Quercus alba 187 240
(white oak) *

Quercus bicolor -- --
(swamp white oak) *

Quercus rubra -- --
(red oak) *

Quercus velutina 75 90
(black oak) *

Rhamnus cathartica -- --
(common buckthorn)

Rhus typhina -- --
(staghorn sumac) *

Robinia pseudoacacia -- --
(black locust)

Salix nigra (black -- --
willow) *

Sassafras albidum 97 37
(sassafras) *

Tilia americana -- --
(American basswood) *

Ulmus americana -- --
(American elm) *

Ulmus pumila -- --
(Chinese elm)

Ulmus rubra -- --
(slippery elm) *

* Denotes plant species native to Ohio.

Table 2
Ground cover percentage of the understory plant
species identified in the vegetation surveys.

 KRL
 Waste Disposal Parcels

Name 1969- 1963- 1960-
 1976 1969 1963

Acalypha virginica var. rhomoboidea -- -- --
(three-seed mercury) *

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) * 2.5 -- 2.5

Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant -- -- --
hyssop) *

Agrostis gigantea (redtop) 15.0 -- 2.5

Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris 15.0 -- --
(creeping bent grass)

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 2.5 15.0 15.0

Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) 15.0 -- --

Ambrosia artemisifolia 2.5 2.5 15.0
(annual ragweed) *

Ambrosia trifida (great ragweed) * -- -- --

Amelanchier arborea (downy -- -- --
serviceberry) *

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) * -- 2.5 --

Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leave -- -- --
sandwort)

Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) * -- -- --

Arisaema triphyllum -- -- --
(jack-in-the-pulpit) *

Asarum canadense (wild ginger) * -- -- --

Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) * -- -- --

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) * 2.5 -- --

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) * 2.5 -- --

Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly -- -- --
milkweed) *

Asclepias verticillata (whorled 2.5 -- 15.0
milkweed) *

Aster lanceolatus var. simplex -- 2.5 --
(panicled aster) *

Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved -- -- --
aster) *

Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern) * -- -- --

Barbarea vulgaris (yellow rocket) 15.0 15.0 --

Betula pumila (bog birch) * (T) -- -- --

Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) * 2.5 -- 2.5

Bromus inermis (smooth brome) -- 2.5 2.5

Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome) 15.0 -- 15.0

Bromus latiglumis (ear-leaved brome) * -- -- --

Bromus pubescens (woodland brome) * 2.5 -- 2.5

Campanula americana (American -- -- --
bellflower) *

Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper) * -- -- 2.5

Carex cephalophlora (oval-headed -- -- --
sedge) *

Carex intumescens (bladder sedge) * -- -- --

Carex molesta (troublesome sedge) * -- -- --

Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania 2.5 -- --
sedge) *

Carex rugosperma (low sand sedge) * -- -- --

Carex siccata (dry spike sedge) * (E) -- -- --

Carex swanii (swan's sedge) * -- -- --

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea) * -- -- --

Celastrus scandens (American -- -- --
bittersweet) *

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum -- -- --
(ox-eye daisy)

Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis -- -- --
(enchanter's nightshade) *

Collinsonia canadensis (richweed) * 2.5 -- 2.5

Commelina communis (asiatic dayflower) 2.5 2.5 --

Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern) * (T) -- -- --

Conyza canadensis (horseweed) * 2.5 -- --

Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) * -- -- --

Cornus stolonifera (red oisier -- -- --
dogwood) *

Corylus americana (American hazelnut) * -- -- --

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Canadian -- -- --
honewort) *

Cyperus lupulinus (slender umbrella -- 2.5 --
sedge) *

Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) -- -- 2.5

Danthonia spicata (poverty grass) * 15.0 -- 2.5

Datura stramonium (jimsonweed) -- -- --

Daucus carota (wild carrot) 15.0 2.5 2.5

Dianthus armenia (deptford pink) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Digitaria filiformis (slender finger -- -- 2.5
grass) * (PE)

Dipsacus fullonum (common teasel) 2.5 -- --

Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya -- -- 2.5
(barnyard grass) *

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) -- -- 2.5

Elymus repens (quack grass) -- 2.5 2.5

Elymus trachycaulus (bearded wheat -- -- 2.5
grass) * (T)

Elymus virginicus (Virginia wildrye) * -- -- 15.0

Equisetum arvense (horsetail) * -- -- --

Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) * 15.0 2.5 15.0

Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus 2.5 -- 2.5
(robin's plantain) *

Eupatorium altissimum (tall boneset) * 2.5 -- 15.0

Euphorbia corollata (flowering -- -- --
spurge) *

Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) -- -- 2.5

Euphorbia nutans (sported spurge) * -- -- --

Eutbamia graminifolia (grass-leaved -- 2.5 2.5
goldenrod) *

Euthamia tenuifolia var. tenuifiolia 2.5 -- 2.5
(lance-leaved goldenrod) *

Festuca ovina (sheep fescue) -- -- --

Festuca subverticillata -- -- --
(nodding fescue) *

Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) * -- -- --

Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) * -- -- --

Galium circaezans (wild licorice) * -- -- --

Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) * -- -- --

Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) * -- 2.5 --

Geum canadense (white avens) * 2.5 2.5 --

Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) -- -- --

Hackelia virginiana (Virginia -- -- --
stickseed) *

Helianttemum canadense (rockrose) * (PT) -- -- --

Helianthus divaricatus (woodland 2.5 -- --
sunflower) *

Heliopsis helianthoides (smooth -- -- --
ox-eye) *

Hibiscus trionum (flower-of-an-hour) -- -- 2.5

Hieracium caespitosum (meadow hawkweed) -- -- --

Hypericum perforatum (common St. -- 2.5 2.5
Johnswort)

Hypericum prolicum (shrubby St. -- -- --
Johnswort) *

Impatiens capensis (spotted -- -- --
touch-me-not) *

Impatiens pallida (pale touch-me-not) * -- -- --

Juncus articulatus (jointed rush) * -- -- --

Juncus effusus (common rush) * 2.5 -- --

Juncus torreyi (Torrey's rush) * 2.5 -- --

Krigia virginica (dwarf -- -- --
dandelion) * (T)

Laportea canadensis (wood nettle) * -- -- --

Leersia virginica (white grass) * -- -- --

Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) -- 2.5 --

Lepidium campestre (field pepperweed) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Lespedeza capitata (bush-clover) * -- -- --

Ligrustrum vulgare (common privet) 2.5 2.5 --

Lithospermum officinale (European 2.5 2.5 2.5
gromwell)

Lolium arundinaceum (tall fescue) 2.5 -- 2.5

Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) -- -- 2.5

Lonicera maackii (amur honeysuckle) 2.5 2.5 --

Lonicera tatarica (tartarian 15.0 2.5 2.5
honeysuckle)

Lupinus perennis (wild lupine) * (PT) -- -- --

Lycopus americanus (cut-leaved 2.5 -- --
water-horehound) *

Lysimachia ciliata (fringed -- -- --
loosestrife) *

Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) -- -- --

Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled -- -- --
loosestrife) *

Lythrum alatum (winged loosestrife) * 2.5 -- --

Medeola virginiana (indian cucumber -- -- --
root) *

Medicago lupulina (black medick) -- 2.5 2.5

Melilotus albus (white sweet clover) 2.5 15.0 15.0

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet 2.5 15.0 2.5
clover)

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot) * -- 2.5 --

Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill) * 2.5 -- --

Nepeta cataria (catnip) -- 15.0 15.0

Oenothera biennis var. biennis -- -- 2.5
(common evening primrose) *

Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) * -- -- --

Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis -- -- --
(royal fern) *

Oxalis stricta (common yellow 15.0 2.5 2.5
wood-sorrel) *

Panicum acuminatum var. fasiculatum -- -- --
(old-field panic grass) *

Panicum acuminatum var. lindbeimeri 2.5 -- --
(Lindheimeri's panic grass) * (E)

Panicum clandestinum (deer's tongue 2.5 -- 2.5
grass) *

Panicum columbianum (American panic 15.0 2.5 2.5
grass) *

Panicum latifolium (broad-leaved panic -- -- --
grass) *

Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum -- -- 2.5
(Scribner's rosette grass) *

Paronychia canadensis (forked -- -- 2.5
chickweed) *

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia 15.0 37.5 2.5
creeper)

Penstemon digitalis (bearded -- -- 2.5
foxglove) *

Phleum pratense (Timothy) 2.5 -- --

Photinia foribunda (chokeberry) * 2.5 -- --

Physalis heterophylla (clammy ground -- -- --
cherry) *

Phytolacca americana (American 2.5 2.5 --
pokeweed) *

Pilea pumila (clearweed) * -- -- --

Pinus strobes (white pine) * -- -- 2.5

Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) -- 2.5 --

Plantago major (common plantain) -- 2.5 --

Poa compressa (Canada blue grass) -- -- 15.0

Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass) -- -- 2.5

Polygala polygama (racemed -- -- --
milkwort) * (T)

Polygonatum biflorum (smooth solomon's -- -- --
seal) *

Polygonum convolvulus (black bindweed) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania -- -- 2.5
smartweed) *

Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) -- -- --

Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) * -- 2.5 --

Potentilla recta (sulphur cinquefoil) 2.5 2.5 --

Prenanthes alba (white lettuce) * -- -- --

Prunus americana (American plum) * -- 2.5 --

Pteridium aguilinum (bracken fern) * -- -- --

Ranunculus hispidus.var hispidus -- -- --
(hispid buttercup) *

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus -- -- --
(swamp buttercup) *

Rhus copallina var. latifolia -- -- --
(dwarf sumac) *

Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny -- -- --
blackberry) *

Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry) * -- 2.5 --

Rubus hispidus (bristly dewberry) * -- -- --

Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) * 2.5 15.0 2.5

Rubus pensilvanicus (Pennsylvania -- -- --
blackberry) *

Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata -- -- --
(cut-leaf coneflower) *

Rumex acetosella (red sorrel) -- -- --

Rumex crispus (curly dock) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Rumex obtusifolius (bitter dock) -- -- --

Salix discolor (pussy willow) * -- -- --

Salix humilis var. tristis (prairie -- -- 2.5
willow) *

Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) -- -- 2.5

Scirpus atrovirens (dark-green 2.5 -- --
bulrush) *

Scirpus pendulus (rufous bulrush) * 2.5 -- --

Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail) -- 2.5 2.5

Setaria viridis (green foxtail) -- -- 2.5

Silene latifolia (white campion) -- 2.5 2.5

Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) * -- -- 2.5

Smilacina racemosa (false spikenard) * -- -- --

Smilax hispida (bristly greenbrier) * -- -- --

Smilax rotundifolia (common -- -- --
greenbrier) *

Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) 2.5 2.5 --

Solidago canadensis var. canadensis 2.5 2.5 2.5
(Canada goldenrod) *

Spirea alba var. alba (meadow-sweet) * -- -- --

Stachys aspera (hyssop hedge nettle) * -- -- --

Stachys tenuifolia (common hedge -- -- --
nettle) *

Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) * -- -- --

Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) -- 2.5 --

Thalictrum thalictroides -- -- --
(rue anemone) *

Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress) -- -- --

Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) * 15.0 15.0 2.5

Tragopogon dubius (yellow salsify) -- 2.5 2.5

Trifolium pratense (red clover) -- -- 2.5

Trifolium repens (white clover) -- -- --

Typha latifotia (broad-leaf cattail) * 2.5 -- --

Urtica dioica var. procera -- -- --
(tall nettle) *

Vaccinium pallidum (blue-ridge -- -- --
blueberry) *

Vaccinium vacillans (early Low-bush -- -- --
blueberry) *

Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) -- 2.5 --

Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) * 2.5 2.5 --

Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell) -- -- 2.5

Viola pubescens (common yellow -- -- --
violet) *

Viola sagittata (arrow-leaved -- -- --
violet) *

Vitis aestivalis (summer grape) * 2.5 15.0 15.0

Zanthoxylum americanum 2.5 -- --
(prickly-ash) *
 KRL KRL
 Waste Surroundings
 Disposal
 Parcels

Name 1957- 1954- SE
 1960 1957 Corner

Acalypha virginica var. rhomoboidea 2.5 -- 15.0
(three-seed mercury) *

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) * -- 2.5 --

Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant -- 2.5 --
hyssop) *

Agrostis gigantea (redtop) 2.5 2.5 --

Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris -- -- --
(creeping bent grass)

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 15.0 2.5 15.0

Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) -- -- --

Ambrosia artemisifolia 2.5 2.5 2.5
(annual ragweed) *

Ambrosia trifida (great ragweed) * 2.5 -- 2.5

Amelanchier arborea (downy -- -- --
serviceberry) *

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) * -- -- --

Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leave 2.5 2.5 2.5
sandwort)

Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) * -- -- --

Arisaema triphyllum -- -- --
(jack-in-the-pulpit) *

Asarum canadense (wild ginger) * -- -- --

Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) * -- 2.5 2.5

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) * -- -- --

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) * -- -- --

Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly 2.5 -- --
milkweed) *

Asclepias verticillata (whorled -- -- --
milkweed) *

Aster lanceolatus var. simplex -- -- --
(panicled aster) *

Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved -- -- --
aster) *

Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern) * -- -- --

Barbarea vulgaris (yellow rocket) -- 15.0 --

Betula pumila (bog birch) * (T) -- -- --

Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) * -- -- --

Bromus inermis (smooth brome) 2.5 2.5 --

Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome) 15.0 -- 2.5

Bromus latiglumis (ear-leaved brome) * -- -- --

Bromus pubescens (woodland brome) * -- 2.5 --

Campanula americana (American -- -- --
bellflower) *

Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper) * -- -- --

Carex cephalophlora (oval-headed -- 2.5 --
sedge) *

Carex intumescens (bladder sedge) * -- -- --

Carex molesta (troublesome sedge) * -- -- --

Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania -- 2.5 15.0
sedge) *

Carex rugosperma (low sand sedge) * -- -- --

Carex siccata (dry spike sedge) * (E) -- -- --

Carex swanii (swan's sedge) * -- -- --

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea) * -- -- 2.5

Celastrus scandens (American -- 2.5 2.5
bittersweet) *

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum 2.5 -- --
(ox-eye daisy)

Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis 2.5 2.5 2.5
(enchanter's nightshade) *

Collinsonia canadensis (richweed) * -- -- --

Commelina communis (asiatic dayflower) -- -- --

Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern) * (T) -- -- --

Conyza canadensis (horseweed) * 2.5 -- 2.5

Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) * -- -- --

Cornus stolonifera (red oisier -- 2.5 --
dogwood) *

Corylus americana (American hazelnut) * -- -- --

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Canadian -- -- --
honewort) *

Cyperus lupulinus (slender umbrella -- -- --
sedge) *

Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) -- 2.5 --

Danthonia spicata (poverty grass) * 2.5 -- --

Datura stramonium (jimsonweed) 2.5 -- --

Daucus carota (wild carrot) 2.5 2.5 --

Dianthus armenia (deptford pink) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Digitaria filiformis (slender finger -- -- --
grass) * (PE)

Dipsacus fullonum (common teasel) -- -- --

Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya -- -- --
(barnyard grass) *

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) -- 2.5 --

Elymus repens (quack grass) 15.0 15.0 --

Elymus trachycaulus (bearded wheat -- 2.0 --
grass) * (T)

Elymus virginicus (Virginia wildrye) * 15.0 -- --

Equisetum arvense (horsetail) * -- -- --

Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) * 2.5 2.5 15.0

Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus 2.5 2.5 2.5
(robin's plantain) *

Eupatorium altissimum (tall boneset) * 2.5 2.5 2.5

Euphorbia corollata (flowering -- -- --
spurge) *

Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) 2.5 -- --

Euphorbia nutans (sported spurge) * 2.5 -- --

Eutbamia graminifolia (grass-leaved -- -- --
goldenrod) *

Euthamia tenuifolia var. tenuifiolia -- -- --
(lance-leaved goldenrod) *

Festuca ovina (sheep fescue) -- -- --

Festuca subverticillata -- -- --
(nodding fescue) *

Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) * -- -- 2.5

Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) * -- -- --

Galium circaezans (wild licorice) * -- -- 2.5

Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) * -- -- --

Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) * 2.5 2.5 2.5

Geum canadense (white avens) * -- 2.5 2.5

Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) -- 2.5 --

Hackelia virginiana (Virginia -- 2.5 --
stickseed) *

Helianthemum canadense (rockrose) * (PT) -- -- --

Helianthus divaricatus (woodland -- -- 2.5
sunflower) *

Heliopsis helianthoides (smooth -- -- --
ox-eye) *

Hibiscus trionum (flower-of-an-hour) -- -- --

Hieracium caespitosum (meadow hawkweed) -- 2.5 --

Hypericum perforatum (common St. 2.5 2.5 2.5
Johnswort)

Hypericum prolicum (shrubby St. -- -- --
Johnswort) *

Impatiens capensis (spotted -- 2.5 --
touch-me-not) *

Impatiens pallida (pale touch-me-not) * -- -- --

Juncus articulatus (jointed rush) * -- -- --

Juncus effusus (common rush) * -- -- --

Juncus torreyi (Torrey's rush) * -- -- --

Krigia virginica (dwarf -- -- --
dandelion) * (T)

Laportea canadensis (wood nettle) * -- -- --

Leersia virginica (white grass) * -- -- --

Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Lepidium campestre (field pepperweed) -- 2.5 --

Lespedeza capitata (bush-clover) * -- -- --

Ligrustrum vulgare (common privet) -- 2.5 --

Lithospermum officinale (European 2.5 -- 2.5
gromwell)

Lolium arundinaceum (tall fescue) 2.5 15.0 --

Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) 15.0 2.5 --

Lonicera maackii (amur honeysuckle) -- -- --

Lonicera tatarica (tartarian 15.0 2.5 15.0
honeysuckle)

Lupinus perennis (wild lupine) * (PT) -- -- 2.5

Lycopus americanus (cut-leaved -- -- --
water-horehound) *

Lysimachia ciliata (fringed -- -- --
loosestrife) *

Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) -- -- --

Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled -- -- --
loosestrife) *

Lythrum alatum (winged loosestrife) * -- -- --

Medeola virginiana (indian cucumber -- -- --
root) *

Medicago lupulina (black medick) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Melilotus albus (white sweet clover) 15.0 2.5 15.0

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet 2.5 15.0 2.5
clover)

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot) * -- -- 2.5

Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill) * -- -- --

Nepeta cataria (catnip) 2.5 15.0 2.5

Oenothera biennis var. biennis 2.5 -- --
(common evening primrose) *

Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) * -- -- --

Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis -- -- --
(royal fern) *

Oxalis stricta (common yellow 2.5 15.0 2.5
wood-sorrel) *

Panicum acuminatum var. fasiculatum -- -- 2.5
(old-field panic grass) *

Panicum acuminatum var. lindbeimeri -- -- --
(Lindheimeri's panic grass) * (E)

Panicum clandestinum (deer's tongue -- -- 2.5
grass) *

Panicum columbianum (American panic -- -- 2.5
grass) *

Panicum latifolium (broad-leaved panic -- -- --
grass) *

Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum -- -- --
(Scribner's rosette grass) *

Paronychia canadensis (forked -- -- --
chickweed) *

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia 15.0 37.5 37.5
creeper)

Penstemon digitalis (bearded -- -- --
foxglove) *

Phleum pratense (Timothy) -- -- 2.5

Photinia foribunda (chokeberry) * -- -- --

Physalis heterophylla (clammy ground 2.5 -- --
cherry) *

Phytolacca americana (American -- -- --
pokeweed) *

Pilea pumila (clearweed) * -- -- --

Pinus strobes (white pine) * -- -- --

Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 2.5 2.5 --

Plantago major (common plantain) 2.5 2.5 --

Poa compressa (Canada blue grass) 15.0 15.0 2.5

Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass) 15.0 2.5 --

Polygala polygama (racemed -- -- --
milkwort) * (T)

Polygonatum biflorum (smooth solomon's -- -- --
seal) *

Polygonum convolvulus (black bindweed) 2.5 -- 2.5

Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania -- -- --
smartweed) *

Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) -- -- --

Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) * -- -- --

Potentilla recta (sulphur cinquefoil) 2.5 2.5 --

Prenanthes alba (white lettuce) * -- -- -

Prunus americana (American plum) * -- -- 2.5

Pteridium aguilinum (bracken fern) * -- -- --

Ranunculus hispidus.var hispidus -- -- --
(hispid buttercup) *

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus -- -- --
(swamp buttercup) *

Rhus copallina var. latifolia -- -- --
(dwarf sumac) *

Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny -- -- --
blackberry) *

Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry) * 2.5 2.5 2.5

Rubus hispidus (bristly dewberry) * -- -- --

Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) * 15.0 15.0 2.5

Rubus pensilvanicus (Pennsylvania -- -- 2.5
blackberry) *

Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata -- -- --
(cut-leaf coneflower) *

Rumex acetosella (red sorrel) -- -- --

Rumex crispus (curly dock) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Rumex obtusifolius (bitter dock) -- 2.5 --

Salix discolor (pussy willow) * -- -- --

Salix humilis var. tristis (prairie -- -- --
willow) *

Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) -- 2.5 --

Scirpus atrovirens (dark-green -- -- --
bulrush) *

Scirpus pendulus (rufous bulrush) * -- 2.5 --

Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail) 2.5 -- --

Setaria viridis (green foxtail) 2.5 -- 2.5

Silene latifolia (white campion) 2.5 2.5 --

Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) * -- -- --

Smilacina racemosa (false spikenard) * -- -- --

Smilax hispida (bristly greenbrier) * -- -- --

Smilax rotundifolia (common -- -- --
greenbrier) *

Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) 2.5 -- --

Solidago canadensis var. canadensis 2.5 -- --
(Canada goldenrod) *

Spirea alba var. alba (meadow-sweet) * -- -- --

Stachys aspera (hyssop hedge nettle) * -- -- --

Stachys tenuifolia (common hedge -- -- --
nettle) *

Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) * -- -- --

Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) -- 2.5 --

Thalictrum thalictroides -- -- 2.5
(rue anemone) *

Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress) -- -- 2.5

Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) * 2.5 2.5 37.5

Tragopogon dubius (yellow salsify) 2.5 2.5 --

Trifolium pratense (red clover) -- 2.5 --

Trifolium repens (white clover) 2.5 -- --

Typha latifotia (broad-leaf cattail) * -- -- --

Urtica dioica var. procera 2.5 -- --
(tall nettle) *

Vaccinium pallidum (blue-ridge -- -- --
blueberry) *

Vaccinium vacillans (early Low-bush -- -- --
blueberry) *

Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) -- 2.5 --

Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 2.5 2.5 2.5

Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) * -- -- --

Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell) 2.5 -- --

Viola pubescens (common yellow -- -- --
violet) *

Viola sagittata (arrow-leaved -- -- --
violet) *

Vitis aestivalis (summer grape) * 15.0 15.0 15.0

Zanthoxylum americanum -- -- --
(prickly-ash) *
 KRL OOMP
 Surroundings Woodland
 Communities

Name Ten-Mile Flood-
 Creek plain

Acalypha virginica var. rhomoboidea -- --
(three-seed mercury) *

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) * -- --

Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant -- --
hyssop) *

Agrostis gigantea (redtop) -- --

Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris -- --
(creeping bent grass)

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 15.0 2.5

Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) -- --

Ambrosia artemisifolia 2.5 --
(annual ragweed) *

Ambrosia trifida (great ragweed) * -- --

Amelanchier arborea (downy -- --
serviceberry) *

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) * -- --

Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leave -- --
sandwort)

Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) * 2.5 2.5

Arisaema triphyllum 2.5 --
(jack-in-the-pulpit) *

Asarum canadense (wild ginger) * 15.0 --

Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) * -- --

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) * -- --

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) * -- --

Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly -- --
milkweed) *

Asclepias verticillata (whorled -- --
milkweed) *

Aster lanceolatus var. simplex 15.0 2.5
(panicled aster) *

Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved -- --
aster) *

Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern) * -- --

Barbarea vulgaris (yellow rocket) -- --

Betula pumila (bog birch) * (T) -- 2.5

Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) * 2.5 --

Bromus inermis (smooth brome) -- --

Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome) -- --

Bromus latiglumis (ear-leaved brome) * 2.5 --

Bromus pubescens (woodland brome) * -- --

Campanula americana (American -- 2.5
bellflower) *

Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper) * -- --

Carex cephalophlora (oval-headed -- --
sedge) *

Carex intumescens (bladder sedge) * 2.5 2.5

Carex molesta (troublesome sedge) * -- --

Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania -- --
sedge) *

Carex rugosperma (low sand sedge) * -- --

Carex siccata (dry spike sedge) * (E) -- --

Carex swanii (swan's sedge) * -- --

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea) * -- --

Celastrus scandens (American -- 2.5
bittersweet) *

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum -- 2.5
(ox-eye daisy)

Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis -- --
(enchanter's nightshade) *

Collinsonia canadensis (richweed) * -- --

Commelina communis (asiatic dayflower) -- --

Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern) * (T) -- --

Conyza canadensis (horseweed) * -- --

Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) * -- --

Cornus stolonifera (red oisier -- --
dogwood) *

Corylus americana (American hazelnut) * -- --

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Canadian 2.5 15.0
honewort) *

Cyperus lupulinus (slender umbrella -- --
sedge) *

Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) -- --

Danthonia spicata (poverty grass) * -- --

Datura stramonium (jimsonweed) -- --

Daucus carota (wild carrot) -- --

Dianthus armenia (deptford pink) -- --

Digitaria filiformis (slender finger -- --
grass) * (PE)

Dipsacus fullonum (common teasel) -- --

Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya -- --
(barnyard grass) *

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) -- --

Elymus repens (quack grass) -- --

Elymus trachycaulus (bearded wheat -- --
grass) * (T)

Elymus virginicus (Virginia wildrye) * 2.5 2.5

Equisetum arvense (horsetail) * -- 2.5

Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) * -- --

Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus -- --
(robin's plantain) *

Eupatorium altissimum (tall boneset) * -- --

Euphorbia corollata (flowering -- --
spurge) *

Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) -- --

Euphorbia nutans (sported spurge) * -- --

Eutbamia graminifolia (grass-leaved -- --
goldenrod) *

Euthamia tenuifolia var. tenuifiolia -- --
(lance-leaved goldenrod) *

Festuca ovina (sheep fescue) -- --

Festuca subverticillata -- 2.5
(nodding fescue) *

Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) * -- --

Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) * -- 2.5

Galium circaezans (wild licorice) * -- --

Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) * -- --

Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) * -- --

Geum canadense (white avens) * 2.5 15.0

Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) -- --

Hackelia virginiana (Virginia -- --
stickseed) *

Helianthemum canadense (rockrose) * (PT) -- --

Helianthus divaricatus (woodland -- --
sunflower) *

Heliopsis helianthoides (smooth -- 2.5
ox-eye) *

Hibiscus trionum (flower-of-an-hour) -- --

Hieracium caespitosum (meadow hawkweed) -- --

Hypericum perforatum (common St. -- --
Johnswort)

Hypericum prolicum (shrubby St. -- --
Johnswort) *

Impatiens capensis (spotted 15.0 2.5
touch-me-not) *

Impatiens pallida (pale touch-me-not) * -- 2.5

Juncus articulatus (jointed rush) * -- --

Juncus effusus (common rush) * -- --

Juncus torreyi (Torrey's rush) * -- --

Krigia virginica (dwarf -- --
dandelion) * (T)

Laportea canadensis (wood nettle) * 37.5 37.5

Leersia virginica (white grass) * 2.5 15.0

Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) -- --

Lepidium campestre (field pepperweed) -- --

Lespedeza capitata (bush-clover) * -- --

Ligrustrum vulgare (common privet) -- --

Lithospermum officinale (European -- 2.5
gromwell)

Lolium arundinaceum (tall fescue) -- --

Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) -- --

Lonicera maackii (amur honeysuckle) -- --

Lonicera tatarica (tartarian 2.5 --
honeysuckle)

Lupinus perennis (wild lupine) * (PT -- --

Lycopus americanus (cut-leaved -- --
water-horehound) *

Lysimachia ciliata (fringed 2.5 --
loosestrife) *

Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) 37.5 2.5

Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled 2.5 --
loosestrife) *

Lythrum alatum (winged loosestrife) * -- --

Medeola virginiana (indian cucumber -- --
root) *

Medicago lupulina (black medick) -- --

Melilotus albus (white sweet clover) -- --

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet -- --
clover)

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot) * -- --

Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill) * -- --

Nepeta cataria (catnip) -- --

Oenothera biennis var. biennis -- --
(common evening primrose) *

Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) * -- --

Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis -- --
(royal fern) *

Oxalis stricta (common yellow -- --
wood-sorrel) *

Panicum acuminatum var. fasiculatum -- --
(old-field panic grass) *

Panicum acuminatum var. lindbeimeri -- --
(Lindheimeri's panic grass) * (E)

Panicum clandestinum (deer's tongue -- --
grass) *

Panicum columbianum (American panic -- --
grass) *

Panicum latifolium (broad-leaved panic -- --
grass) *

Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum -- --
(Scribner's rosette grass) *

Paronychia canadensis (forked -- --
chickweed) *

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia 15.0 15.0
creeper)

Penstemon digitalis (bearded -- --
foxglove) *
Phleum pratense (Timothy) -- --

Photinia foribunda (chokeberry) * -- --

Physalis heterophylla (clammy ground -- --
cherry) *

Phytolacca americana (American -- --
pokeweed) *

Pilea pumila (clearweed) * 2.5 15.0

Pinus strobes (white pine) * -- --

Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) -- --

Plantago major (common plantain) -- --

Poa compressa (Canada blue grass) -- --

Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass) -- --

Polygala polygama (racemed -- --
milkwort) * (T)

Polygonatum biflorum (smooth solomon's -- --
seal) *

Polygonum convolvulus (black bindweed) -- --

Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania -- 2.5
smartweed) *

Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) -- 2.5

Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) * 2.5 2.5

Potentilla recta (sulphur cinquefoil) -- --

Prenanthes alba (white lettuce) * -- --

Prunus americana (American plum) * -- --

Pteridium aguilinum (bracken fern) * - --

Ranunculus hispidus.var hispidus 2.5 --
(hispid buttercup) *

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus 2.5 --
(swamp buttercup) *

Rhus copallina var. latifolia -- --
(dwarf sumac) *

Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny -- --
blackberry) *

Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry) * -- --

Rubus hispidus (bristly dewberry) * -- --

Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) * -- --

Rubus pensilvanicus (Pennsylvania -- --
blackberry) *

Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata -- 2.5
(cut-leaf coneflower) *

Rumex acetosella (red sorrel) -- --

Rumex crispus (curly dock) -- --

Rumex obtusifolius (bitter dock) -- --

Salix discolor (pussy willow) * -- --

Salix humilis var. tristis (prairie -- --
willow) *

Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) -- --

Scirpus atrovirens (dark-green -- --
bulrush) *

Scirpus pendulus (rufous bulrush) * -- --

Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail) -- --

Setaria viridis (green foxtail) -- --

Silene latifolia (white campion) -- --

Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) * -- --

Smilacina racemosa (false spikenard) * -- --

Smilax hispida (bristly greenbrier) * -- --

Smilax rotundifolia (common -- --
greenbrier) *

Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) -- --

Solidago canadensis var. canadensis -- --
(Canada goldenrod) *

Spirea alba var. alba (meadow-sweet) * -- --

Stachys aspera (hyssop hedge nettle) * -- 2.5

Stachys tenuifolia (common hedge -- 2.5
nettle) *

Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) * -- 15.0

Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) -- --

Thalictrum thalictroides -- 2.5
(rue anemone) *

Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress) -- --

Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) * 2.5 2.5

Tragopogon dubius (yellow salsify) -- --

Trifolium pratense (red clover) -- --

Trifolium repens (white clover) -- --

Typha latifotia (broad-leaf cattail) * -- --

Urtica dioica var. procera -- 2.5
(tall nettle) *

Vaccinium pallidum (blue-ridge -- --
blueberry) *

Vaccinium vacillans (early Low-bush -- --
blueberry) *

Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) -- --

Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) -- --

Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) * -- 2.5

Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell) -- --

Viola pubescens (common yellow 2.5 --
violet) *

Viola sagittata (arrow-leaved -- --
violet) *

Vitis aestivalis (summer grape) * 2.5 --

Zanthoxylum americanum -- --
(prickly-ash) *

 OOMP
 Woodland Communities

Name Sand Savanna Deciduous
 Barren Forest

Acalypha virginica var. rhomoboidea -- -- --
(three-seed mercury) *

Achillea millefolium (yarrow) * -- 2.5 --

Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant -- -- --
hyssop) *

Agrostis gigantea (redtop) -- 2.5 --

Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris -- -- --
(creeping bent grass)

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) -- -- 2.5

Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail)

Ambrosia artemisifolia 2.5 -- --
(annual ragweed) *

Ambrosia trifida (great ragweed) * -- -- --

Amelanchier arborea (downy -- -- 2.5
serviceberry) *

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) * -- -- 2.5

Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leave -- -- --
sandwort)

Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) * -- -- --

Arisaema triphyllum -- -- 2.5
(jack-in-the-pulpit) *

Asarum canadense (wild ginger) * -- -- --

Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) * -- -- --

Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) * -- -- --

Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) * -- -- --

Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly -- 2.5 --
milkweed) *

Asclepias verticillata (whorled -- -- --
milkweed) *

Aster lanceolatus var. simplex -- -- --
(panicled aster) *

Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved -- -- 2.5
aster) *

Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern) * -- -- 2.5

Barbarea vulgaris (yellow rocket) -- -- --

Betula pumila (bog birch) * (T) -- -- --

Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) * -- -- --

Bromus inermis (smooth brome) -- -- --

Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome) -- -- --

Bromus latiglumis (ear-leaved brome) * -- -- 2.5

Bromus pubescens (woodland brome) * -- -- --

Campanula americana (American -- -- --
bellflower) *

Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper) * -- -- --

Carex cephalophlora (oval-headed -- -- --
sedge) *

Carex intumescens (bladder sedge) * -- -- --

Carex molesta (troublesome sedge) * -- 2.5 --

Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania 2.5 2.5 2.5
sedge) *

Carex rugosperma (low sand sedge) * 2.5 2.5 --

Carex siccata (dry spike sedge) * (E) 2.5 -- --

Carex swanii (swan's sedge) * 2.5 2.5 --

Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea) * -- -- --

Celastrus scandens (American -- -- --
bittersweet) *

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum -- -- --
(ox-eye daisy)

Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis -- -- --
(enchanter's nightshade) *

Collinsonia canadensis (richweed) * -- -- --

Commelina communis (asiatic dayflower) -- -- --

Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern) * (T) -- 2.5 --

Conyza canadensis (horseweed) * -- -- --

Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) * -- 2.5 2.5

Cornus stolonifera (red oisier -- -- --
dogwood) *

Corylus americana (American hazelnut) * -- -- 2.5

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Canadian -- -- --
honewort) *

Cyperus lupulinus (slender umbrella 2.5 2.5 --
sedge) *

Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) -- -- --

Danthonia spicata (poverty grass) * 2.5 2.5 --

Datura stramonium (jimsonweed) -- -- --

Daucus carota (wild carrot) -- -- --

Dianthus armenia (deptford pink) -- 15.0 --

Digitaria filiformis (slender finger -- -- --
grass) * (PE)

Dipsacus fullonum (common teasel) -- -- --

Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya -- -- --
(barnyard grass) *

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) -- 2.5 --

Elymus repens (quack grass) -- -- --

Elymus trachycaulus (bearded wheat -- -- --
grass) * (T)

Elymus virginicus (Virginia wildrye) * -- -- --

Equisetum arvense (horsetail) * -- -- --

Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) * -- -- --

Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus 2.5 2.5 --
(robin's plantain) *

Eupatorium altissimum (tall boneset) * -- -- --

Euphorbia corollata (flowering 2.5 2.5 --
spurge) *

Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) -- -- --

Euphorbia nutans (sported spurge) * -- -- --

Eutbamia graminifolia (grass-leaved -- 2.5 --
goldenrod) *

Euthamia tenuifolia var. tenuifiolia -- -- --
(lance-leaved goldenrod) *

Festuca ovina (sheep fescue) 2.5 2.5 --

Festuca subverticillata -- -- --
(nodding fescue) *

Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) * -- -- --

Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) * -- -- --

Galium circaezans (wild licorice) * -- 2.5 --

Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) * -- -- 2.5

Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) * -- -- --

Geum canadense (white avens) * -- -- --

Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) -- -- --

Hackelia virginiana (Virginia -- -- --
stickseed) *

Helianthemum canadense (rockrose) * (PT) 25.0 -- --

Helianthus divaricatus (woodland -- -- --
sunflower) *

Heliopsis helianthoides (smooth -- -- --
ox-eye) *

Hibiscus trionum (flower-of-an-hour) -- -- --

Hieracium caespitosum (meadow hawkweed) -- -- --

Hypericum perforatum (common St. -- -- --
Johnswort)

Hypericum prolicum (shrubby St. -- 2.5 --
Johnswort) *

Impatiens capensis (spotted -- -- --
touch-me-not) *

Impatiens pallida (pale touch-me-not) * -- -- --

Juncus articulatus (jointed rush) * -- 2.5 --

Juncus effusus (common rush) * -- 2.5 --

Juncus torreyi (Torrey's rush) * -- -- --

Krigia virginica (dwarf 2.5 2.5 --
dandelion) * (T)

Laportea canadensis (wood nettle) * -- -- --

Leersia virginica (white grass) * -- -- --

Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) -- -- --

Lepidium campestre (field pepperweed) -- -- --

Lespedeza capitata (bush-clover) * 2.5 2.5 --

Ligrustrum vulgare (common privet) -- -- --

Lithospermum officinale (European -- -- --
gromwell)

Lolium arundinaceum (tall fescue) -- -- --

Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) -- -- --

Lonicera maackii (amur honeysuckle) -- -- --

Lonicera tatarica (tartarian -- -- --
honeysuckle)

Lupinus perennis (wild lupine) * (PT) 2.5 -- --

Lycopus americanus (cut-leaved -- -- --
water-horehound) *

Lysimachia ciliata (fringed -- -- --
loosestrife) *

Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) -- -- --

Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled -- 2.5 --
loosestrife) *

Lythrum alatum (winged loosestrife) * -- -- --

Medeola virginiana (indian cucumber -- -- 2.5
root) *

Medicago lupulina (black medick) -- -- --

Melilotus albus (white sweet clover) -- -- --

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet -- -- --
clover)

Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot) * -- -- --

Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill) * -- -- --

Nepeta cataria (catnip) -- -- --

Oenothera biennis var. biennis 2.5 2.5 --
(common evening primrose) *

Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) * -- -- 15.0

Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis -- -- 2.5
(royal fern) *

Oxalis stricta (common yellow -- -- --
wood-sorrel) *

Panicum acuminatum var. fasiculatum -- -- --
(old-field panic grass) *

Panicum acuminatum var. lindbeimeri 15.0 2.5 --
(Lindheimeri's panic grass) * (E)

Panicum clandestinum (deer's tongue -- -- --
grass) *

Panicum columbianum (American panic 2.5 15.0 --
grass) *

Panicum latifolium (broad-leaved panic -- -- 2.5
grass) *

Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum 2.5 2.5 --
(Scribner's rosette grass) *

Paronychia canadensis (forked -- -- --
chickweed) *

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia -- -- 2.5
creeper)

Penstemon digitalis (bearded -- -- --
foxglove) *
Phleum pratense (Timothy) -- -- --

Photinia foribunda (chokeberry) * -- -- --

Physalis heterophylla (clammy ground -- -- --
cherry) *

Phytolacca americana (American -- -- --
pokeweed) *

Pilea pumila (clearweed) * -- -- --

Pinus strobes (white pine) * 2.5 -- --

Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) -- -- --

Plantago major (common plantain) -- -- --

Poa compressa (Canada blue grass) 2.5 2.5 --

Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass) -- 2.5 --

Polygala polygama (racemed 2.5 2.5 --
milkwort) * (T)

Polygonatum biflorum (smooth solomon's 2.5 -- 2.5
seal) *

Polygonum convolvulus (black bindweed) -- -- --

Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania -- -- --
smartweed) *

Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) -- -- --

Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) * -- -- --

Potentilla recta (sulphur cinquefoil) -- -- --

Prenanthes alba (white lettuce) * -- -- 2.5

Prunus americana (American plum) * -- --

Pteridium aguilinum (bracken fern) * 15.0 7.5 2.5

Ranunculus hispidus.var hispidus -- -- --
(hispid buttercup) *

Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus -- 2.5 --
(swamp buttercup) *

Rhus copallina var. latifolia 2.5 -- --
(dwarf sumac) *

Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny 2.5 -- --
blackberry) *

Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry) * 2.5 15.0 2.5

Rubus hispidus (bristly dewberry) * -- -- 2.5

Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) * -- -- --

Rubus pensilvanicus (Pennsylvania -- -- --
blackberry) *

Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata -- -- --
(cut-leaf coneflower) *

Rumex acetosella (red sorrel) 2.5 -- --

Rumex crispus (curly dock) -- -- --

Rumex obtusifolius (bitter dock) -- -- --

Salix discolor (pussy willow) * 2.5 -- --

Salix humilis var. tristis (prairie -- -- --
willow) *

Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) -- -- --

Scirpus atrovirens (dark-green -- -- --
bulrush) *

Scirpus pendulus (rufous bulrush) * -- -- --

Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail) -- -- --

Setaria viridis (green foxtail) -- -- --

Silene latifolia (white campion) -- -- --

Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) * -- -- --

Smilacina racemosa (false spikenard) * -- -- 2.5

Smilax hispida (bristly greenbrier) * -- -- 2.5

Smilax rotundifolia (common 2.5 -- 2.5
greenbrier) *

Solanum carolinense (horsenettle) -- -- --

Solidago canadensis var. canadensis -- -- --
(Canada goldenrod) *

Spirea alba var. alba (meadow-sweet) * -- 2.5 --

Stachys aspera (hyssop hedge nettle) * -- -- --

Stachys tenuifolia (common hedge -- -- --
nettle) *

Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) * -- -- 2.5

Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) -- -- --

Thalictrum thalictroides -- -- --
(rue anemone) *

Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress) -- 2.5 --

Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) * -- -- --

Tragopogon dubius (yellow salsify) -- -- --

Trifolium pratense (red clover) -- -- --

Trifolium repens (white clover) -- -- --

Typha latifotia (broad-leaf cattail) * -- -- --

Urtica dioica var. procera -- -- --
(tall nettle) *

Vaccinium pallidum (blue-ridge -- 2.5 --
blueberry) *

Vaccinium vacillans (early Low-bush -- -- 2.5
blueberry) *

Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) -- -- --

Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) -- 2.5 --

Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) * -- -- --

Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell) -- -- --

Viola pubescens (common yellow -- -- --
violet) *

Viola sagittata (arrow-leaved -- 2.5 --
violet) *

Vitis aestivalis (summer grape) * -- 2.5 --

Zanthoxylum americanum -- -- --
(prickly-ash) *

Plant species listed in Table 1 are not included.

* denotes plant species native to Ohio:

(E) denotes plant species endangered;

(T) denotes plant species threatened:

(PT) denotes potentially threatened (status determined
by the Ohio Biological Survey).

Table 3
Jaccard index values for the similarity in plant
species composition between survey sites.

 KRL OOR
 Surroundings Woodland Communities

Survey Site SE Ten-Mile Floodplain Sand
 Corner Creek Barren

1954-1957 0.38 0.08 0.07 0.08

1957-1960 0.35 0.11 0.09 0.08

1960-1963 0.30 0.09 0.08 0.09

1963-1969 0.33 0.15 0.14 0.05

1969-1976 0.31 0.14 0.13 0.10

SE Corner -- -- 0.12 0.12

Ten-Mile Creek -- -- 0.32 0.01

 OOR
 Woodland Communities

Survey Site Savanna Deciduous Forest

1954-1957 0.13 0.09

1957-1960 0.12 0.04

1960-1963 0.15 0.04

1963-1969 0.07 0.05

1969-1976 0.12 0.06

SE Corner 0.14 0.11

Ten-Mile Creek 0.04 0.07

Values [greater than or equal to] 0.5 indicate similarity
between survey sites.
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Article Details
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Author:Barnswell, Kristopher D.; Dwyer, Daryl F.
Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U3OH
Date:Dec 1, 2007
Words:8534
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