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Vascular flora and phytogeographical links of the Carabaya Mountains, Peru.

Flora vascular y conexiones fitogeograficas de las montanas Carabaya, Peru

Introduction

The high Andes are places of concern due to the foreseeable effects of climate change (Markham et al. 1993, Beniston 1994, Thompson et al. 2006, Conde & Saldana 2007, Pauli et al. 2003, 2007, Young 2014). In Peru, high Andean sites cover close to 16% of the total country area, and they are highly vulnerable to landscape changes that may affect its vegetation and components (Rodriguez & Young 2000, Young 2011). The urgency for the development of conservation strategies for sites and plant species is widely recognized; however, it faces challenges in relation to the dynamism and complexity of environmental changes and their interactions with human influences (Markham et al. 1993, Fort 2015, Kohler et al. 2014).

The Peruvian high Andes (above 3500 m) includes an interesting native vascular flora estimated to consist of more than 2000 plant species (see Jorgensen et al. 2011), of which nearly 32% of them are endemic to Peru. This region has recently seen an increase in taxonomical and ecological studies, accompanied by plant recording and exploration (e.g. Ballard and Iltis 2012, Al-Shehbaz et al. 2013, 2015a, 2015b, Gonzales et al. 2015, Gonzales & Cano 2016, Montesinos-Tubee et al. 2015, Linares et al. 2015, Ospina et al. 2016, Sylvester et al. 2016a, 2016b). The completion of the Bolivian catalog (Jorgensen et al. 2014) also provides needed data for a floristic comparison to understand plant richness in the Andes, and floristic connections. Here, we present a compilation of the vascular plant flora of a mountain range in southern Peru: the Carabaya Mountains. We asked how taxonomic richness of our study area compares to other parts of the Andes, particularly to neighboring sites in Peru, and northern Bolivia. The Carabaya is geographically linked to Bolivia through the Apolobamba Mountains, and so we asked if richness and composition at high elevations are similar. We also explore the potential implications of our findings for plant conservation based on the state of knowledge of the high Andean flora.

Material and methods

Study area.--The study area encompasses the high Andes between 4000-5300 m of the Carabaya Cordillera, along the eastern Andes in Puno, between 13050,-15[degrees]05' S and 69[degrees]58,-70[degrees]58' W, crossing the provinces of Carabaya, Sandia and San Antonio de Putina (Fig. 1). The Carabaya also includes the largest tropical glacier system: Quelccaya, an area that has contributed to our understanding of climate change (Thompson et al. 2003, 2006, 2013). The Carabaya Mountains extends into Bolivian territory, and in the Department of La Paz, the northeastern Andes are known as the Apolobamba Mountains (Argollo et al. 1987, Argollo & Iriondo 2008). We obtained field data from eight sites (Fig. 1).

In the Carabaya we recognize four vegetation formations: puna grasslands; rock vegetation dominated by chasmophytes; high Andean wetlands; river shores and lakes, and periglacial areas including cryoturbated soils and subnival pumices (Weberbauer 1945, Galan de Mera et al. 2014, Montesinos-Tubee et al. 2015a).

Collection and species identification.- We compiled all species names, habitats, and distribution information initially based on specimens collected by the authors for the study area. For each species from the Carabaya, we gathered information on collectors and collection number. However, for a small group of species that had only been recorded by photo or by authors' field notes, and lack a herbarium voucher, we cited other collections made in neighboring areas. All collections from the study area were identified using taxonomical keys and descriptions available from the botanical literature (Macbride 1936, Tovar 1993, and others). A few reported species were excluded, for example a photo of Stangea rhizantha did not match the species (Linares et al. 2012), and Valeriana globularis (Linares et al. 2012) was replaced by it's correct spelling, Valeriana globularioides Graebn.

We also compiled all records for eight floras at high elevations, three sites (Parinacochas, Juli and Tambo Ichuna) were located above 3100 m elevation on the Pacific Basin, and the remaining five sites (from north to south: Cordillera Blanca, Concepcion, Bofedales, Apacheta and Vilcanota) were located above 4000 m. Species considered as national endemics were recorded from Leon et al. (2007), Al-Shehbaz et al. (2013, 2015a, 2015b), Gonzales et al. (2015), Montesinos-Tubee et al. (2015b), and Gonzales and Cano (2016).

For the flora of the Department of La Paz in northern Bolivia, we downloaded the species records from the Bolivia Catalog database (http://www.tropicos.org/ProjectAdvSearch. aspx?projectid=13&langid=66).

Specimen data were also obtained from online sources of several institutions (e.g., Field Museum Neotropical specimens [http://fm1.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/], the Tropicos[R] database of Missouri Botanical Garden [http://www.tropicos.org/], New York Botanical Garden digital herbarium [http://sciweb. nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp]), the digital herbarium portion of Atrium [http://atrium.andesamazon.org/digital_herbarium. php], JSTOR [https://plants.jstor.org/). We also included or reviewed collections of the following herbaria B, BM, CUZ, F, G, GH, HUSA, HUT, K, LIL, LP, MO, MOL, NY, S, US and USM (Index Herbariorum). The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016) classification system was used for the management of the angiosperm taxa.

Floristic comparison.- Our database of all taxa was compared with checklists of nine studies in the high Andes. These nine sites encompass about seven degrees of latitude (8[degrees]50' - 17[degrees]26' S), and represent both Pacific and Amazon basins. Within these sites there are a variety of habitats from open grasslands, rocky places, shrublands and wetlands. Four floras represent mostly wetlands and surrounding areas (Flores et al. 2005, Arteta et al. 2006, Roque & Ramirez 2008, Valencia et al. 2013), two floras represent sites located in periglacial areas with processes of cryoturbation (Cano et al. 2010, 2011), and four floras represent large or detailed surveys in the puna ecosystem (Tupayachi 2005, Montesinos-Tubee 2011, 2012, Jorgensen et al. 2014).

Results

We recorded over 10000 plant collections for all nine sites in the Peruvian Andes. This sampling effort still represents a low collection density index with a CDI (specimens/100 km2) of nearly 5. For southern Peru, and particulary for Puno (up to 4000 m), the largest plant collections were made by Augusto Weberbauer, Cesar Vargas, Hugh Weddell, Franz Meyen, Jaroslav Soukup, Francis Pennell, Werner Rauh, Wilibald Lechler, Alfredo Tupayachi, Oscar Tovar and Dora Stafford, all of them made during the 19 th and 20th centuries.

The highest elevations (above 4000 m) of the Carabaya Mountains harbors 506 species of vascular plants (pteridophytes, Gymnospems, Eudicots and Monocots) grouped in 203 genera and 66 families (Table 1; Fig. 2 and Appendix 1). Eudicots were the largest group (with 68.2% of the total registered), and including 69.5% of genera and 71.9% of all species; followed by Monocots with 16.7%, 22.7% and 23.7% respectively for all three main taxonomic categories. Ferns and lycophytes were scarcely represented with only nine families (13.6%), fifteen genera (7.4%) and twenty-one species (4.2%). For these elevations, we found only one species of gymnosperm (Ephedra rupestris).

Asteraceae was the most diverse family, with 38 genera and 110 species, followed by Poaceae (21/78), Caryophyllaceae (10/24), Fabaceae (6/23), Malvaceae (3/21), Brassicaceae (11/21), Caprifoliaceae (3/17), Gentianaceae (3/16), Plantaginaceae (4/13) and Cyperaceae (7/12). These ten families include 52% of all genera and 66% of all species registered for Carabaya. Asteraceae and Poaceae together account for 29.1% of the total genera and 37.2% of all species (Table 2). Another 10 families have six to ten species, containing 16.2% of the total taxa registered. Sixty-six percent of the remaining families include five or less number of species: 24 families have between two and five species, containing 13.2% of total taxa, while 22 families are represented by a single species.

The most diverse genera were Senecio (28 species), Calamagrostis (21), Poa (21), Nototriche (19), Gentianella (13), Valeriana (13), Werneria (10), Lupinus and Astragalus with nine species each, Festuca and Plantago with eight species each, Mniodes and Ranunculus with seven each; Geranium, Neobartsia, Oxalis, Perezia, Pycnophyllum, and Xenophyllum with six each; Cerastium, Hypochaeris, Sisyrinchium and Viola with five each (Table 3). The remaining, 62 genera (30.5%), include between two and four species, while 117 genera (57.6%) only have one species.

Perennial herbs are the dominant life form with 467 (92.3%) species, these include aquatics, palustrine and terrestrial forms. While woody life forms include 20 species (4%) of subshrubs, 15 (3%) shrubs, three (0.6%) cactus, and one tree (0.2%). (Appendix 1).

Comparison of Carabaya flora with nines sites, including northern Bolivia reveals that Asteraceae and Poaceae remain the most species-rich families. All sites, except Parinacochas, have most of its genera and species (over 50%) included in the same ten families identified in Table 4. Other sites representing specific habitats (periglacial areas, and wetlands), also have the same species-rich families as those found in Carabaya (see also Table 2). The richness of all eight sites of Carabaya is as high as those found in northern Bolivia and Moquegua in southwestern Peru.

Over 91 % of species recorded for Carabaya have an altitudinal range above 4000 m (Append. 1). Plant endemism in the Department of Puno reaches 185 species, and most species are found at the upper limits of our study area (Append. 1).

Discussion

The high Andes is an important biogeographical region, distributed as an archipelago along the mountain range. Its plant species richness is high compared to other mountain ranges, and where past geological changes has allowed expansion and contraction, which may explain current plant composition, diversity and endemism (Sklenar et al. 2013, Hughes & Atchison 2015). Most recent studies have shown the northern Andes, particularly the paramo, as a place of high plant species richness (Sklenar & Balslev 2005, 2007, Cuesta et al. 2017). Our data also demonstrates that other parts of the upper tropical central Andes are as important in terms of plant composition and diversity.

Over 50% of floristic records for the study area are new, particularly for the department of Puno (Brako & Zarucchi 1993, Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004, Linares et al. 2012). For the flora at high elevations (>4000 m) of Puno, our results have tripled (20 more species) the known number of endemic species. It is worth noting that this department has the highest percentage of rarity (65%) compared to other departments (Leon et al. 2007). The value of the CDI is lower than the national value of 34 recorded almost 30 years ago (see Toledo & Sosa 1993), and it demonstrates the need for further botanizing. This need is further complicated by pressures of global changes, creating important challenges for plant conservation (Young 2014).

The flora of the Carabaya, at the family level, includes two families (Asteraceae and Poaceae) that contribute significantly to its composition with over a third of species. The predominance of both families is a common pattern in the High Andean flora (Gentry 1993, Cuesta et al. 2017), where these two families can include 30 to 60% of all species in an area (Table 4). In addition, this trend of family oligarchy extends in our study to 18 other families, among them Fabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae and Malvaceae, which has been shown to be species rich throughout the Puna (Cuesta et al. 2017). Most families, however, are species poor, and they usually represent taxa that originated in temperate areas. Probable explanations of species richness of those few families may include geological history, altitudinal range and different evolutionary paths of mountain ranges within the Andes.

A total of 506 species of vascular plants growing above 4000 m in the Carabaya shows that our floristic results are consistent with those found for other equivalent areas in the tropical high Andes. Species richness in our study area is like those found for Peru's jalca (Sanchez 1996). For the Andean highlands of northern Bolivia (Department of La Paz) reported by Jorgensen (2014), total species (737) number is larger than for our study area, which can be explained by representing a flora of a bigger area with more extensive botanizing.

As proposed by Sklenar et al. (2013), floristic similarities in the Andes are higher in areas of geographical proximity. The undoubted geophysical connection of the Carabaya and the Bolivian Apolobamba Mountains, may suggest a close floristic relationship with Bolivia's high Andean flora. We found nearly half of all vascular plants (262 species) registered for the Carabaya Mountain also occur in the Andean region of Bolivia. At the family level, eight families Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Cyperaceae and Apiaceae are part of the most diverse families in both study areas (Tabla 4). However, there are thirteen families (Araceae, Araliaceae, Basellaceae, Bromeliaceae, Calyceraceae, Ericaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Frankeniaceae, Polygalaceae, Portulacaceae, Ruppiaceae, Schoepfiaceae and Selaginellaceae) that have not yet been collected in the Carabaya. While another four families (Asparagaceae, Escalloniaceae, Convolvulaceae and Berberidaceae) have not yet been recorded for the Bolivian flora at similar altitudes

There are also 35 genera and 244 species in Carabaya not registered for Bolivia, the largest of these differences are present in genera such as Senecio (with 15 species), Nototriche (13), Valeriana, Calamagrostis and Gentianella (with 9 species each), Poa (7), Xenophyllum (6), Lupinus, Neobartsia and Pycnophyllum (with 5 species each). Most of these species (186) are endemic to Peru, and they occupy the highest part of the study area.

A comparison with the species composition of Cordillera Vilcanota, located to the north of our study area, reveals that 46% of the species registered there have not yet been found in Carabaya. Studies in Vilconata have emphasized areas covered by Polylepis forest that were not included for Carabaya. Still, excluding those species of Polylepis forests, a third of species of the flora of Vilcanota have not been recorded in Carabaya.

At a more local scale, we found that Carabaya has similar number of taxa as those reported for an upper basin in Moquegua (Montesinos-Tubee 2011, 2012; Table 4) on the Pacific Basin. Seven plant families: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Plantaginaceae are part of the most diverse families in both study areas (Tabla 4). Two families Asteraceae and Poaceae have also equal representation for both sites, with 22%, and 15% for Carabaya, and 25% and 9% for Tambo-Ichuna respectively. However, some differences at the family level are present due to the altitudinal extent of our study (4000-5300 m) vs. those of Montesinos-Tubee (3400-4850 m). For example Cyperaceae and Caprifoliaceae are among the top ten most diverse families in the Carabaya, while Solanaceae and Cactaceae are for Moquegua (Montesinos-Tubee 2011, 2012). These differences may also reflect floristic differences between western and southern ranges.

The top ten most diverse families have also been reported by Cano et al. (2010, 2011) for periglacial sites with cryoturbated soils in Ancash (Cordillera Blanca) and Ayacucho-Huancavelica (Apacheta), reaching 79 and 87% respectively (Table 4). However, these families decrease their diversity at lower elevation (Flores et al. 2005, Arteta et al. 2006, Roque & Ramirez 2008), or when the richness is restricted to specific vegetation formations such as wetlands (Ruthsatz 2012, Valencia et al. 2013).

For the flora of Carabaya, the most abundant genera in terms of species richness were Senecio, Calamagrostis, Nototriche and Poa; this taxonomic composition towards a few highly diverse genera has been explained due to the high degree of a recent local speciation driven by geographic isolation between high alpine 'continental islands' or complexes (Sklenar & Balslev 2005, Sklenar et al. 2013). In addition, these same genera are the most abundant in terms of vegetation cover (Cuesta et al. 2017).

A perennial life form is obviously the dominant plant type in the high Andes. This life form includes most species in plant lineages with rapid diversification and radiation in the Andes, such as Lupinus, Nototriche, Pycnophyllum, Senecio and others. Hughes and Atchison (2015) suggest "that perenniality could have played a general role as a key adaptation, enabling lineages to take advantage of ecological opportunities associated with the recent availability of alpine habitats to rapidly diversify" as was observed in Lupinus (Drummond et al. 2012). In this study, half of the Carabaya flora has longer life cycles as "Perennials" represented by herbaceous forms. However, a more detailed exam might allow recognition of other types such as rosettes, mats, and cushions.

Because of the availability of data from local, regional and country floras further comparisons are now feasible. The similarities in floristic composition and richness confirm the importance of the tropical Andes as global hotspot of plant diversity. Differences in flora sizes, especially between Carabaya and its closest neighboring sites, demonstrate the need of extending botanical exploration in Peru, and for the detailed recording in different types of habitats. Plant collections are still needed in many areas to fully understand the patterns of species diversity, and characteristics of their populations. As it can be found in the results of this study, several species have not been found since their discovery (e.g., Alsine rupestris Muschl., Nototriche cupuliforme Krapov. and Nototriche erinacea A.W. Hill). The high number of species (>91%) with its lower limits above 4000 m underscores the importance of the high Andes for conservation. This is even more important today in the Peruvian high Andes, where climatic conditions and human induced changes play an important role for impacting them (see Young 2014). Threats originate directly by overlapping competing human activities such as mining, fire, agriculture, landslides, erosion and other land uses. In addition, climate change associated to these anthropic influences are leading to the fragmentation of habitats and therefore, the loss of species survival and diversity, and possible mountaintop extinctions. Finally, it should be mentioned that many taxonomic studies are still pending to fully understand the biodiversity of the fascinating Andean highlands.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.15381/rpb.v25i3.15228

Acknowledgements

We thank Daniel Montesinos for providing valuable comments on the manuscript. We also thank Kenneth R. Young for his comments and critical review of this manuscript. Curators of all the herbaria cited are thanked for making available their plant collections. We also acknowledge all the people who made the botanical collections in the studied region.

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Appendix 1. Checklist of vascular flora of the Cordillera Carabaya,
indicating growth form (F) (h: herb, s: subshrub, a: shrub, ab: tree,
c: cactoide), endemic species (E) (x: reported in Leon et al. (2007);
x* no collections in other countries but not pre-viously reported as
endemic to Peru), Elev.: elevational record of these collection(s);
Voucher: PG (Paul Gonzales), FP (Francis Pennell), JS (Jaroslav
Soukup), CV (Cesar Vargas), OT (Oscar Tovar), AW (Augusto Weberbauer),
MW (Maximilian Weigend), f!: not registered herbarium specimen, known
only as photograph from study area; [ ]: collections within brackets
come from neighboring areas.

family              Species                       F       E

Pteridophytes
Aspleniaceae        Asplenium gilliesii Hook.     h      --
                    Asplenium monanthes L.        h      --
                    Asplenium triphyllum C.       h      --
                    Presl
Dryopteridaceae     Elaphoglossum mathewsii       h      --
                    (Fee) T. Moore
                    Polystichum cochleatum        h      --
                    (Klotzsch) Hieron.
Isoetaceae          Isoetes andina Hook.          h
                    Isoetes lechleri Mett.        h
Lycopodiaceae       Phlegmariurus crassus         h      --
                    (Humb. & Bonpl. ex
                    Willd.) B. Ollg.
Ophioglossaceae     Ophioglossum                  h      --
                    crotalophoroides Walter
Polypodiaceae       Campyloneurum amphostenon     h      --
                    (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Fee
                    Campyloneurum asplundii       h      --
                    (C. Chr.) Ching
                    Melpomene peruviana           h      --
                    (Desv.) A.R. Sm. & R.C.
                    Moran
                    Pleopeltis pycnocarpa (C.     h      --
                    Chr.) A.R. Sm.
Pteridaceae         Argyrochosma nivea            h      --
                    (Poir.) Windham
                    Cheilanthes pilosa Goldm.     h      --
                    Cheilanthes pruinata          h      --
                    Kaulf.
                    Cheilanthes scariosa          h      --
                    (Sw.) C. Presl
                    Pellaea ovata (Desv.)         h      --
                    Weath.
Salviniaceae        Azolla filiculoides Lam.      h      --
Woodsiaceae         Cystopteris fragilis          h      --
                    (L.) Bernh.
                    Woodsia montevidensis         h      --
                    (Spreng.) Hieron.
Gymnospems
Ephedraceae         Ephedra rupestris Benth.      s      --
Monocots
Alstroemeriaceae    Alstroemeria pygmaea          h      --
                    Herb.
                    Bomarea dulcis (Hook.)        h      --
                    Beauverd
                    Bomarea involucrosa           h      --
                    (Herb.) Baker
Amaryllidaceae      Nothoscordum gramineum        h      --
                    (Sims) P. Beauv.
Asparagaceae        Oziroe acaulis (Baker)        h      --
                    Speta
Cyperaceae          Carex boliviensis Van         h      --
                    Heurck & Mull. Arg.
                    Carex bonplandii Kunth        h      --
                    Carex brachycalama            h      --
                    Griseb.
                    Carex pichinchensis Kunth     h      --
                    Cyperus andinus Palla ex      h      --
                    Kuk.
                    Eleocharis albibracteata      h      --
                    Nees & Meyen ex Kunth
                    Oreobolus venezuelensis       h      --
                    Steyerm.
                    Phylloscirpus acaulis         h      --
                    (Phil.) Goetgh. & D.A.
                    Simpson
                    Phylloscirpus deserticola     h      --
                    (Phil.) Dhooge & Goetgh.
                    Trichophorum rigidum          h      --
                    (Boeckeler) Goetgh.,
                    Muasya & D.A. Simpson
                    Zameioscirpus atacamensis     h      --
                    (Phil.) Dhooge & Goetgh.
                    Zameioscirpus muticus         h      --
                    Dhooge & Goetgh.
Hydrocharitaceae    Elodea potamogeton            h      --
                    (Bertero) Espinosa
Iridaceae           Cardenanthus vargasii         h      x*
                    R.C. Foster
                    Olsynium acaule (Klatt)       h      --
                    Goldblatt
                    Olsynium junceum (E. Mey.     h      --
                    ex C. Presl) Goldblatt
                    Sisyrinchium brevipes         h      --
                    Baker
                    Sisyrinchium                  h      --
                    caespitificum Kraenzl.
                    Sisyrinchium chilense         h      --
                    Hook.
                    Sisyrinchium palustre         h      --
                    Diels
                    Sisyrinchium porphyreum       h      --
                    Kraenzl.
Juncaceae           Distichia muscoides Nees      h      --
                    & Meyen
                    Juncus arcticus Willd.        h      --
                    Juncus bufonius L.            h      --
                    Juncus ebracteatus E.         h      --
                    Mey.
                    Juncus stipulatus Nees &      h      --
                    Meyen
                    Luzula ecuadoriensis          h      --
                    Balslev
                    Luzula racemosa Desv.         h      --
                    Oxychloe andina Phil.         h      --
                    Patosia clandestina           h      --
                    (Phil.) Buchenau

Juncaginaceae       Lilaea scilloides (Poir.)     h      --
                    Hauman
Orchidaceae         Aa rosei Ames                 h      --
                    Myrosmodes chiogena           h      --
                    (Schltr.) C.A. Vargas
                    Myrosmodes gymnandra          h      --
                    (Rchb. f.) C.A. Vargas
                    Myrosmodes paludosa           h      --
                    (Rchb. f.) P. Ortiz
Poaceae             Aciachne acicularis           h      --
                    Loegaard
                    Aciachne pulvinata Benth.     h      --

                    Aegopogon cenchroides         h      --
                    Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
                    Agrostis breviculmis          h      --
                    Hitchc.
                    Agrostis tolucensis Kunth     h      --
                    Alopecurus hitchcockii        h      --
                    Parodi
                    Anatherostipa hans-meyeri     h      --
                    (Pilg.) Penail.

                    Anatherostipa obtusa          h      --
                    (Nees & Meyen) Penail.

                    Avena sativa L.               h      --
                    Bromus catharticus Vahl       h      --
                    Bromus lanatus Kunth          h      --
                    Bromus pitensis Kunth         h      --
                    Bromus villosissimus          h      --
                    Hitchc.
                    Calamagrostis antoniana       h      --
                    (Griseb.) Hack. ex Dusen
                    Calamagrostis                 h      --
                    breviaristata (Wedd.)
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis brevifolia      h      --
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis chrysantha      h      --
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis eminens         h      --
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis                 h      --
                    heterophylla (Wedd.)
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis intermedia      h      --
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis jamesonii       h      --
                    Steud.
                    Calamagrostis macrophylla     h      --
                    (Pilg.) Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis minima          h      --
                    (Pilg.) Tovar
                    Calamagrostis nitidula        h      --
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis ovata           h      --
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis recta           h      --
                    (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
                    Calamagrostis rigescens       h      --
                    (J. Presl) Scribn.
                    Calamagrostis rigida          h      --
                    (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
                    Calamagrostis rupestris       h      --
                    Trin.
                    Calamagrostis setiflora       h      --
                    (Wedd.) Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis spiciformis     h      --
                    Hack.
                    Calamagrostis tarmensis       h      --
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis                 h      --
                    trichophylla Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis vicunarum       h      --
                    (Wedd.) Pilg.
                    Dielsiochloa floribunda       h      --
                    (Pilg.) Pilg.
                    Festuca breviaristata         h      --
                    Pilg.
                    Festuca divergens Tovar       h      x*
                    Festuca dolichophylla         h      --
                    J. Presl
                    Festuca humilior Nees &       h      --
                    Meyen
                    Festuca lasiorrhachis         h      --
                    Pilg.
                    Festuca orthophylla Pilg.     h      --

                    Festuca rigescens             h      --
                    (J. Presl) Kunth
                    Festuca setifolia Steud.      h      x*
                    ex Griseb.
                    Festuca tenuiculmis Tovar     h      x*
                    Hordeum muticum J. Presl      h      --
                    Jarava ichu Ruiz & Pav.       h      --
                    Muhlenbergia angustata        h      --
                    (J. Presl) Kunth

                    Muhlenbergia ligularis        h      --
                    (Hack.) Hitchc.
                    Muhlenbergia peruviana        h      --
                    (P. Beauv.) Steud.
                    Nassella brachyphylla         h      --
                    (Hitchc.) Barkworth
                    Nassella inconspicua          h      --
                    (J. Presl) Barkworth
                    Nassella pubiflora            h      --
                    (Trin. & Rupr.) E. Desv.
                    Paspalum pygmaeum Hack.       h      --
                    Pennisetum clandestinum       h      --
                    Hochst. ex Chiov.
                    Piptochaetium panicoides      h      --
                    (Lam.) E. Desv.
                    Poa aequigluma Tovar          h      --
                    Poa annua L.                  h      --
                    Poa apiculata Refulio         h      --
                    Poa ayacuchensis Tovar        h      --
                    Poa calycina (J. Presl)       h      --
                    Kunth
                    Poa dentigluma Tovar          h      --
                    Poa gilgiana Pilg.            h      --
                    Poa glaberrima Tovar          h      --
                    Poa gymnantha Pilg.           h      --
                    Poa horridula Pilg.           h      --

                    Poa humillima Pilg.           h      --
                    Poa lepidula (Nees &          h      --
                    Meyen) Soreng & L.J.
                    Gillespie
                    Poa macusaniensis (E.H.L.     h      --
                    Krause) Refulio
                    Poa marshallii Tovar          h      --
                    Poa perligulata Pilg.         h      --
                    Poa peruviana Jacq.           h      --
                    Poa pseudoaequigluma          h      --
                    Tovar
                    Poa serpaiana Refulio         h      --
                    Poa spicigera Tovar           h      --
                    Polypogon interruptus         h      --
                    Kunth
                    Trisetum spicatum (L.)        h      --
                    K. Richt.
                    Vulpia dertonensis            h      --
                    (All.) Gola
                    Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C.       h      --
                    Gmel.
Potamogetonaceae    Stuckenia punensis            h      --
                    (A. Galan) A. Galan
                    Stuckenia pectinata (L.)      h      --
                    Borner
Eudicots
Amaranthaceae       Gomphrena meyeniana Walp.     h      --
Apiaceae            Azorella biloba               h      --
                    (Schltdl.) Wedd.
                    Azorella diapensioides        h      --
                    A. Gray
                    Azorella multifida (Ruiz      h      --
                    & Pav.) Pers.
                    Bowlesia palmata Ruiz &       h      --
                    Pav.
                    Bowlesia tropaeolifolia       h      --
                    Gillies & Hook.
                    Chaerophyllum andicola        h      --
                    (Kunth) K.F. Chung
                    Daucus montanus Humb. &       h      --
                    Bonpl. ex Spreng.
                    Lilaeopsis macloviana         h      --
                    (Gand.) A.W. Hill
                    Niphogeton scabra             h      --
                    (H. Wolff) J.F. Macbr.
Apocynaceae         Philibertia                   s      --
                    lysimachioides (Wedd.)
                    T. Mey.
Asteraceae          Achyrocline alata             h      --
                    (Kunth) DC.
                    Achyrocline ramosissima       h      --
                    Britton ex Rusby
                    Ageratina glechonophylla      s      --
                    (Less.) R.M. King & H.
                    Rob.
                    Aldama helianthoides          h      --
                    (Rich.) E.E. Schill. &
                    Panero
                    Baccharis caespitosa          s      --
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
                    Baccharis genistelloides      s      --
                    (Lam.) Pers.
                    Baccharis tola Phil.          a      --
                    Baccharis tricuneata          a      --
                    (L. f.) Pers.
                    Bidens andicola Kunth         h      --
                    Chersodoma antennaria         h      --
                    (Wedd.) Cabrera
                    Chersodoma jodopappa          s      --
                    (Sch. Bip.) Cabrera
                    Chuquiraga jussieui J.F.      s      --
                    Gmel.
                    Conyza artemisioides          h      --
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Conyza bonariensis (L.)       h      --
                    Cronquist
                    Conyza coronopifolia          h      --
                    Kunth
                    Conyza deserticola Phil.      h      --
                    Cotula mexicana (DC.)         h      --
                    Cabrera
                    Cuatrecasasiella isernii      h      --
                    (Cuatrec.) H. Rob.
                    Diplostephium carabayense     s       x
                    Wedd.
                    Erigeron lanceolatus          h      --
                    Wedd.
                    Erigeron rosulatus Wedd.      h      --
                    Facelis plumosa (Wedd.)       h      --
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Galinsoga mandonii Sch.       h      --
                    Bip. ex Baker
                    Gamochaeta americana          h      --
                    (Mill.) Wedd.
                    Gamochaeta humilis Wedd.      h      --
                    Gamochaeta purpurea (L.)      h      --
                    Cabrera

                    Gnaphalium dombeyanum DC.     h      --
                    Gnaphalium lacteum Meyen      h      --
                    & Walp.
                    Gnaphalium polium Wedd.       h      --

                    Hieracium leptocephalium      h      --
                    Benth.
                    Hieracium neoherrerae         h      --
                    Zahn
                    Hypochaeris chillensis        h      --
                    (Kunth) Britton
                    Hypochaeris echegarayi        h      --
                    Hieron.
                    Hypochaeris meyeniana         h      --
                    (Walp.) Benth. & Hook.
                    f. ex
                    Griseb.
                    Hypochaeris sessiliflora      h      --
                    Kunth
                    Hypochaeris taraxacoides      h      --
                    Ball
                    Jalcophila ecuadorensis       h      --
                    M.O. Dillon & Sagast.
                    Laennecia gnaphalioides       h      --
                    (Kunth) Cass.
                    Leucheria daucifolia          h      --
                    (D. Don) Crisci
                    Misbrookea strigosissima      h      --
                    (A. Gray) V.A. Funk
                    Mniodes aretioides            s      --
                    (Wedd.) Cuatrec.
                    Mniodes conoidea (Wedd.)      h      --
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes kunthiana (DC.)       h      --
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes longifolia            h      --
                    (Cuatrec. & Aristeg.)
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes piptolepis            h      --
                    (Wedd.) S. E. Freire

                    Mniodes schultzii (Wedd.)     h      --
                    S. E. Freire

                    Mniodes subspicata            h      --
                    (Wedd.) S.E. Freire
                    Noticastrum marginatum        h      --
                    (Kunth) Cuatrec.
                    Novenia acaulis (Benth. &     h      --
                    Hook. f. ex B.D. Jacks.)
                    S.E.
                    Freire & F.H. Hellw.
                    Oriastrum stuebelii           h      --
                    (Hieron.) A.M.R. Davies
                    Oritrophium hieracioides      h      --
                    (Wedd.) Cuatrec.
                    Oritrophium limnophilum       h      --
                    (Sch. Bip.) Cuatrec.
                    Paranephelius ovatus A.       h      --
                    Gray ex Wedd.
                    Perezia ciliosa (Phil.)       h      --
                    Reiche
                    Perezia coerulescens          h       -
                    Wedd.
                    Perezia multiflora            h      --
                    (Bonpl.) Less.
                    Perezia pungens (Bonpl.)      h      --
                    Less.
                    Perezia pygmaea Wedd.         h      --
                    Perezia sublyrata Domke       h      --
                    Senecio adenophylloides       a      --
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Senecio adenophyllus          a      --
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Senecio algens Wedd.          h      --
                    Senecio breviscapus DC.       h      --
                    Senecio candollei Wedd.       h      --
                    Senecio canescens             h      --
                    (Bonpl.) Cuatrec.
                    Senecio canoi P.              h       x
                    Gonzales, Montesinos &
                    Ed. Navarro
                    Senecio chavanilloensis       h      --
                    Cuatrec.
                    Senecio collinus DC.          a       x
                    Senecio condimentarius        h      --
                    Cabrera
                    Senecio evacoides Sch.        h      --
                    Bip.
                    Senecio ferreyrae Cabrera     s       x
                    Senecio gamolepis Cabrera     s      --
                    Senecio humillimus Sch.       s      --
                    Bip.
                    Senecio hyoseridifolius       h      --
                    Wedd.
                    Senecio jarae Phil.           h      --
                    Senecio macrorrhizus          h       x
                    Wedd.
                    Senecio modestus Wedd.        h      --
                    Senecio moqueguensis          h       x
                    Montesinos
                    Senecio nivalis (Kunth)       h      --
                    Cuatrec.
                    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip.      a      --
                    Senecio pinnatilobatus        a      --
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Senecio rhizomatus Rusby      h      --
                    Senecio rudbeckiifolius       a      --
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Senecio rufescens DC.         a      --
                    Senecio serratifolius         h      --
                    (Meyen & Walp.) Cuatrec.
                    Senecio tassaensis            h       x
                    Montesinos
                    Senecio Vulgaris L.           h      --
                    Soliva neglecta Cabrera       h      --
                    Sonchus asper (L.) Hill       h      --
                    Stevia macbridei B.L.         h      --
                    Rob.
                    Stevia mandonii Sch. Bip.     h      --
                    Stuckertiella capitata        h      --
                    (Wedd.) Beauverd
                    Tagetes multiflora Kunth      h      --
                    Taraxacum fernandezianum      h      --
                    Dahlst. ex Skottsb.
                    Werneria apiculata Sch.       h      --
                    Bip.
                    Werneria glaberrima Phil.     h      --
                    Werneria heteroloba Wedd.     h      --
                    Werneria nubigena Kunth       h      --
                    Werneria obtusiloba S.F.      h      --
                    Blake
                    Werneria orbignyana Wedd.     h      --
                    Werneria pectinata            h      --
                    Lingelsh.
                    Werneria pumila Kunth         h      --
                    Werneria pygmaea Gillies      h      --
                    ex Hook. & Arn.
                    Werneria solivifolia Sch.     h      --
                    Bip.
                    Xenophyllum ciliolatum        h      --
                    (A. Gray) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum                   s      --
                    dactylophyllum (Sch.
                    Bip.) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum digitatum         h      --
                    (Wedd.) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum marcidum          h      --
                    (S.F. Blake) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum                   s      --
                    pseudodigitatum (Rockh.)
                    V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum staffordiae       s       x
                    (Sandwith) V.A. Funk
Begoniaceae         Begonia veitchii Hook. f.     h      --
Berberidaceae       Berberis agapatensis          a      --
                    Lechl.
                    Berberis carinata Lechl.      a      --
                    Berberis rectinervia          a      --
                    Rusby
Boraginaceae        Hackelia revoluta (Ruiz       h      --
                    & Pav.) I.M. Johnst.
                    Phacelia secunda J.F.         h      --
                    Gmel.
                    Plagiobothrys humilis         h      --
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M.
                    Johnst.
Brassicaceae        Brassica rapa subsp.          h      --
                    campestris (L.) Clapham
                    Brayopsis alpaminae Gilg      h      --
                    & Muschl.
                    Brayopsis monimocalyx         h      --
                    O.E. Schulz
                    Capsella bursa-pastoris       h      --
                    (L.) Medik.
                    Cardamine bonariensis         h      --
                    Pers.
                    Descurainia athrocarpa        h      --
                    (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz
                    Descurainia myriophylla       h      --
                    (Willd. ex DC.) R.E. Fr.
                    Draba brackenridgei A.        h      --
                    Gray
                    Draba cuzcoensis O.E.         h      --
                    Schulz
                    Draba loayzana Al-Shehbaz     h      --
                    Draba punoensis Al-           h       x
                    Shehbaz, Ed. Navarro, H.
                    Trinidad & A. Cano
                    Englerocharis blanca-         h       x
                    leoniae A-Shehbaz, P.
                    Gonzales & A. Cano
                    Englerocharis peruviana       h      --
                    Muschl.
                    Lepidium bipinnatifidum       h      --
                    Desv.
                    Lepidium chichicara Desv.     h      --

                    Lepidium meyenii Walp.        h      --
                    Mancoa hispida Wedd.          h      --
                    Rorippa nana (Schltdl.)       h      --
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Weberbauera insisa A-         h      --
                    Shehbaz, P. Gonzales &
                    A. Cano
                    Weberbauera peruviana         h      --
                    (DC.) Al-Shehbaz
                    Weberbauera spathulifolia     h      --
                    (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz
Cactaceae           Austrocylindropuntia-         c      --
                    floccosa (Salm-Dyck)
                    F. Ritter
                    Austrocylindropuntia          c      --
                    lagopus (K. Schum.)
                    I. Crook, J.
                    Arnold & M. Lowry             c      --
                    Echinopsis maximiliana        c      --
                    Heyder ex A. Dietr.
Calceolariaceae     Calceolaria                   h      --
                    plectranthifolia Walp.
                    Calceolaria scapiflora        h      --
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Benth.
Campanulaceae       Hypsela reniformis            h      --
                    (Kunth) C. Presl
                    Lysipomia acaulis Kunth       h      --
                    Lysipomia glandulifera        h      --
                    (Schltdl. ex Wedd.)
                    Schltdl. Ex E. Wimm.

                    Lysipomia laciniata A.        h      --
                    DC.
                    Lysipomia sphagnophila        h      --
                    Griseb. ex Wedd.
                    Wahlenbergia peruviana        h      --
                    A. Gray
                    Wahlenbergia urcosensis       h       x
                    E. Wimm.
Caprifoliaceae      Belonanthus spathulatus       h      --
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Schmale
                    Stangea paulae Graebn.        h       x
                    Stangea rhizantha             h       x
                    (A. Gray) Killip
                    Stangea wandae Graebn.        h      --

                    Valeriana andina Britton      h      --
                    Valeriana baltana Graebn.     h       x
                    Valeriana cephalantha         h       x
                    Schltdl.
                    Valeriana coarctata Ruiz      h      --
                    & Pav.
                    Valeriana globularioides      h      --
                    Graebn.
                    Valeriana herrerae Killip     h       x
                    Valeriana johannae            h       x
                    Weberl.
                    Valeriana micropterina        h      --
                    Wedd.
                    Valeriana niphobia Briq.      h      --
                    Valeriana nivalis Wedd.       h      --
                    Valeriana pennellii           h      --
                    Killip
                    Valeriana plectritoides       h       x
                    Graebn.
                    Valeriana pycnantha A.        h      --
                    Gray
Caryophyllaceae     Alsine rupestris Muschl.      h       x
                    Arenaria digyna Willd.        h      --
                    ex D.F.K. Schltdl.
                    Arenaria lanuginosa           h      --
                    (Michx.) Rohrb.
                    Cardionema ramosissimum       h      --
                    (Weinm.) A. Nelson & J.F.
                    Macbr. Cerastium danguyi      h      --
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Cerastium glomeratum          h      --
                    Thuill.
                    Cerastium mucronatum          h      --
                    Wedd.
                    Cerastium peruvianum          h      --
                    Muschl.
                    Cerastium subspicatum         h      --
                    Wedd.
                    Drymaria divaricata var.      h      --
                    stricta (Rusby) J.A. Duke
                    Paronychia andina A. Gray     h      --
                    Paronychia mandoniana         h      --
                    Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum                  h       x
                    aschersonianum Muschl.
                    Pycnophyllum bryoides         h      --
                    (Phil.) Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum glomeratum       h      --
                    Mattf.
                    Pycnophyllum lechlerianum     h       x
                    Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum molle Remy       h      --
                    Pycnophyllum weberbaueri      h      --
                    Muschl.
                    Silene mandonii (Rohrb.)      h      --
                    Bocquet
                    Silene thysanodes Fenzl       h      --
                    Spergularia fasciculata       h      --
                    Phil.
                    Stellaria cuspidata           h      --
                    D.F.K. Schltdl.
                    Stellaria media (L.)          h      --
                    Vill.
                    Stellaria weddellii           h      --
                    Pedersen
Convolvulaceae      Dichondra microcalyx          h      --
                    (Hallier f.) Fabris
Crassulaceae        Crassula closiana (Gay)       h      --
                    Reiche
                    Crassula connata              h      --
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Berger
Elatinaceae         Elatine triandra Schkuhr      h      --
Escalloniaceae      Escallonia myrtilloides       a      --
                    L. f.
Euphorbiaceae       Euphorbia huanchahana         h      --
                    (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss.
Fabaceae            Adesmia schickendantzii       s      --
                    Griseb.
                    Astragalus arequipensis       h      --
                    Vogel
                    Astragalus dielsii J.F.       h      --
                    Macbr.
                    Astragalus dillinghamii       h       x
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Astragalus diminutivus        h      --
                    (Phil.) Gomez-Sosa
                    Astragalus garbancillo        h      --
                    Cav.
                    Astragalus minimus Vogel      h      --
                    Astragalus pilgeri J.F.       h      --
                    Macbr.
                    Astragalus uniflorus DC.      h      --
                    Astragalus weddellianus       h      --
                    (Kuntze) I.M. Johnst.
                    Lupinus ananeanus Ulbr.       h      --
                    Lupinus aridulus C.P. Sm.     h      --
                    Lupinus breviscapus Ulbr.     h      --
                    Lupinus eriocladus Ulbr.      h      --
                    Lupinus gibertianus C.P.      h      --
                    Sm.
                    Lupinus microphyllus          h      --
                    Desr.
                    Lupinus peruvianus Ulbr.      h      --

                    Lupinus pulvinaris Ulbr.      h      --
                    Lupinus ulbrichianus C.P.     h      --
                    Sm.
                    Medicago polymorpha L.        h      --
                    Trifolium amabile Kunth       h      --
                    Trifolium repens L.           h      --
                    Vicia graminea Sm.            h      --

Gentianaceae        Gentiana sedifolia Kunth      h      --

                    Gentianella armerioides       h      --
                    (Griseb. ex Gilg) J.S.
                    Pringle
                    Gentianella bridgesii         h      --
                    (Gilg) Fabris ex T.N. Ho
                    & S.W. Liu
                    Gentianella                   h       x
                    campanuliformis (Reimers)
                    Fabris
                    Gentianella centamalensis     h       x
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella dolichopoda       h       x
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella lobelioides       h       x
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella persquarrosa      h       x
                    (Reimers) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella potamophila       h       x
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella primuloides       h      --
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella punicea           h      --
                    (Wedd.) Holub
                    Gentianella sandiensis        h      --
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella scarlatiflora     h       x
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella scarlatina        h      --
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Halenia caespitosa Gilg       h      --
                    Halenia umbellata             h      --
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Gilg

Geraniaceae         Erodium cicutarium (L.)       h      --
                    L'Her. ex Aiton
                    Erodium moschatum (L.)        h      --
                    L'Her. ex Aiton
                    Geranium core-core Steud.     h      --
                    Geranium crassipes Hook.      h      --
                    ex A. Gray
                    Geranium dielsianum R.        h      --
                    Knuth
                    Geranium fallax Steud.        h      --
                    Geranium sessiliflorum        h      --
                    Cav.
                    Geranium weddellii Briq.      h      --
Grossulariaceae     Ribes bolivianum Jancz.       a      --
                    Ribes brachybotrys            a      --
                    (Wedd.) Jancz.
Haloragaceae        Myriophyllum quitense         h      --
                    Kunth
Hypericaceae        Hypericum silenoides          h      --
                    Juss.
Lamiaceae           Hedeoma mandoniana Wedd.      h      --
                    Lamium amplexicaule L.        h      --
                    Lepechinia meyenii            h      --
                    (Walp.) Epling
                    Stachys pusilla (Wedd.)       h      --
                    Briq.
Loasaceae           Caiophora contorta            h      --
                    (Desr.) C. Presl
                    Caiophora horrida             h      --
                    (Britton) Urb. & Gilg
                    Caiophora rosulata            h      --
                    (Wedd.) Urb. & Gilg
Malvaceae           Acaulimalva steinbachii       h      --
                    Krapov.
                    Nototriche anthemidifolia     h      --
                    (J. Remy) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche armeriifolia       h       x
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche azorella A.W.      h      x*
                    Hill
                    Nototriche carabayensis       h       x
                    P. Gonzales, M. Chanco &
                    Ed. Navarro
                    Nototriche condensata         h      --
                    (Baker f.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche congesta A.W.      h      x*
                    Hill
                    Nototriche cupuliforme        h       x
                    Krapov.
                    Nototriche digitulifolia      h       x
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche erinacea Hill      h       x
                    ex Burtt
                    Nototriche flabellata         h      --
                    (Wedd.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche longirostris       h      --
                    (Wedd.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche longituba          h       x
                    Burtt & Hill
                    Nototriche obcuneata          h      --
                    (Baker f.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche                    h      --
                    pediculariifolia (Meyen)
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche pellicea           h       x
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche purpurascens       h      --
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche sepaliloba         h      x*
                    Hochr.
                    Nototriche staffordiae        h       x
                    Burtt & Hill
                    Nototriche sulphurea          h      --
                    A.W. Hill
                    Tarasa urbaniana (Ulbr.)      h      --
                    Krapov.
Montiaceae          Calandrinia acaulis Kunth     h      --
                    Montia fontana L.             h      --
Onagraceae          Epilobium denticulatum        h      --
                    Ruiz & Pav.
                    Oenothera multicaulis         h      --
                    Ruiz & Pav.
Orobanchaceae       Neobartsia bartsioides        h      --
                    (Hook.) Edwin
                    Neobartsia diffusa            h      --
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia elongata           h      --
                    (Wedd.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia fiebrigii          h      --
                    (Diels) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia inaequalis         h      --
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia pedicularoides     h      --
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Castilleja pumila             h      --
                    (Benth.) Wedd.
                    Castilleja virgatoides        h      --
                    Edwin
Oxalidaceae         Oxalis calachaccensis R.      h      --
                    Knuth
                    Oxalis cuzcensis R. Knuth     h      --
                    Oxalis nubigena Walp.         h      --

                    Oxalis oreocharis Diels       h      --
                    Oxalis pinguiculacea R.       h      --
                    Knuth
                    Oxalis tuberosa Molina        h      --
Phrymaceae          Mimulus glabratus Kunth       h      --
Piperaceae          Peperomia peruviana           h      --
                    Dahlst.
                    Peperomia verruculosa         h      --
                    Dahlst. ex A.W. Hill
Plantaginaceae      Callitriche heteropoda        h      --
                    Engelm. ex Hegelm.
                    Callitriche nubigena          h      --
                    Fassett
                    Ourisia biflora Wedd.         h      --
                    Ourisia muscosa Wedd.         h      --
                    Plantago australis Lam.       h      --
                    Plantago lamprophylla         h      --
                    Pilg.
                    Plantago linearis Kunth       h      --
                    Plantago nubicola             h      --
                    (Decne.) Rahn

                    Plantago orbignyana           h      --
                    Steinh. ex Decne.
                    Plantago rigida Kunth         h      --

                    Plantago sericea Ruiz &       h      --
                    Pav.
                    Plantago tubulosa Decne.      h      --
                    Veronica serpyllifolia L.     h      --
Polemoniaceae       Gilia laciniata Ruiz &        h      --
                    Pav.
                    Phlox gracilis (Douglas       h      --
                    ex Hook.) Greene
Polygonaceae        Muehlenbeckia volcanica       h      --
                    (Benth.) Endl.
Ranunculaceae       Caltha sagittata Cav.         h      --

                    Krapfia haemantha (Ulbr.)     h      --
                    Tamura
                    Oreithales integrifolia       h      --
                    (DC.) Schltdl.
                    Ranunculus breviscapus        h      --
                    DC.
                    Ranunculus filamentosus       h      --
                    Wedd.
                    Ranunculus flagellifolius     h      --
                    Nakai
                    Ranunculus limoselloides      h      --
                    Turcz.
                    Ranunculus praemorsus         h      --
                    Kunth ex DC.
                    Ranunculus trichophyllus      h      --
                    Chaix ex Vill.
                    Ranunculus uniflorus          h      --
                    Phil. ex Reiche
Rosaceae            Aphanes andicola Rothm.       h      --
                    Lachemilla barbata            h      --
                    (C. Presl) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla diplophylla        h      --
                    (Diels) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla frigida            h      --
                    (Wedd.) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla pinnata (Ruiz      h      --
                    & Pav.) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla sandiensis         h       x
                    Rothm.
                    Lachemilla vulcanica          h      --
                    (Schltdl. & Cham.) Rydb.
                    Polylepis besseri Hieron.    ab      --
                    Tetraglochin cristatum        s      --
                    (Britton) Rothm.
Rubiaceae           Galium aparine L.             h      --
                    Galium corymbosum Ruiz &      h      --
                    Pav.
Saxifragaceae       Saxifraga magellanica         h      --
                    Poir.
Scrophulariaceae    Limosella subulata E.         h      --
                    Ives
Solanaceae          Nicotiana pavonii Dunal       h      --
                    Nicotiana undulata Ruiz       h      --
                    & Pav.
                    Salpichroa amoena Benoist     s      --

                    Salpichroa glandulosa         s      --
                    (Hook.) Miers
                    Salpichroa lehmannii          s      --
                    Dammer
                    Solanum acaule Bitter         h      --
                    Solanum grandidentatum        h      --
                    Phil.
                    Solanum weddellii Phil.       h      --
Urticaceae          Urtica echinata Benth.        h      --

                    Urtica flabellata Kunth       h      --
                    Urtica urens L.               h      --
Verbenaceae         Verbena litoralis Kunth       h      --
Violaceae           Viola enmae P. Gonzales       h       x
                    Viola ferreyrae P.            h       x
                    Gonzales
                    Viola micranthella Wedd.      h      --
                    Viola pusillima Wedd.         h      --
                    Viola pygmaea Juss. Ex        h      --
                    Poir.

family              Species                       Elev.

Pteridophytes
Aspleniaceae        Asplenium gilliesii Hook.     >4000
                    Asplenium monanthes L.        >4000
                    Asplenium triphyllum C.        4499
                    Presl
Dryopteridaceae     Elaphoglossum mathewsii       >4000
                    (Fee) T. Moore
                    Polystichum cochleatum        >4000
                    (Klotzsch) Hieron.
Isoetaceae          Isoetes andina Hook.          >4000
                    Isoetes lechleri Mett.        >4000
Lycopodiaceae       Phlegmariurus crassus         >4000
                    (Humb. & Bonpl. ex
                    Willd.) B. Ollg.
Ophioglossaceae     Ophioglossum                  >4000
                    crotalophoroides Walter
Polypodiaceae       Campyloneurum amphostenon     >4000
                    (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Fee
                    Campyloneurum asplundii       >4000
                    (C. Chr.) Ching
                    Melpomene peruviana           >4000
                    (Desv.) A.R. Sm. & R.C.
                    Moran
                    Pleopeltis pycnocarpa (C.      3935
                    Chr.) A.R. Sm.
Pteridaceae         Argyrochosma nivea            >4000
                    (Poir.) Windham
                    Cheilanthes pilosa Goldm.     >4000
                    Cheilanthes pruinata          >4000
                    Kaulf.
                    Cheilanthes scariosa          >4000
                    (Sw.) C. Presl
                    Pellaea ovata (Desv.)         >4000
                    Weath.
Salviniaceae        Azolla filiculoides Lam.      >4000
Woodsiaceae         Cystopteris fragilis          >4000
                    (L.) Bernh.
                    Woodsia montevidensis         >4000
                    (Spreng.) Hieron.
Gymnospems
Ephedraceae         Ephedra rupestris Benth.      >4000
Monocots
Alstroemeriaceae    Alstroemeria pygmaea        3500-4400
                    Herb.
                    Bomarea dulcis (Hook.)         4499
                    Beauverd
                    Bomarea involucrosa           >4000
                    (Herb.) Baker
Amaryllidaceae      Nothoscordum gramineum         3800
                    (Sims) P. Beauv.
Asparagaceae        Oziroe acaulis (Baker)         4000
                    Speta
Cyperaceae          Carex boliviensis Van         >4000
                    Heurck & Mull. Arg.
                    Carex bonplandii Kunth        >4000
                    Carex brachycalama             4499
                    Griseb.
                    Carex pichinchensis Kunth     >4000
                    Cyperus andinus Palla ex      >4000
                    Kuk.
                    Eleocharis albibracteata       4381
                    Nees & Meyen ex Kunth
                    Oreobolus venezuelensis       >4000
                    Steyerm.
                    Phylloscirpus acaulis         >4000
                    (Phil.) Goetgh. & D.A.
                    Simpson
                    Phylloscirpus deserticola     >4000
                    (Phil.) Dhooge & Goetgh.
                    Trichophorum rigidum          >4000
                    (Boeckeler) Goetgh.,
                    Muasya & D.A. Simpson
                    Zameioscirpus atacamensis     >4000
                    (Phil.) Dhooge & Goetgh.
                    Zameioscirpus muticus          4285
                    Dhooge & Goetgh.
Hydrocharitaceae    Elodea potamogeton            >4000
                    (Bertero) Espinosa
Iridaceae           Cardenanthus vargasii          4399
                    R.C. Foster
                    Olsynium acaule (Klatt)        4301
                    Goldblatt
                    Olsynium junceum (E. Mey.     >4000
                    ex C. Presl) Goldblatt
                    Sisyrinchium brevipes         >4000
                    Baker
                    Sisyrinchium                  >4000
                    caespitificum Kraenzl.
                    Sisyrinchium chilense         >4000
                    Hook.
                    Sisyrinchium palustre         >4000
                    Diels
                    Sisyrinchium porphyreum        4301
                    Kraenzl.
Juncaceae           Distichia muscoides Nees      >4000
                    & Meyen
                    Juncus arcticus Willd.        >4000
                    Juncus bufonius L.            >4000
                    Juncus ebracteatus E.         >4000
                    Mey.
                    Juncus stipulatus Nees &       4381
                    Meyen
                    Luzula ecuadoriensis           4335
                    Balslev
                    Luzula racemosa Desv.         >4000
                    Oxychloe andina Phil.          4700
                    Patosia clandestina            4424
                    (Phil.) Buchenau

Juncaginaceae       Lilaea scilloides (Poir.)     >4000
                    Hauman
Orchidaceae         Aa rosei Ames                  4100
                    Myrosmodes chiogena            4897
                    (Schltr.) C.A. Vargas
                    Myrosmodes gymnandra           4458
                    (Rchb. f.) C.A. Vargas
                    Myrosmodes paludosa         4285-4897
                    (Rchb. f.) P. Ortiz
Poaceae             Aciachne acicularis           >4000
                    Loegaard
                    Aciachne pulvinata Benth.   3250-3630

                    Aegopogon cenchroides         >4000
                    Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
                    Agrostis breviculmis        3790-4600
                    Hitchc.
                    Agrostis tolucensis Kunth     >4000
                    Alopecurus hitchcockii        >4000
                    Parodi
                    Anatherostipa hans-meyeri   --3940-4335
                    (Pilg.) Penail.

                    Anatherostipa obtusa          >4000
                    (Nees & Meyen) Penail.

                    Avena sativa L.               >4000
                    Bromus catharticus Vahl       >4000
                    Bromus lanatus Kunth          >4000
                    Bromus pitensis Kunth         >4000
                    Bromus villosissimus          >4000
                    Hitchc.
                    Calamagrostis antoniana        4600
                    (Griseb.) Hack. ex Dusen
                    Calamagrostis                  4897
                    breviaristata (Wedd.)
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis brevifolia      >4000
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis chrysantha      >4000
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis eminens         >4000
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis                  3790
                    heterophylla (Wedd.)
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis intermedia       3550
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis jamesonii       >4000
                    Steud.
                    Calamagrostis macrophylla     >4000
                    (Pilg.) Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis minima          >4000
                    (Pilg.) Tovar
                    Calamagrostis nitidula         4400
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis ovata           >4000
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis recta            3470
                    (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
                    Calamagrostis rigescens       >4000
                    (J. Presl) Scribn.
                    Calamagrostis rigida          >4000
                    (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
                    Calamagrostis rupestris        4400
                    Trin.
                    Calamagrostis setiflora       >4000
                    (Wedd.) Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis spiciformis      3300
                    Hack.
                    Calamagrostis tarmensis     4288-3470
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis                 >4000
                    trichophylla Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis vicunarum        4381
                    (Wedd.) Pilg.
                    Dielsiochloa floribunda       >4000
                    (Pilg.) Pilg.
                    Festuca breviaristata         >4000
                    Pilg.
                    Festuca divergens Tovar        4559
                    Festuca dolichophylla         >4000
                    J. Presl
                    Festuca humilior Nees &       >4000
                    Meyen
                    Festuca lasiorrhachis         >4000
                    Pilg.
                    Festuca orthophylla Pilg.     >4000

                    Festuca rigescens              4897
                    (J. Presl) Kunth
                    Festuca setifolia Steud.    3500-4700
                    ex Griseb.
                    Festuca tenuiculmis Tovar     >4000
                    Hordeum muticum J. Presl      >4000
                    Jarava ichu Ruiz & Pav.       >4000
                    Muhlenbergia angustata        >4000
                    (J. Presl) Kunth

                    Muhlenbergia ligularis         3790
                    (Hack.) Hitchc.
                    Muhlenbergia peruviana         4100
                    (P. Beauv.) Steud.
                    Nassella brachyphylla         >4000
                    (Hitchc.) Barkworth
                    Nassella inconspicua          >4000
                    (J. Presl) Barkworth
                    Nassella pubiflora            >4000
                    (Trin. & Rupr.) E. Desv.
                    Paspalum pygmaeum Hack.        3630
                    Pennisetum clandestinum       >4000
                    Hochst. ex Chiov.
                    Piptochaetium panicoides       4285
                    (Lam.) E. Desv.
                    Poa aequigluma Tovar          >4000
                    Poa annua L.                   2790
                    Poa apiculata Refulio          4999
                    Poa ayacuchensis Tovar         4335
                    Poa calycina (J. Presl)       >4000
                    Kunth
                    Poa dentigluma Tovar          >4000
                    Poa gilgiana Pilg.            >4000
                    Poa glaberrima Tovar           4288
                    Poa gymnantha Pilg.           >4000
                    Poa horridula Pilg.           >4000

                    Poa humillima Pilg.           >4000
                    Poa lepidula (Nees &        4600-5300
                    Meyen) Soreng & L.J.
                    Gillespie
                    Poa macusaniensis (E.H.L.      4381
                    Krause) Refulio
                    Poa marshallii Tovar          >4000
                    Poa perligulata Pilg.         >4000
                    Poa peruviana Jacq.           >4000
                    Poa pseudoaequigluma          >4000
                    Tovar
                    Poa serpaiana Refulio          4381
                    Poa spicigera Tovar           >4000
                    Polypogon interruptus         >4000
                    Kunth
                    Trisetum spicatum (L.)         4285
                    K. Richt.
                    Vulpia dertonensis            >4000
                    (All.) Gola
                    Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C.        3690
                    Gmel.
Potamogetonaceae    Stuckenia punensis            >4000
                    (A. Galan) A. Galan
                    Stuckenia pectinata (L.)       4360
                    Borner
Eudicots
Amaranthaceae       Gomphrena meyeniana Walp.      4360
Apiaceae            Azorella biloba             4150-4399
                    (Schltdl.) Wedd.
                    Azorella diapensioides        >4000
                    A. Gray
                    Azorella multifida (Ruiz       4300
                    & Pav.) Pers.
                    Bowlesia palmata Ruiz &        3935
                    Pav.
                    Bowlesia tropaeolifolia        3900
                    Gillies & Hook.
                    Chaerophyllum andicola         4300
                    (Kunth) K.F. Chung
                    Daucus montanus Humb. &       >4000
                    Bonpl. ex Spreng.
                    Lilaeopsis macloviana         >4000
                    (Gand.) A.W. Hill
                    Niphogeton scabra             >4000
                    (H. Wolff) J.F. Macbr.
Apocynaceae         Philibertia                   >4000
                    lysimachioides (Wedd.)
                    T. Mey.
Asteraceae          Achyrocline alata             >4000
                    (Kunth) DC.
                    Achyrocline ramosissima       >4000
                    Britton ex Rusby
                    Ageratina glechonophylla      >4000
                    (Less.) R.M. King & H.
                    Rob.
                    Aldama helianthoides           3935
                    (Rich.) E.E. Schill. &
                    Panero
                    Baccharis caespitosa        4000-5300
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
                    Baccharis genistelloides      >4000
                    (Lam.) Pers.
                    Baccharis tola Phil.          >4000
                    Baccharis tricuneata          >4000
                    (L. f.) Pers.
                    Bidens andicola Kunth         >4000
                    Chersodoma antennaria          4522
                    (Wedd.) Cabrera
                    Chersodoma jodopappa          >4000
                    (Sch. Bip.) Cabrera
                    Chuquiraga jussieui J.F.      >4000
                    Gmel.
                    Conyza artemisioides          >4000
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Conyza bonariensis (L.)       >4000
                    Cronquist
                    Conyza coronopifolia           3935
                    Kunth
                    Conyza deserticola Phil.     ---3935
                    Cotula mexicana (DC.)         >4000
                    Cabrera
                    Cuatrecasasiella isernii      >4000
                    (Cuatrec.) H. Rob.
                    Diplostephium carabayense     >4000
                    Wedd.
                    Erigeron lanceolatus          >4000
                    Wedd.
                    Erigeron rosulatus Wedd.      >4000
                    Facelis plumosa (Wedd.)       >4000
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Galinsoga mandonii Sch.       -3935
                    Bip. ex Baker
                    Gamochaeta americana          >4000
                    (Mill.) Wedd.
                    Gamochaeta humilis Wedd.      -4400
                    Gamochaeta purpurea (L.)      >4000
                    Cabrera

                    Gnaphalium dombeyanum DC.     >4000
                    Gnaphalium lacteum Meyen      >4000
                    & Walp.
                    Gnaphalium polium Wedd.       >4000

                    Hieracium leptocephalium      >4000
                    Benth.
                    Hieracium neoherrerae         -4288
                    Zahn
                    Hypochaeris chillensis        -4288
                    (Kunth) Britton
                    Hypochaeris echegarayi        >4000
                    Hieron.
                    Hypochaeris meyeniana         >4000
                    (Walp.) Benth. & Hook.
                    f. ex
                    Griseb.
                    Hypochaeris sessiliflora      >4000
                    Kunth
                    Hypochaeris taraxacoides      >4000
                    Ball
                    Jalcophila ecuadorensis       -4516
                    M.O. Dillon & Sagast.
                    Laennecia gnaphalioides       >4000
                    (Kunth) Cass.
                    Leucheria daucifolia          >4000
                    (D. Don) Crisci
                    Misbrookea strigosissima      >4000
                    (A. Gray) V.A. Funk
                    Mniodes aretioides            -4500
                    (Wedd.) Cuatrec.
                    Mniodes conoidea (Wedd.)      -4500
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes kunthiana (DC.)       >4000
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes longifolia            >4000
                    (Cuatrec. & Aristeg.)
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes piptolepis            >4000
                    (Wedd.) S. E. Freire

                    Mniodes schultzii (Wedd.)     >4000
                    S. E. Freire

                    Mniodes subspicata            >4000
                    (Wedd.) S.E. Freire
                    Noticastrum marginatum        >4000
                    (Kunth) Cuatrec.
                    Novenia acaulis (Benth. &     -4300
                    Hook. f. ex B.D. Jacks.)
                    S.E.
                    Freire & F.H. Hellw.
                    Oriastrum stuebelii           >4000
                    (Hieron.) A.M.R. Davies
                    Oritrophium hieracioides      -4285
                    (Wedd.) Cuatrec.
                    Oritrophium limnophilum       >4000
                    (Sch. Bip.) Cuatrec.
                    Paranephelius ovatus A.       >4000
                    Gray ex Wedd.
                    Perezia ciliosa (Phil.)       >4000
                    Reiche
                    Perezia coerulescens
                    Wedd.
                    Perezia multiflora            >4000
                    (Bonpl.) Less.
                    Perezia pungens (Bonpl.)      >4000
                    Less.
                    Perezia pygmaea Wedd.         -4381
                    Perezia sublyrata Domke       >4000
                    Senecio adenophylloides        4520
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Senecio adenophyllus          >4000
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Senecio algens Wedd.        4335-5024
                    Senecio breviscapus DC.       >4000
                    Senecio candollei Wedd.        4335
                    Senecio canescens              4500
                    (Bonpl.) Cuatrec.
                    Senecio canoi P.            4520-4742
                    Gonzales, Montesinos &
                    Ed. Navarro
                    Senecio chavanilloensis       >4000
                    Cuatrec.
                    Senecio collinus DC.          >4000
                    Senecio condimentarius        >4000
                    Cabrera
                    Senecio evacoides Sch.        >4000
                    Bip.
                    Senecio ferreyrae Cabrera     >4000
                    Senecio gamolepis Cabrera      4857
                    Senecio humillimus Sch.        4762
                    Bip.
                    Senecio hyoseridifolius       >4000
                    Wedd.
                    Senecio jarae Phil.            4346
                    Senecio macrorrhizus          >4000
                    Wedd.
                    Senecio modestus Wedd.         4499
                    Senecio moqueguensis           4496
                    Montesinos
                    Senecio nivalis (Kunth)     4520-4897
                    Cuatrec.
                    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip.      >4000
                    Senecio pinnatilobatus         4499
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Senecio rhizomatus Rusby      >4000
                    Senecio rudbeckiifolius       >4000
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Senecio rufescens DC.         >4000
                    Senecio serratifolius          4897
                    (Meyen & Walp.) Cuatrec.
                    Senecio tassaensis             4762
                    Montesinos
                    Senecio Vulgaris L.           >4000
                    Soliva neglecta Cabrera       >4000
                    Sonchus asper (L.) Hill       >4000
                    Stevia macbridei B.L.          3935
                    Rob.
                    Stevia mandonii Sch. Bip.     >4000
                    Stuckertiella capitata        >4000
                    (Wedd.) Beauverd
                    Tagetes multiflora Kunth      >4000
                    Taraxacum fernandezianum      >4000
                    Dahlst. ex Skottsb.
                    Werneria apiculata Sch.       >4000
                    Bip.
                    Werneria glaberrima Phil.     >4000
                    Werneria heteroloba Wedd.      4939
                    Werneria nubigena Kunth       >4000
                    Werneria obtusiloba S.F.       4939
                    Blake
                    Werneria orbignyana Wedd.   4335-4499
                    Werneria pectinata            >4000
                    Lingelsh.
                    Werneria pumila Kunth         >4000
                    Werneria pygmaea Gillies       4381
                    ex Hook. & Arn.
                    Werneria solivifolia Sch.      4412
                    Bip.
                    Xenophyllum ciliolatum      4897-5230
                    (A. Gray) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum                    5024
                    dactylophyllum (Sch.
                    Bip.) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum digitatum       4897-5230
                    (Wedd.) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum marcidum        5072-5230
                    (S.F. Blake) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum                 5024-5072
                    pseudodigitatum (Rockh.)
                    V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum staffordiae        4897
                    (Sandwith) V.A. Funk
Begoniaceae         Begonia veitchii Hook. f.     >4000
Berberidaceae       Berberis agapatensis          >4000
                    Lechl.
                    Berberis carinata Lechl.      >4000
                    Berberis rectinervia           3850
                    Rusby
Boraginaceae        Hackelia revoluta (Ruiz        4335
                    & Pav.) I.M. Johnst.
                    Phacelia secunda J.F.       4000-4150
                    Gmel.
                    Plagiobothrys humilis          4520
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M.
                    Johnst.
Brassicaceae        Brassica rapa subsp.          >4000
                    campestris (L.) Clapham
                    Brayopsis alpaminae Gilg       4520
                    & Muschl.
                    Brayopsis monimocalyx       4400-4999
                    O.E. Schulz
                    Capsella bursa-pastoris       >4000
                    (L.) Medik.
                    Cardamine bonariensis         >4000
                    Pers.
                    Descurainia athrocarpa      4330-4897
                    (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz
                    Descurainia myriophylla        3935
                    (Willd. ex DC.) R.E. Fr.
                    Draba brackenridgei A.         4897
                    Gray
                    Draba cuzcoensis O.E.          4762
                    Schulz
                    Draba loayzana Al-Shehbaz      4736
                    Draba punoensis Al-         4658-4762
                    Shehbaz, Ed. Navarro, H.
                    Trinidad & A. Cano
                    Englerocharis blanca-          4897
                    leoniae A-Shehbaz, P.
                    Gonzales & A. Cano
                    Englerocharis peruviana        4644
                    Muschl.
                    Lepidium bipinnatifidum     4999-4520
                    Desv.
                    Lepidium chichicara Desv.     >4000

                    Lepidium meyenii Walp.      4300-4762
                    Mancoa hispida Wedd.           4520
                    Rorippa nana (Schltdl.)       >4000
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Weberbauera insisa A-       4522-5000
                    Shehbaz, P. Gonzales &
                    A. Cano
                    Weberbauera peruviana         >4000
                    (DC.) Al-Shehbaz
                    Weberbauera spathulifolia   4320-4892
                    (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz
Cactaceae           Austrocylindropuntia-         >4000
                    floccosa (Salm-Dyck)
                    F. Ritter
                    Austrocylindropuntia          >4000
                    lagopus (K. Schum.)
                    I. Crook, J.
                    Arnold & M. Lowry           4360-4400
                    Echinopsis maximiliana        >4000
                    Heyder ex A. Dietr.
Calceolariaceae     Calceolaria                    4288
                    plectranthifolia Walp.
                    Calceolaria scapiflora        >4000
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Benth.
Campanulaceae       Hypsela reniformis            >4000
                    (Kunth) C. Presl
                    Lysipomia acaulis Kunth       >4000
                    Lysipomia glandulifera        >4000
                    (Schltdl. ex Wedd.)
                    Schltdl. Ex E. Wimm.

                    Lysipomia laciniata A.      3595-4424
                    DC.
                    Lysipomia sphagnophila        >4000
                    Griseb. ex Wedd.
                    Wahlenbergia peruviana        >4000
                    A. Gray
                    Wahlenbergia urcosensis       >4000
                    E. Wimm.
Caprifoliaceae      Belonanthus spathulatus       >4000
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Schmale
                    Stangea paulae Graebn.       5024-084
                    Stangea rhizantha           4450-4897
                    (A. Gray) Killip
                    Stangea wandae Graebn.        >4000

                    Valeriana andina Britton       4335
                    Valeriana baltana Graebn.     >4000
                    Valeriana cephalantha         >4000
                    Schltdl.
                    Valeriana coarctata Ruiz       4644
                    & Pav.
                    Valeriana globularioides       4897
                    Graebn.
                    Valeriana herrerae Killip      4000
                    Valeriana johannae            >4000
                    Weberl.
                    Valeriana micropterina      4288-4496
                    Wedd.
                    Valeriana niphobia Briq.      >4000
                    Valeriana nivalis Wedd.        4496
                    Valeriana pennellii           >4000
                    Killip
                    Valeriana plectritoides        3800
                    Graebn.
                    Valeriana pycnantha A.         4600
                    Gray
Caryophyllaceae     Alsine rupestris Muschl.      >4000
                    Arenaria digyna Willd.         4999
                    ex D.F.K. Schltdl.
                    Arenaria lanuginosa            4000
                    (Michx.) Rohrb.
                    Cardionema ramosissimum        4000
                    (Weinm.) A. Nelson & J.F.
                    Macbr. Cerastium danguyi      >4000
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Cerastium glomeratum          >4000
                    Thuill.
                    Cerastium mucronatum          >4000
                    Wedd.
                    Cerastium peruvianum           4400
                    Muschl.
                    Cerastium subspicatum         >4000
                    Wedd.
                    Drymaria divaricata var.      >4000
                    stricta (Rusby) J.A. Duke
                    Paronychia andina A. Gray      4450
                    Paronychia mandoniana         >4000
                    Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum                  >4000
                    aschersonianum Muschl.
                    Pycnophyllum bryoides          4400
                    (Phil.) Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum glomeratum     4400-5024
                    Mattf.
                    Pycnophyllum lechlerianum      4999
                    Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum molle Remy     4335-4400
                    Pycnophyllum weberbaueri    4399-5024
                    Muschl.
                    Silene mandonii (Rohrb.)      >4000
                    Bocquet
                    Silene thysanodes Fenzl       >4000
                    Spergularia fasciculata       >4000
                    Phil.
                    Stellaria cuspidata            3800
                    D.F.K. Schltdl.
                    Stellaria media (L.)          >4000
                    Vill.
                    Stellaria weddellii           >4000
                    Pedersen
Convolvulaceae      Dichondra microcalyx          >4000
                    (Hallier f.) Fabris
Crassulaceae        Crassula closiana (Gay)       >4000
                    Reiche
                    Crassula connata              >4000
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Berger
Elatinaceae         Elatine triandra Schkuhr      >4000
Escalloniaceae      Escallonia myrtilloides       >4000
                    L. f.
Euphorbiaceae       Euphorbia huanchahana         >4000
                    (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss.
Fabaceae            Adesmia schickendantzii        4192
                    Griseb.
                    Astragalus arequipensis       >4000
                    Vogel
                    Astragalus dielsii J.F.        4897
                    Macbr.
                    Astragalus dillinghamii     4412-4999
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Astragalus diminutivus         4200
                    (Phil.) Gomez-Sosa
                    Astragalus garbancillo        >4000
                    Cav.
                    Astragalus minimus Vogel      >4000
                    Astragalus pilgeri J.F.        4450
                    Macbr.
                    Astragalus uniflorus DC.      >4000
                    Astragalus weddellianus     3750-4400
                    (Kuntze) I.M. Johnst.
                    Lupinus ananeanus Ulbr.       >4000
                    Lupinus aridulus C.P. Sm.      4335
                    Lupinus breviscapus Ulbr.     >4000
                    Lupinus eriocladus Ulbr.       4000
                    Lupinus gibertianus C.P.    3500-4600
                    Sm.
                    Lupinus microphyllus          >4000
                    Desr.
                    Lupinus peruvianus Ulbr.       4335

                    Lupinus pulvinaris Ulbr.       4500
                    Lupinus ulbrichianus C.P.     >4000
                    Sm.
                    Medicago polymorpha L.        >4000
                    Trifolium amabile Kunth       >4000
                    Trifolium repens L.           >4000
                    Vicia graminea Sm.            >4000

Gentianaceae        Gentiana sedifolia Kunth      >4000

                    Gentianella armerioides       >4000
                    (Griseb. ex Gilg) J.S.
                    Pringle
                    Gentianella bridgesii         >4000
                    (Gilg) Fabris ex T.N. Ho
                    & S.W. Liu
                    Gentianella                    4999
                    campanuliformis (Reimers)
                    Fabris
                    Gentianella centamalensis     >4000
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella dolichopoda       * 4381
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella lobelioides        4600
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella persquarrosa       4939
                    (Reimers) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella potamophila       >4000
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella primuloides       >4000
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella punicea            4000
                    (Wedd.) Holub
                    Gentianella sandiensis         3600
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella scarlatiflora     * 4300
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella scarlatina        >4000
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Halenia caespitosa Gilg      14500 ft
                    Halenia umbellata           3600-4288
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Gilg

Geraniaceae         Erodium cicutarium (L.)       >4000
                    L'Her. ex Aiton
                    Erodium moschatum (L.)        >4000
                    L'Her. ex Aiton
                    Geranium core-core Steud.      3935
                    Geranium crassipes Hook.      >4000
                    ex A. Gray
                    Geranium dielsianum R.        >4000
                    Knuth
                    Geranium fallax Steud.        >4000
                    Geranium sessiliflorum        >4000
                    Cav.
                    Geranium weddellii Briq.       4336
Grossulariaceae     Ribes bolivianum Jancz.        3850
                    Ribes brachybotrys             4800
                    (Wedd.) Jancz.
Haloragaceae        Myriophyllum quitense         >4000
                    Kunth
Hypericaceae        Hypericum silenoides          >4000
                    Juss.
Lamiaceae           Hedeoma mandoniana Wedd.      >4000
                    Lamium amplexicaule L.        >4000
                    Lepechinia meyenii            >4000
                    (Walp.) Epling
                    Stachys pusilla (Wedd.)       >4000
                    Briq.
Loasaceae           Caiophora contorta             4330
                    (Desr.) C. Presl
                    Caiophora horrida             >4000
                    (Britton) Urb. & Gilg
                    Caiophora rosulata            >4000
                    (Wedd.) Urb. & Gilg
Malvaceae           Acaulimalva steinbachii       >4000
                    Krapov.
                    Nototriche anthemidifolia      4412
                    (J. Remy) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche armeriifolia       >4000
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche azorella A.W.       4600
                    Hill
                    Nototriche carabayensis        5072
                    P. Gonzales, M. Chanco &
                    Ed. Navarro
                    Nototriche condensata         >4000
                    (Baker f.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche congesta A.W.       4500
                    Hill
                    Nototriche cupuliforme         4360
                    Krapov.
                    Nototriche digitulifolia       4897
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche erinacea Hill       4897
                    ex Burtt
                    Nototriche flabellata       4400-4897
                    (Wedd.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche longirostris        4360
                    (Wedd.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche longituba          >4000
                    Burtt & Hill
                    Nototriche obcuneata        4500-5084
                    (Baker f.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche                  4500-4700
                    pediculariifolia (Meyen)
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche pellicea            4412
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche purpurascens        4897
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche sepaliloba          4885
                    Hochr.
                    Nototriche staffordiae        >4000
                    Burtt & Hill
                    Nototriche sulphurea           4700
                    A.W. Hill
                    Tarasa urbaniana (Ulbr.)    3600-4520
                    Krapov.
Montiaceae          Calandrinia acaulis Kunth      4300
                    Montia fontana L.             >4000
Onagraceae          Epilobium denticulatum         4335
                    Ruiz & Pav.
                    Oenothera multicaulis         >4000
                    Ruiz & Pav.
Orobanchaceae       Neobartsia bartsioides        >4000
                    (Hook.) Edwin
                    Neobartsia diffusa            >4000
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia elongata         4335-4499
                    (Wedd.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia fiebrigii          >4000
                    (Diels) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia inaequalis         >4000
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia pedicularoides     >4000
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Castilleja pumila             >4000
                    (Benth.) Wedd.
                    Castilleja virgatoides        >4000
                    Edwin
Oxalidaceae         Oxalis calachaccensis R.      >4000
                    Knuth
                    Oxalis cuzcensis R. Knuth      4520
                    Oxalis nubigena Walp.         >4000

                    Oxalis oreocharis Diels        4450
                    Oxalis pinguiculacea R.     3800-4450
                    Knuth
                    Oxalis tuberosa Molina        >4000
Phrymaceae          Mimulus glabratus Kunth       >4000
Piperaceae          Peperomia peruviana            4644
                    Dahlst.
                    Peperomia verruculosa          4450
                    Dahlst. ex A.W. Hill
Plantaginaceae      Callitriche heteropoda        >4000
                    Engelm. ex Hegelm.
                    Callitriche nubigena          >4000
                    Fassett
                    Ourisia biflora Wedd.        14500 ft
                    Ourisia muscosa Wedd.          4762
                    Plantago australis Lam.       >4000
                    Plantago lamprophylla          4520
                    Pilg.
                    Plantago linearis Kunth        4516
                    Plantago nubicola           4335-4522
                    (Decne.) Rahn

                    Plantago orbignyana           >4000
                    Steinh. ex Decne.
                    Plantago rigida Kunth       4000-4381

                    Plantago sericea Ruiz &       >4000
                    Pav.
                    Plantago tubulosa Decne.      >4000
                    Veronica serpyllifolia L.      3000
Polemoniaceae       Gilia laciniata Ruiz &        >4000
                    Pav.
                    Phlox gracilis (Douglas       >4000
                    ex Hook.) Greene
Polygonaceae        Muehlenbeckia volcanica       >4000
                    (Benth.) Endl.
Ranunculaceae       Caltha sagittata Cav.         >4000

                    Krapfia haemantha (Ulbr.)   4335-4897
                    Tamura
                    Oreithales integrifolia        4500
                    (DC.) Schltdl.
                    Ranunculus breviscapus        >4000
                    DC.
                    Ranunculus filamentosus     4400-4999
                    Wedd.
                    Ranunculus flagellifolius     >4000
                    Nakai
                    Ranunculus limoselloides      >4000
                    Turcz.
                    Ranunculus praemorsus          2500
                    Kunth ex DC.
                    Ranunculus trichophyllus      >4000
                    Chaix ex Vill.
                    Ranunculus uniflorus           4381
                    Phil. ex Reiche
Rosaceae            Aphanes andicola Rothm.        4520
                    Lachemilla barbata            >4000
                    (C. Presl) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla diplophylla        >4000
                    (Diels) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla frigida             4285
                    (Wedd.) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla pinnata (Ruiz       4400
                    & Pav.) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla sandiensis         >4000
                    Rothm.
                    Lachemilla vulcanica           3600
                    (Schltdl. & Cham.) Rydb.
                    Polylepis besseri Hieron.   3800-4100
                    Tetraglochin cristatum        >4000
                    (Britton) Rothm.
Rubiaceae           Galium aparine L.              3935
                    Galium corymbosum Ruiz &      >4000
                    Pav.
Saxifragaceae       Saxifraga magellanica       3500-4400
                    Poir.
Scrophulariaceae    Limosella subulata E.         >4000
                    Ives
Solanaceae          Nicotiana pavonii Dunal       >4000
                    Nicotiana undulata Ruiz       >4000
                    & Pav.
                    Salpichroa amoena Benoist   3800-4260

                    Salpichroa glandulosa          4260
                    (Hook.) Miers
                    Salpichroa lehmannii        4200-4496
                    Dammer
                    Solanum acaule Bitter       4335-4450
                    Solanum grandidentatum      4200-4596
                    Phil.
                    Solanum weddellii Phil.     4200-4200
Urticaceae          Urtica echinata Benth.        >4000

                    Urtica flabellata Kunth     4600-4700
                    Urtica urens L.               >4000
Verbenaceae         Verbena litoralis Kunth       >4000
Violaceae           Viola enmae P. Gonzales     4300-4400
                    Viola ferreyrae P.          4300-4400
                    Gonzales
                    Viola micranthella Wedd.       4335
                    Viola pusillima Wedd.         >4000
                    Viola pygmaea Juss. Ex      4300-4360
                    Poir.

family              Species                            Voucher

Pteridophytes
Aspleniaceae        Asplenium gilliesii Hook.             f!
                    Asplenium monanthes L.          Boeke JD. 2972
                    Asplenium triphyllum C.            PG 3816
                    Presl
Dryopteridaceae     Elaphoglossum mathewsii            PG 3025
                    (Fee) T. Moore
                    Polystichum cochleatum                f!
                    (Klotzsch) Hieron.
Isoetaceae          Isoetes andina Hook.              Leon 5316
                    Isoetes lechleri Mett.           Lechler 1937
Lycopodiaceae       Phlegmariurus crassus                 f!
                    (Humb. & Bonpl. ex
                    Willd.) B. Ollg.
Ophioglossaceae     Ophioglossum                          f!
                    crotalophoroides Walter
Polypodiaceae       Campyloneurum amphostenon             f!
                    (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Fee
                    Campyloneurum asplundii               f!
                    (C. Chr.) Ching
                    Melpomene peruviana                   f!
                    (Desv.) A.R. Sm. & R.C.
                    Moran
                    Pleopeltis pycnocarpa (C.          PG 3047
                    Chr.) A.R. Sm.
Pteridaceae         Argyrochosma nivea                    f!
                    (Poir.) Windham
                    Cheilanthes pilosa Goldm.             f!
                    Cheilanthes pruinata                  f!
                    Kaulf.
                    Cheilanthes scariosa                  f!
                    (Sw.) C. Presl
                    Pellaea ovata (Desv.)                 f!
                    Weath.
Salviniaceae        Azolla filiculoides Lam.              f!
Woodsiaceae         Cystopteris fragilis                  f!
                    (L.) Bernh.
                    Woodsia montevidensis                 f!
                    (Spreng.) Hieron.
Gymnospems
Ephedraceae         Ephedra rupestris Benth.              f!
Monocots
Alstroemeriaceae    Alstroemeria pygmaea         MW 2000/68, CV 6840
                    Herb.
                    Bomarea dulcis (Hook.)      Hill 3819, Raimondi A.
                    Beauverd                            10229
                    Bomarea involucrosa                   f!
                    (Herb.) Baker
Amaryllidaceae      Nothoscordum gramineum             CV 15181
                    (Sims) P. Beauv.
Asparagaceae        Oziroe acaulis (Baker)             CV 7146
                    Speta
Cyperaceae          Carex boliviensis Van                 f!
                    Heurck & Mull. Arg.
                    Carex bonplandii Kunth                f!
                    Carex brachycalama                    f!
                    Griseb.
                    Carex pichinchensis Kunth   Lechler 2519, PG 3817
                    Cyperus andinus Palla ex              f!
                    Kuk.
                    Eleocharis albibracteata       f! [Meyen s.n.]
                    Nees & Meyen ex Kunth
                    Oreobolus venezuelensis            PG 3083
                    Steyerm.
                    Phylloscirpus acaulis            f! [PG 1604]
                    (Phil.) Goetgh. & D.A.
                    Simpson
                    Phylloscirpus deserticola         Leon 5315
                    (Phil.) Dhooge & Goetgh.
                    Trichophorum rigidum                  f!
                    (Boeckeler) Goetgh.,
                    Muasya & D.A. Simpson
                    Zameioscirpus atacamensis             f!
                    (Phil.) Dhooge & Goetgh.
                    Zameioscirpus muticus            f! [PG1603]
                    Dhooge & Goetgh.
Hydrocharitaceae    Elodea potamogeton                    f!
                    (Bertero) Espinosa
Iridaceae           Cardenanthus vargasii              PG 3450
                    R.C. Foster
                    Olsynium acaule (Klatt)            PG 3421
                    Goldblatt
                    Olsynium junceum (E. Mey.             f!
                    ex C. Presl) Goldblatt
                    Sisyrinchium brevipes                 f!
                    Baker
                    Sisyrinchium                          f!
                    caespitificum Kraenzl.
                    Sisyrinchium chilense                 f!
                    Hook.
                    Sisyrinchium palustre                 f!
                    Diels
                    Sisyrinchium porphyreum            PG 3418
                    Kraenzl.
Juncaceae           Distichia muscoides Nees              f!
                    & Meyen
                    Juncus arcticus Willd.                f!
                    Juncus bufonius L.                    f!
                    Juncus ebracteatus E.                 f!
                    Mey.
                    Juncus stipulatus Nees &           PG 3086
                    Meyen
                    Luzula ecuadoriensis               PG 3002
                    Balslev
                    Luzula racemosa Desv.                 f!
                    Oxychloe andina Phil.              PG 3452
                    Patosia clandestina                PG 3447
                    (Phil.) Buchenau

Juncaginaceae       Lilaea scilloides (Poir.)             f!
                    Hauman
Orchidaceae         Aa rosei Ames                      CV 6846
                    Myrosmodes chiogena                PG 3057b
                    (Schltr.) C.A. Vargas
                    Myrosmodes gymnandra               PG 2996
                    (Rchb. f.) C.A. Vargas
                    Myrosmodes paludosa           PG 3022, PG 3057a
                    (Rchb. f.) P. Ortiz
Poaceae             Aciachne acicularis                   f!
                    Loegaard
                    Aciachne pulvinata Benth.   Bennett B. 2004, 2099,
                                                     Lechler 3238
                    Aegopogon cenchroides                 f!
                    Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
                    Agrostis breviculmis            Anonimo 7158,
                    Hitchc.                        Bennett B. 2283
                    Agrostis tolucensis Kunth             f!
                    Alopecurus hitchcockii                f!
                    Parodi
                    Anatherostipa hans-meyeri     AW 940, Bennett B.
                    (Pilg.) Penail.              2759, Lechler 1978,
                                                       PG 3017
                    Anatherostipa obtusa         f! [Monheim 160, 10,
                    (Nees & Meyen) Penail.          OT 5175, 5259,
                                                    Weddell 4488]
                    Avena sativa L.                  f! [OT s.n.]
                    Bromus catharticus Vahl        f! [Monheim 19]
                    Bromus lanatus Kunth            f! [CV 16233]
                    Bromus pitensis Kunth                 f!
                    Bromus villosissimus               CV 7894
                    Hitchc.
                    Calamagrostis antoniana            CV 7184
                    (Griseb.) Hack. ex Dusen
                    Calamagrostis                      PG 3067
                    breviaristata (Wedd.)
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis brevifolia              f!
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis chrysantha      CV 7167, Leon 5321
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis eminens                 f!
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis                  Bennett B. 2287
                    heterophylla (Wedd.)
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis intermedia       Metcalf R. 30433
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis jamesonii        f! [Pearson 75]
                    Steud.
                    Calamagrostis macrophylla      Metcalf R. 30433
                    (Pilg.) Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis minima                AW 953
                    (Pilg.) Tovar
                    Calamagrostis nitidula        AW 960, Leon 5319
                    Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis ovata         CV 7892, Lechler 2057
                    (J. Presl) Steud.
                    Calamagrostis recta            Bennett B. 2264
                    (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
                    Calamagrostis rigescens          f! [JS 113]
                    (J. Presl) Scribn.
                    Calamagrostis rigida                  f!
                    (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud.
                    Calamagrostis rupestris            CV 8131
                    Trin.
                    Calamagrostis setiflora               f!
                    (Wedd.) Pilg.
                    Calamagrostis spiciformis      Bennett B. 2494
                    Hack.
                    Calamagrostis tarmensis        Bennett B. 2263,
                    Pilg.                           PG 3034, 3018
                    Calamagrostis                  f! [Stordy s.n.,
                    trichophylla Pilg.               Harlam s.n.]
                    Calamagrostis vicunarum            PG 3085
                    (Wedd.) Pilg.
                    Dielsiochloa floribunda            AW 1028,
                    (Pilg.) Pilg.                  Leon 5320, 5342
                    Festuca breviaristata                 f!
                    Pilg.
                    Festuca divergens Tovar            PG 2998
                    Festuca dolichophylla            f! [JS 447,
                    J. Presl                        OT 5243, 5159]
                    Festuca humilior Nees &            CV 7897
                    Meyen
                    Festuca lasiorrhachis         Ferreyra R. 16741
                    Pilg.
                    Festuca orthophylla Pilg.      f! [Pearson 46,
                                                  OT 5102, AW 4087]
                    Festuca rigescens                  PG 3049
                    (J. Presl) Kunth
                    Festuca setifolia Steud.         Lechler 1826
                    ex Griseb.
                    Festuca tenuiculmis Tovar             f!
                    Hordeum muticum J. Presl              f!
                    Jarava ichu Ruiz & Pav.            [JS 115]
                    Muhlenbergia angustata         f! [Pearsson 10,
                    (J. Presl) Kunth             Stafford D. 63, Rauh
                                                   1490, 642] Boeke
                                                       JD. 2974
                    Muhlenbergia ligularis         Bennett B. 2284
                    (Hack.) Hitchc.
                    Muhlenbergia peruviana         Bennett B. 2738
                    (P. Beauv.) Steud.
                    Nassella brachyphylla              CV 7901
                    (Hitchc.) Barkworth
                    Nassella inconspicua          f! [OT 5187, 5333,
                    (J. Presl) Barkworth             Harlam s.n.]
                    Nassella pubiflora            f! [Lechler 1736,
                    (Trin. & Rupr.) E. Desv.        Ellenberg 421]
                    Paspalum pygmaeum Hack.        Bennett B. 2010
                    Pennisetum clandestinum               f!
                    Hochst. ex Chiov.
                    Piptochaetium panicoides       CV 7163, PG 3020
                    (Lam.) E. Desv.
                    Poa aequigluma Tovar                  f!
                    Poa annua L.                   Bennett B. 2289
                    Poa apiculata Refulio              PG 2985
                    Poa ayacuchensis Tovar             PG 3019
                    Poa calycina (J. Presl)            CV 7891
                    Kunth
                    Poa dentigluma Tovar                  f!
                    Poa gilgiana Pilg.                 CV 7902
                    Poa glaberrima Tovar               PG 3035
                    Poa gymnantha Pilg.                CV 7174
                    Poa horridula Pilg.             Lechler 2682,
                                                   Bennett B. 2323
                    Poa humillima Pilg.                   f!
                    Poa lepidula (Nees &          CV 8136, Leon 5323
                    Meyen) Soreng & L.J.
                    Gillespie
                    Poa macusaniensis (E.H.L.   Lechler 1836, PG 3091
                    Krause) Refulio
                    Poa marshallii Tovar                  f!
                    Poa perligulata Pilg.                 f!
                    Poa peruviana Jacq.                   f!
                    Poa pseudoaequigluma                  f!
                    Tovar
                    Poa serpaiana Refulio              PG 3084
                    Poa spicigera Tovar                   f!
                    Polypogon interruptus                 f!
                    Kunth
                    Trisetum spicatum (L.)             PG 3024
                    K. Richt.
                    Vulpia dertonensis                    f!
                    (All.) Gola
                    Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C.        Bennett B. 2660
                    Gmel.
Potamogetonaceae    Stuckenia punensis             f! [Iltis 1441]
                    (A. Galan) A. Galan
                    Stuckenia pectinata (L.)           CV 7132
                    Borner
Eudicots
Amaranthaceae       Gomphrena meyeniana Walp.          CV 7121
Apiaceae            Azorella biloba               CV 6838, CV 6848,
                    (Schltdl.) Wedd.            Lechler s.n., PG 3448
                    Azorella diapensioides      f! [CV 13010, JS 210;
                    A. Gray                        214, Stordy 32]
                    Azorella multifida (Ruiz           CV 6841
                    & Pav.) Pers.
                    Bowlesia palmata Ruiz &            PG 3043
                    Pav.
                    Bowlesia tropaeolifolia         Hoogte L. 2402
                    Gillies & Hook.
                    Chaerophyllum andicola      CV 1308, Hoogte L. 850
                    (Kunth) K.F. Chung
                    Daucus montanus Humb. &               f!
                    Bonpl. ex Spreng.
                    Lilaeopsis macloviana          f! [Aguilar 135]
                    (Gand.) A.W. Hill
                    Niphogeton scabra                     f!
                    (H. Wolff) J.F. Macbr.
Apocynaceae         Philibertia                           f!
                    lysimachioides (Wedd.)
                    T. Mey.
Asteraceae          Achyrocline alata                     f!
                    (Kunth) DC.
                    Achyrocline ramosissima        f! [Aguilar 441,
                    Britton ex Rusby               FP 13484, JS 93]
                    Ageratina glechonophylla              f!
                    (Less.) R.M. King & H.
                    Rob.
                    Aldama helianthoides               PG 3040
                    (Rich.) E.E. Schill. &
                    Panero
                    Baccharis caespitosa              Leon 5338
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
                    Baccharis genistelloides        Boeke JD. 3105
                    (Lam.) Pers.
                    Baccharis tola Phil.                  f!
                    Baccharis tricuneata            Boeke JD. 3168
                    (L. f.) Pers.
                    Bidens andicola Kunth                 f!
                    Chersodoma antennaria              PG 3432
                    (Wedd.) Cabrera
                    Chersodoma jodopappa             f! [PG 3311]
                    (Sch. Bip.) Cabrera
                    Chuquiraga jussieui J.F.    Stafford D. 1111, 420
                    Gmel.
                    Conyza artemisioides               PG 3072
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Conyza bonariensis (L.)               f!
                    Cronquist
                    Conyza coronopifolia               PG 3038
                    Kunth
                    Conyza deserticola Phil.           PG 3039
                    Cotula mexicana (DC.)                 f!
                    Cabrera
                    Cuatrecasasiella isernii              f!
                    (Cuatrec.) H. Rob.
                    Diplostephium carabayense             f!
                    Wedd.
                    Erigeron lanceolatus                  f!
                    Wedd.
                    Erigeron rosulatus Wedd.          Leon 5327
                    Facelis plumosa (Wedd.)         f! [FP 13459]
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Galinsoga mandonii Sch.            PG 3046
                    Bip. ex Baker
                    Gamochaeta americana            Boeke JD. 3053
                    (Mill.) Wedd.
                    Gamochaeta humilis Wedd.           CV 17630
                    Gamochaeta purpurea (L.)     f! [Aguilar, 418, CV
                    Cabrera                     s.n, 16254, Rauh P650]

                    Gnaphalium dombeyanum DC.       Boeke JD. 3163
                    Gnaphalium lacteum Meyen        f! [FP 13444]
                    & Walp.
                    Gnaphalium polium Wedd.      f! [Aguilar, 417, FP
                                                13444, 13470, 13470a]
                    Hieracium leptocephalium              f!
                    Benth.
                    Hieracium neoherrerae              PG 3030
                    Zahn
                    Hypochaeris chillensis             PG 3029
                    (Kunth) Britton
                    Hypochaeris echegarayi                f!
                    Hieron.
                    Hypochaeris meyeniana                 f!
                    (Walp.) Benth. & Hook.
                    f. ex
                    Griseb.
                    Hypochaeris sessiliflora              f!
                    Kunth
                    Hypochaeris taraxacoides              f!
                    Ball
                    Jalcophila ecuadorensis            PG 3102
                    M.O. Dillon & Sagast.
                    Laennecia gnaphalioides               f!
                    (Kunth) Cass.
                    Leucheria daucifolia              JS J. 474
                    (D. Don) Crisci
                    Misbrookea strigosissima              f!
                    (A. Gray) V.A. Funk
                    Mniodes aretioides              Dillon M. 1083
                    (Wedd.) Cuatrec.
                    Mniodes conoidea (Wedd.)        Dillon M. 1082
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes kunthiana (DC.)           Leon 5326
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes longifolia                    f!
                    (Cuatrec. & Aristeg.)
                    S. E. Freire
                    Mniodes piptolepis          f! [Aguilar s.n., 427,
                    (Wedd.) S. E. Freire         Mexia 4262, FP13368,
                                                        13437]
                    Mniodes schultzii (Wedd.)      FP13368, 13437]
                    S. E. Freire                 f! [Stafford D. 746]

                    Mniodes subspicata           f! [Dillon M., 1070,
                    (Wedd.) S.E. Freire            FP 13369, 13471]
                    Noticastrum marginatum                f!
                    (Kunth) Cuatrec.
                    Novenia acaulis (Benth. &        Martin 2092
                    Hook. f. ex B.D. Jacks.)
                    S.E.
                    Freire & F.H. Hellw.
                    Oriastrum stuebelii                   f!
                    (Hieron.) A.M.R. Davies
                    Oritrophium hieracioides           PG 3026
                    (Wedd.) Cuatrec.
                    Oritrophium limnophilum               f!
                    (Sch. Bip.) Cuatrec.
                    Paranephelius ovatus A.               f!
                    Gray ex Wedd.
                    Perezia ciliosa (Phil.)               f!
                    Reiche
                    Perezia coerulescens            CV 7169, 9626,
                    Wedd.                           Dillon M. 1089
                    Perezia multiflora              f! [Zuniga 33,
                    (Bonpl.) Less.                    FP 13429]
                    Perezia pungens (Bonpl.)          Diaz s.n.
                    Less.
                    Perezia pygmaea Wedd.        PG 3090, Monheim 55
                    Perezia sublyrata Domke               f!
                    Senecio adenophylloides         PG 3070, 3071
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Senecio adenophyllus                  f!
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Senecio algens Wedd.           PG 3010, PG 3825
                    Senecio breviscapus DC.               f!
                    Senecio candollei Wedd.            PG 3005
                    Senecio canescens               Dillon M. 1080
                    (Bonpl.) Cuatrec.
                    Senecio canoi P.             PG 3429, 3428, 3441
                    Gonzales, Montesinos &
                    Ed. Navarro
                    Senecio chavanilloensis         Boeke JD. 3000
                    Cuatrec.
                    Senecio collinus DC.                  f!
                    Senecio condimentarius                f!
                    Cabrera
                    Senecio evacoides Sch.                f!
                    Bip.
                    Senecio ferreyrae Cabrera             f!
                    Senecio gamolepis Cabrera      Linares E. 2733
                    Senecio humillimus Sch.         PG 3442, 3443
                    Bip.
                    Senecio hyoseridifolius               f!
                    Wedd.
                    Senecio jarae Phil.            Linares E. 2712
                    Senecio macrorrhizus                  f!
                    Wedd.
                    Senecio modestus Wedd.             PG 3814
                    Senecio moqueguensis               PG 3422
                    Montesinos
                    Senecio nivalis (Kunth)         PG 3822, 3056
                    Cuatrec.
                    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip.              f!
                    Senecio pinnatilobatus             PG 3821
                    Sch. Bip.
                    Senecio rhizomatus Rusby              f!
                    Senecio rudbeckiifolius               f!
                    Meyen & Walp.
                    Senecio rufescens DC.                 f!
                    Senecio serratifolius              PG 3053
                    (Meyen & Walp.) Cuatrec.
                    Senecio tassaensis              PG 3444, 3445
                    Montesinos
                    Senecio Vulgaris L.                   f!
                    Soliva neglecta Cabrera               f!
                    Sonchus asper (L.) Hill               f!
                    Stevia macbridei B.L.              PG 3045
                    Rob.
                    Stevia mandonii Sch. Bip.             f!
                    Stuckertiella capitata         f! [Iltis 1426,
                    (Wedd.) Beauverd                   JS 504]
                    Tagetes multiflora Kunth              f!
                    Taraxacum fernandezianum              f!
                    Dahlst. ex Skottsb.
                    Werneria apiculata Sch.               f!
                    Bip.
                    Werneria glaberrima Phil.             f!
                    Werneria heteroloba Wedd.          PG 2995
                    Werneria nubigena Kunth               f!
                    Werneria obtusiloba S.F.           PG 2994
                    Blake
                    Werneria orbignyana Wedd.       PG 3004, 3820
                    Werneria pectinata                    f!
                    Lingelsh.
                    Werneria pumila Kunth                 f!
                    Werneria pygmaea Gillies        PG 3088, 3089
                    ex Hook. & Arn.
                    Werneria solivifolia Sch.          PG 3094
                    Bip.
                    Xenophyllum ciliolatum       PG 3061, 3837, 3104
                    (A. Gray) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum                        PG 3829
                    dactylophyllum (Sch.
                    Bip.) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum digitatum        PG 3048, 2978, 3103
                    (Wedd.) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum marcidum            PG 3832, 3106
                    (S.F. Blake) V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum                     PG 3828, 3833
                    pseudodigitatum (Rockh.)
                    V.A. Funk
                    Xenophyllum staffordiae            PG 3055
                    (Sandwith) V.A. Funk
Begoniaceae         Begonia veitchii Hook. f.             f!
Berberidaceae       Berberis agapatensis             Lechler 2646
                    Lechl.
                    Berberis carinata Lechl.         Lechler 2644
                    Berberis rectinervia               CV 6853
                    Rusby
Boraginaceae        Hackelia revoluta (Ruiz            PG 3003
                    & Pav.) I.M. Johnst.
                    Phacelia secunda J.F.          CV 12534, 7003,
                    Gmel.                          Metcalf R. 30708
                    Plagiobothrys humilis              PG 3079
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M.
                    Johnst.
Brassicaceae        Brassica rapa subsp.                  f!
                    campestris (L.) Clapham
                    Brayopsis alpaminae Gilg           PG 3075
                    & Muschl.
                    Brayopsis monimocalyx         CV 17627, PG 2991
                    O.E. Schulz
                    Capsella bursa-pastoris               f!
                    (L.) Medik.
                    Cardamine bonariensis          f! [Lecher 1811]
                    Pers.
                    Descurainia athrocarpa         CV 7008, PG 3051
                    (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz
                    Descurainia myriophylla            PG 3042
                    (Willd. ex DC.) R.E. Fr.
                    Draba brackenridgei A.             PG 3064
                    Gray
                    Draba cuzcoensis O.E.              PG 3438
                    Schulz
                    Draba loayzana Al-Shehbaz      Navarro E. 1092
                    Draba punoensis Al-            Navarro E. 1087,
                    Shehbaz, Ed. Navarro, H.           PG 3437
                    Trinidad & A. Cano
                    Englerocharis blanca-              PG 3059
                    leoniae A-Shehbaz, P.
                    Gonzales & A. Cano
                    Englerocharis peruviana        Linares E. 2708
                    Muschl.
                    Lepidium bipinnatifidum         PG 2992, 3080
                    Desv.
                    Lepidium chichicara Desv.     f! [Meyen s.n. CV
                                                18541, PG 3307, 3308]
                    Lepidium meyenii Walp.      CV 7134, 7011, PG 3439
                    Mancoa hispida Wedd.               PG 3077
                    Rorippa nana (Schltdl.)          Lechler 2583
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Weberbauera insisa A-           PG 3430, 3107
                    Shehbaz, P. Gonzales &
                    A. Cano
                    Weberbauera peruviana            MW 2000/120
                    (DC.) Al-Shehbaz
                    Weberbauera spathulifolia   CV 6837, 6837, PG 3060
                    (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz
Cactaceae           Austrocylindropuntia-                 f!
                    floccosa (Salm-Dyck)
                    F. Ritter
                    Austrocylindropuntia
                    lagopus (K. Schum.)
                    I. Crook, J.
                    Arnold & M. Lowry               CV 7136, 22550
                    Echinopsis maximiliana                f!
                    Heyder ex A. Dietr.
Calceolariaceae     Calceolaria                        PG 3028
                    plectranthifolia Walp.
                    Calceolaria scapiflora                f!
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Benth.
Campanulaceae       Hypsela reniformis          f! [JS 100, Mandon 489]
                    (Kunth) C. Presl
                    Lysipomia acaulis Kunth               f!
                    Lysipomia glandulifera           Lechler 2076
                    (Schltdl. ex Wedd.)
                    Schltdl. Ex E. Wimm.            Lechler 1956,
                                                  Raimondi A. 11597,
                    Lysipomia laciniata A.       Sharpe 109, CV 1290,
                    DC.                             10724, PG 3446
                    Lysipomia sphagnophila           Lechler 2641
                    Griseb. ex Wedd.
                    Wahlenbergia peruviana                f!
                    A. Gray
                    Wahlenbergia urcosensis               f!
                    E. Wimm.
Caprifoliaceae      Belonanthus spathulatus               f!
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Schmale
                    Stangea paulae Graebn.          PG 3826, 2979
                    Stangea rhizantha              CV 7012, PG 3050
                    (A. Gray) Killip
                    Stangea wandae Graebn.       f! [Stafford D. 737,
                                                        1268]
                    Valeriana andina Britton           PG 3015
                    Valeriana baltana Graebn.        Ferreyra 531
                    Valeriana cephalantha            Lechler 2044
                    Schltdl.
                    Valeriana coarctata Ruiz       Linares E. 2690
                    & Pav.
                    Valeriana globularioides           PG 3054
                    Graebn.
                    Valeriana herrerae Killip          CV 7145
                    Valeriana johannae            Bernardi L. 16774
                    Weberl.
                    Valeriana micropterina       PG 3032, 3001, 3016,
                    Wedd.                         3425, Lechler 1962
                    Valeriana niphobia Briq.      Hohenacker R. 1962
                    Valeriana nivalis Wedd.            PG 3427
                    Valeriana pennellii               f! [CV 31]
                    Killip
                    Valeriana plectritoides        CV 6863, AW 928a
                    Graebn.
                    Valeriana pycnantha A.             CV 7180
                    Gray
Caryophyllaceae     Alsine rupestris Muschl.           AW 1042
                    Arenaria digyna Willd.             PG 2990
                    ex D.F.K. Schltdl.
                    Arenaria lanuginosa                CV 7148
                    (Michx.) Rohrb.
                    Cardionema ramosissimum            CV 7154
                    (Weinm.) A. Nelson & J.F.
                    Macbr. Cerastium danguyi              f!
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Cerastium glomeratum                  f!
                    Thuill.
                    Cerastium mucronatum                  f!
                    Wedd.
                    Cerastium peruvianum               CV 7036
                    Muschl.
                    Cerastium subspicatum          Weddell H. 4653
                    Wedd.
                    Drymaria divaricata var.         Lechler 1947
                    stricta (Rusby) J.A. Duke
                    Paronychia andina A. Gray          CV 7015
                    Paronychia mandoniana          f! [Lecher 1760]
                    Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum                          f!
                    aschersonianum Muschl.
                    Pycnophyllum bryoides              AW 501b
                    (Phil.) Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum glomeratum         AW 501a, 952,
                    Mattf.                          PG 3081, 3827
                    Pycnophyllum lechlerianum          PG 2988
                    Rohrb.
                    Pycnophyllum molle Remy      PG 3009, AW 946, 950
                    Pycnophyllum weberbaueri        PG 3451, 3823
                    Muschl.
                    Silene mandonii (Rohrb.)              f!
                    Bocquet
                    Silene thysanodes Fenzl               f!
                    Spergularia fasciculata        f! [Lecher 1772]
                    Phil.
                    Stellaria cuspidata                 AW 925
                    D.F.K. Schltdl.
                    Stellaria media (L.)                  f!
                    Vill.
                    Stellaria weddellii                   f!
                    Pedersen
Convolvulaceae      Dichondra microcalyx                  f!
                    (Hallier f.) Fabris
Crassulaceae        Crassula closiana (Gay)               f!
                    Reiche
                    Crassula connata                f! [FP 13043]
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Berger
Elatinaceae         Elatine triandra Schkuhr         Lechler 2687
Escalloniaceae      Escallonia myrtilloides         Boeke JD. 3020
                    L. f.
Euphorbiaceae       Euphorbia huanchahana                 f!
                    (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss.
Fabaceae            Adesmia schickendantzii           Galan 3896
                    Griseb.
                    Astragalus arequipensis           JS J. 966
                    Vogel
                    Astragalus dielsii J.F.            PG 3058
                    Macbr.
                    Astragalus dillinghamii         PG 3100, 2983
                    J.F. Macbr.
                    Astragalus diminutivus             CV 15179
                    (Phil.) Gomez-Sosa
                    Astragalus garbancillo            f! [JS 85]
                    Cav.
                    Astragalus minimus Vogel        f! [Meyen 67]
                    Astragalus pilgeri J.F.            CV 7026
                    Macbr.
                    Astragalus uniflorus DC.              f!
                    Astragalus weddellianus        JS J. 549; 424,
                    (Kuntze) I.M. Johnst.           CV 7026, 7030
                    Lupinus ananeanus Ulbr.               f!
                    Lupinus aridulus C.P. Sm.          PG 3006
                    Lupinus breviscapus Ulbr.             f!
                    Lupinus eriocladus Ulbr.           CV 7153
                    Lupinus gibertianus C.P.        CV 6852, 7170,
                    Sm.                              Lechler 1842
                    Lupinus microphyllus                  f!
                    Desr.
                    Lupinus peruvianus Ulbr.        PG 3008, 3012,
                                                    Antezana F. 16
                    Lupinus pulvinaris Ulbr.            AW 985
                    Lupinus ulbrichianus C.P.           AW 870
                    Sm.
                    Medicago polymorpha L.                f!
                    Trifolium amabile Kunth         f! [CV 21253]
                    Trifolium repens L.                   f!
                    Vicia graminea Sm.           f! [CV 12499, 18540,
                                                        20915]
Gentianaceae        Gentiana sedifolia Kunth     f! [FP 13418; 13426,
                                                        JS 98]
                    Gentianella armerioides         Lechler 2000a
                    (Griseb. ex Gilg) J.S.
                    Pringle
                    Gentianella bridgesii              AW 1048
                    (Gilg) Fabris ex T.N. Ho
                    & S.W. Liu
                    Gentianella                        PG 2986
                    campanuliformis (Reimers)
                    Fabris
                    Gentianella centamalensis             f!
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella dolichopoda            PG 3092
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella lobelioides             AW 955
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella persquarrosa           PG 2993
                    (Reimers) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella potamophila               f!
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Gentianella primuloides          Lechler 2002
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella punicea            Weddell H. s.n.
                    (Wedd.) Holub
                    Gentianella sandiensis             AW 917a
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella scarlatiflora          CV 15180
                    (Gilg) J.S. Pringle
                    Gentianella scarlatina             AW 1047
                    (Gilg) Zarucchi
                    Halenia caespitosa Gilg        Stafford D. 1117
                    Halenia umbellata            MW 2000/123, Hoogte
                    (Ruiz & Pav.) Gilg             L. 2399, PG 3031

Geraniaceae         Erodium cicutarium (L.)         f! [FP 13401]
                    L'Her. ex Aiton
                    Erodium moschatum (L.)                f!
                    L'Her. ex Aiton
                    Geranium core-core Steud.       PG 3037, 3041
                    Geranium crassipes Hook.         Lechler 1985
                    ex A. Gray
                    Geranium dielsianum R.                f!
                    Knuth
                    Geranium fallax Steud.           Lechler 1907
                    Geranium sessiliflorum          f! [AW 1003a,
                    Cav.                              FP 13439]
                    Geranium weddellii Briq.          JS J. 537
Grossulariaceae     Ribes bolivianum Jancz.            CV 6864
                    Ribes brachybotrys              Hoogte L. 2212
                    (Wedd.) Jancz.
Haloragaceae        Myriophyllum quitense       f! [FP 13425, JS 835]
                    Kunth
Hypericaceae        Hypericum silenoides                  f!
                    Juss.
Lamiaceae           Hedeoma mandoniana Wedd.              f!
                    Lamium amplexicaule L.                f!
                    Lepechinia meyenii                    f!
                    (Walp.) Epling
                    Stachys pusilla (Wedd.)               f!
                    Briq.
Loasaceae           Caiophora contorta                 CV 7009
                    (Desr.) C. Presl
                    Caiophora horrida                f! [CV 6830,
                    (Britton) Urb. & Gilg           13009, 20880]
                    Caiophora rosulata                    f!
                    (Wedd.) Urb. & Gilg
Malvaceae           Acaulimalva steinbachii               f!
                    Krapov.
                    Nototriche anthemidifolia          PG 3099
                    (J. Remy) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche armeriifolia               f!
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche azorella A.W.            AW 957
                    Hill
                    Nototriche carabayensis            PG 3835
                    P. Gonzales, M. Chanco &
                    Ed. Navarro
                    Nototriche condensata            Lechler 1972
                    (Baker f.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche congesta A.W.           AW 1018
                    Hill
                    Nototriche cupuliforme             CV 7119
                    Krapov.
                    Nototriche digitulifolia           PG 3052
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche erinacea Hill           PG 3062
                    ex Burtt
                    Nototriche flabellata           Lechler 1972,
                    (Wedd.) A.W. Hill              AW 961, PG 3066
                    Nototriche longirostris            CV 7118
                    (Wedd.) A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche longituba              f! [Howell
                    Burtt & Hill                    Williams s.n.]
                    Nototriche obcuneata            AW 983, 1023,
                    (Baker f.) A.W. Hill            PG 3834, 2976
                    Nototriche                    AW 1023, CV 7896,
                    pediculariifolia (Meyen)             7185
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche pellicea                PG 3098
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche purpurascens            PG 3065
                    A.W. Hill
                    Nototriche sepaliloba          Linares E. 2722
                    Hochr.
                    Nototriche staffordiae      f! [Stafford D. 1263]
                    Burtt & Hill
                    Nototriche sulphurea             AW 219, 963
                    A.W. Hill
                    Tarasa urbaniana (Ulbr.)       AW 927, CV 1312,
                    Krapov.                            PG 3076
Montiaceae          Calandrinia acaulis Kunth      AW 956, CV 6839
                    Montia fontana L.                     f!
Onagraceae          Epilobium denticulatum         AW 357, PG 3014
                    Ruiz & Pav.
                    Oenothera multicaulis            f! [JS 104]
                    Ruiz & Pav.
Orobanchaceae       Neobartsia bartsioides            JS J. 970
                    (Hook.) Edwin
                    Neobartsia diffusa                Leon 5343,
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &         Linares 2742
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia elongata          PG 3013, 3426, 3818
                    (Wedd.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia fiebrigii                  f!
                    (Diels) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia inaequalis          f! [AW 510, 919]
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Neobartsia pedicularoides             f!
                    (Benth.) Uribe-Convers &
                    Tank
                    Castilleja pumila               f! [FP 13428,
                    (Benth.) Wedd.                 JS 938, Rauh 47]
                    Castilleja virgatoides                f!
                    Edwin
Oxalidaceae         Oxalis calachaccensis R.         f! [CV 6825]
                    Knuth
                    Oxalis cuzcensis R. Knuth          PG 3073
                    Oxalis nubigena Walp.           f! [FP 13394,
                                                     Meyen s.n.]
                    Oxalis oreocharis Diels            CV 7012
                    Oxalis pinguiculacea R.        CV 6844, CV 7024
                    Knuth
                    Oxalis tuberosa Molina              AW 295
Phrymaceae          Mimulus glabratus Kunth               f!
Piperaceae          Peperomia peruviana            Linares E. 2692
                    Dahlst.
                    Peperomia verruculosa              CV 7013
                    Dahlst. ex A.W. Hill
Plantaginaceae      Callitriche heteropoda                f!
                    Engelm. ex Hegelm.
                    Callitriche nubigena                  f!
                    Fassett
                    Ourisia biflora Wedd.          Stafford D. 1112
                    Ourisia muscosa Wedd.              PG 3435
                    Plantago australis Lam.         f! [CV 21263]
                    Plantago lamprophylla              PG 3082
                    Pilg.
                    Plantago linearis Kunth            PG 3101
                    Plantago nubicola              Hoogte L. 2997,
                    (Decne.) Rahn                PG 3011, 3449, 3434,
                                                   CV 17621, AW 994
                    Plantago orbignyana            f! [Meyen s.n.]
                    Steinh. ex Decne.
                    Plantago rigida Kunth          AW 1050, Weddell
                                                   H. s.n., PG 3087
                    Plantago sericea Ruiz &      f! [CV 20887, 20923,
                    Pav.                                21259]
                    Plantago tubulosa Decne.              f!
                    Veronica serpyllifolia L.       CV 1283, 9637
Polemoniaceae       Gilia laciniata Ruiz &       f! [Stafford D. 517,
                    Pav.                              FP 13410]
                    Phlox gracilis (Douglas           Hill s.n.
                    ex Hook.) Greene
Polygonaceae        Muehlenbeckia volcanica             AW 849
                    (Benth.) Endl.
Ranunculaceae       Caltha sagittata Cav.           Lechler 1953,
                                                   Weddell H. s.n.,
                                                     Linares 2680
                    Krapfia haemantha (Ulbr.)     Raimondi A. s.n.,
                    Tamura                          PG 3000, 3068
                    Oreithales integrifolia         Lechler 2706,
                    (DC.) Schltdl.                     CV 22556
                    Ranunculus breviscapus                f!
                    DC.
                    Ranunculus filamentosus     CV 7033, PG 3431, 2984
                    Wedd.
                    Ranunculus flagellifolius             f!
                    Nakai
                    Ranunculus limoselloides              f!
                    Turcz.
                    Ranunculus praemorsus       AW 597, Lechler 2709,
                    Kunth ex DC.                   Raimondi A. s.n.
                    Ranunculus trichophyllus              f!
                    Chaix ex Vill.
                    Ranunculus uniflorus               PG 3093
                    Phil. ex Reiche
Rosaceae            Aphanes andicola Rothm.            PG 3078
                    Lachemilla barbata                    f!
                    (C. Presl) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla diplophylla                f!
                    (Diels) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla frigida                 PG 3023
                    (Wedd.) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla pinnata (Ruiz           CV 17623
                    & Pav.) Rothm.
                    Lachemilla sandiensis               AW 945
                    Rothm.
                    Lachemilla vulcanica                AW 926
                    (Schltdl. & Cham.) Rydb.
                    Polylepis besseri Hieron.       CV 12528, 7139
                    Tetraglochin cristatum      f! [Tupayachi A. 1570,
                    (Britton) Rothm.             CV 1, 20927, 22545]
Rubiaceae           Galium aparine L.                  PG 3044
                    Galium corymbosum Ruiz &        f! [FP 13407]
                    Pav.
Saxifragaceae       Saxifraga magellanica        CV 6859, 6857, 7172,
                    Poir.                               AW 183
Scrophulariaceae    Limosella subulata E.                 f!
                    Ives
Solanaceae          Nicotiana pavonii Dunal        Metcalf R. 30712
                    Nicotiana undulata Ruiz          f! [CV 9627,
                    & Pav.                           JS 902, 632]
                    Salpichroa amoena Benoist   MW 2000/119, Sarkinen
                                                   T. 4056, PG 3036
                    Salpichroa glandulosa              PG 3036
                    (Hook.) Miers
                    Salpichroa lehmannii         MW 2000/53, Sarkinen
                    Dammer                         T. 4039, PG 3424
                    Solanum acaule Bitter       PG 3007, 3095, CV 7023
                    Solanum grandidentatum         Beltran H. 6453,
                    Phil.                             MW 2000/54
                    Solanum weddellii Phil.        Sarkinen T. 4038
Urticaceae          Urtica echinata Benth.          f! [Tupayachi
                                                      A. 28663]
                    Urtica flabellata Kunth             AW 969
                    Urtica urens L.                       f!
Verbenaceae         Verbena litoralis Kunth               f!
Violaceae           Viola enmae P. Gonzales         PG 3420, 3096
                    Viola ferreyrae P.              PG 3419, 3097
                    Gonzales
                    Viola micranthella Wedd.           PG 2999
                    Viola pusillima Wedd.            f! [PG 1605]
                    Viola pygmaea Juss. Ex       MW 2000/63, CV 7125
                    Poir.


Paul Gonzales (1), Blanca Leon (1,2,3), Asuncion Cano (1,2) * and Peter M. Jorgensen (4)

(1) Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Museo de Historia Natural, Departamento de Dicotiledoneas. Av. Arenales 1256, Lima-14, Peru.

(2) Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto de Investigacion de Ciencias Biologicas Antonio Raimondi.

(3) Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0530, USA.

(4) Missouri Botanical Garden-St. Louis, MO 63166, USA

* Corresponding author

E-mail Paul Gonzales: pgonzalesarce@hotmail.com

E-mail Asuncion Cano: acanoe@unmsm.edu.pe

E-mail Blanca Leon: leon@austin.utexas.edu

E-mail Peter M. Jorgensen: peter.jorgensen@mobot.org

Presentado: 26/01/2018

Aceptado: 03/06/2018

Publicado online: 25/09/2018

Declaration of authorship

The authors state that all participated in the development of the work. PG, BL, AC and PJ: did sampling, drafting of the manuscript, and data analysis. PG and BL: did interpretation and preparation of the final version. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Caption: Figure 1. Map of the study area. (Puno, Peru). Locality (1) Corani, (2) Macusani, (3) Ajoyani, (4) Cruzero, (5) Patambuco, (6) Sandia, (7) Cuyocuyo, (8) Ananea.

Caption: Figure 2. a) Hypochaeris echegarayi (Asteraceae); b) Werneria heteroloba (Asteraceae); c) Stangea paulae (Caprifoliaceae); d) Gentiana sedifolia (Gentianaceae); e) Nototriche staffordiae (Malvaceae); f) Myrosmodes paludosa (Orchidaceae); g) Poa apiculata (Poaceae); h) Salpichroa amoena (Solanaceae).
Table 1. Number of families, genera and species by taxa
recorded in the study area.

Taxa              Families      Genera      Species

Eudicots             45          141          364
Monocots             11           46          120
Gymnospems           1            1            1
Pteridophytes        9            15           21
Total                66          203          506

Table 2. Families with more genera and species in the
Cordillera Carabaya.

Families                 Genera      Species

Asteraceae                 38          110
Poaceae                    21           78
Caryophyllaceae            10           24
Fabaceae                   6            23
Malvaceae                  3            21
Brassicaceae               11           21
Caprifoliaceae             3            17
Gentianaceae               3            16
Plantaginaceae             4            13
Cyperaceae                 7            12

Table 3. Genera with more species in the Cordillera Ca-rabaya.

Genera            Species

Senecio              28
Calamagrostis        21
Nototriche           19
Poa                  19
Gentianella          13
Valeriana            13
Werneria             10
Lupinus              9
Astragalus           9
Plantago             8
Festuca              8
Ranunculus           7
Mniodes              7
Pycnophyllum         6
Bartsia              6
Perezia              6
Geranium             6
Oxalis               6
Lachemilla           6
Xenophyllum          6
Cerastium            5
Hypochaeris          5
Sisyrinchium         5
Viola                5

Table 4. Comparing the number of species (E) and genera (G) of the
principal families in different Andean localities ((1) Flores et al.
2005, (2) Arteta et al. 2006, (3) Roque & Ramirez 2008, (4) Valencia
et al. 2013, (5) Tupayachi 2005, (6) Cano et al. 2011, (7) Cano et al.
2010, (8) Montesinos-Tubee 2011, 2012, (9) Jorgensen et al. 2014),
with respect to what was found in the study area.

                            Concepcion (1)    Bahia de Juli (2)
                            4350-4550 m       3830-4200 m

Familias                      G        E        G        E
Asteraceae                    15       24       27       39
Poaceae                       10       25       12       18
Brassicaceae                  1        1        5        7
Caryophyllaceae               4        4        5        5
Fabaceae                      1        3        5        8
Malvaceae                     1        2        2        3
Plantaginaceae                1        3        1        3
Apiaceae                      1        1        4        5
Cyperaceae                    2        2        2        5
Caprifoliaceae                0        0        0        0
Others familias               28       35       74       92
% species by 10 families      56       65       46       50
Total                         64      100      137      185

                            Parinacochas (3)  Bofedales (4)
                            3100-3500 m       4200-4800 m

Familias                      G        E        G        E
Asteraceae                    30       43       15       22
Poaceae                       16       26       7        23
Brassicaceae                  3        4        1        1
Caryophyllaceae               3        3        4        5
Fabaceae                      8        14       2        2
Malvaceae                     2        2        2        2
Plantaginaceae                1        1        2        3
Apiaceae                      4        4        5        7
Cyperaceae                    5        5        8        10
Caprifoliaceae                1        1        1        1
Others familias              106      122       28       50
% species by 10 families      41       46       63       60
Total                        179      225       75      126

                            Vilcanota (5)    Apacheta (6)
                            >4000            >4500 m

Familias                      G        E       G        E
Asteraceae                    15      40       20       51
Poaceae                       9       25       6        26
Brassicaceae                  2        2       5        11
Caryophyllaceae               3        3       4        8
Fabaceae                      0        0       2        4
Malvaceae                     2        5       1        7
Plantaginaceae                3        3       0        0
Apiaceae                      1        2       3        4
Cyperaceae                    1        2       0        0
Caprifoliaceae                1        8       3        6
Others familias               32      34       16       17
% species by 10 families      54      73       73       87
Total                         69      124      60      134

                            Cordillera        Tambo-Ichuna (8)
                            Blanca (7)        3400-4850 m
                            >4500 m

Familias                      G        E        G        E
Asteraceae                    15       40       52      127
Poaceae                       11       31       28       46
Brassicaceae                  6        15       13       24
Caryophyllaceae               5        7        10       18
Fabaceae                      1        1        9        18
Malvaceae                     1        4        4        19
Plantaginaceae                0        0        2        12
Apiaceae                      3        3        8        11
Cyperaceae                    0        0        8        8
Caprifoliaceae                3        7        3        9
Others familias               20       28      134      215
% species by 10 families      69       79       51       58
Total                         65      136      271      507

                            Carabaya          Bolivia (9)
                            >4000 m           >4000 m

Familias                      G        E        G        E
Asteraceae                    38      110       50      189
Poaceae                       21       78       30      129
Brassicaceae                  11       21       14       35
Caryophyllaceae               10       24       12       50
Fabaceae                      6        23       13       63
Malvaceae                     3        21       4        28
Plantaginaceae                4        13       5        13
Apiaceae                      6        9        9        18
Cyperaceae                    7        12       10       28
Caprifoliaceae                3        17       5        13
Others familias               94      178      120      271
% species by 10 families      54       65       56       68
Total                        203      506      272      837
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Title Annotation:RABAJOS ORIGINALES
Author:Gonzales, Paul; Leon, Blanca; Cano, Asuncion; Jorgensen, Peter M.
Publication:Revista peruana de biologia
Date:Aug 1, 2018
Words:15210
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