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Validation of some alliances of the Aegean chasmophytic vegetation of the Asplenietea trichomanis.

THE CONCEPT OF THE CIRSIETALIA CHAMAEPEUCES

Cirsietalia chamaepeuces Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina all. nova hoc loco (Asplenietea trichomanis).

Validated name: Cirsietalia chamaepeuces Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 (Horvat & al., 1974: 103-104) (art. 3b of the ICPN; Weber & al., 2000).

Holotypus: Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina hoc loco (Horvat & al., 1974: 104). Synonym: Petromaruletalia pinnatae Zaffran 1990 (Zaffran, 1990: 424) (arts. 5, 8). Character taxa of the order: Brassica cretica, Capparis orientalis, Linum arboreum, Ptilostemon chamaepeuce, Silene gigantea, Staehelina fruticosa.

Horvat, Glavac & Ellenberg (1974) were the first to classify the vegetation of calcareous cliffs of the thermo- and mesomediterranean belts of the Aegean region (Hellas and possibly also western Turkey) as a new order--the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces within the Asplenietea trichomanis. Using field notes from K. H. Rechinger (see Rechinger & Rechinger-Moser, 1951), Horvat & al. (1974) listed several woody plants (nanophanerophytes and chamaephytes) as character species of the order, among them the name-giving Cirsium chamaepeuce (L.) Ten., known in modern botanical literature (Greuter, 1973) as Ptilostemon chamaepeuce (L.) Less. In addition, Horvat & al. (1974: 104) compiled the Table 10 based on a manuscript of the late Professor Ivo Horvat. This synoptic table of the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces is featuring five new associations representing three new alliances. Glavac and Ellenberg (in Horvat & al., 1974) were quite convinced about the concept of the new order (in their words: " ... zwingen uns zur Aufstellung einer besonderen Ordnung ... Cirsietalia chamaepeucei [sic!] ... "), and they cited 'Horvat prov.' (obviously referring to Ivo Horvat's bequeathed manuscript) as the author of the name. Because of the preliminary status of the name (art. 3b of the International Code of Phytosociologial Nomenclature; Weber & al., 2000), the name of the order published effectively by Horvat & al. (1974) remained invalid until today.

Eichberger (2001: 167 and onwards) used the names Cirsietalia chamaepeuces ('chamaepeucis') and Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae with the author citation 'Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974' to classify two of his releves with Euphorbia dendroides from cliff habitats of Crete. Since he failed to designate the nomenclatural types, both syntaxa remained invalidly described.

Zaffran (1990) in his contributions to the vegetation of Crete was apparently unaware of the names suggested by Horvat & al. (1974) as he did not refer to this iconic vegetation monograph at all. He coined the concept of the Petromaruletalia pinnatae ('pinnati') to accommodate the cliff vegetation of Crete found at the altitudes spanning the sea level and ca. 1200 m. Within the Petromaruletalia pinnatae he described two alliances, such as the Scutellarion sieberi and the Asterion cretici (creticae'), for the cliff vegetation of western and eastern Crete, respectively, each comprising several associations. However, as pointed out by Dimopoulos & al. (1997) and Bergmeier (2002), all these syntaxon names coined by Zaffran (1990) should be considered as invalid because no nomenclatural types had been explicitly designated (arts. 5, 8).

We consider the Petromaruletalia pinnatae as a part of the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces, the former concept being a heterotypic synonym of the latter. Both would require validation, but we focus here on the older (latter) name. As no nomenclatural type was designated for the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces either by Horvat & al. (1974) or later authors, we are chosing here the Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 as the nomenclature type (see below) of the order.

The plant communities of the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces are still poorly known. We believe that new data and revision of this group will reveal new syntaxa and amend the list of the character species.

NOMENCLATURAL SYNOPSIS AND VALIDATIONS OF THE ALLIANCES

Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae Horvat in Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina all. nova hoc loco (Cirsietalia chamaepeuces, Asplenietea trichomanis).

Validated name: Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 nom. inval. (art. 3b) (Horvat & al., 1974: 104-105).

Holotypus: Inulo candidae-Celsietum arcturi Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina hoc loco (Horvat & al., 1974: 104).

Synonym: Scutellarion sieberi Zaffran 1990 nom. inval. (arts. 5, 8).

Character taxa of the alliance: Centaurea argentea subsp. argentea, Ebenus cretica, Galium fruticosum, Origanum dictamnus, Petromarula pinnata, Scutellaria sieberi, Staehelina petiolata.

Here we chose the first of two associations listed by Horvat & al. (1974: 104) the Inulo candidaeCelsietum arcturi, as the typus of the alliance. Five associations were distinguished by Zaffran (1990) and classified within the Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae. These include the Eryngio ternati-Calaminthetum creticae, the Inulo candidae-Asperuletum taygeteae, the Teucrio brevifolii-Stachyetum tournefortii, the Teucrio cuneifolii-Lutzietum creticae and the Teucrio divaricati-Centaureetum redemptae. All of them are invalidly published (arts. 5, 8), however here we refrain from validating these names since the entire order is in need of profound syntaxonomic revision.

We consider the Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae as being restricted to the cliff vegetation of western Crete, and exclude the Hyperico amblycalycis-Staehelinetum fruticosae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 of eastern Cretan cliffs which we classify within the Asterion cretici (see below).

Asterion cretici Zaffran ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina all. nova hoc loco

(Cirsietalia chamaepeuces, Asplenietea trichomanis).

Validated name: Asterion cretici ('creticae') Zaffran 1990 nom. inval. (arts. 5, 8).

Hototypus: Anthemido tomentellae-Staehelinetum fruticosae Zaffran ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina 2011 (for the validation of the association see below).

Character taxa of the alliance: Asperula crassula, A. tournefortii, Aster creticus, Campanula pelviformis, Galium graecum subsp. pseudocanum, Hypericum amblycalyx.

The oldest association, which should be classified within the Asterion creticae is the Hyperico amblycalycis-Staehelinetum fruticosae Horvat et al. 1974, originally classified within the Petromarulo-Centaurion argenteae by HORVAT & al. (1974: 104). The column 2 in Table 10 of Horvat & al. (1974) features the constancy values of species of the Hyperico amblycalycis-Staehelinetum fruticosae and it is based on 11 releves. No species of Hypericum is listed in that column, however Hypericum amblycalyx is named on the following page 105 of Horvat & al. (1974), explicitly referring to both the association and the table column.

Here we validate the Anthemido tomentellae-Staehelinetum fruticosae Zaffran 1990 (arts. 5, 8) by selecting the releve 50 in his Table 13 (part of a folder accompanying Zaffran's monograph) as the holotypus of the association.

The following associations belong to this alliance: the Anthemido paleaceae-Violetum scorpiuroidis Zaffran 1990 nom. inval. (art. 5), the Anthemido tomentellae-Staehelinetum fruticosae Zaffran ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina 2011, the Hyperico amblycalycis-Staehelinetum fruticosae Horvat et al. 1974 and the Serratulo creticae-Valerianetum asarifoliae Zaffran 1990 nom. inval. (art. 5).

Capparo-Amaracion tournefortii Horvat in Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina all. nova hoc loco

(Cirsietalia chamaepeuces, Asplenietea trichomanis).

validated name: Capparo-Amaracion Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 nom. inval. (art. 3b) (Horvat & al., 1974: 106).

Holotypus: Cirsio chamaepeuces-Scrophularietum heterophyllae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 (Horvat & al., 1974: 104-106).

Character taxa of the alliance: Campanula heterophylla, C. reiseri, C. rupestris, Helichrysum amorginum, Inula candida subsp. limonella, Origanum calcaratum.

The Capparo-Amaracion, coined to comprise north and central Aegean vegetation of calcareous cliffs, has not been validly published by Horvat & al. (1974) for the same reason as the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces (art. 3b). The name-giving species of the Capparo-Amaracion tournefortii are Ca pparis spinosa (see Table 10, Horvat & al., 1974: 104, wrongly applied name for a taxon called Capparis orientalis veill. as understood today; Inocencio & al., 2006) and Amaracus tournefortii (Aiton) Bentham, today known as Origanum calcaratum Juss. (syn. O. tournefortii Aiton).

The Cirsio chamaepeuces-Scrophularietum heterophyllae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 is the only association classified within the Capparo-Amaracion tournefortii to date.

Inulion heterolepidis Horvat in Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina all. nova hoc loco

(Cirsietalia chamaepeuces, Asplenietea trichomanis).

validated name: Inulion heterolepidis ('heterolepis') Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 nom. inval. (art. 3b) (see Horvat & al., 1974: 104-106).

Holotypus: Campanulo hagieliae-Inuletum heterolepidis Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 (see Horvat & al. (1974: 104-106).

Character taxa of the alliance: Alcea apterocarpa, Asyneuma giganteum, Campanula hagielia, Centaurea lactucifolia, Dianthus fruticosus subsp. rhodius, Inula heterolepis.

The Inulion heterolepidis encompasses plant communities of calcareous cliffs on southeast Aegean islands (Horvat & al., 1974: 105). The eponymous species of the Inulion heterolepidis is Inula heterolepis Boiss., an east Mediterranean chasmophyte. The Campanulo hagieliae-Inuletum heterolepidis, chosen here as the holotypus of the alliance, is based on releves from the Dodecanese Archipelago (Rhodes, Samos, Ikaria).

So far two associations have been classified within the Inulion heterolepidis, such as the Campanulo hagieliae-Inuletum heterolepidis Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 and the Teucrio heliotropifolii-Inuletum heterolepidis Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974.

Polygonion icarici Horvat et al. ex Bergmeier, Dimopoulos et Mucina all. nova hoc loco

(Cirsietalia chamaepeuces?, Asplenietea trichomanis).

validated name: Polygonion icarici Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 nom. inval. (art. 3b) (Horvat & al., 1974: 103-104).

Holotypus: Polygonetum icarici Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 (horvat & al., 1974: 103).

Character taxa of the alliance: Campanula samothracica, Dianthus elegans, Polygonum icaricum, Rorippa icarica.

The Polygonion icarici comprises plant communities of Aegean non-calcareous cliffs and might be exclusive to the islands of Ikaria and Samothraki (Horvat & al., 1974: 103). The eponymous species of the Polygonion icarici is Polygonum icaricum Rech. fil. The syntaxonomic position of this alliance remains inconclusive. Tentatively, we classify it within the Cirsietalia chamaepeuces, being however aware of the fact that the cliff vegetation of siliceous substrates of the Eastern Mediterranean might belong to a new, yet not described order.

So far only one association (the Polygonetum icarici Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974) has been classified within the Polygonion icarici.

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2011.v32.37259

Recibido: 15 junio 2011

Aceptado: 7 septiembre 2011

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Dimopoulos, P., Sykora, K.V., Mucina, L. & Georgiadis, T.--1997--The high-rank syntaxa of the rock-cliff and scree vegetation of the mainland Greece and Crete--Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 32: 313-334.

Eichberger, C.--2001--Die Baumartige Wolfsmilch Euphorbia dendroides L. Biologie, Okologie, Pflanzensoziologie und soziokulturelle Stellung einer mediterranen Art--Diss. Bot. 344: 1-351.

Greuter, W.--1973--Monographie der Gattung Ptilostemon (Compositae)--Boissiera 22: 1-215 + 8 plates.

Horvat, I., Glavac--, V. & Ellenberg, H.--1974--Vegetation Sudosteuropas--G. Fischer, Stuttgart. 768 pp.

Inocencio, C., Rivera, D., Obon, C., Alcaraz, F. & Barrena, J.-A.--2006--A systematic revision of Capparis section Capparis (Capparaceae)--Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93: 122-149.

Rechinger K.-H. & Rechinger-Moser, F.--1951--Phytogeographia Aegaea--Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 105/2: 1-208.

Weber, H.E., Moravec, J. & Theurillat, J.-P.--2000--International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. 3rd edition--J. Veg. Sci. 11: 739-768.

Zaffran, J.--1990--Contributions a la flore et a la vegetation de la Crete--Univ. Provence, Marseille. 615 pp. + 30 tables.

Erwin Bergmeier *, Panayotis Dimopoulos ** & Ladislav Mucina ***

* Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences. University of Gottingen. Untere Karspule 2. D-37073 Gottingen. Germany. E-mail: erwin.bergmeier@bio.uni-goettingen.de.

** Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management. University of Ioannina. Seferi 2. GR-30100 Agrinio. Greece. E-mail: pdimopul@cc.uoi.gr.

*** Curtin Institute for Biodiversity & Climate. Department of Environment & Agriculture. Curtin University. GPO Box U1987. Perth. WA 6845. Australia. E-mail: L.Mucina@curtin.edu.au.
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Author:Bergmeier, Erwin; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Mucina, Ladislav
Publication:Lazaroa
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Date:Jan 1, 2011
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