Variacion temporal y espacial en la riqueza y abundancia de la comunidad de aves del humedal Pantanal de Nhecolandia (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).
The Pantanal wetlands stand out for being one of the largest flood plain in the world, in which extreme climatic variations occur between dry (April to September) and wet seasons (October to March). During the wet season, large areas are flooded (Por, 1995). In the sub-region of Nhecolandia, the terrain, together with the rainfall conditions, is considered a predominant factor, for the formation of permanent or temporary lagoons in low terrains, with transition to grassy formations, fields, savannahs and forest formations in higher numbers when compared to other sub-regions of the Pantanal (Alho, Lacher Jr, & Goncalves, 1988; Ratter, Pott, Pott, Cunha, & Haridasan, 1988; Rodela, 2006).
The Pantanal is a complex of phyto-physiognomies that comprises numerous types of terrestrial and aquatic formations with the most diverse characteristics. In the terrestrial habitat, seasonal deciduous or semi-deciduous forests (including forest islands known as "capao" and riparian forests), fields of "murundus" (circular or elliptical micro topographies present on drainage slopes and headwaters, that remain temporarily or permanently flooded by rainwater; they are small usually round mounds, that often present with soil and vegetation different from the surrounding level area; Resende, Araujo, Oliveira, Oliveira, & Avila, 2004) and savannah formations with several levels of arboreal, shrub and graminoid coverings (including flooded monodominant formations) (Pott & Silva, 2015). In the aquatic habitat, rivers, fresh or salty water (salines) of different sizes and limnological conditions, permanent flooded fields, as well as the vast intermittent drainage meshwork - meanders, low levels, oxbow lakes, and "corixos" (seasonal streams) - which act as expansion and contraction shafts of the water during the flood periods (Pott & Silva, 2015). Amongst these characteristics, the number of lagoons and lakes is quite peculiar to this complex, numbering in the tens of thousands along its extension (Por, 1995). In the South-Central region of the Pantanal wetlands, two sub-sections marked by the great occurrence of fresh water (bays) and salty (saline) lagoons stand out: Paiaguas, at the North of the Taquari River, and Nhecolandia, at the South of the same river (Tomas, de Salis, Catella, Santos, & Nunes., 2007).
Although the Pantanal occupies a significant area of South America, there are few avifauna studies throughout its region, perhaps due to transport difficulty during flood periods. Naumburg (1930), Mitchel (1957), Brown (1986), Cintra and Yamashita (1990), Dubs (1992), Tubelis and Tomas (2003), Nunes and Tomas (2004a and 2004b), Nunes, Tizianel & Tomas (2006), Nunes, Silva & Tomas (2008), Figueira, Cintra, Viana & Yamashita (2006) and Donatelli, Posso & Toledo (2014) are among the researchers who investigated the richness of the birds in several regions of Pantanal. Nevertheless, an analysis of the diversity and dynamics of bird species in the Pantanal region is still lacking.
Aiming to broaden the knowledge of the bird community of the Southern region of Pantanal, this work registered the abundance of birds in a mosaic of habitats in the Pantanal of the Rio Negro. It is a pristine area where there is no cattle rising, unlike the other farms in the region; moreover, there is little human influence, and it has become a relevant model area and a unique reference for research. Thus, data from annual, seasonal, time of day, and habitat variation of abundance of the community of birds were collected in order to determine whether there is any variation in the patterns of distribution and use of habitats by birds in the Fazenda Rio Negro, Pantanal de Rio Negro, Nhecolandia, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Area of study: The study was developed in the Pantanal of Nhecolandia (Fig. 1A and Fig. 1B), in the Fazenda Rio Negro, city of Aquidauana, MS (19[degrees]30'00" S & 56[degrees]12'30" W). The Pantanal of Nhecolandia is a region with lands higher than the surroundings areas, characterized by moderated, localized and of short duration floods, where the bays and salines are distributed in a very heterogeneous matrix (Adamoli apud Por, 1995). The Fazenda Rio Negro contains 8 004 hectares, of which 7 000 belong to RPPN (Private Natural Heritage Reserve) Fazenda Rio Negro, where the sampling plots were concentrated.
The region has a tropical semiarid climate, with an average annual rainfall of 1 180 mm and average temperature varying between 21 and 28[degrees]C (Marengo, Oliveira, & Alves, 2016). In the Fazenda Rio Negro, the average annual temperature is 26.6[degrees]C, with a defined dry season between the months of April and September. The Fazenda Rio Negro shelters seven types of habitats, representing the main formations found in the sub-region of Pantanal wetlands: riparian forests, savannah, forested savannah, grasslands, bays, salines and Negro river (Fig. 2). Riparian forests occur along watercourses throughout the drier regions of the Neotropics. These forests contain a diverse association of deciduous and semi-deciduous trees and are seldom larger than 100 m wide. Savannah is the widely used name for the non-forested vegetation that covers much of the Brazilian shield and ranges from open grasslands ("campo sujo") to dense woodlands (forested savannah, treated in this paper as a separate habitat type). Forested savannah is dense woodland consisting of trees and shrubs with thick, fire-resistant bark, twisted trunks and large leaves; it contains a nearly continuous ground cover of grasses, sedges and forbs and is designated as dry forest or "cordilheiras" in the Pantanal region. Grasslands support a rich variety of herbaceous vegetation of more than 200 species of grasses and graminoid species; grasslands cover vast areas of Northern and Southeastern Bolivia and adjacent Brazil. Salines are small, rounded ponds, or typical "soda lakes" in which the predominant salt is sodium carbonate, with pH values that may reach 10, and nitrogen that occurs almost exclusively in the form of ammonia (Por, 1995). Bays are natural freshwater spots, circular or elongated shaped and isolated by small elevations on ground, covered or not by vegetation. Waters from various bays connect to each other through small passages ("corixos" and "vazantes"), forming a coalescent system during the flood. The Rio Negro is a tributary of the Paraguay river, with 30 km extension that is between 10 and 50 m wide along its course.
Bird sampling: We used the linear transect method (Bibby, Burgess, & Hill, 1992) for each of the seven habitats (riparian forest, savannah, forested savannah, grassland, bays, salines and river) from 2001 to 2004. During the 17 expeditions to the Fazenda Rio Negro, each habitat was visited twice. At each visit, we conducted two surveys (one in the morning and one in the afternoon), for two hours each period, for a total of 952 hours of linear transects performed in all habitats, (i.e., 4 hours per survey, seven habitats, two surveys per visit, 17 expeditions). Transects were distributed as follows: 2001 (January, April, June and August); 2002 (January, February, April, June, September); 2003 (January, August, November, December); 2004 (April, August, October and December). The transect methodology is widely used in bird studies in a variety of habitats and for different purposes. In general, transects are used in areas of easy access and locomotion as shown by Barrantes, Ocampo, Ramirez-Fernandez and Fuchs (2016) in fragments of forest in Costa Rica. Silva and Rodrigues (2015) measured density and spatial distribution of shorebirds in the Brazilian Amazonian coast. Devault, Kubel and Rhodes (2009) monitored birding communities at small airports in the United States. Whitaker and Montevecchi (1996) surveyed breeding bird assemblages in riparian edge, nonriparian edge (clearcut or access road) and in forests in Canada. Herkert (1994) researched the influence of area and vegetation structure on breeding bird communities associated with grassland fragments in Illinois; and the transect method is also used in areas with intensive agriculture as studied by Atkinson, Fuller, Gillings and Vickery (2006).
Some general patterns were followed to develop the transects: 1) Routes were selected according to accessibility and were of a fixed length (2 km each) so each could be covered in a session of fieldwork (two hours); 2) surveys were done since dawn (around 6:00) and in late afternoon (from 05:00) to sunset; 3) they were fixed so that we could have replicas of each transect effected; 4) they were performed on consecutive days for each environment twice, totaling 10 days (with two separate teams to develop the samplings); 5) Each team was composed of six to ten participants depending on the location of the transect (the transect in the river was always composed by six participants according to the places available on the boat). 6) Care was taken not to record more than one contact for the same individual by monitoring location and dislocation. 7) Migratory species may be summer (wet season from October to March) or winter (dry season from April to September) visitors. 8) Equipment: we used 8X30, 10X40 and 12X40 binoculars from Swarovski, Nikon and Bushnell brands; Swarovski ATS-65 HD 2.6 "/ 65 mm Spotting Scope and Ecotone 16.5-75X 80 mm for bird registration in salines and bays; Sony TCM 5000 EV, and TC-D5 Prof II for recordings of vocalizations with microphones Sennheiser M66 and ME67. We used ten mist-nets ranging from 20 to 36 mm and length ranging from 8, 12 and 18 m. The mist-nets were used as a complement to the qualitative study so that we could obtain maximum richness, particularly in closed environments where it was not possible to observe/listen to certain birds. It is a complementary study to the transect method, and was carried out simultaneously with another team. Classification of the species followed the official list of Brazilian birds, ruled by the Brazilian Committee of Ornithological Records (Piacentini et al., 2015).
Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare total abundance of birds among years, season and times of day because we repeated the surveys each year. A total of four repeated measures two-way ANOVAs were performed: 1) to evaluate the effect of the year, the time of day (morning or afternoon) and the interaction between year and time of day in the total abundance; 2) the effect of the year, the season (dry or wet) and the interaction between the year and the season in total abundance; 3) the effect of the year, the habitat and the interaction between year and habitat in the total abundance; and 4) the effect of the year, the categorized habitat (open, i.e., areas with fewer tree cover as grasslands; and closed, i.e., areas with greater tree cover, such as riparian forests and forested savannah) and the interaction between habitat and year in the total abundance. Once a statistically significant effect was identified, we used Tukey post-hoc test (for multiple comparison of measures). All tests were two-tailed, and the differences were considered significant at P < 0.05.
Richness: The richness registered was 201 species for the savannah, 87 in forested savannah, 116 in the riparian forest, 75 in grasslands, 92 in the salines, 120 in the bays and 64 in Rio Negro, accounting for 348 species in the Pantanal do Rio Negro (Appendix 1). About 80% of these species occurred in one or two habitats, 7% in three, 9% in four, 1% in five and less than 1% in all of them. There were still 2% of the species that did not belong to any specific habitat, because they generally occupied the air space (Appendix 1). The savannah showed the highest number of exclusive species (67 species), while only four exclusive species were recorded for the forested savannah. A total of 22 exclusive bird species were recorded in the grasslands, 25 in the riparian forests, 14 species in the river, nine in the salines and only two species at bays (Appendix 1).
We found significant variation on richness among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 14.757, P < 0.001), among habitats ([F.sub.6,219] = 30.886, P < 0.001), and in the interaction between different years and habitats (F17219 = 3.505, P < 0.001). The post-hoc Tukey test displayed clusters of habitats based on richness: one composed only by the grasslands, one composed by bays, forested savannah, salines and gallery forest, and the last one composed by savannah and river. When we examined variation between seasons, we found differences among years ([F.sub.3,221] = 3.576, P = 0.015) and on the interaction between different years and seasons ([F.sub.3,221] = 6.070, P = 0.001), but we did not find any variation between seasons ([F.sub.1,221] = 3.116, P = 0.078). Once again variation occured in 2004 (t = -3.337, P = 0.002). We found no differences on richness among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 1.200, P = 0.311), between times of day ([F.sub.1,219] = 3.752, P = 0.054) and in the interaction between different years and times of day ([F.sub.3,219] = 2.491, P = 0.061) (Fig. 3 and Table 1). ,
Considering all the environments sampled, the families with the highest richness were Tyrannidae and Psittacidae, with 32 and 16 species, respectively, followed by Columbidae, Picidae and Emberizidae, each with 13 species. Twenty-five families were represented by only one or two species. The highest species richness of Tyrannidae (Passeriformes) and Psittacidae (non-Passeriformes) was recorded in the savannah, forested savannah and gallery forests. In the grasslands, more species of Emberezidae were registered. Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae were dominant in number of species in salinas, in the bays and in the river. Momotidae was restricted to the gallery forest, Alcedinidae standing out in the river and bays. Some tyrannids were restricted to one or two environments, such as Cnemotriccus fuscatus and Lessonia rufa in the forested savannah, Gubernetes yetapa, Camptostoma obsoletum and Megarynchus pitangua in the savannah, Xolmis velatus in the grasslands, Philohydor lictor in the river and Machetornis rixosa in the salinas. Pitangus sulphuratus, on the other hand, was well distributed in the all environments.
Abundance: Total abundance of birds was not different among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 1.999, P = 0.115), times of day ([F.sub.1,219] = 2.066, P = 0.152) and between times of day when it was dependent upon the years ([F.sub.3,219] = 0.252, P = 0.680). However, it showed significant variation in the interaction between years and seasons ([F.sub.3,219] = 3.685, P = 0.013) since 2004 showed significant differences in abundance between both seasons (t = -3.224, P = 0.002). Thus, it could be said that the dry season would attract more visiting birds to better exploit the resources in aquatic environments (rivers, bays, and salines) when the water level drops in these environments. On the other hand, the rain would delay this process, allowing the birds to be less concentrated in these aquatic environments. Another relevant factor in relation to the dry season is that many species of aquatic visiting birds nest on the edges of aquatic environments and food is more easily obtained with the decrease of water.
Total abundance of birds was different among years ([F.sub.3,219] = 6.549, P < 0.001), among habitats ([F.sub.6,219] = 32.798, P < 0.001) and in the interaction between different years and habitats ([F.sub.17,219] = 3.115, P < 0.001). The post-hoc Tukey test showed two major groups: one composed by habitats with low abundance, such as grasslands, forested savannah, savannah, bays and riparian forests, and another one formed by salines and river, that have higher abundance (Fig. 4 and Table 2).
Psittacidae was the most abundant family in the region, with prominence in all environments. Recurvirostridae, a monospecific family, showed expressive abundance due to the dominance of Himantopus mexicanus in the salinas, followed by Ardeidae, Anatidae and Cracidae. Other families with high abundance were Tyrannidae, Columbidae, Thraupidae and Emberizidae, all in predominantly terrestrial environments. Among the most abundant species we registered Brotogeris chiriri standing out in all the sampled environments. Other species with great abundance in the different environments were Ortalis canicollis, Amazona aestiva, Dendrocygna viduata, Cantorchilus leucotis and Pitangus sulphuratus. The 30 most abundant species together represented 61% of all records. Dendrocygna autumnalis was preferentially concentrated in the rivers and salines while Cairina moschata was frequently distributed in the bays. Anhinga anhinga and Nannopterum brasilianus were recorded almost exclusively in the river, except for some records of the second in the bays and salines. The Ardeidae were more frequent in the river, followed by the salines and expressively less common in the bays. Treskiornithidae were more frequent in the salinas while the Ciconiidae stood out in the river. The distribution of limnic species was heterogeneous among the three aquatic environments. Vanellus chilensis (N = 206), H. mexicanus (N = 1712), Tringa flavipes (N = 241), T. melanoleuca (N = 149) and Phaetusa simplex (N = 197) were abundant in the salines. Jacana jacana (N = 210) was abundant in bays, salines and grasslands. P. simplex was abundant in saline and common in the river, while S. superciliary and Chlidonias niger (N = 130) had ample abundance only in the river.
Migratory species: A total of 98 species of migratory birds were registered in Pantanal of Rio Negro (Appendix 1). The vast majority of migratory species were recorded between June and September. The following were exceptions: Crotophaga major, a summer migratory species recorded only during the wet season; Anhinga anhinga, normally recorded in large numbers during summer (small numbers in winter); Nannopterum brasilianus, present in summer and the early dry season (winter in the Pantanal); and Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin, 1789), another species that migrates in summer. There is also Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758, seen usually in large flocks during summer (wet season). Those typical of the rainy period (summer), with more than 100 recordings were N. brasilianus, P. simplex, Tachybaptus dominicus, C. major and Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789). At some time, any of these species can be recorded in small numbers in different seasons.
Naumburg (1930) was one of the pioneers in describing birds of the Pantanal, followed by Mitchell (1957). Cintra and Yamashita (1990) went a step further and described the habitats, distribution, and abundance of bird species in the Northern Pantanal. Brown (1986) analyzed the distribution and biogeographic affinities of over 650 bird species in the Pantanal. Dubs (1992) presented a catalogue of birds from Southwestern Brazil and bordering regions in the Pantanal region with almost 700 species of birds. The avifauna from Pantanal wetlands has the highest species richness among the wet areas in the World, sheltering approximately 460 species (Nunes & Thomas, 2004a). Moreover, new species are added every year to the Pantanal list (Nunes et al., 2008). Figueira et al. (2006) found more bird species richness in forest areas, followed by savannahs and grasslands and floodable or aquatic fields. In terms of aquatic habitats, the diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant (Donatelli et al., 2014). Our results showed the same pattern recorded by these authors in relation to aquatic habitats but this work, the first of its kind, will be a reference for further studies of birds in Pantanal, for various fields of research.
The temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of birds in the tropics has already been highlighted by several authors (Blake & Loiselle, 1991) and the fluctuations in bird abundance are already known in Pantanal (Nunes & Thomas, 2004a). Thus, as registered in the present work, in the dry season the abundance of birds was higher than in the wet period. The dry season is related to high availability of food and decrease in the volume of water in the wetland system (Por, 1995). On the other hand, Poulin, Lefebvre and McNeil (1993) registered lower abundances of birds at the beginning of the reproductive period in deciduous and dry forests in Venezuela, associating this to the low availability of food.
The spatial distribution of the animal diversity has also been explained in climate and vegetational structure (Cueto & Casenave, 1999; Veech & Crist, 2007). According to Farley, Ellis, Stuart & Scott (2004) habitat variability is a determinant part of the structure and dynamics of a community of birds, because most of the species are closely related to specific habitats. We found that there was no significant variation in the abundance of birds in the same habitat in four years of data collection, but a great significant variation between different habitats was observed; this fact was expected, considering the peculiar characteristics of each habitat. So, in a regional scale, the factors that seem to influence bird abundance are habitat type, size, and diversity of habitats existing in a specific place (Rafe, Usher, & Jefferson, 1985), being the heterogeneity of habitats a predominant factor in the determination of the number of birds' species (Rafe et al., 1985; Farley et al., 1994; Bailey et al., 2004; Blake, 2007). Figueira et al. (2006) found more bird species richness in forest areas, followed by savannahs and grasslands and floodable or aquatic fields. On the other hand, in terms of abundance, we observed that the open habitats, such as the salines and rivers had a higher abundance of birds than the other habitats (categorized as closed); a possible reason for this was a large concentration of species of shorebirds exploring food in these environments.
Figueira et al. (2006) analysed bird diversity of Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso and found three types of habitats with similar diversity: 1) forested habitats (forested savannah and riparian forests); 2) savannah (savannah sensu strict and grasslands); and 3) aquatic habitats (rivers, bays, corixos). Species which share distinct habitats may also indicate, indirectly, the potential flow of individuals and species among the different habitats and consequently, the complexity, the interconnectivity and the flexibility of interactions in the food chain. Thus, the heterogeneity of habitats is fundamental for the maintenance of the diversity of both aquatic and terrestrial birds (Figueira et al., 2006). On the other hand, our results also indicated that it seems quite remote that Pantanal wetlands share bird species with other habitat, except in particular conditions (river and riparian forests, salines and rivers). Results of abundance showed specificity and each habitat has its own importance in the whole context, notwithstanding the sharing of habitats.
Considering migratory species, Nunes and Tomas (2004b) listed 133 species of migratory birds with occurrence in the plains of the Pantanal wetlands. In this study 98 species, approximately 74% of all the migratory birds that occur in the plains of the Pantanal were registered. According to the reference chart from these authors, we have the following profile regarding the migratory birds in the Pantanal do Rio Negro: 1) Most of these species have aquatic habits; 2) approximately 40% are migrant from the American continent, and 32% from national territory; 3) approximately 15% come from Central America, North of South America and North America and 13% from the extreme South of South America; 4) None of them has been considered in situation that requires attention regarding conservation and 5) the vast majority has got unknown destination.
The results highlight some important issues regarding the abundance of birds in this region of Pantanal wetlands: a) The morning period and the dry season register the highest number of birds, regardless of the habitat; b) there are no significant differences in abundance in the same habitat along the years, but the habitats among themselves showed different total abundances.
In general, the results indicated that there is a relatively stable abundance in each habitat along years, but there is a clear difference in abundance among the habitats yearly, associated with their particularities. Pantanal of Rio Negro is an enormous complex of interconnected habitats on which the local community of birds depends. This diversity of habitats contributes to the high abundances recorded, as well as to the biome as a whole. Thus, additional studies on food availability in dry and wet seasons should be better explored in the future, either in this region or in other Pantanal regions. This fact could better explain the seasonal dynamics of the richness and abundance of birds in the Pantanal in general.
We must acknowledge our immense debt to Earthwatch Institute for the opportunity to carry out the ornithological research Project in the Pantanal, and to the more than 300 volunteers who assisted us in the field from 2001 to 2004. Heartfelt thanks to Conservation International for logistic support at Fazenda Rio Negro. We also want to thank Alexine Keuroghlian and Don Eaton for their invaluable support in Campo Grande and at Fazenda Rio Negro; to Jeff Himmelstein for his assistance at all times and also for friendship. We are grateful to all staff at the Fazenda (Geni, Baiano, Celso, Seu Japao, Picole, and Ico). We thank very much the reviewers of the manuscript who made valuable suggestions.
Alho, C. J. R., Lacher Jr., T. E., & Goncalves, H. C. (1988). Habitat degradation in the Pantanal ecosystem. BioScience, 38, 164-171.
Atkinson, P. W., Fuller, R. A., Gillings, S., & Vickery, J. A. (2006). Counting birds on farmland habitats in winter. Bird Study, 53, 303-309.
Bailey, S. A., Horner-Devine, M. C., Luck, G., Moore, L. A., Carney, K. M., Anderson, S., Betrus, C., & Fleishman, E. (2004). Primary productivity and species richness: relationships among functional guilds, residency groups and vagility classes at multiple spatial scales. Ecography, 27, 207-217.
Barrantes, G., Ocampo, D., Ramirez-Fernandez, J. D. & Fuchs, E. J. (2016). Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna. Peer J, DOI 10.7717/peerj.2422
Bibby, C. J., Burgess, N. D., & Hill, D. A. (1992). Bird Census Techniques. San Diego: Academic Press Inc.
Blake, J. G. (2007). Neotropical forest bird communities: a comparison of species richness and composition at local and regional scales. The Condor, 109, 237-255.
Blake, J. G., & Loiselle, B. A. (1991). Variation in resource abundance affects capture rates of birds in three lowland habitats in Costa Rica. The Auk, 108, 114-130.
Brown, K. S. JR. (1986). Zoogeografia da regiao do Pantanal Matogrossense. In Anais do I Simposio sobre recursos naturais e socioeconomicos do Pantanal (137-138 pp.). EMBRAPA - DDT, Brasilia, Brasil.
Cintra, R. & Yamashita, C. (1990). Habitats, abundancia e ocorrencia das especies de aves do Pantanal de Pocone, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Papeis Avulsos Zool., 37, 1-21.
Cueto, V. R., & Casenave, J. L. (1999). Determinants of bird species richness: role of climate and vegetation structure at a regional scale. Journal of Biogeography, 26, 487-492.
Devaut, T., Kubel, J., & Rhodes Jr., O. (2009). Habitat and Bird Communities at Small Airports in the Midwestern USA. Wildlife Damage Management Conferences - Proceedings, 115, 137-145.
Donatelli, R. J., Posso, S. R., & Toledo, M. C. B. (2014). Distribution, composition and seasonality of aquatic birds in the Nhecolandia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology/Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 74, 844-853.
Dubs, B. (1992). Birds of southwestern Brazil: catalogue and guide to the birds of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso and its border areas. Kusnacht, Switzerland: Betrona-Verlag.
Farley, G. H., Ellis, L. M., Stuart, J. N., & Scott Jr, N. J. (1994). Avian species richness in differentaged stands of Riparian Forest along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. Conservation Biology, 8, 1098-1108.
Figueira, J. E. C., Cintra, R., Viana, L. R., & Yamashita, C. (2006). Spatial and temporal patterns of bird species diversity in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil: implications for conservation. Brazilian Journal of Biology/Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 66, 393-404.
Herkert, J. R. (1994). The effects of habitat fragmentation on midwestern grassland bird communities. Ecological Applications, 4, 461-471.
Marengo, J. A., Oliveira, G. S., & Alves, L. M. (2016). Climate changes scenarios in the Pantanal. In I. Bergier, & M. L. Assine (Eds), Dynamics of the Pantanal Wetland in South America (pp. 227-238). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Mitchell, M. K. H. (1957). Observations on birds of southeastern Brazil. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Naumburg, E. M. B. (1930). The birds of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Bulletin American Museum Natural History, 60, 1-432.
Nunes, A. P., Tizianel, F. A. T., & Tomas, W. M. (2006). Aves ameacadas ocorrentes no Pantanal. Embrapa Pantanal - Documentos, 83, 41.
Nunes, A. P., & Tomas, W. M. (2004a). Analise preliminar das relacoes biogeograficas da avifauna do Pantanal com biomas adjacentes. In do, A. (Translator), Simposio sobre Recursos Naturais E Socio-Economicos Do Pantanal. Corumba: Embrapa Pantanal.
Nunes, A. P., & Tomas, W. M. (2004b). Aves migratorias ocorrentes no Pantanal: caracterizacao e conservacao. Embrapa Pantanal - Documentos, 62, 27.
Nunes, A. P., Silva, P. A., & Tomas, W. M. (2008). Novos registros de aves para o Pantanal, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 16, 160-164.
Piacentini, V. Q., Aleixo, A., Agne, C. E., Mauricio, G. N., Pacheco, J. F., Bravo, G. A., ... Cesari, E. (2015). Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee / Lista comentada das aves do Brasil pelo Comite Brasileiro de Registros Ornitologicos. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23, 91-298.
Por, F. D. (1995). The Pantanal of Mato Grosso (Brazil): World's largest wetlands. In H. J. Dumont, & M. J. A. Werger (Eds.), Monographiae Biologicae (Vol. 73). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
Pott, A., & Silva, J. S. V. (2015). Terrestrial and aquatic vegetation diversity of the Pantanal wetland. In I. Bergier, & M. L. Assine (Eds.), Dynamics of the Pantanal Wetland in South America (pp. 83-110). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Poulin, B., Lefebvre, G., & McNeil, R. (1993). Variations in bird abundance in tropical arid and semi-arid habitats. Ibis, 135, 432-441.
Rafe, R. W., Usher, M. B., & Jefferson, R. G. (1985). Birds on reserves: the influence of area and habitat on species richness. Journal of Applied Ecology, 22, 327-335.
Ratter, J. A., Pott, A., Pott, V. J., Cunha, C. N., & Haridasan, M. (1988). Observations on wood vegetation types in the Pantanal and at Corumba, Brazil. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 45, 503-525.
Resende, I. L M., Araujo, G. M., Oliveira, A. P. A., Oliveira, A. P., & Avila, R. S, Jr. (2004). A comunidade vegetal e as caracteristicas abioticas de um campo de murundu em Uberlandia, MG. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 18, 9-17.
Rodela, L. G. (2006). Unidades de vegetacao e pastagens nativas do Pantanal da Nhecolandia, Mato Grosso do Sul (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Departamento de Geografia da Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciencias Humanas da Universidade de Sao Paulo.
Silva, L. M. R., & Rodrigues, A. A. F. (2015). Densidade e distribuicao espacial de aves limicolas em habitats de forrageio na costa amazonica brasileira. Ornithologia, 8, 17-21.
Tomas, W. M., de Salis, S. M., Catella, A., Santos, S., & Nunes, A. (2007) Biodiversidade na regiao inundada pelo Rio Taquari. Corumba: Embrapa Pantanal.
Tubelis, D. P., & Tomas, W. M. (2003). Bird species of the wetland, Brazil. Ararajuba, 11, 5-37.
Veech, J. A., & Crist, T. O. (2007). Habitat and climate heterogeneity maintain beta-diversity of birds among landscapes within ecoregions. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 650-656.
Whitaker, D. M., & Montevecchi, W. A. (1997). Breeding bird assemblages associated with riparian, interior forest, and nonriparian edge habitats in a balsam fir ecosystem. Canadian Journal Forest Research, 27, 1159-1167.
APPENDIX 1 Bird species recorded in the Pantanal, Fazenda Rio Negro, from 2001 to 2004 Rheidae RF SH FS BA SA GR Rhea americana Greater Rhea X X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Tinamidae Crypturellus undulatus Undulated X X X X Tinamou (Temminck, 1815) Crypturellus parvirostris Small- X X X billed Tinamou (Wagler, 1827) Rhynchotus rufescens Red-winged X Tinamou (Temminck, 1815) Podicipedidae Tachybaptus dominicus Least GrebeM X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Podilymbus podiceps Pied-billed X X GrebeV (Linnaeus, 1758) Phalacrocoracidae Nannopterum brasilianus Neotropic X X CormorantM (Gmelin, 1789) Anhingidae Anhinga anhinga Anhinga (Linnaeus, X X 1766) Ardeidae Ardea cocoi White-necked Heron X X Linnaeus, 1766 Ardea alba Great Egret Linnaeus, X X 1758 Egretta thula Snowy EgretM (Molina, X X 1782) Egretta caerulea Little Blue Heron X (Linnaeus, 1758) Butorides striata Striated Heron X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Agamia agami Chestnut-bellied Heron (Gmelin, 1789) Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Syrigma sibilatrix Whistling Heron X X (Temminck, 1824) Pilherodius pileatus Capped Heron (Boddaert, 1783) Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned X Night-Heron (Linnaeus, 1758) Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent X X Tiger-Heron (Boddaert, 1783) Botaurus pinnatus Pinnated BitternM (Wagler, 1829) Cochlearius cochleariusBoat-billed Heron (Linnaeus, 1766) Threskiornithidae Theristicus caerulescensPlumbeous X X X Ibis (Vieillot, 1817) Theristicus caudatus Buff-necked X X X Ibis (Boddaert, 1783) Mesembrinibis cayennensis Green X X IbisM (Gmelin, 1789) Phimosus infuscatus Whispering IbisM X X (Lichtenstein, 1823) Plegadis chihi White-faced IbisM X X (Vieillot, 1817) Platalea ajaja Roseate Spoonbill X X Linnaeus, 1758 Ciconiidae Mycteria americana Wood Stork X X X Linnaeus, 1758 Ciconia maguari Maguari Stork X X X (Gmelin, 1789) Jabiru mycteria Jabiru X X X (Lichtenstein, 1819) Cathartidae Coragyps atratus Black Vulture X (Bechstein, 1793) Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture X (Linnaeus, 1758) Cathartes burrovianus Lesser yellow-headed Vulture Cassin, 1845 Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture (Linnaeus, 1758) Anatidae Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous X X Whisting-DuckM (Vieillot, 1816) Dendrocygna viduata White-faced X X Whistilig DuckM (Linnaeus, 1766) Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied X X Whistling DuckM (Linnaeus, 1758) Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba SwanV X X (Molina, 1782) Callonetta leucophrys Ringed TealM X (Vieillot, 1816) Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian X X Teal (Gmelin, 1789) Sarkidiornis sylvicola Comb DuckM X Ihering & Ihering, 1907 Cairina moschata Muskovy Duck X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Anhimidae Chauna torquata Southern Screamer X X X (Oken, 1816) Accipitridae Elanus leucurus White-tailed Kite X X (Vieillot, 1818) Gampsonyx swainsoni Pearl KiteV X X Vigors, 1825 Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed X X Kite (Linnaeus, 1758) Leptodon cayanensis Gray-headed Kite X (Latham, 1790) Chondrohierax uncinatus Hook-billed X KiteV (Temminck, 1822) Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite X X X (Gmelin, 1788) Rostrhamus sociabilis Snail Kite X X (Vieillot, 1817) Geranoaetus albicaudatus X White-tailed Hawk (Vieillot, 1816) Buteo albonotatus Zone-tailed Hawk X Kaup, 1847 Buteo brachyurus Short-tailed Hawk X Vieillot, 1816 Buteo nitidus Gray Hawk (Latham, X 1790) Rupornis magnirostris Roadsipe Hawk X X X X X X (Gmelin, 1788) Parabuteo unicinctus Harris's HawkV X (Temminck, 1824) Busarellus nigricollis X X X X X X Black-collared Hawk (Latham, 1790) Heterospizias meridionalis Savannah X X X X X Hawk (Latham, 1790) Urubitinga urubitinga Great Black Hawk (Gmelin, 1788) Urubitinga coronata Crowned Solitary X EagleVU/V (Vieillot, 1817) Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk X (Vieillot, 1817) Pandionidae Pandion haliaetus OspreyM (Linnaeus, X 1758) Falconidae Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing X X X Falcon (Linnaeus, 1758) Micrastur semitorquatus Collared X Forest-Falcon (Vieillot, 1817) Micrastur ruficollis Barred X Forest-Falcon (Vieillot, 1817) Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed X X X X X X Caracara (Vieillot, 1816) Caracara plancus Crested Caracara X X X X X X (Miller, 1777) Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon X (Daudin, 1800) Falco femoralis Aplomado Falcon X (Temminck, 1822) Falco sparverius American Kestrel X (Linnaeus, 1758) Cracidae Ortalis canicollis Chaco Chachalaca X X X X (Wagler, 1830) Aburria cumanensis Blue-throated X X X Piping-Guan (Jacquin, 1784) Crax fasciolataBare-faced Curassow X X X X X (Spix, 1825) Aramidae Aramus guarauna Limpkin (Linnaeus, X X X 1766) Rallidae Pardirallus nigricansBlackish Rail X (Vieillot, 1819) Aramides cajaneusGrey-necked X X Wood-Rail (Statius Muller, 1776) Mustelirallus albicollis X Ash-throated Crake (Vieillot, 1819) Coturnicops notatus Speckled crake X (Gould, 1841) Gallinula galeata Common Moorhen X (Lichtenstein, 1818) Porphyrio martinicusPurple Gallinule X (Linnaeus, 1766) Porphyrio flavirostris Azure X Gallinule (Gmelin, 1789) Heliornithidae Heliornis fulica Sungreebe (Boddaert, 1783) Cariamidae Cariama cristata Red-legged Seriema X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Jacanidae Jacana jacana Wattled Jacana X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Charadriidae Vanellus chilensisSouthern Lapwing X X X X X (Molina, 1782) Vanellus cayanus Pied LapwingM X (Latham, 1790) Charadrius collaris Collared Plover X (Vieillot, 1818) Scolopacidae Tringa solitariaSolitary Sandpiper X X (Wilson, 1813) Tringa flavipes Lesser Yellowlegs X (Gmelin, 1789) Tringa melanoleucaGreater Yellowlegs X X (Gmelin, 1789) Actitis macularius Spotted Sandpiper X (Linnaeus, 1766) Calidris melanotos Pectoral X Sandpiper" (Vieillot, 1819) Bartramia longicauda Upland X SandpiperM (Bechstein, 1812) Gallinago paraguaiaeMagellan Snipe X (Vieillot, 1816) Phalaropus tricolor Wilson's X PhalatropeM (Vieillot, 1819) Recurvirostridae Himantopus melanurus White-backed X Stilt Vieillot, 1817 Sternidae Phaetusa simplerLarge-billed Tern X X (Gmelin, 1789) Sternula superciliarisYellow-billed X X Tern (Vieillot, 1819) Rynchopidae Rynchops nigerbBlack Skimmed Linnaeus, 1758 Columbidae Patagioenas picazuro Picazuro Pigeon X X X X X (Temminck, 1813) Patagioenas cayennensis Pale-vented X X X X X Pigeon (Bonnaterre, 1792) Zenaida auriculata Eared Dove (Des X X Murs, 1847) Columbina minuta Blue Ground-Dove X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Columbina talpacotibRuddy X X X Ground-Dove (Temminck, 1811) Columbina picui Picui Ground Dove X X (Temminck, 1813) Claravis pretiosa Blue-eyed X X Groud-Dove (Ferrari-Perez, 1886) Uropelia campestris Long-Tailed X X Ground Dove (Spix, 1825) Columbina squammata Scaled Dove X X X (Lesson, 1831) Leptotila verreauxibWhite-tipped X X X Dove Bonaparte, 1855 Leptotila rufaxilla Grey-fronted X X Dove (Richard & Bernard, 1792) Psittacidae Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus X X X X X Hyacinthine MacawVU (Latham, 1790) Ara ararauna Blue-and-yellow Macaw X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Ara chloropterus Red-and-green Macaw X X X X X Gray, 1859 Primolius auricollis Yellow-collared X X X X X Macaw (Cassin, 1853) Diopsittaca nobilis Red-shoultered X X X X X Macaw (Linnaeus, 1758) Thectocercus acuticaudata X X X X X Blue-crowned Parakeet (Vieillot, 1818) Psittacara leucophthalmusWhite-eyed X X Parakeet (Statius Muller, 1776) Eupsittula aurea Peach-fronted X X X X X Parakeet (Gmelin, 1788) Aratinga nenday Nanday Parakeet X X X X (Vieillot, 1823) Myiopsitta monachus Monk Parakeet X (Boddaert, 1783) Brotogeris chiriri Canary-winged X X X X X Parakeet (Vieillot, 1818) Pionus menstruus Blue-headed ParrotV X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Pionus maximiliani Scaly-headed X X X Parrot (Kuhl, 1820) Alipiopsitta xanthops Yellow-faced X X ParrotVU/V (Spix, 1824) Amazona aestiva Blue-fronted Parrot X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Amazona amazonica Orange-winged X X X X Parrot (Linnaeus, 1766) Cuculidae Coccyzus melacoryphus Dark-billed X CuckooM Vieillot, 1817 Micrococcyx cinereus Ash-colored X CuckooM Vieillot, 1817 Coccyzus americanus Yellow-billed X CuckooM (Linnaeus, 1758) Piaya cayana Squirrel Cuckoo X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Coccycua minuta Little CuckooV X (Vieillot, 1817) Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani X X X X Linnaeus, 1758 Crotophaga major Greater aniM X Gmelin, 1788 Guira guirab Guira Cuckoo (Gmelin, X X X X 1788) Tapera naevia Striped Cuckoo X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Dromococcyx pavoninus Pavonine X X Cuckoo Pelzeln, 1870 Tytonidae Tyto furcataBarn Owl (Scopoli, 1769) X Strigidae Megascops choliba Tropical X Screech-Owl (Vieillot, 1817) Bubo virginianus Great Horned Owl X (Gmelin, 1788) Glaucidium brasilianumb Ferruginoum X X Pigmy-Owl (Gmelin, 1788) Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl X X (Molina, 1782) Pulsatrix perspicillata Spectacled X Owl (Latham, 1790) Strix huhula Black-banded Owl X Daudin, 1800 Nyctibiidae Nyctibius grandis Great potto X X (Gmelin, 1789) Nyctibius griseus Grey Potoo X X X (Gmelin, 1789) Caprimulgidae Lurocalis semitorquatus Short-Tailed X X Nighthawk (Gmelin, 1789) Chordeiles acutipennis Lesser X nighthawk (Hermann, 1783) Nyctiprogne leucopyga Band-tailed X Nighthawk (Spix, 1825) Podager nacunda Nacunda Nighthawk X X (Vieillot, 1817) Nyctidromus albicollis Pauraque X X (Gmelin, 1789) Antrostomus rufus Rufous Nightjar X X (Boddaert, 1783) Hydropsalis parvula Little Nightjar X X (Gould, 1837) Hydropsalis torquata Scissor-tailed X X Nightjar (Gmelin, 1789) Apodidae Chaetura meridionalis Ashy-tailed SwiftV Hellmayr, 1907 Trochilidae Phaethornis pretrei Planalto Hermit X X (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) Eupetomena macrouraSwallow-tailed X Hummingbird (Gmelin, 1788) Anthracothorax nigricollis X Black-throated Mango (Vieillot, 1817) Chlorostilbon lucidus X X Glittering-bellied Emerald (Shaw, 1812) Thalurania furcata Fork-tailed X Woodnymph (Gmelin, 1788) Hylocharis chrysura Gilded X X Hummingbird (Shaw, 1812) Amazilia versicolor Versicoloured X Emerald (Vieillot, 1818) Amazilia fimbriata X Glittering-throated Emerald (Gmelin, 1788) Trogonidae Trogon curucuib Blue-crowned Trogon X X X X Linnaeus, 1766 Alcedinidae Megaceryle torquata Ringed X X Kingfisher (Linnaeus, 1766) Chloroceryle amazonab Amazon X X Kingfisher (Latham, 1790) Chloroceryle americanab Green X X Kingfisher (Gmelin, 1788) Chloroceryle indab Green-and-Rufous X Kingfisher (Linnaeus, 1766) Chloroceryle aenea American Pygmy X Kingfisher (Pallas, 1764) Momotidae Momotus momota Blue-crowned Motmot X (Linnaeus, 1766) Galbulidae Galbula ruficaudab Rufous-tailed X X Jacamar Cuvier, 1816 Bucconidae Nystalus maculatus Spot-backed X Puffbird (Gmelin, 1788) Ramphastidae Pteroglossus castanotis X Chestnut-eared Aracari Gould, 1834 Ramphastos toco Toco Toucan Statius X X X Muller, 1776 Picidae Picumnus albosquamatus White-wedged X X X Piculet d'Orbigny, 1840 Colaptes campestrisb Campos Flicker X X X X (Vieillot, 1818) Colaptes melanochloros Green-barred X X Woodpecker (Gmelin, 1788) Piculus chrysochloros Golden-green X X Woodpecker (Vieillot, 1818) Celeus flavescens Blond-crested X X Woodpecker (Gmelin, 1788) Celeus lugubris Pale-crested X X X X Woodpecker (Malherbe, 1851) Dryocopus lineatus Lineated X X X X Woodpecker (Linnaeus, 1766) Melanerpes candidus White Woodpecker X X X X (Otto, 1796) Melanerpes cactorum White-fronted X Woodpecker (d'Orbigny, 1840) Veniliornis passerinus Little X X X X Woodpecker (Linnaeus, 1766) Campephilus melanoleucos X X Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Gmelin, 1788) Campephilus leucopogon Cream-backed X X Woodpecker (Valenciennes, 1826) Melanerpes flavifrons Yellow-fronted X X Woodpecker (Vieillot, 1818) Thamnophilidae Taraba majorb Great Antshrike X X X X X (Vieillot, 1816) Thamnophilus doliatusb Barred X X X X Antshrike (Linnaeus, 1764) Thamnophilus pelzelni Planalto Slaty X Antshrike Hellmayr, 1924 Thamnophilus caerulescens Variable X X Antshrike Vieillot, 1816 Dysithamnus mentalis Plain Antvireo X (Temminck, 1823) Formicivora rufab Rusty-backed X X Antwren (Wied, 1831) Cercomacra melanariab Mato Grosso X Antbird (Menetries, 1835) Furnariidae Furnarius rufusb Rufous Hornero (Gmelin, 1788) Furnarius leucopusb Pale-legged X X X X Hornero Swainson, 1838 Schoeniophylax phryganophilus Chotoy X Spinetail (Vieillot, 1817) Synallaxis frontalis Sooty-fronted X Spinetail Pelzeln, 1859 Synallaxis albescens Pale-breasted X Spinetail Temminck, 1823 Synallaxis albilorab Plain-crowned X X X Spinetail Pelzeln, 1856 Certhiaxis cinnamomeus X X Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Gmelin, 1788) Cranioleuca vulpinab Rusty-backed X Spinetail (Pelzeln, 1856) Phacellodomus rufifrons Plain X X Thombird (Wied, 1821) Phacellodomus ruber Greater Thombird X X (Vieillot, 1817) Pseudoseisura unirufab Grey-crested X X Cachalote (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) Dendrocolaptidae Sittasomus griseicapillusb Olivaceus X Woodcreeper (Vieillot, 1818) Xiphocolaptes major Great Rufous X X X X Woodcreeper (Vieillot, 1818) Dendrocolaptes platyrostrisb X Planalto Woodcreeper Spix, 1825 Dendroplex picus Straight-billed X Woodcreeper (Gmelin, 1788) Lepidocolaptes angustirostrisb X X Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Vieillot, 1818) Campylorhamphus trochlirostrisb X X Red-billed Scyhebill (Lichtenstein, 1820) Tityridae Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped X Xenopsaris (Burmeister, 1869) Pachyramphus viridisb Green-backed X Becard (Vieillot, 1816) Pachyramphus polychopterus X White-winged Becard (Vieillot, 1818) Pachyramphus validus Crested Becard X (Lichtenstein, 1823) Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Tityra inquisitor Black-crowned X X Tityra (Lichtenstein, 1823) Rynchocyclidae Leptopogon amaurocephalus X Sepia-capped Flycatcher Tschudi, 1846 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventeib X Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye,1837) Todirostrum cinereum Common X X Tody-Flycatcher (Linnaeus, 1766) Poecilotriccus latirostrisb X Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Pelzeln, 1868) Tolmomyias sulphurescensb X X Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Spix, 1825) Tyrannidae Phyllomyias fasciatus Planalto X Tyrannulet (Thunberg, 1822) Camptostoma obsoletumb Southern X Beardless Tyrannulet (Temminck, 1824) Phaeomyias murina Mouse-coloured X X Tyrannulet (Spix, 1825) Sublegatus modestus Southern Scrub X X Flycatcher (Wied, 1831) Suiriri suiriri Chaco Suiriri X (Vieillot, 1818) Myiopagis viridicatab Greenish X Elaenia (Vieillot, 1817) Elaenia flavogaster Yellow-bellied X Elaenia (Thunberg, 1822) Elaenia parvirostris Small-billed X Elaenia Pelzeln, 1868 Elaenia cristatab Plain-crested X Elaenia Pelzeln, 1868 Elaenia chiriquensis Lesser Elaenia X Lawrence, 1865 Serpophaga subcristata White-crested X Tyrannulet (Vieillot, 1817) Euscarthmus meloryphus Tawny-crowned X Pigmy-TyrantV Wied, 1831 Capsiempis flaveolaYellow Tyrannulet X (Lichtenstein, 1823) Myiophobus fasciatus Bran-coloured X Flycatcher (Statius Muller, 1776) Contopus cinereus Tropical Pewee X (Spix, 1825) Lathrotriccus eulerP Euler's X X Flycatcher (Cabanis, 1868) Cnemotriccus fuscatusb Fuscus X Flycatcher (Wied, 1831) Pyrocephalus rubinus Vermilion X Flycatcher (Boddaert, 1783) Xolmis cinereus Grey Monjita X X (Vieillot, 1816) Xolmis velatus White-rumped Monjita X X X (Lichtenstein, 1823) Fluvicola albiventer Black-backed X Water-Tyrant (Spix, 1825) Colonia colonus Long-tailed Tyrant X (Vieillot, 1818) Gubernetes yetapa Streamer-tailed X X Tyrant (Vieillot, 1818) Satrapa icterophrys Yellow-browed X Tyrant (Vieillot, 1818) Machetornis rixosa Cattle Tyrant X X (Vieillot, 1819) Casiornis rufusb Rufous Casiornis X (Vieillot, 1816) Arundinicola leucocephala X X White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Linnaeus, 1764) Myiarchus feroxb Short-crested X X Flycatcher (Gmelin, 1789) Myiarchus tyrannulusb Brown-crested X X Flycatcher (Statius Muller, 1776) Myiarchus swainsoni Swainson's X Flycatcher Cabanis & Heine, 1859 Philohydor lictor Lesser kiskadee X (Lichtenstein, 1823) Pitangus sulphuratusb Great Kiskadee X X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed X X X X X Flycatcher (Linnaeus, 1766) Myiozetetes cayanensis X X Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Linnaeus, 1766) Conopias trivirgatus Three-striped X Flycatcher (Wied, 1831) Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked X X X Flycatcher (Statius Muller, 1776) Legatus leucophaius Piratic X X Flycatcher (Vieillot, 1818) Empidonomus varius Variegated X X Flycatcher (Vieillot, 1818) Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus X X Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Tyrannus savana Fork-tailed X Flycatcher Vieillot, 1808 Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical X X Kingbird Vieillot, 1819 Pipridae Pipra fasciicaudab Band-tailed X Manakin Hellmayr, 1906 Antilophia galeata Helmeted Manakin X (Lichtenstein, 1823) Neopelmapallescens Pale-bellied X Tyrant-Manakin (Lafresnaye, 1853) Hirundinidae Tachycineta albiventer White-winged SwallowM (Boddaert, 1783) Tachycineta leucorrhoa White-rumped SwallowM (Vieillot, 1817) Progne tapera Brown-chested Martin (Vieillot, 1817) Progne chalybea Gray-brasted Martin X X X (Gmelin, 1789) Pygochelidon cyanoleuca X X X Blue-and-white Swallow (Vieillot, 1817) Alopochelidon fucata Tawny-headed SwallowM (Temminck, 1822) Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Vieillot, 1817) Riparia riparia Bank SwallowM (Linnaeus, 1758) Hirundo rustica Barn SwallowM Linnaeus, 1758 Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Cliff SwallowM (Vieillot, 1817) Corvidae Cyanocorax cyanomelas Purplish Jay X X X X X (Vieillot, 1818) Cyanocorax cristatellus Curl-crested X X X Jay (Temminck, 1823) Cyanocorax chrysops Plush-crested X X X X X Jay (Vieillot, 1818) Troglodytidae Campylorhynchus turdinusb X X X X Thrush-like Wren (Wied, 1831) Cantorchilus leucotisb Buff-breasted X Wren // (Lafresnaye, 1845) Troglodytes musculus House Wren X Naumann, 1823 Donacobiidae Donacobius atricapilla Black-capped X Donacobius (Linnaeus, 1766) Polioptilidae Polioptila dumicola Masked X Gnatcatcher (Vieillot, 1817) Turdidae Turdus rufiventrisb Rufous-bellied X X X X X Thrush Vieillot, 1818 Turdus leucomelas Pale-breasted X X X X X Thrush Vieillot, 1818 Turdus amaurochalinusb X X X X X Creamy-bellied Thrush Cabanis, 1850 Mimidae Mimus saturninusb Chalk-browed X Mockingbird (Lichtenstein, 1823) Motacillidae Anthus lutescens Yellowish Pipit X X Pucheran, 1855 Vireonidae Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browned X X X X Peppershirke (Gmelin, 1789) Vireo chivib Red-eyed Vireo X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Icteridae Psarocolius decumanus Crested X X X X X Oropendola (Pallas, 1769) Cacicus cela Yellow-rumped Cacique X X X (Linnaeus, 1758) Cacicus chrysopterus Golden-winged X X X X X Cacique (Vigors, 1825) Procacicus solitarius Solitary X X X Cacique (Vieillot, 1816) Icterus cayanensis Epaulet Oriole X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Icterus croconotus X X X X X Orange-backedTroupial (Wagler, 1829) Agelasticus cyanopus Unicolored X X X Blackbird (Vieillot, 1819) Chrysomus ruficapillus X Chestnut-capped Blackbird (Vieillot, 1819) Sturnella superciliaris White-browed X X X Blackbird (Bonaparte, 1850) Amblyramphus holosericeus X X X Scarlet-headed Blackbird (Scopoli, 1786) Gnorimopsar chopi Chopi Blackbird X X (Vieillot, 1819) Pseudoleistes guirahuro X X Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Vieillot, 1819) Agelaioides badius Bay-winged X Cowbird (Vieillot, 1819) Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird X (Gmelin, 1789) Molothrus oryzivorus Giant Cowbird X (Gmelin, 1788) Parulidae Setophaga pitiayumP Tropical Parula X (Vieillot, 1817) Geothlypis aequinoctialis Marked X Yellowthroat (Gmelin, 1789) Myiothlypis flaveolab Flavescent X Warbler Baird, 1865 Basileuterus culicivorus X White-bellied Warbler Bonaparte, 1830 Coerebidae Coereba flaveola Bananaquit X (Linnaeus, 1758) Thraupidae Schistochlamys melanopis Black-faced X Tanager (Latham, 1790) Neothraupis fasciata White-banded X Tanager (Lichtenstein, 1823) Nemosia pileata Hooded Tanager X (Boddaert, 1783) Eucometis penicilatab Gray-headed X Tanager (Spix, 1825) Tachyphonus rufus White-lined X Tanager (Boddaert, 1783) Ramphocelus carbob Silver-beaked X X X X X Tanager (Pallas, 1764) Tangara sayaccP Sayaca Tanager X X X X X (Linnaeus, 1766) Tangara palmarumb Palm Tanager X X X (Wied, 1823) Pipraeidea melanonota Fawn-breasted X Tanager (Vieillot, 1819) Tangara cayana Burnished-buff X Tanager (Linnaeus, 1766) Dacnis cayanaBlue Dacnis (Linnaeus, X 1766) Conirostrum speciosum X Chestnut-vented Conebill (Temminck, 1824) Tersina viridisSwallon Tanager X (Illiger, 1811) Saltator coerulescens Greyish X Saltator Vieillot, 1817 Coryphospingus cucullatusb X X X Red-crested Finch (Statius Muller, 1776) Paroaria coronatab Red-crested X X Cardinal (Miller, 1776) Paroaria capitatab Yellow-billed X X X Cardinal (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Saltator maximus Buff-throated X Saltator (Statius Muller, 1776) Saltator similisGreen-winged X X Saltator Vieillot, 1817 Emberizidae Zonotrichia capensis Rufous-collared X Sparrow (Statius Muller, 1776) Ammodramus humeralis Grassland X Sparrow (Bosc, 1792) Sicalis flaveolab Saffron Finch X (Linnaeus, 1766) Emberizoides herbicola Wedge-tailed X Grass-finch (Vieillot, 1817) Volatinia jacarina Blue-black X Grassquit (Linnaeus, 1766) Sporophila plumbea Plumbeus X Seedeater (Wied, 1830) Sporophila collarisb Rusty-collared X X Seedeater (Boddaert, 1783) Sporophila lineola Lined Seedeater X (Linnaeus, 1758) Sporophila nigricollis X Yellow-bellied Seedeater (Vieillot, 1823) Sporophila caerulescensb X X Double-collared Seedeater (Vieillot, 1823) Sporophila leucoptera White-bellied X Seedeater (Vieillot, 1817) Sporophila hypoxantha Tawny-bellied X SeedeaterV Cabanis, 1851 Sporophila ruficollis Dark-throated X SeedeaterV Cabanis, 1851 Sporophila angolensis Lesser X X Seed-Finch (Linnaeus, 1766) Arremon flavirostris Saffron-billed X Sparrow Swainson, 1838 Cardinalidae Pheucticus aureoventris Black-backed X X GrosbeakV (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Piranga flava Hepatic Tanager (Vieillot, 1822) Fringillidae Euphonia chlorotica Purple-throated X X Euphonia (Linnaeus, 1766) Occasional contacts (V), migrant species (M), vulnerable (VU), or Rare (RA) species, b--banded birds. RI, river; RF, riparian forest; SH, savannah; FS, forested savannah; BA, bays; SA, salines and GR, grasslands. APPENDIX 2 Number of contacts for the most abundant species (>100 individuals) in the Fazenda Rio Negro between 2001 and 2004 Species English common name 2001 Himantopus melanurus Black-necked stilt 1098 Ardea alba Great egret 1319 Dendrocygna viduata White-faced whistling duck 369 Ortalis canicollis Chaco chacalaca 546 Thectocercus acuticaudata Blue-crowned parakeet 157 Egretta thula Snowy egret 334 Brotogeris chiriri Canary-winged parakeet 347 Amazona aestiva Blue-fronted parrot 322 Phaetusa simplex Large-billed tern 285 Nannopterum brasilianus Brazilian cormorant 175 Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied whistling duck 309 Aburria cumanensis Blue-throated piping guan 202 Leptotila verreauxi White-tipped dove 195 Guira guira Guira cuckoo 254 Ramphocelus carbo Silver-beaked tanager 168 Jacana jacana Jacana 130 Megaceryle torquata Ringed kingfisher 183 Patagioenas picazuro Picazuro pigeon 281 Tachybabtus dominicus Least grebe 3 Crax fasciolata Bare-faced currasow 164 Phimosus infuscatus Bare-faced ibis 248 Crotophaga major Greater ani 170 Cantorchilus leucotis Buff-necked wren 198 Cyanocorax cyanomelas Purplish jay 162 Pitangus sulphuratus Great kiskadee 176 Vanellus chilensis Southern lapwing 261 Rynchops niger Black skimmer 164 Crypturellus undulatus Undulated tinamous 205 Anhinga anhinga Anhinga 97 Tringa melanoleuca Greater yellowlegs 89 Chloroceryle amazona Amazon kingfisher 124 Paroaria capitata Yellow-billed cardinal 140 Vanellus cayanus Pied plover 144 Ardea cocoi White-faced heron 47 Butorides striatus Striated heron 98 Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed ani 87 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Southern rough-winged swallow 118 Platalea ajaja Roseate spoonbill 269 Furnarius leucopus Pale-legged hornero 66 Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian teal 104 Tringa flavipes Lesser yellowlegs 135 Primolius auricollis Yellow-collared macaw 23 Psittacara leucophthalmus White-eyed parakeet 148 Gnorimopsar chopi Chopi blackbird 99 Coragyps atratus Black vulture 59 Psarocolius decumanus Crested oropendula 93 Procacicus solitarius Solitary cacique 71 Paroaria coronata Red-crested cardinal 84 Eupsittula aurea Peach-fronted parakeet 18 Cercomacra melanaria Mato Grosso antbird 49 Furnarius rufus Rufous hornero 101 Chloroceryle americana Green kingfisher 65 Philohydor lictor Lesser kiskadee 118 Ara chloroptera Red-and-green macaw 47 Ramphastos toco Toco toucan 71 Patagioenas cayennensis Pale-vented pigeon 74 Eucometis penicilata Grey-headed tanager 138 Taraba major Great antshrike 41 Aramides cajaneus Grey-necked wood-rail 39 Thamnophilus doliatus Barred antshrike 83 Cyanocorax chrysops Plush-crested jay 37 Cairina moschata Moscovy duck 26 Mesembrinibis cayennensis Green ibis 13 Campylorhynchus turdinus Thrus-like wren 74 Syrigma sibilatrix Whistling heron 61 Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent tiger heron 30 Saltator coerulescens Greyish saltator 35 Galbula ruficauda Rufous-tailed jacamar 33 Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browed peppershrike 1 Myiarchus tyrannulus Brown-crested flycatcher 28 Diopsittaca nobilis Red-shouldered macaw 58 Theristicus caudatus Buff-necked ibis 62 Synallaxis albilora White-lored spinetail 6 Arantiga nenday Nanday parakeet 23 Trogon curucui Blue-crowned trogon 23 Species 2002 2003 2004 Totals Himantopus melanurus 1490 1077 673 4338 Ardea alba 591 119 581 2610 Dendrocygna viduata 644 198 496 1707 Ortalis canicollis 479 338 297 1660 Thectocercus acuticaudata 874 132 211 1374 Egretta thula 440 62 253 1089 Brotogeris chiriri 400 155 150 1052 Amazona aestiva 434 152 110 1018 Phaetusa simplex 154 237 252 928 Nannopterum brasilianus 640 29 2 846 Dendrocygna autumnalis 240 56 127 732 Aburria cumanensis 218 131 149 700 Leptotila verreauxi 197 207 97 696 Guira guira 208 122 106 690 Ramphocelus carbo 223 106 189 686 Jacana jacana 143 105 286 664 Megaceryle torquata 296 157 26 662 Patagioenas picazuro 195 57 122 655 Tachybabtus dominicus 554 39 1 597 Crax fasciolata 171 153 86 574 Phimosus infuscatus 169 36 114 567 Crotophaga major 147 233 16 566 Cantorchilus leucotis 164 109 95 566 Cyanocorax cyanomelas 213 91 98 564 Pitangus sulphuratus 201 68 117 562 Vanellus chilensis 133 71 85 550 Rynchops niger 99 53 196 512 Crypturellus undulatus 93 116 95 509 Anhinga anhinga 252 85 69 503 Tringa melanoleuca 376 35 1 501 Chloroceryle amazona 220 134 23 501 Paroaria capitata 204 71 81 496 Vanellus cayanus 85 118 78 425 Ardea cocoi 209 111 50 417 Butorides striatus 163 79 41 381 Crotophaga ani 135 50 95 367 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis 94 144 1 357 Platalea ajaja 51 8 2 330 Furnarius leucopus 57 89 101 313 Amazonetta brasiliensis 57 44 78 283 Tringa flavipes 3 123 1 262 Primolius auricollis 150 25 60 258 Psittacara leucophthalmus 30 17 51 246 Gnorimopsar chopi 74 59 5 237 Coragyps atratus 111 45 18 233 Psarocolius decumanus 103 26 2 224 Procacicus solitarius 75 31 41 218 Paroaria coronata 11 41 74 210 Eupsittula aurea 130 7 53 208 Cercomacra melanaria 65 64 27 205 Furnarius rufus 56 34 6 197 Chloroceryle americana 45 60 23 193 Philohydor lictor 33 39 2 192 Ara chloroptera 40 46 57 190 Ramphastos toco 75 40 1 187 Patagioenas cayennensis 29 57 19 179 Eucometis penicilata 2 30 7 177 Taraba major 86 44 1 172 Aramides cajaneus 57 12 55 163 Thamnophilus doliatus 49 27 1 160 Cyanocorax chrysops 88 15 16 156 Cairina moschata 70 18 39 153 Mesembrinibis cayennensis 78 55 3 149 Campylorhynchus turdinus 8 24 37 143 Syrigma sibilatrix 45 29 1 136 Tigrisoma lineatum 51 53 1 135 Saltator coerulescens 51 43 1 130 Galbula ruficauda 51 33 5 122 Cyclarhis gujanensis 62 44 14 121 Myiarchus tyrannulus 56 32 2 118 Diopsittaca nobilis 54 5 0 117 Theristicus caudatus 35 18 1 116 Synallaxis albilora 66 41 1 114 Arantiga nenday 52 37 2 114 Trogon curucui 44 45 1 113
Reginaldo Jose Donatelli (1), Donald P. Eaton (2,3), Guilherme Sementili-Cardoso (1,4), Renata Marques Vianna (1,4), Raphael Whitacker Gerotti (1,4), Fernanda Goncalves Rodrigues (1,4) & Rafael Martos Martins (1,4)
(1.) Laboratorio de Ornitologia. Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, campus de Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Cep 17033-360; firstname.lastname@example.org
(2.) Ecology, Evolution and, Conservation Biology Program, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, Nevada 89557-0208, USA.
(3.) Wildlife Conservation Society-Brazil, Rua Spipe Calarge, 2355, Vila Morumbi, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul 79052-070, Brazil; email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org.
(4.) Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Biologicas (Zoologia), Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Instituto de Biociencias, campus de Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Cep 18680-000; email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received 16-I-2017. Corrected 03-VII-2017. Accepted 03-VIII-2017.
Caption: Fig. 1. A. Pantanal area in Brazil (after Reginaldo J. Donatelli). B. Different types of Pantanal and localization of the Fazenda Rio Negro (Red spot).
Caption: Fig. 2. Habitats found in the Fazenda Rio Negro, Pantanal of Nhecolandia (after D. Eaton).
Caption: Fig. 3. Richness of birds for each different habitat in the Pantanal. Values represent mean [+ or -] SD. BA - bays; FS forested savannah; SH - savannah; RP- riparian forest; GR- grasslands; RI - river; SA - salines.
Caption: Fig. 4. Abundance of birds in the Pantanal. Values represent mean [+ or -] SD. BA - bays; FS - forested savannah; SH savannah; RP- riparian forest; GR- grasslands; RI - river; SA - salines.
TABLE1 Richness of birds in the Pantanal for times of day and seasons between 2001 and 2004 Year Morning Afternoon 2001 35.34 [+ or -] 20.20 27.09 [+ or -] 13.08 2002 35.85 [+ or -] 12.81 28.40 [+ or -] 13.80 2003 32.88 [+ or -] 11.80 38.35 [+ or -] 4.30 2004 39.90 [+ or -] 14.23 28.62 [+ or -] 21.52 Year Dry Wet 2001 32.81 [+ or -] 16,17 30.57 [+ or -] 18.34 2002 32.89 [+ or -] 13,55 37.35 [+ or -] 12.19 2003 36.27 [+ or -] 9,24 31.87 [+ or -] 12.15 2004 32.29 [+ or -] 14,72 48.87 [+ or -] 13.23 Values represent mean species number [+ or -] SD. TABLE 2 Abundance of birds in the Pantanal for times of day and seasons between 2001 and 2004 Year Morning Afternoon 2001 182.82 [+ or -] 95.04 153.95 [+ or -] 162.86 2002 181.14 [+ or -] 127.71 135.60 [+ or -] 78.28 2003 176.09 [+ or -] 113.07 151.87 [+ or -] 77.24 2004 160.20 [+ or -] 109.41 172.25 [+ or -] 173.01 Year Dry Wet 2001 202.15 [+ or -] 190.93 145.67 [+ or -] 156.94 2002 194.62 [+ or -] 151.20 161.81 [+ or -] 110.32 2003 182.86 [+ or -] 112.52 164.27 [+ or -] 122.6 2004 120.11 [+ or -] 84.82 250.03 [+ or -] 144.03 Values represent mean of number of birds detected [+ or -] SD.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Donatelli, Reginaldo Jose; Eaton, Donald P.; Sementili-Cardoso, Guilherme; Marques Vianna, Renata; W|
|Publication:||Revista de Biologia Tropical|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2017|
|Previous Article:||Variaciones alometricas durante el crecimiento en siete especies de garzas (Aves: Ardeidae).|
|Next Article:||Ecologia y reproduccion de Opsanus beta (Actinopterygii: Batrachoididae) en la Laguna de Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico.|