VARIATION IN CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND CALORIES AMONG DIFFERENT INCOME GROUPS.
ABSTRACT: In present study variation in expenditure, quantity of food consumed and calories intake/ adult is observed. A rapid increase in average value of food purchased from lowest income group to highest group was observed and varies from 7523.5 Rs/month to 35,880 Rs/month. Using ANOVA, Hypothesis of equality of average food expenditure among income strata was found statistically highly significant. Proportion of food expenditure varies from 0.99 to 0.35 from lowest to highest income group.
On the basis of ranges of true proportion of food expenditures, possible variability in proportion was observed statistically at certain level of confidence. Pair wise statistical comparison of true proportion of food expenditures of income groups were also made and it suggested reduction in number of income groups into four groups by merging last three into one group. Income Elasticity ( IE ) of last three income groups are less than 0.50 which indicated savings for high income families while low income families have much less savings because IE is more the 0.50. Correlation between income (X) and food expenditures (Y) for all income groups were found positive and highly significant varying from 0.54 to 0.94. Both IE and correlation indicates as income increases, food expenditure also increases.
Moreover it was observed that as family income increases the percentage expenditure on vegetable origin decreases from 60% to 46% and increases from 39.62% to 53.78% for animal origin. Calories intake/adult/day increases as the income increases and varies from 1571 to 1805 in case of vegetable origin and 100 to 839 for animal origin. Calories intake/adult/day was computed for all income groups and compared with world standards and concluded that calories intake by high income group only approximately meets the FAO standard.
Key words: Income Elasticity; Vegetable origin; Animal origin; calories; Pair wise comparison; Confidence Interval.
Often research has been done on inter-societal variation or on the linkage between food consumption with other elements of the culture. But in present study an attempt has been made to access the variation in expenditure on food, variation in quantity of food consumed and calories intake/adult family member. Without adequate provision of nutrition, no country of the world can make progress. Only a well fed population can work and exert properly in different sectors of life and can produce goods and services on which economic well being of a country rests.
A very important part of human food originates from animals and is necessary for a really healthy and hard working population. Meat is considered primarily as a protein food and in Pakistan most of the meat for human consumption is obtained from cattle, sheep, goats and a significant contribution comes from poultry sector.
Per capita consumption of animal products in Pakistan is 6.9 grams which is lowest in the world as compared to 75 grams in New Zealand, 65 grams in U.S.A., 61 grams in Australia, 18 grams in Japan and 15 grams in Philippines. Whereas the minimum need for healthy population is estimated as 37 grams per capita. Milk along with milk products has always been important components of human diet and is consumed in their natural and processed forms. Some of its constituents such as milk fat, milk sugar and casein are not found in any other food material. According to FAO-WHO, average man (between 20-39 years with weight 65 kg) that is employed for 8 hours/day in an occupation that involve a moderate activity requires 3,000 calories and 37 gram of milk protein per day. Whereas a woman (between 20-39 years with weight 55 kg), that is employed in general households work for 8 hours, requires 2,000 calories and 29 gram of milk protein per day.
Consumption of dairy products among different income groups was examined and families with high income incurred highest expenditure per month on milk and milk products as compared to lower income group. Milk and milk products were found expenditure elastic for all groups by Goswami, S.N., 1]. Production of pulses decreased by 3.6% and per capita daily availability of pluses also decreased by 36.64% and availability and consumption of cereals, sugar, milk, and tea increased . Changes in consumption levels according to the socio-economic characteristics were examined .
The study found that there had been a decline in both expenditure and quantity elasticity, while quantity elasticity of cereals had increased. Variation in consumer expenditure between rural and urban areas in U P ( India).was explained and It was observed that total per capita expenditure (PCE) on cereals, pulses and sugar was higher in rural areas than in urban areas but on milk products were found much higher (22%) than the all India . The objectives are To observe variation in food consumed and purchased,to explain proportion of income spent on food and specific classes of food by families in various income groups and to access relationship between income and food expenditure.To find out actual number of income groups w.r.t food expenditures and their comparison.
To find calories intake/adult in various incomes groups and compare with world standards.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The data were collected using purposive sampling (n = 569) with the help of questionnaire which was pretested and information about most commonly used food commodities such as cereals, fruit, fruit products, milk, milk products, meat and eggs were collected from different families. Data contain the information about quantity of food purchased, wasted, consumed in kilograms and finally the cost of food in rupees. Inferences drawn from survey results were then generalized to the whole population of families in study area. It was difficult to get food consumption data because most families do not keep accurate record of the quantity of food purchased, which was solved by providing respondent detail list of food items to families and to control memory loss each family was given a detailed budget sheet.
One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedure is adopted to test the hypothesis about average monthly expenditure on food among different income groups. Hypothesis is given as below:
Moreover Tukey's multiple comparisons procedure in  is also used to make pair wise comparison among mean monthly consumption expenditure of families among different income groups. Income elasticity (IE), Pearson's product correlation coefficient (r x y) with test of significance procedure and proportions are used to find out objectives. 2.1 Ranges of true proportion of food expenditures P Sample Proportion of food expenditures is used to find contribution of food expenditure in income of different families, and confidence interval (C.I.) or rang in which true Proportion of food expenditures lies can be obtained by using 100(1-a)% confidence and is given as:
When n is sufficiently large then sampling distribution of is approximately normal.
2.2 Ranges of difference between true Pi-Pj
Pair wise comparisons of true proportion of food expenditures Pi-Pj for various income strata can be used to access among six income strata which two have statistically same true proportion of food expenditures P. For this purpose 100(1-a) % confidence Interval (C.I.) of Pi-Pj, for sufficiently large sample size, is used and is given as:
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data obtained from survey is analyzed to achieve the desired objectives. Estimated average monthly income (AMI), estimated Average monthly Food Expenditure (AFE) and Average food consumed (AFC) for each group are listed in Table 1. There is steady increase in the average value of food purchased from lowest income group to highest group and varies from 7523Rs to 35,880Rs per month. Similarly average food expenditure/adult family unit (AFE/ad) is showing an increasing trend, and varies from 1,881Rs to 7,176Rs per month. Average value of food consumed (AFC) is always less than the average value of food purchased due to wastage of a very small amount of food. Average value of food consumed also increases from lowest income group to highest income group and varies from 7,364Rs to 35,340Rs per month.
When it is adjusted for the average value of food consumed/adult family unit (AFC/ad), a clear steady increase is observed again and varies from 1,841Rs in the lowest income group to 7,068Rs in the highest income group.
Table 1: Monthly Average Food Expenditures (AFE) and Average
Food Consumption (AFC) in Rs.
less than 10,000 (1st)###7523###1881###7364###1841
65,001 greater than (6th) 35880###7176###35340###7068
One way ANOVA procedure provided evidence to the rejection of Null Hypothesis at a=5% level of significance which means that not all the average monthly expenditure on food are equal which is logically and theoretically true. After rejection of null hypothesis, pair wise comparison of mean expenditure was conducted by using Tukey's method. Among 15 possible pair wise comparison of means, only mean monthly expenditure for 3rd and 4th income group i.e. u3 and u4 are found similar at a=5% level of significance.
3.1 Proportion of income on food, IE and correlation Average monthly income (AMI), estimated average monthly food expenditure (AFE) and estimated proportion of income expended on food which varies from 0.99 in lowest income group to 0.35 in highest income group and are presented in Table 2. This of course is not surprising, what surprising is the extent of proportion of income spent on food by the lowest income families is 99.7%, which means that lowest income families only fulfill their food expenditure from their monthly income. Most of the lowest income families fulfill other necessities of life such as clothing, medical and education for children etc. through part time jobs.
It is clear from Table 2 that ranges (C.I.) of true proportion of food expenditures P for 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups are (0.9973-0.9974), (0.6930-0.6988) and (0.5460-0.5547) respectively and ranges for 4th, 5th and 6th groups are (0.4274-0.4390), (0.4389-0.4565) and (0.3417-0.3621) respectively. Ranges for last three income groups are wider as compared to the first three, which means that larger variability exists in proportion of food expenditures in high income families as compared to the lower income families. Also confidence intervals (C.I.) for true proportion of food expenditures (P) of last three income groups' families have variation in proportion below 50% and are very close to each others especially in 4th and 5th, which means that we can replace last three income groups in one major income group with respect to consumption expenditures. This conclusion drawn is same with previously drawn conclusion of equality of u3 and u4.
So last three income groups saves more than 50% of their income for other necessities of life. Now the ranges of true proportion of food expenditures (P) for 2nd and 3rd income groups families varies from 0.5460 to 0.6988, which means that families in these income groups spend more than 50% of their monthly income on food and save much less percentage of their income for other necessities of life but range of true proportion for lowest income group varies from 0.9973 to 0.9974, which is very alarming situation because families in lowest group spend 99% of their monthly income on food. In view of the above analysis of confidence intervals (ranges) of true proportion of food expenditures and from ANOVA, we can conclude six income groups can be reduced to four major income groups w.r.t food consumption and there exists lowest group (1st group), 2nd, 3rd and upper group (4th, 5th and 6th) in civil society (includes only labor, private and government employees) in Pakistan.
Now I.E varies from 0.63 to 0.12 and lies within limits from zero to one which is logically and theoretically true and can be interpreted as: with increase in income, expenditure on food also increases but at a lesser rate. We can also see that I.E of last three income group are less than 0.50 which is an indication of savings for high income families but on the other hand low income families have not much savings because their IE is above 0.50. Moreover the correlation
It is clear from Table 3 that ranges which does not include true zero; we can reject the null hypothesis of equality of proportion of food expenditures between income groups at 5% level of significance. Also ranges for (P3-P4) and (P3-P5) include true zero very close to the lower limits of the ranges, leans heavily to the decision of rejection of null hypothesis of equality of proportion but on the other hand ranges for (P4-P5), (P4-P6) and (P5-P6) includes true zero approximately in the middle of intervals which provides strong evidence of do not rejection of null hypothesis of equality of proportion of food expenditures. So we can conclude that among six income groups last three income groups have statistically same proportion of food expenditures and thus six income groups reduced to four groups. This conclusion also justifies the interpretation made in previous section.
3.3 Expenditure for specific classes of food
Average food expenditure on different food types in each income group is shown in table 4. A Rapid increase is observed for fruit and fruit products (veg. prds.) and meat and eggs which vary from 4.3% to 12.4% and 8.5% to 26.9% respectively, whereas consumption of vegetable and vegetable products and milk and milk products remains relatively stable in all income groups.
It is true because these food types have major share in daily food of all families in the region. So we can conclude that as income increases, people spend more on food items and especially on fruit and fruit products and on meat and eggs but there is a significant decrease in proportional expenditure on cereals, pulses and in "other" food items with increase of income. For cursory glance we can view subdivided rectangles in Fig.1 and conclude that major food types which are consumed are milk and milk products, meat and eggs for all income groups. But pulses share for high income group is very small as compared to low income groups. The consumption of vegetables and vegetables products for second last income group is quite unusual.
3.4 Vegetable origin versus Animal origin
Some facts are summarized by grouping food items in two major classes i.e. vegetable origin (includes cereals, pulses, vegetable and vegetable products, fruits and others) and animal origin (includes milk and milk products and meat and eggs). It is clear from table 5 that as family income increases the percentage expenditure on vegetable origin decreases from 60% to 46% which means negative relationship exists between income and consumption of vegetable origin but percentage expenditure on animal origin increases from 36% to 54% i.e. positive relationship exists.
Relationship between income and consumption of vegetable and animal origin are shown in Fig 2. It means that as income increases consumption of Animal origin increases as compared to vegetable origin. Per capita calories intake/day is determined by using quantity consumed (grams)/ adult/ day and in table 5 we can observe that calories intake/adult/day increases and vary from 1571 to1805 in vegetable origin and 100 to 839 for animal origin. It means that families in low income groups (first three groups) fulfill approximately 85% of calories from vegetable origin and 15% from animal origin and on the other hand high income families (last three groups) fulfill approximately 60% of calories from vegetable origin and 40 % from animal origin.
3.5 Comparison of Calories with world standards
Calories intake/day/adult family units vary from 1800 in lowest group to 2637 in highest income group. According to FAO and FAO-WHO standards, the calories require per day per capita are 2300 and 2600 respectively, which are much bigger as compared to the calories intake per capita per day by families in Pakistan in our analysis. In table 6, availability of calories per day per adult in leading regions of the world vary from 3,830 for USA to 3,413 for the Australia (Austl.) and calories intake by family units in Pakistan for all income groups are far below the leading societies of the world. So we conclude that families in last income group with income 50,000 and above meet the Pakistani, FAO, and FAO-WHO standards.
This situation is very alarming because majority of families are facing food deficiency and how Pakistan can make rapid progress with such food deficient population.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In present study both IE and correlation analysis showed that with increase in income, expenditures on food also increases but at the lesser rate because of having I.E less than 1 in all income groups. Moreover proportion of income spent on food for the 1st income group is very alarming which means lower income group's families spent all of their monthly income on just food. So it can be concluded that minimum level of income must be within 10,000-20,000 because proportion of income spent on food in 2nd group is quite better as compared to first group. It is also concluded that variability in proportion of food expenditures is more in high income families as compared to low income families because of having wider ranges of P is observed in high income families.
Proportion of food expenditures among various groups is compared statistically and it is observed at 95% level of confidence that last three groups have statistically same proportion and thus can be merged into one group and this conclusion is same as made by using ANOVA technique. So It is recommended that family's income w.r.t food expenditures should be distributed in future into four groups i.e. ( less than 10,000), (10,001-20000), (20,001-35000) and ( greater than 35,000). It is also observed that with increase in income, expenditures on fruits, meat and eggs increases and decreases on pluses and cereals but remains stable on vegetables and its products. In calories intake analysis it was observed that calories intake/adult/day by families in various groups varies from 1571 to 1805 in vegetable origin and from 100 to 839 in animal origin. Also calories intake from all food items varies from 1800 to 2637 from lowest to highest income group.
It was also observed that first three income groups fulfill their 85% of calories from vegetable origin and 15% from animal origin and on the other hand last three income groups fulfill their 60% of calories from vegetable origin and 40%from animal origin Comparison of calories intake with various world standard revealed that only high income group's families fulfills FAO and WHO standards and calories intake by families in remaining groups are far behind than leading societies of the world. Results obtain in present study are very alarming for planning institutions because most families are facing food deficiency and without adequate provision of food, how can Pakistan make rapid progress.
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|Author:||Ghafoor, Abdul; Arshad, Irshad Ahmad; Sheikh, Abdul Wasim|
|Date:||Sep 30, 2012|
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