Printer Friendly

Use of plants as preventive medicine: a survey conducted in Devinagar village of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Functional foods began as a concept in the 1980s in Japan, where they were officially defined as "foods for specified health use." Such foods can besides supply of macronutrients and micronutrients, do more for the body like boosting up the immune system or reducing the risks for diseases. Plant items are the most frequent source of functional foods, and plants that have the capacity to reduce the incidences of diseases are also known as preventive medicinal plants. Such plants may serve both therapeutic as well as preventive purposes. Plants contain various phytochemicals and these phytochemicals can play an important role in reducing occurrences of many diseases by boosting up various organ functions of the human body, by acting as antioxidants, and by supplying necessary nutrients. Since prevention is always better than cure, such preventive medicinal plants or functional food plants can play a vital role in maintaining the health status of the human population at a fraction of the cost that may be spent on medicines following incidences of diseases.

The effectiveness of plant sterols and stanols for lowering cholesterol and as such, reducing the chances for heart disorders have been shown (Kamal-Eldin and Moazzami, 2009). Various functional food plants like broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, oat, flaxseed, tomato, soybean, citrus fruits, berries, tea, grapes and garlic have been reviewed for their health effects, and phytochemical ingredients contributing to the observed health effects (Rodriguez et al., 2006). It has been shown that stems of Asparagus officinalis and fruits of Momordica dioica can potentially serve as functional foods because of their high content of protein, carbohydrates, and minerals (Aberoumand, 2011). Four out of the nine medicinal plants studied, namely, Terminalia bellirica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Syzygium aromaticum, and Phyllanthus emblica reportedly showed preventive activities against Streptococcus mutans--an organism causing dental caries (Chaiya et al., 2013). Medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of bacterial infections have been reviewed (Mahady, 2005). Twenty eight plants, many of them being spices, have been shown to be used for prevention and cure of digestive disorders in Punjab State, India (Sidhu et al., 2007). Several plants like Sanguisorba officinalis, Rosa chinensis, Milletia dielsania, Polygonum cuspidatum, Caesalpinia sappan, and Sophora japonica have been shown to have high antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents, and thus can play a role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (Gan et al., 2010).

The use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of various ailments has also been described for Imo State in Nigeria (Nwachukwu et al., 2010). Selected medicinal plants for cancer prevention and therapy have been reviewed (Bachrach, 2012). It can be then concluded that use of medicinal plants for preventive purposes is not an isolated phenomenon, but which takes place in various societies of the world on a daily basis. We have also noticed this use of medicinal plants for preventive and treatment purposes among the various ethnomedicinal surveys conducted by us among folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) and tribal medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al, 2010; Hossan et al, 2010; Mollik et al, 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-g; Akber et al, 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012; Hossan et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d; Sarker et al., 2012). Two such exclusive surveys on medicinal plants used for preventive purposes have also been documented (Biswas et al., 2011d; Rahmatullah et al., 2011c). Since a substantial number of the rural population of Bangladesh are poor and cannot afford high health costs, it can be beneficial if more uses of preventive medicinal plants can be documented. The objective of this survey was to document the preventive medicinal plants used in Devinagar village of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out in Devinagar village, which lies within Chapai Nawabganj district of Bangladesh. The village had one elderly person, who practiced folk medicine and advised the villagers on medicinal plants and formulations to be used for both preventive and therapeutic purposes. The person, Matiur Rahman was popularly called "Nana', meaning grandfather. He was aged about 70 years and Muslim in religion, and belonged to the mainstream Bengali-speaking population. After learning about this person in an ethnomedicinal survey conducted in the village, he was interviewed as to the preventive medicinal plants, which he advised the villagers to partake for treatment and prevention of various diseases. Informed consent was first obtained from him, and interviews conducted in the form of open-ended interviews in the Bengali language, which was also spoken by the interviewers. Medicinal plants as mentioned by him were collected in his presence. Plant specimens were also photographed on the spot and brought back to Dhaka to be identified by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

A total of 27 plants used for preventive medicinal purposes were obtained from the practitioner. These plant species were distributed into 21 families. Of the 27 plants obtained, 8 plants or plant parts were used as spices. The practitioner, although a rural folk medicinal practitioner, was observed to possess a good knowledge of vitamins, minerals, and other macronutrients and micronutrients necessary to maintain good health in the human body. In fact, thirteen plants were advised by him to partake to fulfill any deficiencies of vitamins, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The results are shown in Table 1.

The eight spice plants advised by the practitioner to be taken as spices (i.e. used in cooking) were Foeniculum vulgare (for prevention of loss of appetite, indigestion, and so as to not have foul odor in mouth), Allium cepa (to be taken to prevent weakness and low sperm density), Allium sativum (to prevent heart disorders and rheumatism), Syzygium aromaticum (to prevent coughs), Capsicum frutescens (to prevent fever), Coriandrum sativum (to prevent biliary disorders, bloating, indigestion, and weakness), Curcuma longa (to prevent coughs, bloating, and indigestion), and Zingiber officinale (to prevent indigestion, coughs, and mucus formation). The practitioner mentioned that regular partaking of these plant parts as spices would prevent the mentioned ailments from occurring. However, he also mentioned that these spices can be taken following actual occurrence of the ailments mentioned against each individual spice.

The major occupation of the rural population of Bangladesh is agriculture. This occupation necessitates hard physical labor, especially during planting and harvesting times, and this labor has to be done under hot sun or rain, as the weather may be. A substantial number of the rural population is also poor and cannot have their dietary requirements fulfilled all the time. Moreover, due to absence of proper sanitation facilities and quality drinking water, the people suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. As a result, the major problems that the rural population faces are gastrointestinal disorders, physical weakness, and lack of macronutrients and micronutrients, including vitamins (lack of which can also cause physical weakness besides other diseases). The majority of the plants or plant parts advised to be consumed by the practitioner were for the prevention of the above three classes of disorders. As noted before, the practitioner suggested a number of spices to be eaten in the cooked form to prevent several types of gastrointestinal disorders like loss of appetite, indigestion, and bloating. To prevent physical weakness (which can be caused by hard labor or lack of nutrients or both), the practitioner advised consumption Abelmoschus esculentus, Coffea arabica, Coriandrum sativum (a spice), and Allium cepa (a spice). Thus spices fulfilled the role of prevention of gastrointestinal disorders, physical weakness, as well as other ailments, as mentioned in the previous section. It is to be noted that various spices like Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, Foeniculum vulgare, and Allium sativum are also used in Punjab State of India to prevent or alleviate digestive disorders (Sidhu et al., 2007). Besides spices, the practitioner also advised consumption of ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos to prevent gastrointestinal disorders. It is to be noted that fruits of this plant are considered stomachic and digestive throughout the Indian sub-continent, including Bangladesh. Consumption of fruits, especially in the form of sherbet are believed to have a cooling effect on the body as well as the stomach in hot and humid weather, when the body gets heated and various digestive problems arise.

The seeds of Coffea arabica (coffee), when boiled in water and the water taken orally can act as a stimulant for its caffeine content, and so can reduce physical weakness, at least temporarily. The practitioner also advised consumption of thirteen different plant parts for prevention of deficiency of macronutrients and micronutrients. For instance, fruits of Mangifera indica were advised to be consumed to prevent deficiencies of calcium, iron, and vitamins B and C. The fruits have been reported to contain a high level of ascorbic acid or vitamin C (Duke, 1992). Basella alba leaves and stems were also advised by the practitioner to prevent vitamin deficiency. The leaves and stems of this plant reportedly contain vitamin C, carbohydrates, fat, as well as the amino acids alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine (Duke, 1992). Fruits of Ananas comosus are also known to have high content of vitamin C and calcium. The core of the fruit is advised to be taken by folk medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh along with leaf juice to both prevent and treat helmintic infections. Notably, the practitioner advised eating the fruit of this plant to reduced vitamin and mineral deficiency as well as to prevent helmintic infections.

Ripe and unripe fruits of Carica papaya were advised by the practitioner to be consumed to prevent iron, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, and vitamin C deficiency as well as to prevent constipation, diphtheria, and cancer. The ripe fruits reportedly contain high levels of vitamins A and C, as well as phosphorus, calcium, iron, and potassium. The fruits are also known to contain alpha-linolenic acid, fats, fiber, germacrene D, monounsaturated fatty acids, and lycopene (Duke, 1992). Fibers present within the fruit can help relieve as well as prevent constipation. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant and has been shown to be associated with decreased risks of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Rao and Agarwal, 2000). Fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), which were advised to be consumed by the practitioner to prevent vitamin A deficiency, are known to contain vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, and zinc (Swami et al., 2012). Thus the advice given by the practitioner regarding consumption of this fruit (along with several others already mentioned plants) has been validated in nutritional analysis of relevant plant parts.

The anti-diabetic effects of fruits of Momordica charantia are well established (Joseph and Jini, 2013); the practitioner advised regular consumption of fruits to prevent diabetes. The prevention of cardiovascular diseases by consumption of Allium sativum (garlic) has also been reviewed (Ginter and Simko, 2010). Fruits of Musa sapientum (banana), which were advised by the practitioner to consume to prevent deficiency of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E are known to have high contents of vitamin C and beta-carotene, the latter being a precursor of vitamin A (Wall, 2006a). Fruits of Psidium guajava (guava) were advised by the practitioner to consume to prevent vitamins A and C deficiency; the fruits have been reported to contain high levels of vitamin C, carotene, and retinol equivalent (Rahmat et al., 2006). Syzygium aromaticum (clove) was mentioned by the practitioner to prevent coughs; traditional uses of cloves for such treatment in India have been reported (Bhowmik et al., 2012). Litchi chinensis fruits have good vitamin C content (Wall, 2006b); the practitioners advised consumption of fruit to prevent deficiency of vitamin C. Consumption of hot peppers (fruits of Capsicum frutescens) has been reported as a traditional way to cure fevers (Milind and Sushila, 2012); the practitioner advised consuming the fruits as a way both to prevent and to cure fever.

It may clearly be concluded that the practitioner had a quite sound knowledge on the medicinal properties of various plants, which he used for both preventive and therapeutic purposes. How this knowledge was derived remains a question. Rural areas are no longer remote areas in Bangladesh; they are in fact connected to the whole world via the Internet, and many households have televisions and radios at present. Newspapers also circulate in the rural areas. Moreover, primary education has been made compulsory, and most rural residents know about vitamins and other micronutrients and macronutrients through the availability of easy to read books on nutrition. The practitioner could easily have picked up his knowledge from diverse sources like the ones mentioned above. The knowledge may also have been transmitted through experiences gathered over successive generations, as frequently happens with folk medicinal practitioners. Nevertheless how this knowledge was gained, it now remains for science to research on the preventive medicinal plants used by the practitioner on which scientific validations are still lacking, like plants used for prevention of cholera, rheumatism, mental depression, and biliary disorders.

References

Aberoumand, A., 2011. Screening of less known two food plants for comparison of nutrient contents: Iranian and Indian vegetables. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 10: 416-423.

Akber, M., S. Seraj, F. Islam, D. Ferdausi, R. Ahmed, D. Nasrin, N. Nahar, S. Ahsan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of medicinal plants used by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Khulna City, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 177-195.

Bachrach, Z.Y., 2012. Contribution of selected medicinal plants for cancer prevention and therapy. Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, 29: 117-123.

Bhowmik, D., K.P.S. Kumar, A. Yadav, S. Srivastava, S. Paswan and A.S. Dutta, 2012. Recent trends in Indian traditional herbs Syzygium aromaticum and its health benefits. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1: 13-23.

Biswas, K.R., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa and M. Rahmatullah, 2011a. Antidiabetic plants and formulations used by folk medicinal practitioners of two villages in Narail and Chuadanga districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 158-167.

Biswas, A., W.M. Haq, M. Akber, D. Ferdausi, S. Seraj, F.I. Jahan, A.R. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 15-22.

Biswas, K.R., T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa, A. Swarna, T. Ishika, M. Rahman and M. Rahmatullah, 2011c. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of four adjoining villages of Narail and Jessore districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 23-33.

Biswas, K.R., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, T. Khan, A. Swarna, M.N. Monalisa, S. Sanam, I. Malek and M. Rahmatullah, 2011d. Medicinal plants used for preventive medicinal purposes: a survey in Muktipara village, Chuadanga district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 247-251.

Chaiya, A., S. Saraya, W. Chuakul and R. Temsiririrkkul, 2013. Screening for dental caries: Preventive activities of medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans. Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 40: 9-17.

Chowdhury, A.R., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, Z. Khatun, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan, R. Jahan, I. Ahmad, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Barisal town in Barisal district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 237-246.

Das, P.R., M.T. Islam, A.S.M.S.B. Mahmud, M.H. Kabir, M.E. Hasan, Z. Khatun, M.M. Rahman, M. Nurunnabi, Z. Khatun, Y.K. Lee, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. An ethnomedicinal survey conducted among the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Kurigram district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 85-96.

Duke, J.A., 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

Gan, R.Y., X.R. Xu, F.L. Song, L. Kuang and H.B. Li, 2010. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of medicinal plants associated with prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Journal of Medicinal plants Research, 4: 2438-2444.

Ginter, E. and V. Simko, 2010. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases. Bratisl Lek Listy, 111: 452-456.

Haque, M.A., M.K. Shaha, S.U. Ahmed, R. Akter, H. Rahman, S. Chakravotry, A.H.M.N. Imran, M.T. Islam, R.C. Das and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 415-423.

Hasan, M.M., M.E.A. Annay, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in seven villages of Ishwardi Upazilla, Pabna district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 326-333.

Hasan, M.E., S. Akter, N.S. Piya, P.K. Nath, U.S.R. Nova, H.R. Chowdhury, N.F. Anjoom, Z. Khatun and Rahmatullah, M., 2012. Variations in selection of medicinal plants by tribal healers of the Soren clan of the Santal tribe: a study of the Santals in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 315-324.

Hossan, M.S., A. Hanif, B. Agarwala, M.S. Sarwar, M. Karim, M.T. Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. Traditional use of medicinal plants in Bangladesh to treat urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 61-74.

Hossan, M.S., P. Roy, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.N. Monalisa, S. Jahan, T. Khan, A. Swarna, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Tongchongya tribal community of Roangchaari Upazila of Bandarban district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 349-359.

Islam, F., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, I. Malek, A.F.M.N. Sadat, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, A. Swarna, S. Sanam and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Variations in diseases and medicinal plant selection among folk medicinal practitioners: a case study in Jessore district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 282-291.

Jahan, F.I., M.R.U. Hasan, R. Jahan, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, M.T. Islam, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A Comparison of Medicinal Plant Usage by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of two Adjoining Villages in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 46-66.

Joseph, B. and D. Jini, 2013. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 3: 93-102.

Kamal-Eldin, A. and A. Moazzami, 2009. Plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in functional foods. Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture, 1: 1-14.

Khan, M.A., M.N. Hasan, N. Jahan, P.R. Das, M.T. Islam, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S. Jahan, S. Hossain and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal wisdom and famine food plants of the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 387-397.

Mahady, G.B., 2005. Medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 11: 2405-2427.

Milind, P. and K. Sushila, 2012. A hot way leading to healthy stay. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3: 21-25.

Mollik, M.A.H., M.S. Hossan, A.K. Paul, M.T. Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010a. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers in three districts of Bangladesh and inquiry as to mode of selection of medicinal plants. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 195-218.

Mollik, M.A.H., A.I. Hassan, T.K. Paul, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010b. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 349-356.

Nawaz, A.H.M.M., M. Hossain, M. Karim, M. Khan, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. An ethnobotanical survey of Rajshahi district in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 143-150.

Nwachukwu, C.U., C.N. Umeh, I.G. Kalu, S. Okere and M.C. Nwoko, 2010. Identification and traditional uses of some common medicinal plants in Ezinihitte Mbaise L. G. A., of Imo State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion, 2: 1-8.

Rahmat, A., M.F.A. Bakar and Z. Hambali, 2006. The effects of guava (Psidium guajava) consumption on total antioxidant and lipid profile in normal male youths. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 6: 1-12.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, M.N.K. Azam, M.T. Rahman and R. Jahan, 2009a. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Bheramara Area in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 534-541.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Noman, M.S. Hossan, M.H. Rashid, T. Rahman, M.H. Chowdhury and R. Jahan, 2009b. A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 862-876.

Rahmatullah, M., A.K. Das, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M. Khan, T. Rahman and M.H. Chowdhury, 2009c. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Dhamrai Sub-district in Dhaka District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 881-888.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and W.M. Haque, 2010a. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna District, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7: 91-97.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Khatun, N. Morshed, P.K. Neogi, S.U.A. Khan, M.S. Hossan, M.J. Mahal and R. Jahan, 2010b. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 52-62.

Rahmatullah, M., A.A.B.T. Kabir, M.M. Rahman, M.S. Hossan, Z. Khatun, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010c. Ethnomedicinal practices among a minority group of Christians residing in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 45-51.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Momen, M.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, M.S. Hossain, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010d. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in Daudkandi sub-district of Comilla district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 99-104.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.N. Ahmed, M.Z.A. Bhuiyan, M.M. Hossain, M.N.K. Azam, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan and R. Jahan, 2010e. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 357-362.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.K. Islam, M.R. Islam, F.I. Jahan, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Islam, Z.U.M. Miajee and R. Jahan, 2010f. A survey of medicinal and functional food plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Sreepur Upazilla, Magura district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 363-373.

Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, A.K. Azad, A.B.M. Bashar, Z.U.M. Miajee, S. Ahsan, N. Nahar, I. Ahmad and M.H. Chowdhury, 2010g. A pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 170-195.

Rahmatullah, M., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.J. Mahal and K.R. Biswas, 2011a. Plants prescribed for both preventive and therapeutic purposes by the traditional healers of the Bede community residing by the Turag River, Dhaka district. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 325-331.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, M.M. Rahman, S. Seraj, M.J. Mahal, S.M. Mou, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F. Islam and M.H. Chowdhury, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by Garo and non-Garo traditional medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 350-357.

Rahmatullah, M., P. Chakma, A.K. Paul, D. Nasrin, R. Ahmed, F. Jamal, D. Ferdausi, M. Akber, N. Nahar, S. Ahsan and R. Jahan, 2011c. A survey of preventive medicinal plants used by the Chakma residents of Hatimara (south) village of Rangamati district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 92-96.

Rahmatullah, M. and K.R. Biswas, 2012a. Traditional medicinal practices of a Sardar healer of the Sardar (Dhangor) community of Bangladesh. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18: 10-19.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan and R. Jahan, 2012b. Medicinal plants and formulations used by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 342-349.

Rahmatullah, M., Z. Khatun, A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, M.J. Mahal, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S.M. Mou and R. Jahan, 2012c. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli tribal communities of Natore district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 366-373.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

Rao, A.V. and S. Agarwal, 2000. Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 19: 563-569.

Rodriguez, E.B., M.E. Flavier, D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya and J. Amaya-Farfan, 2006. Phytochemicals and functional foods. Current situation and prospect for developing countries. Seguranca Alimentar e Nutricional, Campinas, 13: 1-22.

Sarker, S., S. Seraj, M.M. Sattar, W.M. Haq, M.H. Chowdhury, I. Ahmad, R. Jahan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 332-343.

Sarker, B., F. Akther, U.A.R. Sifa, I. Jahan, M. Sarker, S.K. Chakma, P.K. Podder, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal investigations among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 378-386.

Shaheen, Md.E.K., Md.A. Syef, S.S. Saha, Md.S. Islam, Md.D.A. Hossain, Md.A.I. Sujan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in two villages of Khakiachora and Khasia Palli in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Advances in Applied and Natural Sciences, 5: 9-19.

Sidhu, K., J. Kaur, G. Kaur and K. Pannu, 2007. Prevention and cure of digestive disorders through the nuse of medicinal plants. Journal of Human Ecology, 21: 113-116.

Swami, S.B., N.J. Thakor, P.M. Haldankar and S.B. Kalse, 2012. Kackfruit and its many functional components as related to human health: a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11: 565-576.

Wall, M.M., 2006a. Ascorbic acid, vitamin A, and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19: 434-445.

Wall, M.M., 2006b. Ascorbic acid and mineral composition of longan (Dimocarpus longan), lychee (Litchi chinensis) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19: 655-663.

Abdul Wahab, Sourav Roy, Ahsan Habib, Md. Rifat Ahmed Bhuiyan, Piya Roy, Md. Golam Sorwar Khan, Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh Ph: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Preventive medicinal plants and mode of their consumption
advised by the folk medicinal practitioner of Devinagar village
in Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh.

Serial    Scientific name
Number    of plant               Family

1         Mangifera indica L.    Anacardiaceae

2         Foeniculum vulgare     Apiaceae
          Mill.

3         Basella alba L.        Basellaceae

4         Ananas comosus (L.)    Bromeliaceae
          Merr.

5         Carica papaya L.       Caricaceae

6         Ipomoea batatas        Convolvulaceae
          (L.) Lam.

7         Brassica oleracea      Cruciferae
          var. botrytis L.

8         Cucurbita maxima       Cucurbitaceae
          Duchesne

9         Lagenaria siceria      Cucurbitaceae
          (Mol.) Standl.

10        Momordica              Cucurbitaceae
          charantia L.

11        Allium cepa L.         Liliaceae

12        Allium sativum L.      Liliaceae

13        Abelmoschus            Malvaceae
          esculentus (L.)
          Moench.

14        Artocarpus             Moraceae
          heterophyllus Lam.

15        Musa sapientum L.      Musaceae

16        Psidium guajava L.     Myrtaceae

17        Syzygium aromaticum    Myrtaceae
          (L.) Merr. & L.M.
          Perry

18        Ziziphus mauritiana    Rhamnaceae
          Lam.

19        Coffea arabica L.      Rubiaceae

20        Aegle marmelos         Rutaceae
          (L.) Cor

21        Litchi chinensis       Sapindaceae
          Sonn.

22        Capsicum frutescens    Solanaceae
          L.

23        Solanum melongena      Solanaceae
          L.

24        Camellia sinensis      Theaceae
          (L.) O. Kuntze

25        Coriandrum sativum     Umbelliferae
          L.

26        Curcuma longa L.       Zingiberaceae

27        Zingiber officinale    Zingiberaceae
          Roscoe

Serial
Number    Local name             Part(s) used

1         Aam                    Fruit

2         Mouri                  Seed

3         Puin shak              Young leaf, stem

4         Anarosh                Ripe fruit

5         Pepe                   Ripe and unripe
                                 fruit

6         Mishti alu             Tuber

7         Ful kopi               Floral bud

8         Mishti kumra           Unripe and ripe
                                 fruit

9         Lau                    Young fruit

10        Ucche, Korolla         Fruit

11        Piyaj                  Floral stem

12        Roshun                 Floral stem

13        Dherosh                Young fruit

14        Kathal                 Ripe and unripe
                                 fruit, seed

15        Kola                   Fruit

16        Peyara                 Fruit

17        Lobongo, Long          Floral bud

18        Kul, Boroi             Fruit

19        Coffee                 Seed

20        Bel                    Ripe fruit

21        Lichu                  Fruit

22        Morich                 Unripe fruit,
                                 Dried ripe fruit

23        Baegun                 Fruit

24        Cha                    Young leaf

25        Dhonia                 Young leaf, seed

26        Holud                  Rhizome

27        Ada                    Rhizome

Serial
Number    Ailment(s) prevented and mode of taking

1         Vitamins B and C, calcium, and iron deficiency.
          Fruits are eaten directly.

2         Loss of appetite, indigestion, foul odor in mouth.
          Used as spice and also chewed directly.

3         Vitamin deficiency. Young leaves and stems are
          cooked and eaten as vegetable.

4         Vitamins A, B and C deficiency, deficiency of
          minerals, helmintic infections. Ripe fruits are
          eaten directly.

5         Iron, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, and vitamin
          C deficiency, constipation, diphtheria, cancer.
          Ripe fruits are eaten directly. Unripe fruits are
          cooked and eaten as vegetable.

6         Carbohydrate deficiency. Rhizomes are either eaten
          in the boiled form or cooked and eaten as
          vegetable.

7         Vitamin deficiency. Young floral buds are cooked
          and eaten as vegetable.

8         Vitamin A deficiency. Fruits are cooked and eaten
          as vegetable.

9         Cholera. Fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetable.

10        Diabetes. Juice from fruits is taken orally.
          Fruits are also cooked and eaten as vegetable.

11        Weakness, low sperm density. Used as spice.

12        Heart disorders, rheumatism. Used as spice.

13        Physical weakness. Young fruits are cooked and
          eaten as vegetable.

14        Vitamin A deficiency. Ripe fruits are eaten
          directly. Unripe fruits and seeds are cooked and
          eaten as vegetable.

15        Vitamins A, B, C, D and E deficiency. Ripe fruits
          are eaten directly.

16        Vitamins A and C deficiency. Fruits are eaten
          directly.

17        Coughs. Used as spice.

18        Vitamin C deficiency. Fruits are directly eaten.

19        Weakness. Seeds are boiled in water followed by
          drinking the water.

20        Hotness of body, gastrointestinal disorders. Ripe
          fruits are eaten directly.

21        Deficiency of Vitamin C and carbohydrates, skin
          disorders. Ripe fruits are eaten directly.

22        Fever. Used as spice.

23        Vitamins A and C deficiency, iodine deficiency.
          Fruits are fried and eaten. Alternately, fruits
          are boiled in water and eaten in the mashed form.

24        Heart disorders, mental depression, tiredness.
          Young leaves are boiled in water and the water
          taken orally.

25        Biliary disorders, bloating, indigestion,
          weakness. Used as spice.

26        Coughs, bloating, indigestion. Used as spice.

27        Indigestion, coughs, mucus. Used as spice.
COPYRIGHT 2013 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Wahab, Abdul; Roy, Sourav; Habib, Ahsan; Bhuiyan, Md. Rifat Ahmed; Roy, Piya; Khan, Md. Golam Sorwar
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Apr 1, 2013
Words:5348
Previous Article:Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal herbalists in seven villages of Bhola district, Bangladesh.
Next Article:Ethnomedicinal wisdom of a Tonchongya tribal healer practicing in Rangamati district, Bangladesh.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters