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Vascular flora of Bonnie's Prairie Nature Preserve, Iroquois County, Illinois.


At the turn of the nineteenth century, tallgrass prairie communities occupied approximately 55-60% of the total land area in Illinois (7.9-8.7 million ha) (Vestal 1931, Anderson 1970, Iverson 1988, Szafoni et al. 2002). Between the years of 1820 and 1980, approximately 99.99% of these tallgrass prairie communities were lost due to agriculture, urban development and succession (White 1978, Iverson 1988). Today, tallgrass prairie communities east of the Missouri River are considered critically endangered ecosystems, now occupying less than 2% of their former range (Christensen et al. 1996).

Tallgrass prairie community subclasses in Illinois include gravel prairie, dolomite prairie, hill prairie, shrub prairie, and sand prairie, with sand prairies representing the largest extant prairie remnants (White 1978, White and Madany 1978). Extensive sand deposits within the state supporting sand prairie and associated sand communities include: 1) the Chicago Lake Plain Section and the Lake Michigan Dunes Section of the Northeastern Morainal Natural Division, 2) the Green River Lowland Section and the Kankakee Sand Area Section of the Grand Prairie Natural Division, and 3) the Illinois River Section and Mississippi River Section of the Illinois River and Mississippi River Sand Areas Natural Division (Hart and Gleason 1907, Gleason 1910, Schwegman 1973, Lineback 1979, Swink and Wilhelm 1994).

At the time of settlement, sand deposits and resulting sand prairie and associated sand communities covered approximately 497,248 ha (3.4 %) of the state (Lineback 1979, Fehrenbacher et al. 1984). Several early authors studied and described many of the sand communities in various regions (Higley and Raddin 1891, Cowls 1899, McDonald 1900, Hart and Gleason 1907, Gleason 1909, 1910, Gates 1910, 1912, Fell 1957), and these studies have contributed greatly to our present understanding of the historic structure and composition of these areas. In the following decades, however, research subsequent to these initial studies was generally lacking. With the invention of central pivot irrigation in the mid 1900s, many of Illinois' sand regions were rapidly converted to agriculture. In the late 1970s, it was ascertained that less than 0.5% of the state's native sand prairie and associated sand communities still existed in a relatively undisturbed condition (White 1978). Today, in light of such extensive losses, comprehensive studies of our extant remnants are imperative. The present study was undertaken to determine the vascular plant species composition, community structure, and floristic integrity of sand communities occurring in Bonnie's Prairie Nature Preserve (BPNP).


Located in Iroquois County, Illinois, approximately 3.5 miles north of Watseka (NE 1/4 NW 1/4 NE 1/4 S17 T27N R12W), BPNP occurs in the Kankakee Sand Area Section of the Grand Prairie Natural Division (Schwegman 1973). This area is characterized by extensive sand formations that were deposited approximately 14,000 to 16,000 years ago by glacial meltwater activity and were subsequently worked and reworked into dune and sheet-like formations by strong winds (Willman and Frye 1970, Wiggers 1997, Killey 1998). Additionally, the deposits at BPNP occur in an area that was once the lakebed of the ancient glacial Lake Watseka, which had drained hundreds of years previous to the deposition of these sands (Willman and Frye 1970, Frankie et al. 1996, Wiggers 1997, Killey 1998, Follmer 2006).

BPNP was dedicated as a state nature preserve in 1992, and is 4.3 ha (10.6 acres) in area. Dominant plant communities in the preserve include dry sand prairie, temporary sand pond, and wet-mesic sand prairie. Smaller and/or more non-contiguous communities in the preserve were characterized by dry sand savanna, degraded dry-mesic sand prairie, marsh/wet sand prairie, and scrubland areas. Environmental heterogeneity resulted in combinations of these community types intergrading almost imperceptibly in many parts of the preserve.

Surficial deposits within the preserve are of the Henry Formation and consist of glacial outwash dominated by sand and gravel and are classified as Parkland facies, which consist of windblown sands in dunes or sheet-like deposits (Willman and Frye 1970, Hansel and Johnson 1996). Soil types as described by Kiefer (1982) indicate the dry sand prairie and dry sand savanna areas occur in excessively drained Chelsea fine sand, while the drymesic sand prairie area occurs on somewhat poorly drained Orthents, loamy soils, which are characterized by surface layers of fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand. The wet-mesic sand prairie areas within the preserve occur on the more poorly drained Roby loamy fine sand. The sand pond areas occupy a position on the landscape where the Chelsea fine sand and Roby loamy sand converge.

East-central Illinois is characterized by a continental climate, having hot summers and cold winters (Fehrenbacher et al. 1984). In the vicinity of BPNP, the mean annual temperature as reported by the Midwestern Regional Climate Center from historical climate data at Watseka, IL, collected between 1971 and 2000, is 50.0[degrees]F (10.0[degrees]C) (MRCC 2006). July and August are the warmest months, with mean temperatures of 23.3[degrees]C (73.9[degrees]F) and 22.1[degrees]C (71.7[degrees]F), respectively, and January and February are the coldest, with mean temperatures of -5.5[degrees] C (22.1[degrees] F) and -2.8[degrees]C (26.9[degrees]F), respectively (MRCC 2006). The mean annual precipitation is 91.4-96.5 cm (36-38 in.), with the highest levels of precipitation occurring during the month of June [11.7 cm (4.62 in.)] (Fehrenbacher et al. 1984, MRCC 2006). The mean number of frost-free days in this region ranges from 160 to 170 (Fehrenbacher et al. 1984).


During the growing seasons of 2005 and 2006, multiple visits were made to BPNP to inventory and sample the vegetation. Voucher specimens were collected for all vascular plant taxa occurring within the preserve, and habitat data and GPS coordinates were recorded for all collections. Collections were identified and deposited in the herbarium of the Illinois Natural History Survey (ILLS), Champaign, Illinois. Nomenclature follows Mohlenbrock (2002).

Ground flora compositions were evaluated by placing 1.0 m?quadrats at every other meter (i.e., 0, 2, 4, etc.) along 100m line transects (50 m in sand pond) in the largest and highest quality representative areas for dominant community types (Figure 1), as well as the marsh/wet sand prairie pond margin between sand pond and wet-mesic sand prairie. Quadrats were placed in an alternating pattern along transects, with every other quadrat being placed to the right or left. Cover values of all species rooted within quadrats were estimated using Daubenmire (1959) cover classes as modified by Bailey and Poulton (1968), and are as follows: class 1 = 0 - <1%, class 2 = 1 - <5%, class 3 = 5 - <25%, class 4 = 25 - <50%, class 5 = 50 - <75%, class 6 = 75 - <95%, and class 7 = 95 - 100%. From these data, frequency, relative frequency, mean cover, relative cover, and importance value (sum of relative frequency and relative cover) were calculated for each species.

To further evaluate floristic integrity, the mean coefficient of conservatism ([bar.C]) and floristic quality index (FQI = [I]) were calculated for the entire preserve as well as the dominant community types, according to Taft et al. (1997), using the following formulae, respectively: [bar.C] = [summation]C/N, where C is the coefficient of conservatism and N is the number of taxa; and I = C ([square root of N]), where I is a weighted index of species richness, and is the product of [bar.C] multiplied by the square root of the number of species ([square root of N]). Coefficients of conservatism (C) assigned to all vascular plant taxa occurring within the state, according to Taft et al. (1997), consist of a value ranging from 0 to 10 and represent a measure of each taxon's tolerance to habitat degradation. A C-value of 10 indicates the highest degree of fidelity to high quality natural areas, while a value of 0 indicates the lowest. Following this, taxa at the upper end of the conservatism spectrum (i.e., 7-10) are usually the first species to disappear as natural areas undergo various types of disturbance that lead to habitat degradation. Non-native taxa are automatically assigned a C-value of 0. For areas intensively surveyed, the FQI provides a rapid and effective means for making qualitative comparisons of floristic integrity among sites. Sites with a FQI (I) = 35 or [bar.C] -value [greater than or equal to] 3.5 are considered regionally noteworthy--possessing sufficient floristic quality to be considered at least marginally high quality natural areas (Swink and Wilhelm 1994, Taft et al. 1997).

Lastly, historic aerial photographs were obtained from the University of Illinois Map and Geography Library, and were examined for each decade beginning with 1940 to further assess past conditions of the site.


Vascular Plant Species Present

A total of 248 species representing 69 families and 168 genera where documented at BPNP (Appendix 1). Of these taxa, 30 (12.1%) were adventive to the site and eighteen (60.0%) of the adventive taxa occurred in, but were not restricted to, the dry sand prairie community in the northeast portion of the preserve. The majority of the remaining adventive taxa occurred in scrubland areas and degraded edges of the preserve (Figure 1). Pteridophytes accounted for 5 taxa, in 4 genera, and 4 families. Among angiosperms, monocots accounted for 77 taxa, in 46 genera, and 11 families, and dicots, 163 taxa, in 116 genera, and 54 families. The Poaceae and Asteraceae represented slightly over 25% of the flora at BPNP, with 38 taxa (15.3%) and 25 taxa (10.1%), respectively, followed by the Cyperaceae [18 taxa (7.3%)], Rosaceae [17 taxa (6.9%)], Fabaceae [12 taxa (4.8%)], and Polygonaceae [11 taxa (4.4%)]. With respect to physiognomy, forbs accounted for 59.2% of the flora, grasses and sedges 22.6%, shrubs 8.5%, trees 5.6%, vines 2.0%, and ferns/fern allies 2.0%. The native FQI for the entire preserve was 54.5 (51.1 with adventive taxa) and the native [bar.C] -value was 3.7 (3.2 with adventive taxa), indicating a natural area still possessing a high degree of natural integrity.

Dry Sand Prairie

The dry sand prairie community, along with a small inclusion of dry sand savanna occurring in the northeast portion of the preserve (Figure 1--areas 1A & 7A) was moderately degraded, but still possessed a reasonable degree of floristic integrity. The small inclusion of dry sand savanna appears on historical aerial photographs to have been connected to a larger sand savanna just north of the preserve. Woody encroachment is advancing in this sand savanna inclusion as well as on all sides of the sand prairie. The western and southwestern edges of this area, where the dry sand prairie begins to transition to the northernmost sand pond, are being heavily invaded by Rubus allegheniensis Porter (common blackberry). Woody species encroaching on the north, east and southeast boundaries of this area include Crataegus crusgalli L. (cockspur hawthorn), Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim. (amur honeysuckle), Morus alba L. (white mulberry), Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry), Quercus velutina Lam. (black oak), Rhus glabra L. (smooth sumac), Rosa multiflora Thumb. (multiflora rose), Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison ivy), and Vitis riparia Michx. (riverbank grape). Several taxa confined to these more shaded successional areas included: Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes (ebony spleenwort), Galium circaezans Michx. var. hypomalacum Fern. (wild licorice), Polygonatum commutatum (Schult.) A. Dietr. (Soloman's seal), Sanicula canadensis L. var. canadensis (black snakeroot), and Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. (starry false Soloman's seal).

A total of 101 species were encountered in the approximately .26 ha (.64 acre) dry sand prairie and 42 taxa occurred within the sampling quadrats (Table 1). The dominant species was Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash (little bluestem) with an Importance Value (IV 200%) of 36.6%. Other important taxa included three adventives Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) (IV 26.6%), Poa pratensis L. (Kentucky bluegrass) (IV 16.0%), and Rumex acetosella L. (field sorrel) (IV 11.1%); and the natives, Leptoloma cognatum (Schult.) Chase (fall witch grass) (IV 20.0%), Rubus flagellaris Willd. (common dewberry) (IV 13.2%), and Phlox bifida Beck. (cleft phlox) (IV 12.9%) (Table 1). Although only five adventive taxa occurred within sampling quadrats (Table 1), the high importance values of three of these taxa are indicative of the more degraded condition of this remnant prairie and reflect a land use history which likely included cattle grazing. Additionally, the dry sand prairie community had more adventive taxa than any other community type in the preserve, with 13 additional adventives occurring here (Appendix 1). The majority of the more conservative taxa including, Amorpha canescens Pursh (leadplant), Anemone cylindrica Gray (thimbleweed), Asclepias amplexicaulis Small (sand milkweed), Dalea purpurea Vent. (purple prairie clover), Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx. (common rockrose), Helianthus occidentalis Riddell (western sunflower), Lechea mucronata Raf. (hairy pinweed), Liatris aspera Michx. (rough blazing star), Sporobolus heterolepis (Gray) Gray (northern drop seed), and Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers. (goat's rue), were more scattered and/or infrequent in this community type. The native FQI for this area was 31.6 (28.7 with adventive taxa) and the native -value was 3.5 (2.9 with adventive taxa). These values support the interpretation of a moderately degraded habitat, but one that still possess a noteworthy assemblage of plants.

Sand Pond

The northernmost sand pond at BPNP is the deeper and more diverse of the two sand ponds occurring within the preserve and the only of the two which occurs entirely within the preserve boundaries. Both ponds were intensively inventoried, but sampling efforts in the present study were focused on the northern pond, which is approximately .69 ha (1.7 acres) in area. A total of 41 taxa were found in the sand pond with 17 of these occurring within sampling plots (Table 2). Sampling was conducted in September at a time when water levels were very low and the majority of the sand pond was an exposed mudflat. Dominant taxa at the time of surveys (those with IV 200% > 20.0%) were, in descending rank order, Glyceria septentrionalis Hitchc. (floating manna grass) (IV 32.5%), Persicaria coccinea (Muhl.) Greene (scarlet smartweed) (IV 26.2%), Bidens cernua L. (nodding bur marigold) (IV 23.8%) and Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong (burreed) (IV 20.4%) (Table 2). Other important taxa included Echinochloa muricata (Michx.) Fern. (wild millet) (IV 17.3%), Pontederia cordata L. (pickerelweed) (IV 15.2%), Phalaris arundinacea L. (reed canary grass) (IV 11.8%), and Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush (short-beaked arrowhead) (IV 11.6%) (Table 2). Had sampling occurred earlier in the growing season when water levels are typically much higher, certain taxa would have undoubtedly had higher importance values, including Nuphar advena (Aiton) W. T. Aiton (yellow pond lily), Nymphaea tuberosa Paine (white water lily), and Ranunculus flabellaris Raf. (yellow-flowered water buttercup). Additionally, species such as Callitriche heterophylla Pursh (large water starwort), and Lemna minor L. (common duckweed), which were not present at the time of sampling, would likely have occurred within sampling plots. Several taxa that occurred in sampling plots which would have been absent during high water levels included Bidens cernua, B. coronata (L.) Britt. (tall swamp marigold), B. frondosa L. (common tickseed), Echinochloa muricata, and Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. (fireweed). Only one exotic taxon, Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Opiz (water pepper) occurred in the sand pond. The native FQI for this area was 24.3 (24.1 with adventive taxa) and the native [bar.C]-value was 3.8 (unchanged with adventives). Although the FQI for this area was somewhat low, due in part to the low number of species within this community type, the higher [bar.C]-value of 3.8 is indicative of a noteworthy remnant community that still has a relatively high degree of natural integrity.

Marsh/Wet Sand Prairie Pond Margins

Bordering all sides of both sand ponds were transitional areas where sand pond communities gradually graded into other adjacent community types (Area 5; Figure 1). These areas were slightly more elevated and drier than the ponds, and characterized by zones, often very narrow, of vegetation noticeably different from the vegetation of the community types occurring on either side. These areas were difficult to assign to any one community type, but would be best characterized as a combination of marsh/wet sand prairie. Virtually all areas of this community type had moderate to heavy infestations of Phalaris arundinacea. The most diverse area of this type was located on the northern and northeastern margins of the north sand pond between areas 2A and 6 (Figure 1), and occurring here were several taxa with more limited distributions within the preserve, which included Agrostis gigantea Roth. (red top), Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. (false nettle), Carex tribuloides Wahl. (oval sedge), Cuscuta polygonorum Engelm. (knotweed dodder), Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (common boneset), Galium tinctorium L. (stiff bedstraw), Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. (rice cut grass), Spartina pectinata Link (cord grass), and Verbena hastata L. (blue vervain). Sampling results (Table 3) from the zone between areas 2A and 4 (Figure 1) are representative of other marsh/wet sand prairie areas in the preserve and dominant taxa included Phalaris arundinacea (IV 43.2%), Persicaria coccinea (IV 41.2%), Bidens cernua (IV 30.3%), and Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. (blue joint grass) (IV 29.8%). Other taxa occurring in this area as well as in this community type throughout the preserve included Bidens connata Muhl. (purple-stemmed tickseed), B. coronata, Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (Torr.) Sojak, (river bulrush), Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult. (great spike rush), Eupatorium serotinum Michx. (late boneset), Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small (smartweed), Salix nigra Marsh. (black willow), and Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth (wool grass).

Wet-mesic Sand Prairie

Located on the southeast corner of BPNP (Area 4; Figure 1) is a moderately degraded wet-mesic sand prairie approximately .74 ha (1.8 acres) in area. A total of 53 taxa were found in this portion of the preserve and 21 of these occurred in the sampling plots (Table 4). Woody stem encroachment is advancing on the eastern and southeastern boundaries of this wet-mesic sand prairie, with the shrub Rubus pensylvanicus Poir. (yankee blackberry) invading most heavily. Other woody species encroaching along these boundaries included Cornus obliqua Raf. (blue-fruited dogwood), Rubus allegheniensis, Salix discolor Muhl. (pussy willow), and S. nigra Marsh (black willow). Diversity in these areas was very low and historical aerial photographs ranging from 1940 to 1973 reveal that these areas previously, were completely open. Similarly, along the northern boundary were several large individuals of Acer saccharinum L. (silver maple) and Quercus palustris Muench (pin oak) which are absent on 1940 aerial photographs. These highly shaded areas were also lacking in diversity and bare ground/leaf litter was abundant.

All areas of the wet-mesic sand prairie not experiencing advanced woody stem encroachment were dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis (Table 4), and these areas were somewhat lacking in diversity. Other important taxa in the open areas included Persicaria coccinea (IV 39.9%), Erechtites hieracifolia (IV 31.6%), Bidens coronata (IV 14.2%), and Eupatorium serotinum (IV 9.1%). Phalaris arundinacea, although having a lower importance value along the sampling transect, was abundant in scattered patches with the most heavily infested areas usually occurring at the boundaries between areas 4 and 5 (Figure 1).

Several taxa within the preserve were only found in the wet-mesic sand prairie community, and infrequently to occasionally encountered species occurring here included: Acalypha gracilens Gray (slender three-leaved mercury), Asclepias incarnata L. (swamp milkweed), Carex pellita Willd. (wooly sedge), C. scoparia Schk. (oval sedge), Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (willow herb), Helianthus mollis Lam. (downy sunflower), Hypericum mutilum L. (dwarf St. John's-wort), Iris shrevei Small (blue iris), Ludwigia alternifolia L. (seedbox), Lycopus uniflorus Michx. (northern bugle weed), Panicum virgatum L. (switch grass), Persicaria opelousana (Riddell) Small (scaly smartweed), Rhexia virginica L. (meadow beauty), Spiraea alba Du Roi (meadowsweet), Stachys pilosa Nutt. var. homotricha (Fern.) Mohlenbr. (woundwort), Vernonia missurica Raf. (Missouri ironweed), and Viola lanceolata L. (lance-leaved violet). The native FQI for this area was 27.2 (26.7 with adventive taxa) and the [bar.C]-value was 3.7 (3.6 with adventive taxa). As with the previously discussed sand pond habitat, despite having a lower FQI value, the higher [bar.C]-value of 3.7 for this community is indicative of an area with noteworthy remnant quality.


Vascular plant taxa encountered at Bonnie's Prairie Nature Preserve. Pteridophytes are listed first, followed by angiosperms. Angiosperms are further divided into monocots and dicots. Familes, genera and species are arranged alphabetically within groups. Adventive taxa are indicated by an asterisk (*). Following the binomial and authority, the community type(s) in which each taxa occurred, is indicated. Community designations correspond to areas shown in Figure 1. Designations are: [1=dry sand prairie (A-higher quality, B-highly degraded); 2=sand pond (A-deeper with higher diversity, B-shallower with lower diversity); 3=dry-mesic sand prairie (highly degraded); 4=wet-mesic sand prairie; 5=marsh/wet sand prairie; 6=scrubland (highly degraded successional); 7=dry sand savanna (A-inclusion in higher quality sand prairie, B-inclusion in highly degraded sand prairie); and 8=margins of preserve (E-east margin along railroad, N-north margin along road)]. Nomenclature follows Mohlenbrock (2002). Collecting numbers are those of M. J. C. Murphy (M). All specimens are deposited in the Illinois Natural History Survey Herbarium (ILLS), Champaign, IL.



Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes: 7; M207


Equisetum arvense L.: 3; M636

Equisetum hyemale L. ssp. affine Calder & Taylor: 3; M635


Onoclea sensibilis L.: 6; M129


Thelypteris palustris Schott: 6; M607




Alisma subcordatum Raf.: 2A, 2B; M571

Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush.: 2A, 2B; M567

Sagittaria graminea Michx.: 2A, 2B; M221


*Commelina communis L.: 6; M543

Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.: 1A; M107


Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (Torr.) Sojak: 2B, 5; M284

Carex brevior (Dewey) Lunell: 1A, 8E; M109

Carex emmonsii Dewey: 6; M134

Carex muhlenbergii Schk. var. muhlenbergii: 1A; M198

Carex pellita Willd.: 4; M281

Carex scoparia Schk.: 4; M837

Carex swanii (Fern.) Mack.: 4, 6; M132

Carex tribuloides Wahl.: 5; M559

Carex vulpinoidea Michx.: 4, 5; M277

Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl.: 2B; M816

Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks var. lupulinus: 1A; M521

Cyperus schweinitzii Torr.: 3; M825

Cyperus strigosus L.: 2A, 4; M811

Eleocharis ovata (Roth) Roem. & Schult. var. obtusa (Willd.) Kukenth: 2A, 2B; M806

Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schultes: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M570

Schoenoplectus heterochaetus (Chase) Sojak: 2A, 2B, 5; M149

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C. C. Gmel.) Palla: 2A; M572

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth: 5; M566


Iris shrevei Small: 4; M805


Juncus acuminatus Michx.: 3; M631

Juncus biflorus Ell. f. biflorus: 3; M621

Juncus brachycarpus Englem.: 3; M627

Juncus greenei Oakes & Tuckerm.: 3; M622

Juncus interior Wieg.: 1A; M194

Juncus tenuis Willd.: 1A, 4; M591

Luzula bulbosa (A. W. Wood) Smyth.: 6;M133


Lemna minor L.: 2A, 2B; M22


*Asparagus officinalis L.: 1A, 7A; M119

Polygonatum commutatum (Schult.) A. Dietr.: 1A, 7A; M120

Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf.: 1A, 7A; M117


Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) BSP.: 1A, 8E; M189

Agrostis gigantea Roth.: 4, 5; M558

Agrostis perennans (Walter) Tuck.: 6; M608

Andropogon gerardii Vitman: 1A; M761

Andropogon virginicus L.: 3; M813

Aristida purpurascens Poir.: 1A; M756

*Bromus commutatus Schrad.: 1A, 8E; M187

*Bromus inermis Leyss: 1A, 8E; M121

*Bromus tectorum L.: 1A, 8E; M103

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv.: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M214

Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fern.: 3; M826

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark: 1A; M193

Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould: 1A; M126

Dichanthelium villosissimum (Nash) Freckm.: 1A; M201

*Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.: 2B; M818

Echinochloa muricata (Michx.) Fern.: 2A, 2B; M774

Elymus canadensis L.: 1A; M548

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees: 1A, 8E; M762

Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud.: 1A, 1B; M611

Glyceria septentrionalis Hitchc.: 2A, 2B, 5; M211

Heterostipa spartea (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth: 1A; M122

Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Spreng.: 1A, 8E; M96

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartz: 2A, 5; M786

Leptoloma cognatum (Schult.) Chase: 1A, 8E; M527

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.: 2B; M817

Panicum rigidulum Bosc var. rigidulum: 6; M609

Panicum virgatum L.: 4; M579

Paspalum setaceumMichx. var. ciliatifolium (Michx.) Vasey: 1A; M824

*Poa compressa L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 4, 7A & B, 8E, 8N; M530

*Poa pratensis L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 6, 7, 8E, 8N; M114

Phalaris arundinacea L.: 2A, 2B, 4, 5, 6, 8E; M136

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash: 1A, 1B, 3; M829

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash: 1A; M755

Spartina pectinata Link: 5; M557

Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray: 1A; M760

Sporobolus heterolepis (Gray) Gray: 1A; M759

Tridens flavus (L.) Hitch.: 1A, 1B, 8E, 8N; M765

Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chapm.: 1B, 3; M624


Pontederia cordata L.: 2A, 2B; M569


Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.)

Morong: 2A, 2B; M568

Sparganium eurycarpum Englem.: 2A, 2B, 5; M601


Typha latifolia L.: 2A, 5; M273



Acer saccharinum L.: 4, 5, 6; M137


Rhus glabra L.: 1A, 7A; M202

Rhus hirta L.: 6; M612

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze: 1A, 1B, 3, 4, 6, 7A, 7B; M603


*Daucus carota L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 8E, 8N; M541

Sanicula canadensis L. var. canadensis: 8N; M639

Sium suave Walt.: 2A, 2B, 5; M564


Asclepias amplexicaulis Small: 1A; M209

Asclepias incarnata L.: 4; M1853

Asclepias syriaca L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 8E, 8N; M828

Asclepias verticillata L.: 1A, 1B, 3; M768


*Achillea millefolium L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 8E, 8N; M124

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.: 1A, 1B, 4, 3, 8E, 8N; M526

Antennaria neglecta Greene: 1A, 1B; M268

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Hook.: 1A, 1B; M267

Aster pilosus Willd.: 1A, 1B, 3, 8E, 8N; M753

Bidens cernua L.: 2A, 2B, 5; M773

Bidens connata Muhl.: 2A, 2B, 5; M777

Bidens coronata (L.) Britt.: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M778

Bidens frondosa L.: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M771

Boltonia asteroides (L.) L' Her. Var.

recognita (Fern. & Grisc.) Cronq.: 2B/5; M1853

Cirsium discolor (Muhl.) Spreng.: 1A; M763

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.: 3, 8E, 8N; M525

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf.: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M575

Erigeron strigosus Muhl.: 1A, 1B; M208

Eupatorium perfoliatum L.: 4, 5; M604

Eupatorium serotinum Michx.: 4, 5, 8E; M556

Euthamia gymnospermoides Greene: 3, 4; M781

Helianthus mollis Lam.: 4; M583

Helianthus occidentalis Riddell: 1A; M757

Hieracium gronovii L.: 3; M630

Lactuca canadensis L.: 1A, 7A; M545

Liatris aspera Michx.: 1A; M787

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.)

Hilliard & Burtt.: 3; M820

Solidago altissima L.: 1A; 3, 4, 8E, 8N; M764

Vernonia missurica Raf.: 4; M581


*Betula populifolia Marsh.: 6; M135


*Catalpa speciosa Warder: 1A/8E; M195


Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnst.: 6; M628

Lithospermum croceum Fern.: 1A, 8E; M110

Myosotis verna Nutt.: 6; M131


Cardimine parviflora L. var. arenicola (Britt.) O.E. Schultz: 6; M153

Lepidium virginicum L.: 1A, 1B, 8E; M101

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser: 2A; Observed


Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene: 1A, 8E, 8N; M524


Callitriche heterophylla Pursh: 2A; M216


*Cannabis sativa L.: 6; M573


*Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.: 1A, 6, 7A, 8N; M640

Sambucus canadensis L.: 6; M552


*Silene pratensis (Spreng.) Godron & Gren.: 1A, 8E, 8N; M522


Chenopodium desiccatum A. Nels.: 1A; M767


Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx.: 1A; M204

Lechea mucronata Raf.: 1A; M766

Lechea pulchella Raf.: 3; M619


Cornus obliqua Raf.: 4, 5, 6; M553


Corylus americana Walt.: 6; M606


Cuscuta polygonorum Engelm.: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M562


*Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.: 6; M614


Acalypha gracilens Gray: 4; M588

Acalypha rhomboidea Raf.: 3, 4, 6; M814

Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small: 3; M827

Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small: 8N; M830

Euphorbia corollata L.: 1A, 8E, 8N; M265

Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Kl. & Garcke: 1A; M520


Amorpha canescens Pursh: 1A; M266

Apios americana Medic.: 5, 8N; M537

Crotolaria sagittalis L.: 3; M618

Dalea purpurea Vent.: 1A; Observed

Desmodium illinoense Gray: 1A, 3; M752

Desmodium sessilifolium (Torr.) Torr. & Gray: 3; M822

Lespedeza capitata Michx.: 1A, 3; M531

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem.: 1A; M542

*Melilotus alba Medic.: 1A, 1B, 3, 8E, 8N; M190

Strophostyles helvula (L.) Ell.: 1A; M528

Strophostyles leiosperma (Torr. & Gray) Piper: 1A; M532

Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers.: 1A, 8E; M185


Quercus palustris Muench: 4, 5, 6; M544

Quercus velutina Lam.: 1A, 1B, 3, 6, 7A, 7B; M533


Geranium carolinianum L.: 1A, 8N; M108


Ribes missouriense Nutt.: 6; M551


Hypericum mutilum L.: 4; M576

Lycopus americanus Muhl.: 4, 5; M582

Lycopus uniflorus Michx.: 4; M593

Monarda punctata L.: 1A, 1B; M539

Prunella vulgaris L. var. elongata Benth.: 3, 6, 8N; M629

Scutellaria lateriflora L.: 6; M597

Stachys pilosa Nutt. var. homotricha (Fern.) Mohlenbr.: 4; M274


Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees: 1A, 6, 7A, 7B, 8E, 8N; M16


Linum medium (Planch.) Britt.: 3; M616


Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne: 2A; M808


Rhexia virginica L.: 4; M594


*Mollugo verticillata L.: 3; M633


*Morus alba L.: 1A, 6, 7A, 8N; M799


*Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM.: 1A, 3; M206


Nuphar advena (Ait.) Ait. f.: 2A, 2B; M148

Nymphaea tuberosa Paine: 2A, 2B; M147


Fraxinus lanceolata Borkh.: 6; M838

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.: 3, 6; M610


Circaea lutetiana Aschers. & Magnus: 6; M602

Epilobium ciliatum Raf.: 4; M590

Ludwigia alternifolia L.: 4; M589

Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell.: 2B; M596

Ludwigia polycarpa Short & Peter.: 2A; M807

Oenothera biennis L.: 3, 4, 8E, 8N; M577

Oenothera clelandii W. Dietr., Raven & W. L. Wagner: 1A; M769


Oxalis stricta L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 6, 8E, 8N; M111


Phytolacca americana L.: 6, 8E; M796


*Plantago lanceolata L.: 1A, 6, 8E, 8N; M270

*Plantago patagonica Jacq.: 1A; M203

Plantago virginica L.: 1A; M100


Phlox bifida Beck.: 1A, 8N, 8E; M15


Polygala sanguinea L.: 3; M615


*Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Love: 8N; M538

Persicaria coccinea (Muhl.) Greene: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M563

*Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Opiz: 2A; M809

Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small: 2A, 2B, 5; M775

Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S. F. Gray: 2A; M776

Persicaria opelousana (Riddell) Small: 4; M586

Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) Small: 2A, 2B, 5; M592

Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small: 2A, 2B, 4, 5; M561

*Persicaria vulgaris Webb & Moq.: 3; M634

*Rumex acetosella L.: 1A, 1B, 3, 8E, 8N; M116

Rumex verticillatus L.: 2A, 5; M218


Claytonia virginica L.: 1A, 6; M14


Anemone cylindrica Gray: 1A; M199

Ranunculus flabellaris Raf.: 2A, 2B; M146


Agrimonia parviflora Sol.: 3, 4; M584

Crataegus crus-galli L.: 1A; M754

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne: 1A, 1B, 3, 6, 7A; M115

Geum canadense Jacq.: 6; M536

Potentilla simplex Michx.: 1A, 1B, 6; M112

*Potentilla recta L.: 1A; M200

Prunus serotina Ehrh.: 1A, 6, 7A, 7B; M130

Rosa carolina L.: 1A; M196

*Rosa multiflora Thunb.: 6, 8E; M141

Rosa X rudiuscula Greene: 4; M585

Rosa setigera Michx.: 6; M269

Rubus allegheniensis Porter: 1A, 4, 6; M118

Rubus flagellaris Willd.: 1A, 6; M264

*Rubus laciniatus Willd.: 6; M605

Rubus occidentalis L.: 6; M127

Rubus pensilvanicus Poir.: 4; M280

Spiraea alba Du Roi: 4; M287


Diodia teres Walt.: 1A, 1B, 3; M758

Galium aparine L.: 1A, 6, 8; M102

Galium circaezans Michx. var.

hypomalacum Fern.: 6, 7A; M535

Galium tinctorium L.: 2A, 4, 5; M565


Populus deltoides Marsh: 3, 6, 8E; M801

Salix amygdaloides Anders.: 5, 6; M210

Salix discolor Muhl.: 3, 4, 6; M823

Salix interior Rowlee: 6; M599

Salix nigra Marsh.: 2A, 4, 5, 6; M213


Agalinis besseyana Britt.: 3; M632

Gratiola virginiana L.: 2A: M1857

Lindernia anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell: 2A; M810

Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh: 1A, 7A; M123


Physalis virginiana Mill.: 1A; M197

Solanum carolinense L.: 4; M275

*Solanum dulcamara L.: 8E; M139

Solanum ptychanthum Dunal.: 8E; M800


Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.: 5, 6; M555


Verbena hastata L.: 4, 5; M554


Viola lanceolata L.: 4; M151

Viola sagittata Aiton: 6; M271


Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.: 1A, 1B, 3, 4, 6, 7A, 7B, 8E, 8N; M637

Vitis riparia Michx.: 1A, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8E, 8N; M125



The authors wish to thank the Illinois Department of Transportation for its support efforts; Kenneth Robertson, Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), for technological assistance; Paul Marcum (INHS) for assistance with botanical collections; John Taft (INHS) for discussions of natural communities at BPNP; Leon Follmer and Ardith Hansel, Illinois State Geological Survey, for extensive discussions on the surficial deposits of Illinois; Adam Wallner, University of Illinois, for assistance with botanical collections; and the Grand Prairie Friends, for permission to access and study this preserve.

received 4/11/08

accepted 8/26/08


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Michael J. C. Murphy, Loy R. Phillippe, and John E. Ebinger

Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois 61820
Table 1. Frequency, mean cover, relative frequency, relative cover,
and importance values (IV 200) of ground flora species occurring in
dry sand prairie sampling plots at Bonnie's Prairie Nature
Preserve, Iroquois Co., Illinois. Species are listed in descending
rank order by importance value. Importance values are the sum of
the relative frequency and relative cover (* = adventive species).

 Freq. Mean Freq.
Species % Cover %

Schizachyrium scoparium 100 17.91 9.28
*Achillea millefolium 100 11.40 9.28
Leptoloma cognatum 82 8.12 7.61
*Poa pratensis 96 4.63 8.91
Rubus flagellaris 60 5.01 5.57
Phlox bifida 94 2.74 8.72
*Rumex acetosella 56 3.90 5.19
Ambrosia artemisiifolia 64 1.64 5.94
Cyperus lupulinus
 var. lupulinus 70 1.10 6.49
Aster pilosus 28 1.36 2.60
Lithospermum croceum 24 1.29 2.23
*Bromis inermis 20 1.51 1.86
Dichanthelium oligosanthes
 var. scribnerianum 28 0.92 2.60
Helianthemum canadense 26 0.53 2.41
Carex muhlenbergii var.
 muhlenbergii 24 0.27 2.23
Euphorbia corollata 22 0.31 2.04
Paspalum setaceum var.
 ciliatifolium 18 0.53 1.67
Dichanthelium villosissimum 16 0.33 1.48
Sporobolus cryptandrus 16 0.13 1.48
Physalis virginiana 14 0.17 1.30
*Potentilla recta 14 0.17 1.30
Lespedeza capitata 12 0.11 1.11
Potentilla simplex 10 0.20 0.93
Oxalis stricta 12 0.06 1.11
Tradescantia ohiensis 10 0.05 0.93
Sorghastrum nutans 8 0.09 0.74
Sassafras albidum 6 0.18 0.56
Aristida purpurascens 8 0.04 0.74
Amorpha canescens 2 0.30 0.19
Antennaria plantaginifolia 2 0.30 0.19
Diodia teres 6 0.03 0.56
Strophostyles leiosperma 6 0.03 0.56
Conyza canadensis 4 0.02 0.37
Dalea purpurea 4 0.02 0.37
Cirsium discolor 2 0.06 0.19
Desmodium illinoense 2 0.06 0.19
Rosa carolina 2 0.06 0.19
Antennaria neglecta 2 0.01 0.19
Asclepias verticillata 2 0.01 0.19
Lechea mucronata 2 0.01 0.19
Oenothera clelandii 2 0.01 0.19
Poinsettia dentata 2 0.01 0.19
 Totals 65.63 100.00
 Bare ground and litter 31.42

 Rel. IV
 Cover 200
Species % (%)

Schizachyrium scoparium 27.29 36.6
*Achillea millefolium 17.37 26.6
Leptoloma cognatum 12.37 20.0
*Poa pratensis 7.05 16.0
Rubus flagellaris 7.63 13.2
Phlox bifida 4.17 12.9
*Rumex acetosella 5.94 11.1
Ambrosia artemisiifolia 2.50 8.4
Cyperus lupulinus
 var. lupulinus 1.68 8.2
Aster pilosus 2.07 4.7
Lithospermum croceum 1.97 4.2
*Bromis inermis 2.30 4.2
Dichanthelium oligosanthes
 var. scribnerianum 1.40 4.0
Helianthemum canadense 0.81 3.2
Carex muhlenbergii var.
 muhlenbergii 0.41 2.6
Euphorbia corollata 0.47 2.5
Paspalum setaceum var.
 ciliatifolium 0.81 2.5
Dichanthelium villosissimum 0.50 2.0
Sporobolus cryptandrus 0.20 1.7
Physalis virginiana 0.26 1.6
*Potentilla recta 0.26 1.6
Lespedeza capitata 0.17 1.3
Potentilla simplex 0.30 1.2
Oxalis stricta 0.09 1.2
Tradescantia ohiensis 0.08 1.0
Sorghastrum nutans 0.14 0.9
Sassafras albidum 0.27 0.8
Aristida purpurascens 0.06 0.8
Amorpha canescens 0.46 0.6
Antennaria plantaginifolia 0.46 0.6
Diodia teres 0.05 0.6
Strophostyles leiosperma 0.05 0.6
Conyza canadensis 0.03 0.4
Dalea purpurea 0.03 0.4
Cirsium discolor 0.09 0.3
Desmodium illinoense 0.09 0.3
Rosa carolina 0.09 0.3
Antennaria neglecta 0.02 0.2
Asclepias verticillata 0.02 0.2
Lechea mucronata 0.02 0.2
Oenothera clelandii 0.02 0.2
Poinsettia dentata 0.02 0.2
 Totals 100.00 200.0
 Bare ground and litter

Table 2. Frequency, mean cover, relative frequency, relative cover,
and importance values (IV 200) of ground flora species occurring in
sand pond (northern) sampling plots at Bonnie's Prairie Nature
Preserve, Iroquois Co., Illinois. Species are listed in descending
rank order by importance value. Importance values are the sum of
the relative frequency and relative cover.
 Freq. Mean Freq.
Species % Cover %

Glyceria septentrionalis 88 13.34 12.15
Persicaria coccinea 72 10.66 9.94
Bidens cernua 96 6.90 13.26
Sparganium androcladum 48 9.04 6.63
Echinochloa muricata 68 5.20 9.39
Pontederia cordata 48 5.60 6.63
Phalaris arundinacea 44 3.72 6.08
Sagittaria brevirostra 52 2.90 7.18
Persicaria hydropiperoides 24 3.06 3.31
Ranunculus flabellaris 48 0.64 6.63
Nymphaea tuberosa 32 1.92 4.42
Acer saccharinum 36 0.18 4.97
Nuphar advena 20 1.08 2.76
Erechtites hieracifolia 24 0.42 3.31
Leersia oryzoides 12 0.74 1.66
Bidens frondosa 8 0.04 1.10
Bidens coronata 4 0.02 0.55
 Totals 65.46 100.00
 Bare ground and litter 15.36

 Rel. IV
 Cover 200
Species % (%)

Glyceria septentrionalis 20.38 32.5
Persicaria coccinea 16.28 26.2
Bidens cernua 10.54 23.8
Sparganium androcladum 13.81 20.4
Echinochloa muricata 7.94 17.3
Pontederia cordata 8.55 15.2
Phalaris arundinacea 5.68 11.8
Sagittaria brevirostra 4.43 11.6
Persicaria hydropiperoides 4.67 8.0
Ranunculus flabellaris 0.98 7.6
Nymphaea tuberosa 2.93 7.4
Acer saccharinum 0.27 5.2
Nuphar advena 1.65 4.4
Erechtites hieracifolia 0.64 4.0
Leersia oryzoides 1.13 2.8
Bidens frondosa 0.06 1.2
Bidens coronata 0.03 0.6
 Totals 100.00 200.0
 Bare ground and litter

Table 3. Frequency, mean cover, relative frequency, relative cover,
and importance values (IV 200) of ground flora species occurring in
marsh/wet sand prairie pond margin sampling plots at Bonnie's
Prairie Nature Preserve, Iroquois Co., Illinois. Species are listed
in descending rank order by importance value. Importance values are
the sum of the relative frequency and relative cover.

 Freq. Mean Freq.
Species % Cover %

Phalaris arundinacea 76 28.98 12.67
Persicaria coccinea 100 23.24 16.67
Bidens cernuua 80 16.12 13.33
Calamagrostis canadensis 88 14.38 14.67
Bidens connata 52 5.62 8.67
Eleocharis palustris 68 0.84 11.33
Scirpus cyperinus 24 3.54 4.00
Persicaria punctata 24 0.22 4.00
Eupatorium serotinum 24 0.12 4.00
Quercus palustris 20 0.30 3.33
Bidens frondosa 12 0.36 2.00
 heterochaetus 12 0.26 2.00
Erechtites hieracifolia 8 0.14 1.33
Bidens coronata 4 0.60 0.67
Leersia oryzoides 4 0.12 0.67
Acer saccharinum 4 0.02 0.67
 Totals 65.46 100.00
 Bare ground and litter 15.36

 Rel. IV
 Cover 200
Species % (%)

Phalaris arundinacea 30.55 43.2
Persicaria coccinea 24.50 41.2
Bidens cernuua 16.99 30.3
Calamagrostis canadensis 15.16 29.8
Bidens connata 5.92 14.6
Eleocharis palustris 0.89 12.2
Scirpus cyperinus 3.73 7.7
Persicaria punctata 0.23 4.2
Eupatorium serotinum 0.13 4.1
Quercus palustris 0.32 3.6
Bidens frondosa 0.38 2.4
 heterochaetus 0.27 2.3
Erechtites hieracifolia 0.15 1.5
Bidens coronata 0.63 1.3
Leersia oryzoides 0.13 0.8
Acer saccharinum 0.02 0.7
 Totals 100.00 200.0
 Bare ground and litter

Table 4. Frequency, mean cover, relative frequency, relative cover,
and importance values (IV 200) of ground flora species occurring in
wet-mesic sand prairie sampling plots at Bonnie's Prairie Nature
Preserve, Iroquois Co., Illinois. Species are listed in descending
rank order by importance value. Importance values are the sum of
the relative frequency and relative cover.

 Freq. Mean Freq.
Species % Cover %

Calamagrostis canadensis 100 66.10 21.65
Persicaria coccinea 98 20.62 21.21
Erechtities hieracifolia 86 14.31 18.61
Bidens coronata 46 4.63 9.96
Eupatorium serotinum 32 2.44 6.93
Persicaria opelousanum 22 0.26 4.76
Phalaris arundinacea 12 0.95 2.60
Persicaria punctatum 14 0.17 3.03
Viola lanceolata 10 0.49 2.16
Acalypha rhomboidea 10 0.05 2.16
Quercus palustris 8 0.14 1.73
Cuscuta polygonorum 4 0.02 0.87
Hypericum mutilum 4 0.02 0.87
Acer saccharinum 2 0.06 0.43
Ambrosia artemisiifolia 2 0.06 0.43
Cornus obliqua 2 0.06 0.43
Carex swanii 2 0.01 0.43
Cyperus strigosus 2 0.01 0.43
Dichanthelium acuminatum 2 0.01 0.43
Eleocharis palustris 2 0.01 0.43
Galium tinctorium 2 0.01 0.43
 Totals 110.43 100.00
 Bare ground and litter 13.07

 Rel. IV
 Cover 200
Species % (%)

Calamagrostis canadensis 59.86 81.5
Persicaria coccinea 18.67 39.9
Erechtities hieracifolia 12.96 31.6
Bidens coronata 4.19 14.1
Eupatorium serotinum 2.21 9.1
Persicaria opelousanum 0.24 5.0
Phalaris arundinacea 0.86 3.5
Persicaria punctatum 0.15 3.2
Viola lanceolata 0.44 2.6
Acalypha rhomboidea 0.05 2.2
Quercus palustris 0.13 1.9
Cuscuta polygonorum 0.02 0.9
Hypericum mutilum 0.02 0.9
Acer saccharinum 0.05 0.5
Ambrosia artemisiifolia 0.05 0.5
Cornus obliqua 0.05 0.5
Carex swanii 0.01 0.4
Cyperus strigosus 0.01 0.4
Dichanthelium acuminatum 0.01 0.4
Eleocharis palustris 0.01 0.4
Galium tinctorium 0.01 0.4
 Totals 100.00 200.0
 Bare ground and litter
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Restoring the prairie: the Tallgrass waves once more in the Midwest.
Windfall glacial drift hill prairie, Vermilion County, Illinois: present vegetation and changes since 1977.
Quercus alba (Fagaceae, white oak) dominated sand forest/savanna, Illinois River sand deposits, Mason County, Illinois.
Reintroduction of Lakeside daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea Greene, Asteraceae) at Manito Prairie Nature Preserve, Tazewell County, Illinois.
Old field succession and Schizachyrium scoparium at sand prairie-scrub oak nature preserve, Mason County, Illinois.

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