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Variation in the composition of the essential oil of Valeriana officinalis L. roots from Estonia/Eeterliku oli koostise varieeruvus Eestist parineva Valeriana officinalis L. juurtes.

INTRODUCTION

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) is a well-known and frequently used medicinal plant, which has a long proven history of efficacy. The plant is cultivated as a medicinal plant on a commercial scale in the northern parts of Europe and America. Valerian has been shown to encourage sleep, improve sleep quality, and reduce blood pressure [1]. The valerian root is sedative, mild anodyne, hypnotic, antispasmodic, carminative, and hypotensive. Traditionally, it has been used for hysterical states, excitability, insomnia, hypochondriasis, migraine, cramp, intestinal colic, rheumatic pains, etc. Modern interest in valerian preparations is focused on their use as a sedative and hypnotic [2, 3]. The Valerianae radix is often used as a milder alternative or a possible substitute for the stronger synthetic sedatives in the treatment of states of nervous excitation and anxiety-induced sleep disturbances [4]. The dried roots attract rats and cats, it can be used as a bait to lure them away from other areas. The essential oil from the leaves and roots is used as a flavouring in ice cream, baked goods, condiments, etc. [1].

The sedative activity of valerian root has been attributed to both the essential oil and iridoid valepotriate fractions [2]. The drug of the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Valerianae radix contains not less than 5 mL/kg of essential oil for the whole drug and not less than 3 mL/kg (~ 0.3%) of essential oil for the cut drug, both calculated with reference to the dried drug [5]. The oil content of V. officinalis has been reported to vary from 0.1% to 2% [2, 6-11].

The composition of valerian root oil has been considerably studied [7-21]. The typical constituents of valerian roots are found to be valeric and isovaleric acid, monoterpenes ([alpha]-pinene, [alpha]-fenchene, camphene), monoterpenic esters (bornyl acetate, myrtenyl acetate, myrtenyl isovaleriate), oxygen containing sesquiterpenes, and valerian cyclopentanoid sesquiterpenes such as valerenal, valerenone, valerenol, valerenyl acetate, valerenic acid, and valerenyl isovalerate.

The valepotriates with rather unstable epoxide structures may be present in the root, but are generally absent from finished products. The essential oil and some compounds isolated from it (valerenic acid, valerenal, valeranone), injected intraperitoneally, show central depressive and/or muscle relaxant activity in mice [3].

The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the essential oil from Valerianae radix samples from Estonia. The variation in the content of the biologically active constituents was studied. The quality of Estonian valerian roots compared to the EP requirements was determined.

EXPERIMENTAL

Materials

Plant materials, Valeriana officinalis L. roots, were obtained from retail pharmacies or cultivated in Estonia in 2000 (sample 1--cultivated in Jarvamaa, local cultivar), in 2002 (sample 2--cultivated in Tartumaa, seeds from the company CN Seeds, UK; and sample 3--Vadi Gild OU, Polvamaa), in 2003 (sample 4--Energia farm, Viljandimaa), and in 2005 (sample 5--Vadi Gild OU, Polvamaa). Voucher specimens are deposited at the Institute of Pharmacy, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Isolation of essential oil

The essential oil was isolated from dried valerian roots by the distillation method described in the European Pharmacopoeia [5] using 40 g of crushed roots, a 2000 mL round-bottomed flask, and 500 mL of water as the distillation liquid. Xylene (0.5 mL in a graduated tube) was added to take up the essential oil. The distillation time was 4 h at a rate of 3-4 mL/min.

Capillary gas chromatography

A Chrom 5 chromatograph with FID on two fused silica capillary columns with bonded stationary phases SPB-5 (30 m x 0.25 mm, Supelco) and SW-10 (30 m x 0.25 mm, Supelco) was used to carry out GC analysis. The film thickness of both stationary phases was 0.25 [micro]m. Helium with a split ratio of 1 : 150 and flow rate of 30-35 cm/s was applied as the carrier gas. The temperature program was from 50 to 250[degrees]C at 2[degrees]C/min, the injector temperature was 200[degrees]C.

A Spectra-Physics SP 4100 computing integrator was used for data processing. The oil components were identified by comparing their retention indices (RI) on two columns with the RI values of reference standards, our RI data bank, and literature data [6, 8, 10, 11, 20, 22, 23]. The percentage composition of the oils was calculated in peak areas using the normalization method without correction factors. The relative standard deviation of the percentages of the oil components of three repeated GC analyses of single oil samples did not exceed 5%.

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

GC/MS analysis was carried out using GCMS-QP2010 (Shimadzu, Japan) on a fused silica capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm) with a bonded stationary phase: poly(5%-diphenyl-95%-dimethyl)siloxane) (ZB-5, Zebron). The film thickness of the stationary phase was 0.25 ?m. The carrier gas was helium with the split ratio of 1 : 17, and the flow rate of 1.8 mL/min was applied. The temperature program was 2 min at 60[degrees]C and then from 60 to 280[degrees]C at 12[degrees]C/min. The injector temperature was 280[degrees]C.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The identified compounds in the essential oils of five valerian samples from Estonia, and the range and mean % content and variation coefficients are presented in Table 1. High variation coefficients of the majority of compounds (> 1) show that the content of these compounds strongly differs from sample to sample. Low variation coefficients (0.41-0.63) are seen for bornyl acetate, [alpha]-terpinyl acetate, (E)-[beta]-caryophyllene, myrtenyl isovalerate, sesquiterpene alcohols, [alpha]-bisabolol, valerenal, etc. These compounds were identified in all the samples studied.

The essential oil yield for the five samples of valerian roots from Estonia varied between 0.28% and 1.16% (Table 2). In the EP [5] an essential oil content of Valerianae radix of at least 0.3% for cut drug is required. The oil content of V. officinalis has been reported to vary from 0.1% to 2% [6, 8-11]. The content of essential oil did not correspond to the EP standard in sample 4.

A total of 84 compounds, representing more than 93% of the total oil, were identified in the valerian samples studied. All the identified components have been reported previously in V. officinalis root oil [6, 8-11, 13-21]. It was possible to determine the compound group for nine peaks only by mass spectral data. Three unknown sesquiterpene alcohols with the same mass fragmentation pattern were detected (the [[M.sup.+]] at m/z 220 and characteristic peaks at m/z 43 (base peak)), 91, 105, 41, 93, 79, 119, and 107).

The basic oil components were isovaleric acid (0-2.1%), [alpha]-pinene (0.4-3.6%), [alpha]-fenchene (0.6-5.8%), camphene (0.6-5.9%), bornyl acetate (8.8-33.7%), myrtenyl acetate (2.0-7.2%), alloaromadendrene (0.3-7.6%), myrtenyl isovalerate (1.1-2.5%), spathulenol (0.7-4.1%), sesquiterpene alcohol (0.8-6.6%), valerianol (0.3-16.7%), valeranone (0.5-9.4%), valerenal (tr-14.7%), and valerenic acid (0-0.9%) (Table 2).

In four Estonian samples (2-5) bornyl acetate and valerenal dominated. These compounds were found to be the main compounds in valerian root oils in earlier studies [7-11, 16] too. Valeranone was the main compound in samples 1 and 4. The content of valerianol was highest in sample 1. A high content of valerianol was found in oil of V. officinalis roots from Serbia [16] and in some samples from The Netherlands [8]. Samples 4 and 5 from Estonia were comparatively rich in monoterpenic hydrocarbons [alpha]-fenchene and camphene (total 1.2-11.7%). Oil rich in monoterpenes ([alpha]-pinene, camphene, [alpha]-fenchene) was isolated from valerian roots in Switzerland [6]. The main sesquiterpene alloaromadendrene dominated in Estonian samples 2 and 3.

CONCLUSIONS

Several chemotypes of the essential oil of valerian roots have been distinguished earlier in the literature [8, 11], e.g. a valerianol type, and valeranone, cryptofauronol, and valerenal types. Valerian root oil from Estonia (four samples) was also rich in bornyl acetate and valerenal. Bornyl acetate, valerianol, and valeranone dominated in one Estonian sample. The Valerianae radix cultivated in Estonia usually (four samples) corresponds to the EP standards in the aspect of the essential oil contents.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Financial support for the work reported here was provided by the Estonian Science Foundation (grant No. 4332).

Received 31 January 2007, in revised form 12 March 2007

REFERENCES

[1.] A modern herbal: http:/www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/v/valeri01.html

[2.] Barnes, J., Anderson, L. A. & Phillipson, J. D. Herbal Medicines. A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. 2nd ed. Pharmaceutical Press, London, Chicago, 2002, 468-476.

[3.] ESCOP Monographs. ESCOP, Thieme, London, 2003, 539-546.

[4.] WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1. WHO, Geneva, 1999, 267-276.

[5.] European Pharmacopoeia. 5th ed. Vol. 2. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 2005, 2667-2668.

[6.] Granicher, F., Christen, P. & Kapetanidis, I. Essential oils from normal and hairy roots of Valeriana officinalis var. sambucifolia. Phytochemistry, 1995, 40, 1421-1424.

[7.] Hendriks, H., Smith, D. & Hazelhoff, B. Eugenyl isovaleriate and isoeugenyl isovaleriate in the essential oil of valerian root. Phytochemistry, 1977, 16, 1853-1854.

[8.] Bos, R., Woerdenbag, H. J., Hendriks, H. & Scheffer, J. J. C. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa. Flav. Fragr. J., 1997, 12, 359-370.

[9.] Georgiev, E. V., Stojanova, A. S. & Tchapkanov, V. A. On the Bulgarian valerian essential oil. J. Essent. Oil Res., 1999, 11, 352-354.

[10.] Bos, R., Hendriks, H., Pras, N., Stojanova, A. S. & Georgiev, E. V. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis ssp. collina cultivated in Bulgaria. J. Essent. Oil Res., 2000, 12, 313-316.

[11.] Letchamo, W., Ward, W., Heard, B. & Heard, D. Essential oil of Valeriana officinalis L. cultivars and their antimicrobial activity as influenced by harvesting time under commercial organic cultivation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 3915-3919.

[12.] Hendriks, H. & Bruins, A. P. Study of three types of essential oil of Valerian officinalis L. s.l. by combined gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr., 1980, 190, 321-330.

[13.] Bos, R., Hendriks, H., Kloosterman, J. & Sipma, G. A structure of faurinone, a sesquiterpene ketone isolated from Valeriana officinalis. Phytochemistry, 1983, 22, 1505-1506.

[14.] Violon, C., Sonck, W. & Vercruysse, A. Comparative study of the essential oils of in vivo and in vitro grown Valeriana officinalis L. and Centranthus macrosiphon Boiss. by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr., 1984, 288, 474-478.

[15.] Brunke, E.-J., Hammerschmidt, F.-J. & Schmaus, G. Headspace analysis of selected European medicinal plants. In Proceedings of the 12th Intern. Congress of Flavours, Fragrances and Essential Oils, Vienna, Austria, Oct. 4.-8., 1992 (Woidich, H. & Buchbauer, G., eds). Fachzeitschriftenverlags GmbH, Vienna, Austria, 1992, 105-124.

[16.] Tori, M., Yoshida, M., Yokoyama, M. & Asakawa, Y. A guaiane-type sesquiterpene, valeracetate from Valeriana officinalis. Phytochemistry, 1996, 41, 977-979.

[17.] Bos, R., Woerdenbag, H. J., Van Putten, F. M. S., Hendriks, H. & Scheffer, J. J. C. Seasonal variation of the essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates in Valeriana officinalis roots and rhizomes, and the selection of plants suitable for phytomedicines. Planta Medica, 1998, 64, 143-147.

[18.] Bicchi, C., Drigo, S. & Rubiolo, P. Influence of fibre coating in headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic analysis of aromatic and medicinal plants. J. Chromatogr. A, 2000, 892, 469-485.

[19.] Bicchi, C., Cordero, C., Iori, C., Rubiolo, P. & Sandra, P. Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) in the headspace analysis of aromatic and medicinal parts. J. High Res. Chromatogr., 2000, 23, 539-546.

[20.] Paul, C., Konig, A. W. & Muhle, H. Paciforgianes and tamariscene as constituents of Frullania tamarisci and Valeriana officinalis. Phytochemistry, 2001, 57, 307-313.

[21.] Pavlovic, M., Kovacevic, N., Tzakou, O. & Couladis, M. The essential oil of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. growing wild in Western Serbia. J. Essent. Oil Res., 2004, 16, 397-399.

[22.] Davies, N. W. Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone and Carbowax 20M phases. J. Chromatogr., 1990, 503, 1-25.

[23.] Zenkevich, I. G. Analytical parameters of components of essential oils for their GC and GC-MS identification. Mono- and sesquiterpenes. Oxygen containing derivatives of mono- and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. Acetates of terpenic alcohols. Rastitel. Res., 1996, 32, 48-58; 1997, 33, 16-28; 1999, 35, 30-37.

Ain Raal (a), Anne Orav (b) *, Elmar Arak (a), Tiiu Kailas (b), and Mati Muurisepp (b)

(a) Institute of Pharmacy, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia

(b) Institute of Chemistry, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia

* Corresponding author, aorav@chemnet.ee
Table 1. Composition of the essential oil of Valeriana officialis
L. roots from Estonia. Boldface designates the principal components

Compound                                 RI

                                    SPB-5   SW-10    Range, %

Isovaleric acid (MS)                  840   1700       0-2.1
Tricyclene                            920   1020      tr-0.1
[alpha]-Thujene (MS)                  924   1026       0-0.1
[alpha]-Pinene# (MS)                  930   1024     0.4-3.6#
[alpha]-Fenchene# (MS)                944   1060     0.6-5.8#
Camphene# (MS)                        945   1069     0.6-5.9
3-Methylvaleric acid                  954   1810       0-0.2
Sabinene (MS)                         970   1120      tr-0.2
[beta]-Pinene (MS)                    972   1112     0.2-1.2
p-Cymene (MS)                        1021   1273      tr-0.2
Limonene (MS)                        1026   1203     0.2-2.3
[beta]-Phellandrene (MS)             1028   1211      tr-0.7
[gamma]-Terpinene (MS)               1054   1240       0-0.3
Isoamyl isovalerate (MS)             1102   1285      tr-0.1
Camphor                              1140   1508       0-0.1
Borneol (MS)                         1160   1702       0-0.6
Terpinen-4-ol (MS)                   1176   1604     0.1-0.4
[alpha]-Terpineol (MS)               1190   1714       0-0.5
Myrtenol (MS)                        1200   1794       0-0.5
(E)-Carveol                          1232   1828     0.1-1.7
n-Hexyl isovalerate (MS)             1240   1450     0.1-0.3
Bornyl acetate# (MS)                 1285   1578     8.8-33.5#
trans-Pinocarvyl acetate (MS)        1293   1600     0.1-0.5
Myrtenyl acetate# (MS)               1324   1685     2.0-7.2#
[delta]-Elemene (MS)                 1337   1465       0-1.8
Terpinyl acetate (MS)                1349   1680     0.4-1.1
cis-Carveyl acetate                  1366   1731       0-0.4
[alpha]-Copaene                      1375   1484       0-0.4
[beta]-Elemene (MS)                  1394   1587       0-0.3
Paciforgiadiene isomer (MS)          1400   1528     0.1-0.8
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24], MW = 204
2,6-Dimethoxy-p-pymene (MS)          1405   1596       0-0.2
Dihydroisolongifolene (MS)           1408              0-1.0
[alpha]-Gurjunene (MS)               1414   1520       0-1.5
(E)-[beta]-Caryophyllene# (MS)       1419   1587     1.2-3.8#
[beta]-Gurjunene (MS)                1429   1622       0-0.4
Epibicyclosesquiphellandrene (MS)    1434   1600     0.1-0.9
Aromadendrene (MS)                   1438   1590       0-0.2
[alpha]-Guaiene (MS)                 1444   1655       0-0.3
[alpha]-Humulene (MS)                1448   1622     0.3-2.2
Alloaromadendrene (MS)               1456   1632     0.3-7.6#
Linalyl isovalerate (MS)             1473   1807     0.7-3.0
Germacrene D (MS)                    1477   1694       0-0.7
ar-Curcumene (MS)                    1480   1755     0.4-0.7
[beta]-Ionone (MS)                   1482   1926       0-3.7
Zingiberene (MS)                     1490   1726     0.1-1.5
[alpha]-Farnesene (MS)               1493   1738     0.3-2.3
Bornyl isovalerate                   1500   1828     0.2-2.0
Bicyclogermacrene (MS)               1502   1714     0.1-1.4
Valencene                            1507   1704       0-0.8
[gamma]-Cadinene                     1515   1748       0-1.1
[delta]-Cadinene                     1521   1750      tr-0.6
Kessane (MS)                         1542   1807       0-1.5
Valencene ketone (MS)                1547   2088     0.4-3.0
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.26], MW = 222
Myrtenyl isovalerate# (MS)           1555   1855     1.1-2.5#
Ledol (MS)                           1559   2060     0.2-1.7
Selina-diene alcohol (MS)            1567   2100       0-0.3
Spathulenol# (MS)                    1574   2121     0.7-4.1#
Caryophyllene oxide (MS)             1580   1989     0.2-0.7
Neryl isovalerate                    1591   1875       0-0.4
Viridiflorol (MS)                    1600   2078     0.1-0.6
Geranyl isovalerate                  1605   1910       0-0.3
Epiglobulol (MS)                     1614   2100     0.2-0.6
Sesquiterpene alcohol (MS)           1625   2255     0.8-6.6#
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]O, MW = 220
Sesquiterpene alcohol (MS)           1629   2266       0-0.4
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]O, MW = 220
Sesquiterpene alcohol (MS)           1635   2277     0.2-3.4#
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]O, MW = 220
T-Muurolol (MS)                      1642   2179     0.1-1.6
[beta]-Eudesmol (MS)                 1645   2272       0-1.1
Geranyl valerate *                   1649              0-0.5
Valerianol#                          1652   2400     0.3-16.7#
Kessyl alcohol *                     1662              0-1.2
Valeranone (MS)                      1671   2153     0.5-9.4#
[alpha]-Bisabolol (MS)               1686   2209     0.2-0.7
(Z,E)-Farnesol *                     1700   2350       0-0.2
Valerenal# (MS)                      1717   2207       0-14.7#
Valerenol *                          1729              0-0.8
Sesquiterpenoic acetate (MS)         1772   2193       0-0.6
  [C.sub.17][H.sub.28][O.sub.2],
  MW = 264
trans-Valerenyl acetate              1785   2224       0-0.8
Kessyl acetate (MS)                  1806   2387     0.4-2.3
cis-Valerenyl acetate                1828   2226       0-1.6
Kessanyl acetate (MS)                1856   2450       0-2.0
Valerenic acid (MS)                  1865   2830       0-0.9
Sesquiterpenoic acetate (MS)         1900   2420       0-4.1#
  [C.sub.17][H.sub.26][O.sub.2],
  MW = 262
Palmitic acid (MS)                   1954   2900       1-1.3
trans-Valerenyl isovalerate *        2052              0-1.1
  Total                                             93.4-99.5

Compound                             Mean, %;    Variation
                                      n = 5     coefficient

Isovaleric acid (MS)                   0.82         0.96
Tricyclene                             0.09         0.24
[alpha]-Thujene (MS)                   0.06         0.70
[alpha]-Pinene# (MS)                   1.52#        0.98
[alpha]-Fenchene# (MS)                 2.70#        1.00
Camphene# (MS)                         2.90#        0.67
3-Methylvaleric acid                   0.08         1.37
Sabinene (MS)                          0.11         0.75
[beta]-Pinene (MS)                     0.66         0.56
p-Cymene (MS)                          0.12         0.63
Limonene (MS)                          1.08         0.95
[beta]-Phellandrene (MS)               0.23         1.16
[gamma]-Terpinene (MS)                 0.13         0.92
Isoamyl isovalerate (MS)               0.05         0.70
Camphor                                0.06         0.70
Borneol (MS)                           0.28         0.96
Terpinen-4-ol (MS)                     0.28         0.46
[alpha]-Terpineol (MS)                 0.12         1.81
Myrtenol (MS)                          0.18         1.07
(E)-Carveol                            0.48         1.42
n-Hexyl isovalerate (MS)               0.22         0.38
Bornyl acetate# (MS)                  20.18#        0.50
trans-Pinocarvyl acetate (MS)          0.34         0.45
Myrtenyl acetate# (MS)                 3.64#        0.60
[delta]-Elemene (MS)                   0.44         1.77
Terpinyl acetate (MS)                  0.76         0.42
cis-Carveyl acetate                    0.14         1.19
[alpha]-Copaene                        0.12         1.33
[beta]-Elemene (MS)                    0.18         0.61
Paciforgiadiene isomer (MS)            0.56         0.48
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24], MW = 204
2,6-Dimethoxy-p-pymene (MS)            0.04         2.23
Dihydroisolongifolene (MS)             0.36         1.21
[alpha]-Gurjunene (MS)                 0.68         1.00
(E)-[beta]-Caryophyllene# (MS)         1.92         0.57
[beta]-Gurjunene (MS)                  0.16         1.37
Epibicyclosesquiphellandrene (MS)      0.40         0.94
Aromadendrene (MS)                     0.04         2.23
[alpha]-Guaiene (MS)                   0.06         2.23
[alpha]-Humulene (MS)                  0.88         0.89
Alloaromadendrene (MS)                 4.42#        0.68
Linalyl isovalerate (MS)               1.50         0.64
Germacrene D (MS)                      0.30         1.11
ar-Curcumene (MS)                      0.56         0.24
[beta]-Ionone (MS)                     0.84         1.91
Zingiberene (MS)                       0.46         1.32
[alpha]-Farnesene (MS)                 1.30         0.61
Bornyl isovalerate                     0.94         0.90
Bicyclogermacrene (MS)                 0.59         0.86
Valencene                              0.40         1.00
[gamma]-Cadinene                       0.50         0.95
[delta]-Cadinene                       0.30         2.35
Kessane (MS)                           0.80         0.76
Valencene ketone (MS)                  1.88         0.66
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.26], MW = 222
Myrtenyl isovalerate# (MS)             1.52         0.41
Ledol (MS)                             0.68         0.88
Selina-diene alcohol (MS)              0.12         1.08
Spathulenol# (MS)                      2.48#        0.56
Caryophyllene oxide (MS)               0.46         0.45
Neryl isovalerate                      0.12         1.49
Viridiflorol (MS)                      0.34         0.61
Geranyl isovalerate                    0.08         1.63
Epiglobulol (MS)                       0.38         0.43
Sesquiterpene alcohol (MS)             4.46#        0.50
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]O, MW = 220
Sesquiterpene alcohol (MS)             0.22         0.93
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]O, MW = 220
Sesquiterpene alcohol (MS)             1.00         1.35
  [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]O, MW = 220
T-Muurolol (MS)                        0.64         1.00
[beta]-Eudesmol (MS)                   0.36         1.25
Geranyl valerate *                     0.20         1.00
Valerianol#                            3.86#        1.86
Kessyl alcohol *                       0.48         1.06
Valeranone (MS)                        4.22#        0.88
[alpha]-Bisabolol (MS)                 0.50         0.55
(Z,E)-Farnesol *                       0.06         1.48
Valerenal# (MS)                        9.38#        0.63
Valerenol *                            0.26         1.23
Sesquiterpenoic acetate (MS)           0.20         1.28
  [C.sub.17][H.sub.28][O.sub.2],
  MW = 264
trans-Valerenyl acetate                0.16         2.24
Kessyl acetate (MS)                    1.20         0.58
cis-Valerenyl acetate                  0.94         0.64
Kessanyl acetate (MS)                  0.64         1.38
Valerenic acid (MS)                    0.28         1.46
Sesquiterpenoic acetate (MS)           1.46         1.18
  [C.sub.17][H.sub.26][O.sub.2],
  MW = 262
Palmitic acid (MS)                     0.34         1.66
trans-Valerenyl isovalerate *          0.50         0.95
  Total                               96.5

tr--traces (<0.05%), *--tentatively identified,
(MS)--identified by GC/MS.

Note: Designates the principal components are indicated with #.

Table 2. Principal components of the essential oil and content of
essential oil in Valeriana officinalis L. roots from Estonia, %.
Boldface designates the highest concentrations

Components                                Sample No

                          1       2       3       4           5

Isovaleric acid          2.1      nd     0.8     0.8         0.4
[alpha]-Pinene           0.4     0.6     0.4     2.6         3.6
[alpha]-Fenchene         0.8     0.6     0.8     5.5#        5.8#
Camphene                 3.1     1.9     0.6     3.0#        5.9#
Bornyl acetate          33.7#   27.1#    8.8#   13.4#       18.1#
Myrtenyl acetate         7.2#    2.0     2.6     3.9         2.4
Alloaromadendrene        0.3     7.6     6.4#    5.4         2.4
Spathulenol              0.7     3.6     4.1     1.8         2.2
Myrtenyl isovalerate     1.1     1.1     2.5     1.8         1.1
Sesquiterpene alcohol    0.8     5.7     6.6     4.6         4.6
Valerianol              16.7#    0.6     0.5     1.2         0.3
Valeranone               9.4#    0.5     2.8     6.7#        1.7
Valerenal                 tr     8.4#   14.1#   14.7#        9.7#
Valerenic acid            nd      nd     0.5     nd          0.9
Oil yield, %             1.16    1.00    0.4     0.28 (a)    0.53

nd--not determined, tr--traces (< 0.05%).

(a) Below the minimum limit of EP (0.3% for the cut drug).

Note: Designates the highest concentrations are indicated with #.
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Author:Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar; Kailas, Tiiu; Muurisepp, Mati
Publication:Estonian Academy of Sciences: Chemistry
Date:Jun 1, 2007
Words:3597
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