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Variacion temporal y espacial en la riqueza y abundancia de la comunidad de aves del humedal Pantanal de Nhecolandia (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

Temporal and spatial variation of richness and abundance of the community of birds in the Pantanal wetlands of Nhecolandia (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

The Pantanal wetlands stand out for being one of the largest flood plain in the world, in which extreme climatic variations occur between dry (April to September) and wet seasons (October to March). During the wet season, large areas are flooded (Por, 1995). In the sub-region of Nhecolandia, the terrain, together with the rainfall conditions, is considered a predominant factor, for the formation of permanent or temporary lagoons in low terrains, with transition to grassy formations, fields, savannahs and forest formations in higher numbers when compared to other sub-regions of the Pantanal (Alho, Lacher Jr, & Goncalves, 1988; Ratter, Pott, Pott, Cunha, & Haridasan, 1988; Rodela, 2006).

The Pantanal is a complex of phyto-physiognomies that comprises numerous types of terrestrial and aquatic formations with the most diverse characteristics. In the terrestrial habitat, seasonal deciduous or semi-deciduous forests (including forest islands known as "capao" and riparian forests), fields of "murundus" (circular or elliptical micro topographies present on drainage slopes and headwaters, that remain temporarily or permanently flooded by rainwater; they are small usually round mounds, that often present with soil and vegetation different from the surrounding level area; Resende, Araujo, Oliveira, Oliveira, & Avila, 2004) and savannah formations with several levels of arboreal, shrub and graminoid coverings (including flooded monodominant formations) (Pott & Silva, 2015). In the aquatic habitat, rivers, fresh or salty water (salines) of different sizes and limnological conditions, permanent flooded fields, as well as the vast intermittent drainage meshwork - meanders, low levels, oxbow lakes, and "corixos" (seasonal streams) - which act as expansion and contraction shafts of the water during the flood periods (Pott & Silva, 2015). Amongst these characteristics, the number of lagoons and lakes is quite peculiar to this complex, numbering in the tens of thousands along its extension (Por, 1995). In the South-Central region of the Pantanal wetlands, two sub-sections marked by the great occurrence of fresh water (bays) and salty (saline) lagoons stand out: Paiaguas, at the North of the Taquari River, and Nhecolandia, at the South of the same river (Tomas, de Salis, Catella, Santos, & Nunes., 2007).

Although the Pantanal occupies a significant area of South America, there are few avifauna studies throughout its region, perhaps due to transport difficulty during flood periods. Naumburg (1930), Mitchel (1957), Brown (1986), Cintra and Yamashita (1990), Dubs (1992), Tubelis and Tomas (2003), Nunes and Tomas (2004a and 2004b), Nunes, Tizianel & Tomas (2006), Nunes, Silva & Tomas (2008), Figueira, Cintra, Viana & Yamashita (2006) and Donatelli, Posso & Toledo (2014) are among the researchers who investigated the richness of the birds in several regions of Pantanal. Nevertheless, an analysis of the diversity and dynamics of bird species in the Pantanal region is still lacking.

Aiming to broaden the knowledge of the bird community of the Southern region of Pantanal, this work registered the abundance of birds in a mosaic of habitats in the Pantanal of the Rio Negro. It is a pristine area where there is no cattle rising, unlike the other farms in the region; moreover, there is little human influence, and it has become a relevant model area and a unique reference for research. Thus, data from annual, seasonal, time of day, and habitat variation of abundance of the community of birds were collected in order to determine whether there is any variation in the patterns of distribution and use of habitats by birds in the Fazenda Rio Negro, Pantanal de Rio Negro, Nhecolandia, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Area of study: The study was developed in the Pantanal of Nhecolandia (Fig. 1A and Fig. 1B), in the Fazenda Rio Negro, city of Aquidauana, MS (19[degrees]30'00" S & 56[degrees]12'30" W). The Pantanal of Nhecolandia is a region with lands higher than the surroundings areas, characterized by moderated, localized and of short duration floods, where the bays and salines are distributed in a very heterogeneous matrix (Adamoli apud Por, 1995). The Fazenda Rio Negro contains 8 004 hectares, of which 7 000 belong to RPPN (Private Natural Heritage Reserve) Fazenda Rio Negro, where the sampling plots were concentrated.

The region has a tropical semiarid climate, with an average annual rainfall of 1 180 mm and average temperature varying between 21 and 28[degrees]C (Marengo, Oliveira, & Alves, 2016). In the Fazenda Rio Negro, the average annual temperature is 26.6[degrees]C, with a defined dry season between the months of April and September. The Fazenda Rio Negro shelters seven types of habitats, representing the main formations found in the sub-region of Pantanal wetlands: riparian forests, savannah, forested savannah, grasslands, bays, salines and Negro river (Fig. 2). Riparian forests occur along watercourses throughout the drier regions of the Neotropics. These forests contain a diverse association of deciduous and semi-deciduous trees and are seldom larger than 100 m wide. Savannah is the widely used name for the non-forested vegetation that covers much of the Brazilian shield and ranges from open grasslands ("campo sujo") to dense woodlands (forested savannah, treated in this paper as a separate habitat type). Forested savannah is dense woodland consisting of trees and shrubs with thick, fire-resistant bark, twisted trunks and large leaves; it contains a nearly continuous ground cover of grasses, sedges and forbs and is designated as dry forest or "cordilheiras" in the Pantanal region. Grasslands support a rich variety of herbaceous vegetation of more than 200 species of grasses and graminoid species; grasslands cover vast areas of Northern and Southeastern Bolivia and adjacent Brazil. Salines are small, rounded ponds, or typical "soda lakes" in which the predominant salt is sodium carbonate, with pH values that may reach 10, and nitrogen that occurs almost exclusively in the form of ammonia (Por, 1995). Bays are natural freshwater spots, circular or elongated shaped and isolated by small elevations on ground, covered or not by vegetation. Waters from various bays connect to each other through small passages ("corixos" and "vazantes"), forming a coalescent system during the flood. The Rio Negro is a tributary of the Paraguay river, with 30 km extension that is between 10 and 50 m wide along its course.

Bird sampling: We used the linear transect method (Bibby, Burgess, & Hill, 1992) for each of the seven habitats (riparian forest, savannah, forested savannah, grassland, bays, salines and river) from 2001 to 2004. During the 17 expeditions to the Fazenda Rio Negro, each habitat was visited twice. At each visit, we conducted two surveys (one in the morning and one in the afternoon), for two hours each period, for a total of 952 hours of linear transects performed in all habitats, (i.e., 4 hours per survey, seven habitats, two surveys per visit, 17 expeditions). Transects were distributed as follows: 2001 (January, April, June and August); 2002 (January, February, April, June, September); 2003 (January, August, November, December); 2004 (April, August, October and December). The transect methodology is widely used in bird studies in a variety of habitats and for different purposes. In general, transects are used in areas of easy access and locomotion as shown by Barrantes, Ocampo, Ramirez-Fernandez and Fuchs (2016) in fragments of forest in Costa Rica. Silva and Rodrigues (2015) measured density and spatial distribution of shorebirds in the Brazilian Amazonian coast. Devault, Kubel and Rhodes (2009) monitored birding communities at small airports in the United States. Whitaker and Montevecchi (1996) surveyed breeding bird assemblages in riparian edge, nonriparian edge (clearcut or access road) and in forests in Canada. Herkert (1994) researched the influence of area and vegetation structure on breeding bird communities associated with grassland fragments in Illinois; and the transect method is also used in areas with intensive agriculture as studied by Atkinson, Fuller, Gillings and Vickery (2006).

Some general patterns were followed to develop the transects: 1) Routes were selected according to accessibility and were of a fixed length (2 km each) so each could be covered in a session of fieldwork (two hours); 2) surveys were done since dawn (around 6:00) and in late afternoon (from 05:00) to sunset; 3) they were fixed so that we could have replicas of each transect effected; 4) they were performed on consecutive days for each environment twice, totaling 10 days (with two separate teams to develop the samplings); 5) Each team was composed of six to ten participants depending on the location of the transect (the transect in the river was always composed by six participants according to the places available on the boat). 6) Care was taken not to record more than one contact for the same individual by monitoring location and dislocation. 7) Migratory species may be summer (wet season from October to March) or winter (dry season from April to September) visitors. 8) Equipment: we used 8X30, 10X40 and 12X40 binoculars from Swarovski, Nikon and Bushnell brands; Swarovski ATS-65 HD 2.6 "/ 65 mm Spotting Scope and Ecotone 16.5-75X 80 mm for bird registration in salines and bays; Sony TCM 5000 EV, and TC-D5 Prof II for recordings of vocalizations with microphones Sennheiser M66 and ME67. We used ten mist-nets ranging from 20 to 36 mm and length ranging from 8, 12 and 18 m. The mist-nets were used as a complement to the qualitative study so that we could obtain maximum richness, particularly in closed environments where it was not possible to observe/listen to certain birds. It is a complementary study to the transect method, and was carried out simultaneously with another team. Classification of the species followed the official list of Brazilian birds, ruled by the Brazilian Committee of Ornithological Records (Piacentini et al., 2015).

Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare total abundance of birds among years, season and times of day because we repeated the surveys each year. A total of four repeated measures two-way ANOVAs were performed: 1) to evaluate the effect of the year, the time of day (morning or afternoon) and the interaction between year and time of day in the total abundance; 2) the effect of the year, the season (dry or wet) and the interaction between the year and the season in total abundance; 3) the effect of the year, the habitat and the interaction between year and habitat in the total abundance; and 4) the effect of the year, the categorized habitat (open, i.e., areas with fewer tree cover as grasslands; and closed, i.e., areas with greater tree cover, such as riparian forests and forested savannah) and the interaction between habitat and year in the total abundance. Once a statistically significant effect was identified, we used Tukey post-hoc test (for multiple comparison of measures). All tests were two-tailed, and the differences were considered significant at P < 0.05.

RESULTS

Richness: The richness registered was 201 species for the savannah, 87 in forested savannah, 116 in the riparian forest, 75 in grasslands, 92 in the salines, 120 in the bays and 64 in Rio Negro, accounting for 348 species in the Pantanal do Rio Negro (Appendix 1). About 80% of these species occurred in one or two habitats, 7% in three, 9% in four, 1% in five and less than 1% in all of them. There were still 2% of the species that did not belong to any specific habitat, because they generally occupied the air space (Appendix 1). The savannah showed the highest number of exclusive species (67 species), while only four exclusive species were recorded for the forested savannah. A total of 22 exclusive bird species were recorded in the grasslands, 25 in the riparian forests, 14 species in the river, nine in the salines and only two species at bays (Appendix 1).

We found significant variation on richness among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 14.757, P < 0.001), among habitats ([F.sub.6,219] = 30.886, P < 0.001), and in the interaction between different years and habitats (F17219 = 3.505, P < 0.001). The post-hoc Tukey test displayed clusters of habitats based on richness: one composed only by the grasslands, one composed by bays, forested savannah, salines and gallery forest, and the last one composed by savannah and river. When we examined variation between seasons, we found differences among years ([F.sub.3,221] = 3.576, P = 0.015) and on the interaction between different years and seasons ([F.sub.3,221] = 6.070, P = 0.001), but we did not find any variation between seasons ([F.sub.1,221] = 3.116, P = 0.078). Once again variation occured in 2004 (t = -3.337, P = 0.002). We found no differences on richness among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 1.200, P = 0.311), between times of day ([F.sub.1,219] = 3.752, P = 0.054) and in the interaction between different years and times of day ([F.sub.3,219] = 2.491, P = 0.061) (Fig. 3 and Table 1). ,

Considering all the environments sampled, the families with the highest richness were Tyrannidae and Psittacidae, with 32 and 16 species, respectively, followed by Columbidae, Picidae and Emberizidae, each with 13 species. Twenty-five families were represented by only one or two species. The highest species richness of Tyrannidae (Passeriformes) and Psittacidae (non-Passeriformes) was recorded in the savannah, forested savannah and gallery forests. In the grasslands, more species of Emberezidae were registered. Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae were dominant in number of species in salinas, in the bays and in the river. Momotidae was restricted to the gallery forest, Alcedinidae standing out in the river and bays. Some tyrannids were restricted to one or two environments, such as Cnemotriccus fuscatus and Lessonia rufa in the forested savannah, Gubernetes yetapa, Camptostoma obsoletum and Megarynchus pitangua in the savannah, Xolmis velatus in the grasslands, Philohydor lictor in the river and Machetornis rixosa in the salinas. Pitangus sulphuratus, on the other hand, was well distributed in the all environments.

Abundance: Total abundance of birds was not different among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 1.999, P = 0.115), times of day ([F.sub.1,219] = 2.066, P = 0.152) and between times of day when it was dependent upon the years ([F.sub.3,219] = 0.252, P = 0.680). However, it showed significant variation in the interaction between years and seasons ([F.sub.3,219] = 3.685, P = 0.013) since 2004 showed significant differences in abundance between both seasons (t = -3.224, P = 0.002). Thus, it could be said that the dry season would attract more visiting birds to better exploit the resources in aquatic environments (rivers, bays, and salines) when the water level drops in these environments. On the other hand, the rain would delay this process, allowing the birds to be less concentrated in these aquatic environments. Another relevant factor in relation to the dry season is that many species of aquatic visiting birds nest on the edges of aquatic environments and food is more easily obtained with the decrease of water.

Total abundance of birds was different among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 6.549, P < 0.001), among habitats ([F.sub.6,219] = 32.798, P < 0.001) and in the interaction between different years and habitats ([F.sub.17,219] = 3.115, P < 0.001). The post-hoc Tukey test showed two major groups: one composed by habitats with low abundance, such as grasslands, forested savannah, savannah, bays and riparian forests, and another one formed by salines and river, that have higher abundance (Fig. 4 and Table 2).

Psittacidae was the most abundant family in the region, with prominence in all environments. Recurvirostridae, a monospecific family, showed expressive abundance due to the dominance of Himantopus mexicanus in the salinas, followed by Ardeidae, Anatidae and Cracidae. Other families with high abundance were Tyrannidae, Columbidae, Thraupidae and Emberizidae, all in predominantly terrestrial environments. Among the most abundant species we registered Brotogeris chiriri standing out in all the sampled environments. Other species with great abundance in the different environments were Ortalis canicollis, Amazona aestiva, Dendrocygna viduata, Cantorchilus leucotis and Pitangus sulphuratus. The 30 most abundant species together represented 61% of all records. Dendrocygna autumnalis was preferentially concentrated in the rivers and salines while Cairina moschata was frequently distributed in the bays. Anhinga anhinga and Nannopterum brasilianus were recorded almost exclusively in the river, except for some records of the second in the bays and salines. The Ardeidae were more frequent in the river, followed by the salines and expressively less common in the bays. Treskiornithidae were more frequent in the salinas while the Ciconiidae stood out in the river. The distribution of limnic species was heterogeneous among the three aquatic environments. Vanellus chilensis (N = 206), H. mexicanus (N = 1712), Tringa flavipes (N = 241), T. melanoleuca (N = 149) and Phaetusa simplex (N = 197) were abundant in the salines. Jacana jacana (N = 210) was abundant in bays, salines and grasslands. P. simplex was abundant in saline and common in the river, while S. superciliary and Chlidonias niger (N = 130) had ample abundance only in the river.

Migratory species: A total of 98 species of migratory birds were registered in Pantanal of Rio Negro (Appendix 1). The vast majority of migratory species were recorded between June and September. The following were exceptions: Crotophaga major, a summer migratory species recorded only during the wet season; Anhinga anhinga, normally recorded in large numbers during summer (small numbers in winter); Nannopterum brasilianus, present in summer and the early dry season (winter in the Pantanal); and Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin, 1789), another species that migrates in summer. There is also Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758, seen usually in large flocks during summer (wet season). Those typical of the rainy period (summer), with more than 100 recordings were N. brasilianus, P. simplex, Tachybaptus dominicus, C. major and Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789). At some time, any of these species can be recorded in small numbers in different seasons.

DISCUSSION

Naumburg (1930) was one of the pioneers in describing birds of the Pantanal, followed by Mitchell (1957). Cintra and Yamashita (1990) went a step further and described the habitats, distribution, and abundance of bird species in the Northern Pantanal. Brown (1986) analyzed the distribution and biogeographic affinities of over 650 bird species in the Pantanal. Dubs (1992) presented a catalogue of birds from Southwestern Brazil and bordering regions in the Pantanal region with almost 700 species of birds. The avifauna from Pantanal wetlands has the highest species richness among the wet areas in the World, sheltering approximately 460 species (Nunes & Thomas, 2004a). Moreover, new species are added every year to the Pantanal list (Nunes et al., 2008). Figueira et al. (2006) found more bird species richness in forest areas, followed by savannahs and grasslands and floodable or aquatic fields. In terms of aquatic habitats, the diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant (Donatelli et al., 2014). Our results showed the same pattern recorded by these authors in relation to aquatic habitats but this work, the first of its kind, will be a reference for further studies of birds in Pantanal, for various fields of research.

The temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of birds in the tropics has already been highlighted by several authors (Blake & Loiselle, 1991) and the fluctuations in bird abundance are already known in Pantanal (Nunes & Thomas, 2004a). Thus, as registered in the present work, in the dry season the abundance of birds was higher than in the wet period. The dry season is related to high availability of food and decrease in the volume of water in the wetland system (Por, 1995). On the other hand, Poulin, Lefebvre and McNeil (1993) registered lower abundances of birds at the beginning of the reproductive period in deciduous and dry forests in Venezuela, associating this to the low availability of food.

The spatial distribution of the animal diversity has also been explained in climate and vegetational structure (Cueto & Casenave, 1999; Veech & Crist, 2007). According to Farley, Ellis, Stuart & Scott (2004) habitat variability is a determinant part of the structure and dynamics of a community of birds, because most of the species are closely related to specific habitats. We found that there was no significant variation in the abundance of birds in the same habitat in four years of data collection, but a great significant variation between different habitats was observed; this fact was expected, considering the peculiar characteristics of each habitat. So, in a regional scale, the factors that seem to influence bird abundance are habitat type, size, and diversity of habitats existing in a specific place (Rafe, Usher, & Jefferson, 1985), being the heterogeneity of habitats a predominant factor in the determination of the number of birds' species (Rafe et al., 1985; Farley et al., 1994; Bailey et al., 2004; Blake, 2007). Figueira et al. (2006) found more bird species richness in forest areas, followed by savannahs and grasslands and floodable or aquatic fields. On the other hand, in terms of abundance, we observed that the open habitats, such as the salines and rivers had a higher abundance of birds than the other habitats (categorized as closed); a possible reason for this was a large concentration of species of shorebirds exploring food in these environments.

Figueira et al. (2006) analysed bird diversity of Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso and found three types of habitats with similar diversity: 1) forested habitats (forested savannah and riparian forests); 2) savannah (savannah sensu strict and grasslands); and 3) aquatic habitats (rivers, bays, corixos). Species which share distinct habitats may also indicate, indirectly, the potential flow of individuals and species among the different habitats and consequently, the complexity, the interconnectivity and the flexibility of interactions in the food chain. Thus, the heterogeneity of habitats is fundamental for the maintenance of the diversity of both aquatic and terrestrial birds (Figueira et al., 2006). On the other hand, our results also indicated that it seems quite remote that Pantanal wetlands share bird species with other habitat, except in particular conditions (river and riparian forests, salines and rivers). Results of abundance showed specificity and each habitat has its own importance in the whole context, notwithstanding the sharing of habitats.

Considering migratory species, Nunes and Tomas (2004b) listed 133 species of migratory birds with occurrence in the plains of the Pantanal wetlands. In this study 98 species, approximately 74% of all the migratory birds that occur in the plains of the Pantanal were registered. According to the reference chart from these authors, we have the following profile regarding the migratory birds in the Pantanal do Rio Negro: 1) Most of these species have aquatic habits; 2) approximately 40% are migrant from the American continent, and 32% from national territory; 3) approximately 15% come from Central America, North of South America and North America and 13% from the extreme South of South America; 4) None of them has been considered in situation that requires attention regarding conservation and 5) the vast majority has got unknown destination.

The results highlight some important issues regarding the abundance of birds in this region of Pantanal wetlands: a) The morning period and the dry season register the highest number of birds, regardless of the habitat; b) there are no significant differences in abundance in the same habitat along the years, but the habitats among themselves showed different total abundances.

In general, the results indicated that there is a relatively stable abundance in each habitat along years, but there is a clear difference in abundance among the habitats yearly, associated with their particularities. Pantanal of Rio Negro is an enormous complex of interconnected habitats on which the local community of birds depends. This diversity of habitats contributes to the high abundances recorded, as well as to the biome as a whole. Thus, additional studies on food availability in dry and wet seasons should be better explored in the future, either in this region or in other Pantanal regions. This fact could better explain the seasonal dynamics of the richness and abundance of birds in the Pantanal in general.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We must acknowledge our immense debt to Earthwatch Institute for the opportunity to carry out the ornithological research Project in the Pantanal, and to the more than 300 volunteers who assisted us in the field from 2001 to 2004. Heartfelt thanks to Conservation International for logistic support at Fazenda Rio Negro. We also want to thank Alexine Keuroghlian and Don Eaton for their invaluable support in Campo Grande and at Fazenda Rio Negro; to Jeff Himmelstein for his assistance at all times and also for friendship. We are grateful to all staff at the Fazenda (Geni, Baiano, Celso, Seu Japao, Picole, and Ico). We thank very much the reviewers of the manuscript who made valuable suggestions.

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Tubelis, D. P., & Tomas, W. M. (2003). Bird species of the wetland, Brazil. Ararajuba, 11, 5-37.

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APPENDIX 1

Bird species recorded in the Pantanal, Fazenda Rio Negro, from 2001
to 2004

Rheidae                                RF    SH    FS   BA   SA   GR

Rhea americana Greater Rhea                  X               X    X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Tinamidae

Crypturellus undulatus Undulated       X     X     X    X
Tinamou (Temminck, 1815)

Crypturellus parvirostris Small-             X          X         X
billed Tinamou (Wagler, 1827)

Rhynchotus rufescens Red-winged                                   X
Tinamou (Temminck, 1815)

Podicipedidae

Tachybaptus dominicus Least GrebeM                      X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Podilymbus podiceps Pied-billed                         X    X
GrebeV (Linnaeus, 1758)

Phalacrocoracidae

Nannopterum brasilianus Neotropic                       X    X
CormorantM (Gmelin, 1789)

Anhingidae

Anhinga anhinga Anhinga (Linnaeus,                      X    X
1766)

Ardeidae

Ardea cocoi White-necked Heron                          X    X
Linnaeus, 1766

Ardea alba Great Egret Linnaeus,                        X    X
1758

Egretta thula Snowy EgretM (Molina,                     X    X
1782)

Egretta caerulea Little Blue Heron                           X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Butorides striata Striated Heron                        X    X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Agamia agami Chestnut-bellied Heron
(Gmelin, 1789)

Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret                   X                    X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Syrigma sibilatrix Whistling Heron                      X    X
(Temminck, 1824)

Pilherodius pileatus Capped Heron
(Boddaert, 1783)

Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned                     X
Night-Heron (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent                            X    X
Tiger-Heron (Boddaert, 1783)

Botaurus pinnatus Pinnated BitternM
(Wagler, 1829)

Cochlearius cochleariusBoat-billed
Heron (Linnaeus, 1766)

Threskiornithidae

Theristicus caerulescensPlumbeous                       X    X    X
Ibis (Vieillot, 1817)

Theristicus caudatus Buff-necked                        X    X    X
Ibis (Boddaert, 1783)

Mesembrinibis cayennensis Green                         X    X
IbisM (Gmelin, 1789)

Phimosus infuscatus Whispering IbisM                    X    X
(Lichtenstein, 1823)

Plegadis chihi White-faced IbisM                        X    X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Platalea ajaja Roseate Spoonbill                        X    X
Linnaeus, 1758

Ciconiidae

Mycteria americana Wood Stork                           X    X    X
Linnaeus, 1758

Ciconia maguari Maguari Stork                           X    X    X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Jabiru mycteria Jabiru                                  X    X    X
(Lichtenstein, 1819)

Cathartidae

Coragyps atratus Black Vulture                          X
(Bechstein, 1793)

Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture                           X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Cathartes burrovianus Lesser
yellow-headed Vulture Cassin, 1845

Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Anatidae

Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous                             X    X
Whisting-DuckM (Vieillot, 1816)

Dendrocygna viduata White-faced                         X    X
Whistilig DuckM (Linnaeus, 1766)

Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied                    X    X
Whistling DuckM (Linnaeus, 1758)

Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba SwanV                     X    X
(Molina, 1782)

Callonetta leucophrys Ringed TealM                           X
(Vieillot, 1816)

Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian                       X    X
Teal (Gmelin, 1789)

Sarkidiornis sylvicola Comb DuckM                            X
Ihering & Ihering, 1907

Cairina moschata Muskovy Duck          X     X     X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Anhimidae

Chauna torquata Southern Screamer      X                X    X
(Oken, 1816)

Accipitridae

Elanus leucurus White-tailed Kite      X     X
(Vieillot, 1818)

Gampsonyx swainsoni Pearl KiteV        X     X
Vigors, 1825

Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed    X     X
Kite (Linnaeus, 1758)

Leptodon cayanensis Gray-headed Kite   X
(Latham, 1790)

Chondrohierax uncinatus Hook-billed          X
KiteV (Temminck, 1822)

Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite         X     X          X
(Gmelin, 1788)

Rostrhamus sociabilis Snail Kite                        X    X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Geranoaetus albicaudatus                     X
White-tailed Hawk (Vieillot, 1816)

Buteo albonotatus Zone-tailed Hawk           X
Kaup, 1847

Buteo brachyurus Short-tailed Hawk           X
Vieillot, 1816

Buteo nitidus Gray Hawk (Latham,             X
1790)

Rupornis magnirostris Roadsipe Hawk    X     X     X    X    X    X
(Gmelin, 1788)

Parabuteo unicinctus Harris's HawkV          X
(Temminck, 1824)

Busarellus nigricollis                 X     X     X    X    X    X
Black-collared Hawk (Latham, 1790)

Heterospizias meridionalis Savannah          X     X    X    X    X
Hawk (Latham, 1790)

Urubitinga urubitinga Great Black
Hawk (Gmelin, 1788)

Urubitinga coronata Crowned Solitary         X
EagleVU/V (Vieillot, 1817)

Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk          X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Pandionidae

Pandion haliaetus OspreyM (Linnaeus,   X
1758)

Falconidae

Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing      X     X          X
Falcon (Linnaeus, 1758)

Micrastur semitorquatus Collared       X
Forest-Falcon (Vieillot, 1817)

Micrastur ruficollis Barred            X
Forest-Falcon (Vieillot, 1817)

Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed       X     X     X    X    X    X
Caracara (Vieillot, 1816)

Caracara plancus Crested Caracara      X     X     X    X    X    X
(Miller, 1777)

Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon                                 X
(Daudin, 1800)

Falco femoralis Aplomado Falcon              X
(Temminck, 1822)

Falco sparverius American Kestrel                                 X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Cracidae

Ortalis canicollis Chaco Chachalaca    X           X    X    X
(Wagler, 1830)

Aburria cumanensis Blue-throated       X           X    X
Piping-Guan (Jacquin, 1784)

Crax fasciolataBare-faced Curassow     X     X     X    X    X
(Spix, 1825)

Aramidae

Aramus guarauna Limpkin (Linnaeus,                      X    X    X
1766)

Rallidae

Pardirallus nigricansBlackish Rail                                X
(Vieillot, 1819)

Aramides cajaneusGrey-necked           X                X
Wood-Rail (Statius Muller, 1776)

Mustelirallus albicollis                                          X
Ash-throated Crake (Vieillot, 1819)

Coturnicops notatus Speckled crake                                X
(Gould, 1841)

Gallinula galeata Common Moorhen                                  X
(Lichtenstein, 1818)

Porphyrio martinicusPurple Gallinule                              X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Porphyrio flavirostris Azure                                      X
Gallinule (Gmelin, 1789)

Heliornithidae

Heliornis fulica Sungreebe
(Boddaert, 1783)

Cariamidae

Cariama cristata Red-legged Seriema          X          X         X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Jacanidae

Jacana jacana Wattled Jacana                            X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Charadriidae

Vanellus chilensisSouthern Lapwing     X     X          X    X    X
(Molina, 1782)

Vanellus cayanus Pied LapwingM                          X
(Latham, 1790)

Charadrius collaris Collared Plover                               X
(Vieillot, 1818)

Scolopacidae

Tringa solitariaSolitary Sandpiper                      X    X
(Wilson, 1813)

Tringa flavipes Lesser Yellowlegs                            X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Tringa melanoleucaGreater Yellowlegs                    X    X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Actitis macularius Spotted Sandpiper                         X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Calidris melanotos Pectoral                                  X
Sandpiper" (Vieillot, 1819)

Bartramia longicauda Upland                                  X
SandpiperM (Bechstein, 1812)

Gallinago paraguaiaeMagellan Snipe                           X
(Vieillot, 1816)

Phalaropus tricolor Wilson's                                 X
PhalatropeM (Vieillot, 1819)

Recurvirostridae

Himantopus melanurus White-backed                            X
Stilt Vieillot, 1817

Sternidae

Phaetusa simplerLarge-billed Tern                       X    X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Sternula superciliarisYellow-billed                     X    X
Tern (Vieillot, 1819)

Rynchopidae

Rynchops nigerbBlack Skimmed
Linnaeus, 1758

Columbidae

Patagioenas picazuro Picazuro Pigeon   X     X     X    X         X
(Temminck, 1813)

Patagioenas cayennensis Pale-vented    X     X     X    X         X
Pigeon (Bonnaterre, 1792)

Zenaida auriculata Eared Dove (Des           X                    X
Murs, 1847)

Columbina minuta Blue Ground-Dove      X     X                    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Columbina talpacotibRuddy                    X          X         X
Ground-Dove (Temminck, 1811)

Columbina picui Picui Ground Dove            X                    X
(Temminck, 1813)

Claravis pretiosa Blue-eyed            X     X
Groud-Dove (Ferrari-Perez, 1886)

Uropelia campestris Long-Tailed              X                    X
Ground Dove (Spix, 1825)

Columbina squammata Scaled Dove              X          X         X
(Lesson, 1831)

Leptotila verreauxibWhite-tipped       X     X          X
Dove Bonaparte, 1855

Leptotila rufaxilla Grey-fronted       X     X
Dove (Richard & Bernard, 1792)

Psittacidae

Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus             X     X     X    X    X
Hyacinthine MacawVU (Latham, 1790)

Ara ararauna Blue-and-yellow Macaw     X     X     X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Ara chloropterus Red-and-green Macaw   X     X     X    X    X
Gray, 1859

Primolius auricollis Yellow-collared   X     X     X    X    X
Macaw (Cassin, 1853)

Diopsittaca nobilis Red-shoultered     X     X     X    X    X
Macaw (Linnaeus, 1758)

Thectocercus acuticaudata              X     X     X    X    X
Blue-crowned Parakeet (Vieillot,
1818)

Psittacara leucophthalmusWhite-eyed          X          X
Parakeet (Statius Muller, 1776)

Eupsittula aurea Peach-fronted         X     X     X    X    X
Parakeet (Gmelin, 1788)

Aratinga nenday Nanday Parakeet              X     X    X    X
(Vieillot, 1823)

Myiopsitta monachus Monk Parakeet            X
(Boddaert, 1783)

Brotogeris chiriri Canary-winged       X     X     X    X    X
Parakeet (Vieillot, 1818)

Pionus menstruus Blue-headed ParrotV         X     X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Pionus maximiliani Scaly-headed              X     X    X
Parrot (Kuhl, 1820)

Alipiopsitta xanthops Yellow-faced           X     X
ParrotVU/V (Spix, 1824)

Amazona aestiva Blue-fronted Parrot    X     X     X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Amazona amazonica Orange-winged        X     X     X         X
Parrot (Linnaeus, 1766)

Cuculidae

Coccyzus melacoryphus Dark-billed            X
CuckooM Vieillot, 1817

Micrococcyx cinereus Ash-colored             X
CuckooM Vieillot, 1817

Coccyzus americanus Yellow-billed            X
CuckooM (Linnaeus, 1758)

Piaya cayana Squirrel Cuckoo           X     X     X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Coccycua minuta Little CuckooV         X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani             X          X    X    X
Linnaeus, 1758

Crotophaga major Greater aniM          X
Gmelin, 1788

Guira guirab Guira Cuckoo (Gmelin,           X          X    X    X
1788)

Tapera naevia Striped Cuckoo                 X     X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Dromococcyx pavoninus Pavonine               X     X
Cuckoo Pelzeln, 1870

Tytonidae

Tyto furcataBarn Owl (Scopoli, 1769)         X

Strigidae

Megascops choliba Tropical                   X
Screech-Owl (Vieillot, 1817)

Bubo virginianus Great Horned Owl            X
(Gmelin, 1788)

Glaucidium brasilianumb Ferruginoum    X     X
Pigmy-Owl (Gmelin, 1788)

Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl             X                    X
(Molina, 1782)

Pulsatrix perspicillata Spectacled           X
Owl (Latham, 1790)

Strix huhula Black-banded Owl                X
Daudin, 1800

Nyctibiidae

Nyctibius grandis Great potto                X                    X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Nyctibius griseus Grey Potoo                 X     X              X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Caprimulgidae

Lurocalis semitorquatus Short-Tailed   X     X
Nighthawk (Gmelin, 1789)

Chordeiles acutipennis Lesser          X
nighthawk (Hermann, 1783)

Nyctiprogne leucopyga Band-tailed            X
Nighthawk (Spix, 1825)

Podager nacunda Nacunda Nighthawk            X                    X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Nyctidromus albicollis Pauraque              X                    X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Antrostomus rufus Rufous Nightjar            X                    X
(Boddaert, 1783)

Hydropsalis parvula Little Nightjar          X                    X
(Gould, 1837)

Hydropsalis torquata Scissor-tailed          X                    X
Nightjar (Gmelin, 1789)

Apodidae

Chaetura meridionalis Ashy-tailed
SwiftV Hellmayr, 1907

Trochilidae

Phaethornis pretrei Planalto Hermit    X     X
(Lesson & Delattre, 1839)

Eupetomena macrouraSwallow-tailed            X
Hummingbird (Gmelin, 1788)

Anthracothorax nigricollis                   X
Black-throated Mango (Vieillot,
1817)

Chlorostilbon lucidus                        X          X
Glittering-bellied Emerald (Shaw,
1812)

Thalurania furcata Fork-tailed               X
Woodnymph (Gmelin, 1788)

Hylocharis chrysura Gilded             X     X
Hummingbird (Shaw, 1812)

Amazilia versicolor Versicoloured            X
Emerald (Vieillot, 1818)

Amazilia fimbriata                           X
Glittering-throated Emerald (Gmelin,
1788)

Trogonidae

Trogon curucuib Blue-crowned Trogon    X     X     X    X
Linnaeus, 1766

Alcedinidae

Megaceryle torquata Ringed             X                X
Kingfisher (Linnaeus, 1766)

Chloroceryle amazonab Amazon           X                X
Kingfisher (Latham, 1790)

Chloroceryle americanab Green          X                X
Kingfisher (Gmelin, 1788)

Chloroceryle indab Green-and-Rufous    X
Kingfisher (Linnaeus, 1766)

Chloroceryle aenea American Pygmy      X
Kingfisher (Pallas, 1764)

Momotidae

Momotus momota Blue-crowned Motmot     X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Galbulidae

Galbula ruficaudab Rufous-tailed       X     X
Jacamar Cuvier, 1816

Bucconidae

Nystalus maculatus Spot-backed               X
Puffbird (Gmelin, 1788)

Ramphastidae

Pteroglossus castanotis                      X
Chestnut-eared Aracari Gould, 1834

Ramphastos toco Toco Toucan Statius    X     X          X
Muller, 1776

Picidae

Picumnus albosquamatus White-wedged    X     X     X
Piculet d'Orbigny, 1840

Colaptes campestrisb Campos Flicker          X          X    X    X
(Vieillot, 1818)

Colaptes melanochloros Green-barred          X     X
Woodpecker (Gmelin, 1788)

Piculus chrysochloros Golden-green           X     X
Woodpecker (Vieillot, 1818)

Celeus flavescens Blond-crested              X     X
Woodpecker (Gmelin, 1788)

Celeus lugubris Pale-crested           X     X     X         X
Woodpecker (Malherbe, 1851)

Dryocopus lineatus Lineated            X     X     X         X
Woodpecker (Linnaeus, 1766)

Melanerpes candidus White Woodpecker         X     X    X    X
(Otto, 1796)

Melanerpes cactorum White-fronted            X
Woodpecker (d'Orbigny, 1840)

Veniliornis passerinus Little          X     X     X         X
Woodpecker (Linnaeus, 1766)

Campephilus melanoleucos                     X     X
Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Gmelin,
1788)

Campephilus leucopogon Cream-backed          X     X
Woodpecker (Valenciennes, 1826)

Melanerpes flavifrons Yellow-fronted         X     X
Woodpecker (Vieillot, 1818)

Thamnophilidae

Taraba majorb Great Antshrike          X     X     X    X    X
(Vieillot, 1816)

Thamnophilus doliatusb Barred          X     X     X    X
Antshrike (Linnaeus, 1764)

Thamnophilus pelzelni Planalto Slaty   X
Antshrike Hellmayr, 1924

Thamnophilus caerulescens Variable     X           X
Antshrike Vieillot, 1816

Dysithamnus mentalis Plain Antvireo    X
(Temminck, 1823)

Formicivora rufab Rusty-backed               X          X
Antwren (Wied, 1831)

Cercomacra melanariab Mato Grosso      X
Antbird (Menetries, 1835)

Furnariidae

Furnarius rufusb Rufous Hornero
(Gmelin, 1788)

Furnarius leucopusb Pale-legged              X          X    X    X
Hornero Swainson, 1838

Schoeniophylax phryganophilus Chotoy                              X
Spinetail (Vieillot, 1817)

Synallaxis frontalis Sooty-fronted           X
Spinetail Pelzeln, 1859

Synallaxis albescens Pale-breasted           X
Spinetail Temminck, 1823

Synallaxis albilorab Plain-crowned     X     X          X
Spinetail Pelzeln, 1856

Certhiaxis cinnamomeus                 X                X
Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Gmelin,
1788)

Cranioleuca vulpinab Rusty-backed      X
Spinetail (Pelzeln, 1856)

Phacellodomus rufifrons Plain                X     X
Thombird (Wied, 1821)

Phacellodomus ruber Greater Thombird         X     X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Pseudoseisura unirufab Grey-crested          X     X
Cachalote (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye,
1838)

Dendrocolaptidae

Sittasomus griseicapillusb Olivaceus   X
Woodcreeper (Vieillot, 1818)

Xiphocolaptes major Great Rufous       X     X     X    X
Woodcreeper (Vieillot, 1818)

Dendrocolaptes platyrostrisb           X
Planalto Woodcreeper Spix, 1825

Dendroplex picus Straight-billed       X
Woodcreeper (Gmelin, 1788)

Lepidocolaptes angustirostrisb               X          X
Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Vieillot,
1818)

Campylorhamphus trochlirostrisb        X     X
Red-billed Scyhebill (Lichtenstein,
1820)

Tityridae

Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped       X
Xenopsaris (Burmeister, 1869)

Pachyramphus viridisb Green-backed           X
Becard (Vieillot, 1816)

Pachyramphus polychopterus             X
White-winged Becard (Vieillot, 1818)

Pachyramphus validus Crested Becard          X
(Lichtenstein, 1823)

Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra            X     X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Tityra inquisitor Black-crowned              X     X
Tityra (Lichtenstein, 1823)

Rynchocyclidae

Leptopogon amaurocephalus              X
Sepia-capped Flycatcher Tschudi,
1846

Hemitriccus margaritaceiventeib                    X
Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant (d'Orbigny
& Lafresnaye,1837)

Todirostrum cinereum Common                  X     X
Tody-Flycatcher (Linnaeus, 1766)

Poecilotriccus latirostrisb                  X
Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher
(Pelzeln, 1868)

Tolmomyias sulphurescensb              X           X
Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Spix, 1825)

Tyrannidae

Phyllomyias fasciatus Planalto               X
Tyrannulet (Thunberg, 1822)

Camptostoma obsoletumb Southern              X
Beardless Tyrannulet (Temminck,
1824)

Phaeomyias murina Mouse-coloured             X     X
Tyrannulet (Spix, 1825)

Sublegatus modestus Southern Scrub           X     X
Flycatcher (Wied, 1831)

Suiriri suiriri Chaco Suiriri                X
(Vieillot, 1818)

Myiopagis viridicatab Greenish                     X
Elaenia (Vieillot, 1817)

Elaenia flavogaster Yellow-bellied           X
Elaenia (Thunberg, 1822)

Elaenia parvirostris Small-billed            X
Elaenia Pelzeln, 1868

Elaenia cristatab Plain-crested              X
Elaenia Pelzeln, 1868

Elaenia chiriquensis Lesser Elaenia          X
Lawrence, 1865

Serpophaga subcristata White-crested         X
Tyrannulet (Vieillot, 1817)

Euscarthmus meloryphus Tawny-crowned         X
Pigmy-TyrantV Wied, 1831

Capsiempis flaveolaYellow Tyrannulet         X
(Lichtenstein, 1823)

Myiophobus fasciatus Bran-coloured           X
Flycatcher (Statius Muller, 1776)

Contopus cinereus Tropical Pewee             X
(Spix, 1825)

Lathrotriccus eulerP Euler's           X           X
Flycatcher (Cabanis, 1868)

Cnemotriccus fuscatusb Fuscus                      X
Flycatcher (Wied, 1831)

Pyrocephalus rubinus Vermilion               X
Flycatcher (Boddaert, 1783)

Xolmis cinereus Grey Monjita                 X                    X
(Vieillot, 1816)

Xolmis velatus White-rumped Monjita          X          X         X
(Lichtenstein, 1823)

Fluvicola albiventer Black-backed            X
Water-Tyrant (Spix, 1825)

Colonia colonus Long-tailed Tyrant           X
(Vieillot, 1818)

Gubernetes yetapa Streamer-tailed            X                    X
Tyrant (Vieillot, 1818)

Satrapa icterophrys Yellow-browed            X
Tyrant (Vieillot, 1818)

Machetornis rixosa Cattle Tyrant             X          X
(Vieillot, 1819)

Casiornis rufusb Rufous Casiornis                  X
(Vieillot, 1816)

Arundinicola leucocephala              X                X
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Linnaeus,
1764)

Myiarchus feroxb Short-crested         X                X
Flycatcher (Gmelin, 1789)

Myiarchus tyrannulusb Brown-crested          X     X
Flycatcher (Statius Muller, 1776)

Myiarchus swainsoni Swainson's               X
Flycatcher Cabanis & Heine, 1859

Philohydor lictor Lesser kiskadee      X
(Lichtenstein, 1823)

Pitangus sulphuratusb Great Kiskadee   X     X     X    X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed       X     X     X    X    X
Flycatcher (Linnaeus, 1766)

Myiozetetes cayanensis                 X     X
Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Linnaeus,
1766)

Conopias trivirgatus Three-striped           X
Flycatcher (Wied, 1831)

Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked              X     X    X
Flycatcher (Statius Muller, 1776)

Legatus leucophaius Piratic                  X     X
Flycatcher (Vieillot, 1818)

Empidonomus varius Variegated                X     X
Flycatcher (Vieillot, 1818)

Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus         X     X
Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (d'Orbigny
& Lafresnaye, 1837)

Tyrannus savana Fork-tailed                  X
Flycatcher Vieillot, 1808

Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical              X          X
Kingbird Vieillot, 1819

Pipridae

Pipra fasciicaudab Band-tailed         X
Manakin Hellmayr, 1906

Antilophia galeata Helmeted Manakin    X
(Lichtenstein, 1823)

Neopelmapallescens Pale-bellied        X
Tyrant-Manakin (Lafresnaye, 1853)

Hirundinidae

Tachycineta albiventer White-winged
SwallowM (Boddaert, 1783)

Tachycineta leucorrhoa White-rumped
SwallowM (Vieillot, 1817)

Progne tapera Brown-chested Martin
(Vieillot, 1817)

Progne chalybea Gray-brasted Martin    X     X     X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Pygochelidon cyanoleuca                X     X     X
Blue-and-white Swallow (Vieillot,
1817)

Alopochelidon fucata Tawny-headed
SwallowM (Temminck, 1822)

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Southern
Rough-winged Swallow (Vieillot,
1817)

Riparia riparia Bank SwallowM
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Hirundo rustica Barn SwallowM
Linnaeus, 1758

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Cliff
SwallowM (Vieillot, 1817)

Corvidae

Cyanocorax cyanomelas Purplish Jay     X     X     X    X    X
(Vieillot, 1818)

Cyanocorax cristatellus Curl-crested   X     X     X
Jay (Temminck, 1823)

Cyanocorax chrysops Plush-crested      X     X     X    X    X
Jay (Vieillot, 1818)

Troglodytidae

Campylorhynchus turdinusb              X     X          X    X
Thrush-like Wren (Wied, 1831)

Cantorchilus leucotisb Buff-breasted         X
Wren // (Lafresnaye, 1845)

Troglodytes musculus House Wren              X
Naumann, 1823

Donacobiidae

Donacobius atricapilla Black-capped                     X
Donacobius (Linnaeus, 1766)

Polioptilidae

Polioptila dumicola Masked                   X
Gnatcatcher (Vieillot, 1817)

Turdidae

Turdus rufiventrisb Rufous-bellied     X     X     X    X    X
Thrush Vieillot, 1818

Turdus leucomelas Pale-breasted        X     X     X    X    X
Thrush Vieillot, 1818

Turdus amaurochalinusb                 X     X     X    X    X
Creamy-bellied Thrush Cabanis, 1850

Mimidae

Mimus saturninusb Chalk-browed               X
Mockingbird (Lichtenstein, 1823)

Motacillidae

Anthus lutescens Yellowish Pipit                        X         X
Pucheran, 1855

Vireonidae

Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browned    X     X     X    X
Peppershirke (Gmelin, 1789)

Vireo chivib Red-eyed Vireo            X     X     X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Icteridae

Psarocolius decumanus Crested          X     X     X    X    X
Oropendola (Pallas, 1769)

Cacicus cela Yellow-rumped Cacique     X     X     X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Cacicus chrysopterus Golden-winged     X     X     X    X    X
Cacique (Vigors, 1825)

Procacicus solitarius Solitary         X     X     X
Cacique (Vieillot, 1816)

Icterus cayanensis Epaulet Oriole      X     X     X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Icterus croconotus                     X     X     X    X    X
Orange-backedTroupial (Wagler, 1829)

Agelasticus cyanopus Unicolored                         X    X    X
Blackbird (Vieillot, 1819)

Chrysomus ruficapillus                                            X
Chestnut-capped Blackbird (Vieillot,
1819)

Sturnella superciliaris White-browed                    X    X    X
Blackbird (Bonaparte, 1850)

Amblyramphus holosericeus                               X    X    X
Scarlet-headed Blackbird (Scopoli,
1786)

Gnorimopsar chopi Chopi Blackbird            X     X
(Vieillot, 1819)

Pseudoleistes guirahuro                      X                    X
Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Vieillot,
1819)

Agelaioides badius Bay-winged                X
Cowbird (Vieillot, 1819)

Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird          X
(Gmelin, 1789)

Molothrus oryzivorus Giant Cowbird           X
(Gmelin, 1788)

Parulidae

Setophaga pitiayumP Tropical Parula          X
(Vieillot, 1817)

Geothlypis aequinoctialis Marked             X
Yellowthroat (Gmelin, 1789)

Myiothlypis flaveolab Flavescent       X
Warbler Baird, 1865

Basileuterus culicivorus               X
White-bellied Warbler Bonaparte,
1830

Coerebidae

Coereba flaveola Bananaquit                  X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Thraupidae

Schistochlamys melanopis Black-faced         X
Tanager (Latham, 1790)

Neothraupis fasciata White-banded            X
Tanager (Lichtenstein, 1823)

Nemosia pileata Hooded Tanager               X
(Boddaert, 1783)

Eucometis penicilatab Gray-headed      X
Tanager (Spix, 1825)

Tachyphonus rufus White-lined          X
Tanager (Boddaert, 1783)

Ramphocelus carbob Silver-beaked       X     X     X    X    X
Tanager (Pallas, 1764)

Tangara sayaccP Sayaca Tanager         X     X     X    X    X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Tangara palmarumb Palm Tanager               X          X    X
(Wied, 1823)

Pipraeidea melanonota Fawn-breasted          X
Tanager (Vieillot, 1819)

Tangara cayana Burnished-buff                X
Tanager (Linnaeus, 1766)

Dacnis cayanaBlue Dacnis (Linnaeus,          X
1766)

Conirostrum speciosum                  X
Chestnut-vented Conebill (Temminck,
1824)

Tersina viridisSwallon Tanager         X
(Illiger, 1811)

Saltator coerulescens Greyish                                     X
Saltator Vieillot, 1817

Coryphospingus cucullatusb             X     X                    X
Red-crested Finch (Statius Muller,
1776)

Paroaria coronatab Red-crested         X     X
Cardinal (Miller, 1776)

Paroaria capitatab Yellow-billed             X          X         X
Cardinal (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye,
1837)

Saltator maximus Buff-throated         X
Saltator (Statius Muller, 1776)

Saltator similisGreen-winged           X     X
Saltator Vieillot, 1817

Emberizidae

Zonotrichia capensis Rufous-collared                              X
Sparrow (Statius Muller, 1776)

Ammodramus humeralis Grassland                                    X
Sparrow (Bosc, 1792)

Sicalis flaveolab Saffron Finch                                   X
(Linnaeus, 1766)

Emberizoides herbicola Wedge-tailed                               X
Grass-finch (Vieillot, 1817)

Volatinia jacarina Blue-black                                     X
Grassquit (Linnaeus, 1766)

Sporophila plumbea Plumbeus                                       X
Seedeater (Wied, 1830)

Sporophila collarisb Rusty-collared                     X         X
Seedeater (Boddaert, 1783)

Sporophila lineola Lined Seedeater                                X
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Sporophila nigricollis                                            X
Yellow-bellied Seedeater (Vieillot,
1823)

Sporophila caerulescensb                                X         X
Double-collared Seedeater (Vieillot,
1823)

Sporophila leucoptera White-bellied                               X
Seedeater (Vieillot, 1817)

Sporophila hypoxantha Tawny-bellied                               X
SeedeaterV Cabanis, 1851

Sporophila ruficollis Dark-throated                               X
SeedeaterV Cabanis, 1851

Sporophila angolensis Lesser                            X         X
Seed-Finch (Linnaeus, 1766)

Arremon flavirostris Saffron-billed    X
Sparrow Swainson, 1838

Cardinalidae

Pheucticus aureoventris Black-backed         X                    X
GrosbeakV (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye,
1837)

Piranga flava Hepatic Tanager
(Vieillot, 1822)

Fringillidae

Euphonia chlorotica Purple-throated          X     X
Euphonia (Linnaeus, 1766)

Occasional contacts (V), migrant species (M), vulnerable (VU), or
Rare (RA) species, b--banded birds. RI, river; RF, riparian forest;
SH, savannah; FS, forested savannah; BA, bays; SA, salines and GR,
grasslands.

APPENDIX 2

Number of contacts for the most abundant species (>100 individuals)
in the Fazenda Rio Negro between 2001 and 2004

Species                          English common name         2001

Himantopus melanurus        Black-necked stilt               1098
Ardea alba                  Great egret                      1319
Dendrocygna viduata         White-faced whistling duck       369
Ortalis canicollis          Chaco chacalaca                  546
Thectocercus acuticaudata   Blue-crowned parakeet            157
Egretta thula               Snowy egret                      334
Brotogeris chiriri          Canary-winged parakeet           347
Amazona aestiva             Blue-fronted parrot              322
Phaetusa simplex            Large-billed tern                285
Nannopterum brasilianus     Brazilian cormorant              175
Dendrocygna autumnalis      Black-bellied whistling duck     309
Aburria cumanensis          Blue-throated piping guan        202
Leptotila verreauxi         White-tipped dove                195
Guira guira                 Guira cuckoo                     254
Ramphocelus carbo           Silver-beaked tanager            168
Jacana jacana               Jacana                           130
Megaceryle torquata         Ringed kingfisher                183
Patagioenas picazuro        Picazuro pigeon                  281
Tachybabtus dominicus       Least grebe                       3
Crax fasciolata             Bare-faced currasow              164
Phimosus infuscatus         Bare-faced ibis                  248
Crotophaga major            Greater ani                      170
Cantorchilus leucotis       Buff-necked wren                 198
Cyanocorax cyanomelas       Purplish jay                     162
Pitangus sulphuratus        Great kiskadee                   176
Vanellus chilensis          Southern lapwing                 261
Rynchops niger              Black skimmer                    164
Crypturellus undulatus      Undulated tinamous               205
Anhinga anhinga             Anhinga                           97
Tringa melanoleuca          Greater yellowlegs                89
Chloroceryle amazona        Amazon kingfisher                124
Paroaria capitata           Yellow-billed cardinal           140
Vanellus cayanus            Pied plover                      144
Ardea cocoi                 White-faced heron                 47
Butorides striatus          Striated heron                    98
Crotophaga ani              Smooth-billed ani                 87
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis   Southern rough-winged swallow    118
Platalea ajaja              Roseate spoonbill                269
Furnarius leucopus          Pale-legged hornero               66
Amazonetta brasiliensis     Brazilian teal                   104
Tringa flavipes             Lesser yellowlegs                135
Primolius auricollis        Yellow-collared macaw             23
Psittacara leucophthalmus   White-eyed parakeet              148
Gnorimopsar chopi           Chopi blackbird                   99
Coragyps atratus            Black vulture                     59
Psarocolius decumanus       Crested oropendula                93
Procacicus solitarius       Solitary cacique                  71
Paroaria coronata           Red-crested cardinal              84
Eupsittula aurea            Peach-fronted parakeet            18
Cercomacra melanaria        Mato Grosso antbird               49
Furnarius rufus             Rufous hornero                   101
Chloroceryle americana      Green kingfisher                  65
Philohydor lictor           Lesser kiskadee                  118
Ara chloroptera             Red-and-green macaw               47
Ramphastos toco             Toco toucan                       71
Patagioenas cayennensis     Pale-vented pigeon                74
Eucometis penicilata        Grey-headed tanager              138
Taraba major                Great antshrike                   41
Aramides cajaneus           Grey-necked wood-rail             39
Thamnophilus doliatus       Barred antshrike                  83
Cyanocorax chrysops         Plush-crested jay                 37
Cairina moschata            Moscovy duck                      26
Mesembrinibis cayennensis   Green ibis                        13
Campylorhynchus turdinus    Thrus-like wren                   74
Syrigma sibilatrix          Whistling heron                   61
Tigrisoma lineatum          Rufescent tiger heron             30
Saltator coerulescens       Greyish saltator                  35
Galbula ruficauda           Rufous-tailed jacamar             33
Cyclarhis gujanensis        Rufous-browed peppershrike        1
Myiarchus tyrannulus        Brown-crested flycatcher          28
Diopsittaca nobilis         Red-shouldered macaw              58
Theristicus caudatus        Buff-necked ibis                  62
Synallaxis albilora         White-lored spinetail             6
Arantiga nenday             Nanday parakeet                   23
Trogon curucui              Blue-crowned trogon               23

Species                     2002   2003   2004   Totals

Himantopus melanurus        1490   1077   673     4338
Ardea alba                  591    119    581     2610
Dendrocygna viduata         644    198    496     1707
Ortalis canicollis          479    338    297     1660
Thectocercus acuticaudata   874    132    211     1374
Egretta thula               440     62    253     1089
Brotogeris chiriri          400    155    150     1052
Amazona aestiva             434    152    110     1018
Phaetusa simplex            154    237    252     928
Nannopterum brasilianus     640     29     2      846
Dendrocygna autumnalis      240     56    127     732
Aburria cumanensis          218    131    149     700
Leptotila verreauxi         197    207     97     696
Guira guira                 208    122    106     690
Ramphocelus carbo           223    106    189     686
Jacana jacana               143    105    286     664
Megaceryle torquata         296    157     26     662
Patagioenas picazuro        195     57    122     655
Tachybabtus dominicus       554     39     1      597
Crax fasciolata             171    153     86     574
Phimosus infuscatus         169     36    114     567
Crotophaga major            147    233     16     566
Cantorchilus leucotis       164    109     95     566
Cyanocorax cyanomelas       213     91     98     564
Pitangus sulphuratus        201     68    117     562
Vanellus chilensis          133     71     85     550
Rynchops niger               99     53    196     512
Crypturellus undulatus       93    116     95     509
Anhinga anhinga             252     85     69     503
Tringa melanoleuca          376     35     1      501
Chloroceryle amazona        220    134     23     501
Paroaria capitata           204     71     81     496
Vanellus cayanus             85    118     78     425
Ardea cocoi                 209    111     50     417
Butorides striatus          163     79     41     381
Crotophaga ani              135     50     95     367
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis    94    144     1      357
Platalea ajaja               51     8      2      330
Furnarius leucopus           57     89    101     313
Amazonetta brasiliensis      57     44     78     283
Tringa flavipes              3     123     1      262
Primolius auricollis        150     25     60     258
Psittacara leucophthalmus    30     17     51     246
Gnorimopsar chopi            74     59     5      237
Coragyps atratus            111     45     18     233
Psarocolius decumanus       103     26     2      224
Procacicus solitarius        75     31     41     218
Paroaria coronata            11     41     74     210
Eupsittula aurea            130     7      53     208
Cercomacra melanaria         65     64     27     205
Furnarius rufus              56     34     6      197
Chloroceryle americana       45     60     23     193
Philohydor lictor            33     39     2      192
Ara chloroptera              40     46     57     190
Ramphastos toco              75     40     1      187
Patagioenas cayennensis      29     57     19     179
Eucometis penicilata         2      30     7      177
Taraba major                 86     44     1      172
Aramides cajaneus            57     12     55     163
Thamnophilus doliatus        49     27     1      160
Cyanocorax chrysops          88     15     16     156
Cairina moschata             70     18     39     153
Mesembrinibis cayennensis    78     55     3      149
Campylorhynchus turdinus     8      24     37     143
Syrigma sibilatrix           45     29     1      136
Tigrisoma lineatum           51     53     1      135
Saltator coerulescens        51     43     1      130
Galbula ruficauda            51     33     5      122
Cyclarhis gujanensis         62     44     14     121
Myiarchus tyrannulus         56     32     2      118
Diopsittaca nobilis          54     5      0      117
Theristicus caudatus         35     18     1      116
Synallaxis albilora          66     41     1      114
Arantiga nenday              52     37     2      114
Trogon curucui               44     45     1      113


Reginaldo Jose Donatelli (1), Donald P. Eaton (2,3), Guilherme Sementili-Cardoso (1,4), Renata Marques Vianna (1,4), Raphael Whitacker Gerotti (1,4), Fernanda Goncalves Rodrigues (1,4) & Rafael Martos Martins (1,4)

(1.) Laboratorio de Ornitologia. Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, campus de Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Cep 17033-360; rjdonat@yahoo.com.br

(2.) Ecology, Evolution and, Conservation Biology Program, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, Nevada 89557-0208, USA.

(3.) Wildlife Conservation Society-Brazil, Rua Spipe Calarge, 2355, Vila Morumbi, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul 79052-070, Brazil; don.sada@dri.edu, deaton@wcs.org.

(4.) Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Biologicas (Zoologia), Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Instituto de Biociencias, campus de Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Cep 18680-000; guisemcar@yahoo.com.br, vianna_29@hotmail.com, raphael.whitacker@ibb.unesp.br, fefe.2909@hotmail.com, rafael.martos@yahoo.com.br

Received 16-I-2017. Corrected 03-VII-2017. Accepted 03-VIII-2017.

Caption: Fig. 1. A. Pantanal area in Brazil (after Reginaldo J. Donatelli). B. Different types of Pantanal and localization of the Fazenda Rio Negro (Red spot).

Caption: Fig. 2. Habitats found in the Fazenda Rio Negro, Pantanal of Nhecolandia (after D. Eaton).

Caption: Fig. 3. Richness of birds for each different habitat in the Pantanal. Values represent mean [+ or -] SD. BA - bays; FS forested savannah; SH - savannah; RP- riparian forest; GR- grasslands; RI - river; SA - salines.

Caption: Fig. 4. Abundance of birds in the Pantanal. Values represent mean [+ or -] SD. BA - bays; FS - forested savannah; SH savannah; RP- riparian forest; GR- grasslands; RI - river; SA - salines.
TABLE1

Richness of birds in the Pantanal for times of day and seasons
between 2001 and 2004

Year         Morning               Afternoon

2001   35.34 [+ or -] 20.20   27.09 [+ or -] 13.08
2002   35.85 [+ or -] 12.81   28.40 [+ or -] 13.80
2003   32.88 [+ or -] 11.80   38.35 [+ or -] 4.30
2004   39.90 [+ or -] 14.23   28.62 [+ or -] 21.52

Year           Dry                    Wet

2001   32.81 [+ or -] 16,17   30.57 [+ or -] 18.34
2002   32.89 [+ or -] 13,55   37.35 [+ or -] 12.19
2003   36.27 [+ or -] 9,24    31.87 [+ or -] 12.15
2004   32.29 [+ or -] 14,72   48.87 [+ or -] 13.23

Values represent mean species number [+ or -] SD.

TABLE 2

Abundance of birds in the Pantanal for times of day and seasons
between 2001 and 2004

Year          Morning                 Afternoon
2001   182.82 [+ or -] 95.04    153.95 [+ or -] 162.86
2002   181.14 [+ or -] 127.71   135.60 [+ or -] 78.28
2003   176.09 [+ or -] 113.07   151.87 [+ or -] 77.24
2004   160.20 [+ or -] 109.41   172.25 [+ or -] 173.01

Year            Dry                      Wet
2001   202.15 [+ or -] 190.93   145.67 [+ or -] 156.94
2002   194.62 [+ or -] 151.20   161.81 [+ or -] 110.32
2003   182.86 [+ or -] 112.52   164.27 [+ or -] 122.6
2004   120.11 [+ or -] 84.82    250.03 [+ or -] 144.03

Values represent mean of number of birds detected [+ or -] SD.
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Author:Donatelli, Reginaldo Jose; Eaton, Donald P.; Sementili-Cardoso, Guilherme; Marques Vianna, Renata; W
Publication:Revista de Biologia Tropical
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2017
Words:9497
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