Use of Menispermaceae family plants in folk medicine of Bangladesh.
The Menispermaceae family of flowering plants is a medium-sized family comprising of 70 genera and about 420 species. Most species in this family are climbing plants and found in the tropics. Although the number of species in this family is not large compared to some other plant families, a number of plants belonging to this family are important plants, being used in the traditional medicines of a number of countries. Several plants have also been scientifically recognized as to containing phytochemical constituents with important pharmacological activities. The following paragraphs shall cite a few examples of scientific findings on Menispermaceae family plants.
Three acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (which have recently gained importance as potential drugs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease) have been isolated from tubers of a Thai medicinal plant belonging to the Menispermaceae family, namely Stephania venosa. They have been identified as quaternary protoberberine alkaloids--stepharanine, cyclanoline, and N-methyl stepholidine (Ingkaninan, K., 2006). Anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-plasmodial, and cytotoxic activities have been reported for the root bark alkaloidal extract of the plant Albertisia villosa and an isolated bisbenzylisoquinoline--cycleanine, which validates its traditional use in Congolese medicine for treatment of malaria and other infectious diseases (Lohombo-Ekomba, M.L., 2004). The methanolic leaf extract of Cissampelos mucronata reportedly demonstrated protective action against indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats (Nwafor, S.V. and P.A. Akah, 2003). Antinociceptive and anti-arthritic activity has been reported of Cissampelos pareira roots (Amresh, G., 2007). Aporphine alkaloids isolated from aerial parts of Cissampelos capensis have been shown to demonstrate anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Ayers, S., 2007). The ethyl acetate soluble extract of stems of Macrococculus pomiferus was found to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (Su, B.N., 2004). The alcoholic stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum has been reported to possess anti-diabetic activity when studied in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats (Shirwaikar, A., 2005).
Phenolic alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum has been shown to demonstrate a protective effect against myocardial cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits (Wang, F., 2005). Two alkaloids (dehydroroemerine and cepharanthine) isolated from Stephania rotunda, as well as a dichloromethane extract of the plant showed inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which validates to some extent the plant's traditional use against fever (Chea, A., 2007). Leaves and rhizome methanol extracts of Albertisia delagoensis reportedly also tested positive against Plasmodium falciparum (De Wet, H., 2007). Anti-microbial components active against Staphylococcus aureus have been reported to be present in Tinospora capillipes (Yu, Y., 2007). A 70% methanolic leaf extract of Cyclea peltata has been shown to protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and oxidative damages (Vijayan, F.P., 2007). Dauricumidine, an alkaloid isolated from Hypserpa nitida reportedly showed promising anti-viral activity in hepatitis B virus-transfected Hep G2.2.15 cell line (Cheng, P., 2007). Anti-plasmodial and anti-trypanosomal activities have been reported for extracts of various parts of the plant Triclisia sacleuxii (Murebwayire, S., 2008). The hasubanane-type alkaloids, periglaucines A-D, isolated from the plant Pericampylus glaucus has been shown to inhibit hepatitis B virus surface antigen secretion in Hep G2.2.15 cells. Two other alkaloids isolated from the same plant, namely norruffscine and (-)-8-oxotetrahydropalmatine, exhibited inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1 (Yan, M.H., 2008). Furanoditerpenoids, isolated from the stems of Fibraurea tinctoria reportedly showed anti-inflammatory activity when tested against carrageenan-induced mice paw edema (Su, C.R., 2008). Prevention and regression of liver fibrosis (for which there is currently no safe or effective treatment) induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats has been observed with the plant, Stephania tetrandra (Chor, J.S., 2009). The leaf extract of Cissampelos sympodialis has been observed as a possible novel and safe treatment for psoriasis (Feily, A. and M.R. Namazi, 2009).
Taken together, it can be seen that a number of Menispermaceae family plants have been observed to possess pharmacological components of clinical significance. Many of the scientific findings have been conducted on the basis of the traditional uses of the Menispermaceae family plants. Bangladesh has a rich history of folk medicine administered by traditional medicinal practitioners, known as Kavirajes, who rely mostly on plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. It was the objective of the present study to conduct a randomized survey in various regions and among various tribes of Bangladesh to collect data on the use of Menispermaceae family plants in the folk medicinal system of the country.
Materials and Methods
2.1 Survey areas and tribes
Out of the 64 districts comprising Bangladesh 24 districts were included in the present survey. These districts were Bagerhat, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chittagong, Comilla, Dinajpur, Feni, Habiganj, Joypurhat, Khagrachari, Magura, Maulvibazar, Naogaon, Narsinghdi, Natore, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Patuakhali, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sherpur, Sylhet, and Tangail. The various tribes that were included in the present survey were the Chak, Chakmas, Garos, Marmas, Santals, Tonchongas and the Tripuras. Surveys were carried out amongst the Kavirajes of tribal and rural areas, since the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh as well as the tribal population relies on Kavirajes for their primary health-care needs.
2.2. Data collection and mode of survey
A total of 111 Kavirajes were interviewed in the present survey. The criterion for selection was the Kaviraje's expertise in treatment of diseases as acknowledged by the local people. Following informed consent obtained from the Kavirajes, interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The basic method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995), known as the guided field-walk method. In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on field walks through the areas from where he collects the medicinal plants, points out the plants to the interviewers, and describes the plant parts used, formulations, ailments treated, and dosages. All information was double-checked with the Kavirajes in later evening sessions. Plant specimens were collected, dried on the field and brought back to Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification. While conducting interviews of the tribal Kavirajes (also known as ojhas among the Chaks and the Chakmas), interviews were conducted in the tribal language with the help of an interpreter. Usually, the interpreter happened to be the Headman of the tribe, who was fluent in both his language as well as Bangla, the language spoken by over 98.5% of the population of Bangladesh.
It was observed that six species of Menispermaceae family plants belonging to three genera were used by the Kavirajes interviewed in the present survey. The results are shown in Table 1. Besides whole plant, various plant parts were also used by the Kavirajes, which included leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and bark. It was observed that a single plant part or a combination of plant parts may be used for treatment of any given ailment. Usually the ailments treated differed between use of a single plant part and a combination of parts from the same plant. For instance, the leaf of Stephania japonica was used to treat ailments like cardiovascular disorders, diarrhea in children, and edema, while a combination of leaf and flower of the same plant was used for treatment of bone fracture or debility. The flowers were used alone for purification of blood and for ovarian problems. On the other hand, a single plant part as well as a combination of plant parts was sometimes be used to treat similar ailments. For instance, leaves or a combination of leaves and roots of Stephania japonica were used to treat fever, diarrhea, or urinary problems.
It appears that the Menispermaceae family plants were used in general to treat diseases arising out from bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. Examples of such infections are sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis), urinary tract infections, tuberculosis, fever, coughs, diarrhea, fungal infections of the skin and helminthiasis. Three plant species belonging to the Menispermaceae family were used for treatment of malaria, suggesting that this family may be a potential source for anti-malarial drugs. Two plants belonging to the Tinospora genus were used to treat diabetes.
Some formulations or mode of treatment used by the Kaviarjes are detailed in Table 2. It is to be noted that the mode of use of a given plant to treat any particular ailment differed among the Kavirajes from different areas. Leaf juice from Stephania japonica was administered orally to treat fever by the Kavirajes of Begumganj in Noakhali district. On the other hand, the traditional medicinal practitioners of the Tripura tribe in Khagrachari district used water in which leaves and stems of the same plant were boiled for treatment of fever by bathing patients in the boiled and the then cooled water. The Garo tribe residing in Ghatail and Madhupur in Tangail district administered the whole plant orally for treatment of fever. It was further observed that Menispermaceae plants may be combined with other plants for treatment of ailments. The Garo tribe residing in Sherpur district used the young leaves and stems of Clerodendrum viscosum with stems of Tinospora cordifolia for treatment of fever, muscle pain, joint ache, and gastrointestinal discomfort. It is also interesting that the same formulation was used by the Garo tribe to treat the above-mentioned ailments, which are quite diverse by nature in terms of symptoms and causative factors. Using the same formulation for treatment of diverse ailments was also noted in other places. For instance, the Kavirajes of South Sahapur, Noakhali district used a mixture of Santalum album, Tinospora sinensis, and Adenanthera pavonina for treatment of tuberculosis, debility (weakness), as well as burning sensations during urination. In all three of the above cases, the same regimen for treatment was followed in that the mixture of the three plant parts were administered orally twice daily for 1-3 months.
A perusal of the scientific literature showed that at least some of the uses of medicinal plants by Kavirajes have been validated through scientific studies. The results are summarized in Table 3. It appears from the scientific findings thus far that the Tinospora genus may be a useful source of phytochemicals for treatment of diabetes. Diabetes is a debilitating disease affecting a considerable portion of the world's population and which cannot be cured by conventional allopathic treatments. From that view point, any new source of lead compounds for treatment of this disease can be of major importance. It is also to be noted from Table 3, that two Menispermaceae plants used in Bangladesh for traditional treatment of malaria have been validated by scientific findings. Other notable findings are that the Menispermaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can be of interest in treatment of rheumatism, hepatic disorders, and cardiovascular disorders, all of which can represent major scientific advances if further studies lead to discovery of effective phytochemicals against the above-mentioned ailments.
Traditional medicinal knowledge is fast disappearing because of the non-interest shown by modern medicinal practitioners. Yet this knowledge can be useful in discovery of newer and more effective drugs because this knowledge of treatment with medicinal plants has been tested over the centuries. At the same time, it is of prime importance to immediately start conservation efforts of these medicinal plants, for due to rapid increases in human habitat, the plants are disappearing from the wild and it is becoming more difficult to collect them. Science will suffer an irreversible loss if these plants become extinct due to neglect.
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(1) Rownak Jahan, (2) Mst. Afsana Khatun, (1) Nusratun Nahar, (1) Farhana Israt Jahan, (1) Anita Rani Chowdhury, (1) Aynun Nahar, (1) Syeda Seraj, (1) Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, (1) Zubaida Khatun, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah
(1) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
(2) Dept. of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, Mayang Plaza, Block A, No 1, Jalan SS 26/2, Taman Mayang Jaya, 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh E-mail: email@example.com Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1; Plant species belonging to the Menispermaceae family used in folk medicines of Bangladesh. Botanical name Local name(s) Part(s) used Cocculus hirsutus L. Sundal shona, Dhui 1. Whole plant Diels synonym lota (Bangla). Menispermum hirsutum 2. Leaf, stem (in combination) Stephania glabra Muchi lota (Bangla). 1. Leaf Miers synonym Stephania rotunda Hook. f. & Thoms. Stephania japonica Aknodi, Akonadi, 1. Whole plant (Thunb.) Miers Akondi, Fuit pata, synonym Menispermum Taka-muti, Makondi, 2. Leaf japonicum Thunb. Moshi lota, Moochni pata, Datache, 3. Stem Mucchani, Dual, Modi-ani, Nimukha, 4. Meristem Phot pata, Dhoi pata, Foter pata, 5. Root Dudh-raaz pata, Doi pata, Pitha pata 6. Flower gach (Bangla); Toanak (Chak tribe); 7. Leaf, flower Muicchani lota (combination) (Chakma and Tonchonga tribes); 8. Leaf, root Naimara, Fotik (combination) bifang, Akanadi, Prachina, 9. Leaf, stem Pathika (Garo (combination) tribe); Toak-nueh- pang 10. Leaf, root, bark (Marma tribe); (combination) Karendha-mannhe (Santal tribe); Muich-chali lota, Dufai-u-chena (Tripura tribe). Tinospora cordifolia Guloncho lota, 1. Whole plant (Willd.) Hook.f. & Guloncho, Gronchi Thoms. Synonym lota (Bangla); 2. Stem Tinospora glabra Gulnoi, Guloncho, (Burm f.) Merr., Poddo guloncho, 3. Shoot tip Menispermum Guruchi, cordifolium Willd., Samorjofu 4. Root Cocculus cordifolius (Garo tribe); DC, Menispermum Teel lota gach, 5. Leaf, root glabrum Brum.f. Dusha shandari (combination) Heru-awar (Santal (Tripura tribe). tribe); 6. Leaf, stem (combination) Tinospora crispa Ghol-loai, Guloncho 1. Whole plant (L.) Hook.f. & -bun, Poddo Thoms. Synonym golanchi, Poddo 2. Stem Menispermum crispum khurchi, Golonchi, L., Tinospora Bashi-shondori, Aam- 3. Leaf, stem rumphii Boerl. guloncho (Bangla). (combination) Tinospora sinensis Guloncho (Bangla). 1. Stem (Lour.) Merrill synonym Campylus sinensis Lour., Tinospora malabarica (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson Botanical name Ailment(s) treated Cocculus hirsutus L. 1. Gonorrhea, eczema, malaria. Diels synonym Menispermum hirsutum 2. Sedative, low sperm count. Stephania glabra 1. Fungal infections of the Miers synonym skin. Stephania rotunda Hook. f. & Thoms. Stephania japonica 1. Edema, headache, diabetes, (Thunb.) Miers infectious diseases, eczema, synonym Menispermum acne, sprain, dysentery, japonicum Thunb. sexual weakness, to increase sperm, vomiting, fever, burning sensations in the body, gynecological problems, piles, cough, bloating, leprosy, helminthiasis, cardiovascular disorders, poisoning, ward off evil spirits (magic). 2. Cardiovascular disorders, diarrhea in children, edema, whitish discharge during urination, burning during urination, diarrhea caused by excessive outside temperature, abscess, pain, helminthiasis, skin diseases, fever, spermatorrhea. 3. Arthritis, joint displacement, bone fracture, indigestion, presence of mucus in stool, leucorrhea, fatigue in hand or leg, fever. 4. Debility, excessive milk in nursing mother's breasts. 5. Coughs, throat pain (adults), colic, ear lesions (children), to ease delivery. 6. Blood purifier, problems related to ovary. 7. Bone fracture, debility. 8. Fever, diarrhea, urinary problems. 9. Fever in small children, jaundice. 10. Fever, diarrhea, cholera, acidity, difficulties in delivery during pregnancy. Tinospora cordifolia 1. Malaria, liver diseases, (Willd.) Hook.f. & tuberculosis, gout, asthma, Thoms. Synonym febricity, measles, burning Tinospora glabra sensations in body, coughs, (Burm f.) Merr., mucus, fever, helminthiasis Menispermum constipation, stomach ache, cordifolium Willd., leucorrhea, to increase thirst Cocculus cordifolius (i.e. to induce drinking), DC, Menispermum rheumatism, piles, respiratory glabrum Brum.f. problems, cardiovascular Heru-awar (Santal disorders, infrequent tribe); urination, bloating, enlarged spleen, skin infections, swelling of legs and hands, hypertension, diabetes, snake bite, pain, urinary tract disorders. 2. Frequent fever, muscle pain, joint ache, gastrointestinal discomfort, helminthiasis, rheumatism, chicken pox. 3. Hepatic disorders, diabetes, high fevers. 4. Malaria. 5. Dripping of saliva from mouth, loss of movement of tongue. 6. Rheumatism, fever, fever with mucus, gastric troubles, leucorrhea, pain during urination, edema. Tinospora crispa 1. Tetanus, leprosy, (L.) Hook.f. & diabetes, malaria, Thoms. Synonym jaundice, syphilis, Menispermum crispum sprain, eczema, L., Tinospora sedative, debility, rumphii Boerl. pain, loss of appetite, cold, fever. 2. Body ache, rheumatic pain, jaundice. 3. Pyrexia (fever of unknown origin). Tinospora sinensis 1. Tuberculosis, debility, (Lour.) Merrill burning sensations during synonym Campylus urination. sinensis Lour., Tinospora malabarica (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson Note that Bangla is the language spoken by more than 98.5% inhabitants of Bangladesh; Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Santal, Tonchonga and Tripura tribes are some of the tribal people of Bangladesh and have their own distinctive languages. The Garo tribe inhabits the north-central districts of Bangladesh; the Santal tribe inhabits the northern most districts of Bangladesh, while the Chak, Chakma, Marma, Tonchonga and the Tripura tribes inhabit the Chittagong Hill Tracts forest region in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh. The various tribes of Bangladesh account for about 1.5% of the total population of the country. Table 2: Some tribal-and area-based formulations of Menispermaceae family medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. Botanical name Plant Ailment(s) parts used treated Stephania Leaf Edema japonica Stephania Leaf, flower Bone fractures, japonica debility Stephania Whole plant Dysentery japonica Stephania Leaf, root Fever, japonica diarrhea, urinary diseases Stephania Leaf, stem Fever in small japonica children Stephania Leaf Diarrhea in japonica children Stephania Whole plant To increase japonica sperm, coughs, fever, vomiting, helminthiasis Stephania Root To ease japonica delivery (when childbirth is delayed even though the fetus is in the correct position) Stephania Leaf, stem Jaundice, japonica abscess Tinospora Stem Frequent fever, cordifolia muscle pain, joint ache, gastrointestinal discomfort Tinospora Stem Helminthiasis, cordifolia rheumatism, chicken pox Tinospora Leaf, root Dripping of cordifolia saliva from mouth, loss of movement of tongue Tinospora Leaf, stem Fever, fever cordifolia with mucus, gastric troubles, leucorrhea Tinospora Stem Stomach ache cordifolia Tinospora Stem Body ache, crispa rheumatism Tinospora Stem Tuberculosis, sinensis debility, burning sensations during urination Botanical name Formulations Area of use Stephania Paste of leaf is Chak tribe, japonica prepared. One Khagrachari teaspoonful of paste district. is mixed with one teaspoonful of water in which rice has been washed and the mixture administered orally to patients. Stephania Leaves are tied Bhelamoyee, japonica around the fractured Dinajpur district. area till cure. Leaves or flowers are immersed in warm water and taken for 7 days as treatment for debility (weakness). Stephania 1 teaspoonful of Matubhuiyan, japonica juice obtained from Feni district. crushed whole plant is taken twice daily for 2-4 weeks. Stephania Leaf juice is taken Begumganj, japonica every morning for 1 Noakhali district. week in case of fever. A combination of leaf and root juice is taken orally every day for fever, diarrhea or urinary diseases till cure. Stephania Leaves and stems are Tripura tribe, japonica boiled in water. The Khagrachari district. children are bathed in the water when it has become cold. This is done once daily for several days. Stephania Juice from crushed Tripura tribe, japonica leaves is Mirsharai, administered daily Chittagong district. for 2-3 days. Stephania 4 annas (local Garo tribe, Ghatail japonica measure, 1 anna = and Madhupur, 62.5g) of whole Tangail district. plant are administered orally till cure. Stephania Root paste is Mahasthangarh, japonica applied to the Bogra district. vaginal area. Stephania The leaves with stem Bagha, Rajshahi japonica are made into a district. garland with at least seven twirls. The garland is then worn around the wrist. The person that has put the garland around the patient's wrist must not touch the patient for 7 days (remedy for jaundice). For abscess, leaf juice is applied to abscess. Tinospora Young leaves and Garo tribe, cordifolia stems of Sherpur district. Clerodendrum viscosum along with stems of Tinospora cordifolia are squeezed to obtain juice. 75 ml of juice is administered orally once daily for 7 days. Tinospora The stem is cut into Garo tribe, cordifolia pieces, soaked in Madhupur, Tangail water overnight, and district the water administered orally the following morning for helminthiasis or rheumatism. For rheumatism the dose is 1 chatak (local measure = 62.5g). The juice of the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (1/2 poa, local measure = 125g) is mixed with ,4 poa of juice from leaves of Momordica charantia and is administered orally thrice daily as treatment for chicken pox. Tinospora The leaves and roots Santal tribe, cordifolia are made into a Rajshahi district. paste with fruits of Terminalia chebula, fruits of Terminalia belerica, wood fron Santalum album, leaves of Abrus precatorius, and leaves of Andrographis paniculata, dried, powdered and made into pills the size of beans (seeds of Dolichos lablab). The pills are taken thrice daily for 7 days. Tinospora Two tolas (local Garo tribe, Ghatail cordifolia measure, 1 tola = and Madhupur, 11.4 g) each of the Tangail district. (leaves and stems) of the plant and roots of Piper longum is boiled in % ser (local measure, 1 ser = 500 g) water till the volume is reduced by half. The water is then taken orally for fevers. The leaves and stems of the plant are mixed with Euphorbia ingens stems and Piper longum leaves and made into a paste. The paste is administered orally for fevers with mucus, gastric troubles and for leucorrhea. Tinospora 6 teaspoonfuls of Shalikha, Magura cordifolia juice obtained from district. crushed vines of the plant are mixed with slices of Zingiber officinale rhizomes and administered orally as treatment for stomach ache. Tinospora Juice obtained from Bhelamoyee, crispa crushed stem is Dinajpur district. massaged onto affected areas. Tinospora 2 tolas of Santalum South Sahapur, sinensis album wood is mixed Noakhali district. with 2 tolas of stems of Tinospora sinensis and 2 tolas of bark of Adenanthera pavonina. 4 teaspoonfuls of the mixture is taken twice daily for 1-3 months. Note that although the Kavirajes had no hesitation in divulging the names of the plants, plant parts used, and ailments treated, in general they did not want dissemination of specific formulations or description of how the whole plant or plant part was prepared and used, on the ground that it would be harmful to their commercial interests. The information given in the above Table was obtained from Kavirajes who agreed to this information being disseminated. Table 3: Scientific validations of some traditional uses of Menispermaceae family plants in Bangladesh Plant Traditional Relevant scientific findings with use References Cocculus Malaria Repellent, ovicidal, and hirsutus oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhyncus (Elango, G., 2010); oviposition- deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Tinospora Rheumatism Anopheles subpictus (Elango, G., cordifolia 2009; Elango, G., 2009). Beneficial effects of b-ecdysone isolated from the plant on joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats (Kapur, P., 2010) suggesting that it may be of value in treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis; anti- osteoporotic potential of ethanolic stem extract demonstrated in female Sprague- Dawley rats (Kapur, P., 2008). Tinospora Diabetes Hypoglycemic effect observed with cordifolia aqueous, alcoholic, and chloroform extracts of leaves in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits (Wadood, N., 1992); hypolipidemic action of roots in alloxan-diabetic rats (Stanely Mainzen Prince, P., 1999); anti- oxidant activity of roots in experimental diabetes (Prince, P.S. and V.P. Menon, 1999); hypoglycemic action of roots in alloxan-diabetic rats (Stanely, P., 2000); anti-oxidant action of root extract in alloxan diabetic rats (Stanely Mainzen Prince, P. and V.P. Menon, 2001); hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action of root extract in alloxan-diabetic rats (Stanely Mainzen Prince, P. and V.P. Menon, 2003); restoration of anti-oxidant defense by root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rat liver and kidney (Prince, P.S., 2004); restoration of anti-oxidants by root extract in heart and brain of alloxan- induced diabetic Wistar rats (Prince, P.S., N. Kamalakkannan, 2004); hypoglycemic activity observed with a compound (saponarin) -an a-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant (Sengupta, S., 2008); preventive effect of stem extract against high fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats (Reddy, S.S., 2009); a- glucosidase inhibition by stem extract (Chougale, A.D., 2009); beneficiary effect of stem extract against high fructose diet-induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats (Reddy, S.S., 2009). Tinospora Hepatic Chemopreventive ability of an cordifolia disorders epoxy clerodane diterpene isolated from the plant against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (Dhanasekaran, M., 2009); protective effect of the plant against anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid-, rifampicin-, and pyrazinamide-induced hepatic damage in rats (Panchabhai, T.S., 2008); modulation of hepatoprotective and immunostimulatory functions in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated mature albino rats (Bishayi, B., 2002). Tinospora Coughs, mucus Protective action of plant extract against allergic rhinitis (Badar, V.A., 2005). Tinospora Cardiovascular Cardioprotective Activity Of cordifolia disorders Alcoholic Extract Of The plant In Diabetes ischemia-reperfusion Induced Myocardial Infarction In Rats (Rao, P.R., 2005). Tinospora Anti-oxidant constituents cordifolia identified in extract of the Tinospora plant, which can be of crispa potentially beneficial effects in diabetes (Cavin, A., 1998); anti- hyperglycemic and insulinotropic effect (Noor, H. and S.J. Ashcroft, 1998); hypoglycemic effect in moderately diabetic rats with concomitant improvement in insulinaemia (Noor, H. and S.J. Ashcroft, 1989); induction by extract of dosage-dependent stimulation and potentiation of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, respectively in rat islets and HIT-T15 B cells (Noor, H., 1989). Tinospora Malaria In vitro blood schizonticidal crispa activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (W2) (Bertani, S., 2005); anti-malarial activity observed with chloroform extract of the plant (Najib Nik A., 1999). Tinospora Sprain Inhibition by stem extract of crispa carragenin-induced foot pad edema in rats (Higashino, H., 1992).
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Jahan, Rownak; Khatun, Afsana; Nahar, Nusratun; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Anita Rani; Nahar,|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2010|
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