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Use of Menispermaceae family plants in folk medicine of Bangladesh.

Introduction

The Menispermaceae family of flowering plants is a medium-sized family comprising of 70 genera and about 420 species. Most species in this family are climbing plants and found in the tropics. Although the number of species in this family is not large compared to some other plant families, a number of plants belonging to this family are important plants, being used in the traditional medicines of a number of countries. Several plants have also been scientifically recognized as to containing phytochemical constituents with important pharmacological activities. The following paragraphs shall cite a few examples of scientific findings on Menispermaceae family plants.

Three acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (which have recently gained importance as potential drugs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease) have been isolated from tubers of a Thai medicinal plant belonging to the Menispermaceae family, namely Stephania venosa. They have been identified as quaternary protoberberine alkaloids--stepharanine, cyclanoline, and N-methyl stepholidine (Ingkaninan, K., 2006). Anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-plasmodial, and cytotoxic activities have been reported for the root bark alkaloidal extract of the plant Albertisia villosa and an isolated bisbenzylisoquinoline--cycleanine, which validates its traditional use in Congolese medicine for treatment of malaria and other infectious diseases (Lohombo-Ekomba, M.L., 2004). The methanolic leaf extract of Cissampelos mucronata reportedly demonstrated protective action against indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats (Nwafor, S.V. and P.A. Akah, 2003). Antinociceptive and anti-arthritic activity has been reported of Cissampelos pareira roots (Amresh, G., 2007). Aporphine alkaloids isolated from aerial parts of Cissampelos capensis have been shown to demonstrate anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Ayers, S., 2007). The ethyl acetate soluble extract of stems of Macrococculus pomiferus was found to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (Su, B.N., 2004). The alcoholic stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum has been reported to possess anti-diabetic activity when studied in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats (Shirwaikar, A., 2005).

Phenolic alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum has been shown to demonstrate a protective effect against myocardial cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits (Wang, F., 2005). Two alkaloids (dehydroroemerine and cepharanthine) isolated from Stephania rotunda, as well as a dichloromethane extract of the plant showed inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which validates to some extent the plant's traditional use against fever (Chea, A., 2007). Leaves and rhizome methanol extracts of Albertisia delagoensis reportedly also tested positive against Plasmodium falciparum (De Wet, H., 2007). Anti-microbial components active against Staphylococcus aureus have been reported to be present in Tinospora capillipes (Yu, Y., 2007). A 70% methanolic leaf extract of Cyclea peltata has been shown to protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and oxidative damages (Vijayan, F.P., 2007). Dauricumidine, an alkaloid isolated from Hypserpa nitida reportedly showed promising anti-viral activity in hepatitis B virus-transfected Hep G2.2.15 cell line (Cheng, P., 2007). Anti-plasmodial and anti-trypanosomal activities have been reported for extracts of various parts of the plant Triclisia sacleuxii (Murebwayire, S., 2008). The hasubanane-type alkaloids, periglaucines A-D, isolated from the plant Pericampylus glaucus has been shown to inhibit hepatitis B virus surface antigen secretion in Hep G2.2.15 cells. Two other alkaloids isolated from the same plant, namely norruffscine and (-)-8-oxotetrahydropalmatine, exhibited inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1 (Yan, M.H., 2008). Furanoditerpenoids, isolated from the stems of Fibraurea tinctoria reportedly showed anti-inflammatory activity when tested against carrageenan-induced mice paw edema (Su, C.R., 2008). Prevention and regression of liver fibrosis (for which there is currently no safe or effective treatment) induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats has been observed with the plant, Stephania tetrandra (Chor, J.S., 2009). The leaf extract of Cissampelos sympodialis has been observed as a possible novel and safe treatment for psoriasis (Feily, A. and M.R. Namazi, 2009).

Taken together, it can be seen that a number of Menispermaceae family plants have been observed to possess pharmacological components of clinical significance. Many of the scientific findings have been conducted on the basis of the traditional uses of the Menispermaceae family plants. Bangladesh has a rich history of folk medicine administered by traditional medicinal practitioners, known as Kavirajes, who rely mostly on plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. It was the objective of the present study to conduct a randomized survey in various regions and among various tribes of Bangladesh to collect data on the use of Menispermaceae family plants in the folk medicinal system of the country.

Materials and Methods

2.1 Survey areas and tribes

Out of the 64 districts comprising Bangladesh 24 districts were included in the present survey. These districts were Bagerhat, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chittagong, Comilla, Dinajpur, Feni, Habiganj, Joypurhat, Khagrachari, Magura, Maulvibazar, Naogaon, Narsinghdi, Natore, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Patuakhali, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sherpur, Sylhet, and Tangail. The various tribes that were included in the present survey were the Chak, Chakmas, Garos, Marmas, Santals, Tonchongas and the Tripuras. Surveys were carried out amongst the Kavirajes of tribal and rural areas, since the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh as well as the tribal population relies on Kavirajes for their primary health-care needs.

2.2. Data collection and mode of survey

A total of 111 Kavirajes were interviewed in the present survey. The criterion for selection was the Kaviraje's expertise in treatment of diseases as acknowledged by the local people. Following informed consent obtained from the Kavirajes, interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The basic method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995), known as the guided field-walk method. In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on field walks through the areas from where he collects the medicinal plants, points out the plants to the interviewers, and describes the plant parts used, formulations, ailments treated, and dosages. All information was double-checked with the Kavirajes in later evening sessions. Plant specimens were collected, dried on the field and brought back to Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification. While conducting interviews of the tribal Kavirajes (also known as ojhas among the Chaks and the Chakmas), interviews were conducted in the tribal language with the help of an interpreter. Usually, the interpreter happened to be the Headman of the tribe, who was fluent in both his language as well as Bangla, the language spoken by over 98.5% of the population of Bangladesh.

3. Results

It was observed that six species of Menispermaceae family plants belonging to three genera were used by the Kavirajes interviewed in the present survey. The results are shown in Table 1. Besides whole plant, various plant parts were also used by the Kavirajes, which included leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and bark. It was observed that a single plant part or a combination of plant parts may be used for treatment of any given ailment. Usually the ailments treated differed between use of a single plant part and a combination of parts from the same plant. For instance, the leaf of Stephania japonica was used to treat ailments like cardiovascular disorders, diarrhea in children, and edema, while a combination of leaf and flower of the same plant was used for treatment of bone fracture or debility. The flowers were used alone for purification of blood and for ovarian problems. On the other hand, a single plant part as well as a combination of plant parts was sometimes be used to treat similar ailments. For instance, leaves or a combination of leaves and roots of Stephania japonica were used to treat fever, diarrhea, or urinary problems.

It appears that the Menispermaceae family plants were used in general to treat diseases arising out from bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. Examples of such infections are sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis), urinary tract infections, tuberculosis, fever, coughs, diarrhea, fungal infections of the skin and helminthiasis. Three plant species belonging to the Menispermaceae family were used for treatment of malaria, suggesting that this family may be a potential source for anti-malarial drugs. Two plants belonging to the Tinospora genus were used to treat diabetes.

Some formulations or mode of treatment used by the Kaviarjes are detailed in Table 2. It is to be noted that the mode of use of a given plant to treat any particular ailment differed among the Kavirajes from different areas. Leaf juice from Stephania japonica was administered orally to treat fever by the Kavirajes of Begumganj in Noakhali district. On the other hand, the traditional medicinal practitioners of the Tripura tribe in Khagrachari district used water in which leaves and stems of the same plant were boiled for treatment of fever by bathing patients in the boiled and the then cooled water. The Garo tribe residing in Ghatail and Madhupur in Tangail district administered the whole plant orally for treatment of fever. It was further observed that Menispermaceae plants may be combined with other plants for treatment of ailments. The Garo tribe residing in Sherpur district used the young leaves and stems of Clerodendrum viscosum with stems of Tinospora cordifolia for treatment of fever, muscle pain, joint ache, and gastrointestinal discomfort. It is also interesting that the same formulation was used by the Garo tribe to treat the above-mentioned ailments, which are quite diverse by nature in terms of symptoms and causative factors. Using the same formulation for treatment of diverse ailments was also noted in other places. For instance, the Kavirajes of South Sahapur, Noakhali district used a mixture of Santalum album, Tinospora sinensis, and Adenanthera pavonina for treatment of tuberculosis, debility (weakness), as well as burning sensations during urination. In all three of the above cases, the same regimen for treatment was followed in that the mixture of the three plant parts were administered orally twice daily for 1-3 months.

4. Discussion

A perusal of the scientific literature showed that at least some of the uses of medicinal plants by Kavirajes have been validated through scientific studies. The results are summarized in Table 3. It appears from the scientific findings thus far that the Tinospora genus may be a useful source of phytochemicals for treatment of diabetes. Diabetes is a debilitating disease affecting a considerable portion of the world's population and which cannot be cured by conventional allopathic treatments. From that view point, any new source of lead compounds for treatment of this disease can be of major importance. It is also to be noted from Table 3, that two Menispermaceae plants used in Bangladesh for traditional treatment of malaria have been validated by scientific findings. Other notable findings are that the Menispermaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can be of interest in treatment of rheumatism, hepatic disorders, and cardiovascular disorders, all of which can represent major scientific advances if further studies lead to discovery of effective phytochemicals against the above-mentioned ailments.

Traditional medicinal knowledge is fast disappearing because of the non-interest shown by modern medicinal practitioners. Yet this knowledge can be useful in discovery of newer and more effective drugs because this knowledge of treatment with medicinal plants has been tested over the centuries. At the same time, it is of prime importance to immediately start conservation efforts of these medicinal plants, for due to rapid increases in human habitat, the plants are disappearing from the wild and it is becoming more difficult to collect them. Science will suffer an irreversible loss if these plants become extinct due to neglect.

References

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(1) Rownak Jahan, (2) Mst. Afsana Khatun, (1) Nusratun Nahar, (1) Farhana Israt Jahan, (1) Anita Rani Chowdhury, (1) Aynun Nahar, (1) Syeda Seraj, (1) Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, (1) Zubaida Khatun, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

(2) Dept. of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, Mayang Plaza, Block A, No 1, Jalan SS 26/2, Taman Mayang Jaya, 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1; Plant species belonging to the Menispermaceae
family used in folk medicines of Bangladesh.

Botanical name         Local name(s)          Part(s) used

Cocculus hirsutus L.   Sundal shona, Dhui     1. Whole plant
Diels synonym          lota (Bangla).
Menispermum hirsutum                          2. Leaf, stem (in
                                              combination)

Stephania glabra       Muchi lota (Bangla).   1. Leaf
Miers synonym
Stephania rotunda
Hook. f. & Thoms.

Stephania japonica     Aknodi, Akonadi,       1. Whole plant
(Thunb.) Miers         Akondi, Fuit pata,
synonym Menispermum    Taka-muti, Makondi,    2. Leaf
japonicum Thunb.       Moshi lota, Moochni
                       pata, Datache,         3. Stem
                       Mucchani, Dual,
                       Modi-ani, Nimukha,     4. Meristem
                       Phot pata, Dhoi
                       pata, Foter pata,      5. Root
                       Dudh-raaz pata, Doi
                       pata, Pitha pata       6. Flower
                       gach (Bangla);
                       Toanak (Chak tribe);   7. Leaf, flower
                       Muicchani lota         (combination)
                       (Chakma and
                       Tonchonga tribes);     8. Leaf, root
                       Naimara, Fotik         (combination)
                       bifang, Akanadi,
                       Prachina,              9. Leaf, stem
                       Pathika (Garo          (combination)
                       tribe); Toak-nueh-
                       pang                   10. Leaf, root, bark
                       (Marma tribe);         (combination)
                       Karendha-mannhe
                       (Santal tribe);
                       Muich-chali lota,
                       Dufai-u-chena
                       (Tripura tribe).

Tinospora cordifolia   Guloncho lota,         1. Whole plant
(Willd.) Hook.f. &     Guloncho, Gronchi
Thoms. Synonym         lota (Bangla);         2. Stem
Tinospora glabra       Gulnoi, Guloncho,
(Burm f.) Merr.,       Poddo guloncho,        3. Shoot tip
Menispermum            Guruchi,
cordifolium Willd.,    Samorjofu              4. Root
Cocculus cordifolius   (Garo tribe);
DC, Menispermum        Teel lota gach,        5. Leaf, root
glabrum Brum.f.        Dusha shandari         (combination)
Heru-awar (Santal      (Tripura tribe).
tribe);                                       6. Leaf, stem
                                              (combination)

Tinospora crispa       Ghol-loai, Guloncho    1. Whole plant
(L.) Hook.f. &         -bun, Poddo
Thoms. Synonym         golanchi, Poddo        2. Stem
Menispermum crispum    khurchi, Golonchi,
L., Tinospora          Bashi-shondori, Aam-   3. Leaf, stem
rumphii Boerl.         guloncho (Bangla).     (combination)

Tinospora sinensis     Guloncho (Bangla).     1. Stem
(Lour.) Merrill
synonym Campylus
sinensis Lour.,
Tinospora malabarica
(Lam.) Hook. f. &
Thomson

Botanical name         Ailment(s) treated

Cocculus hirsutus L.   1. Gonorrhea, eczema, malaria.
Diels synonym
Menispermum hirsutum
                       2. Sedative, low sperm count.

Stephania glabra       1. Fungal infections of the
Miers synonym          skin.
Stephania rotunda
Hook. f. & Thoms.

Stephania japonica     1. Edema, headache, diabetes,
(Thunb.) Miers         infectious diseases, eczema,
synonym Menispermum    acne, sprain, dysentery,
japonicum Thunb.       sexual weakness, to increase
                       sperm, vomiting, fever,
                       burning sensations in the
                       body, gynecological problems,
                       piles, cough, bloating,
                       leprosy, helminthiasis,
                       cardiovascular disorders,
                       poisoning, ward off evil
                       spirits (magic).

                       2. Cardiovascular disorders,
                       diarrhea in children, edema,
                       whitish discharge during
                       urination, burning during
                       urination, diarrhea caused by
                       excessive outside temperature,
                       abscess, pain, helminthiasis,
                       skin diseases, fever,
                       spermatorrhea.

                       3. Arthritis, joint
                       displacement, bone fracture,
                       indigestion, presence of mucus
                       in stool, leucorrhea, fatigue
                       in hand or leg, fever.

                       4. Debility, excessive milk in
                       nursing mother's breasts.

                       5. Coughs, throat pain
                       (adults), colic, ear lesions
                       (children), to ease delivery.

                       6. Blood purifier, problems
                       related to ovary.

                       7. Bone fracture, debility.

                       8. Fever, diarrhea, urinary
                       problems.

                       9. Fever in small children,
                       jaundice.

                       10. Fever, diarrhea, cholera,
                       acidity, difficulties in
                       delivery during pregnancy.

Tinospora cordifolia   1. Malaria, liver diseases,
(Willd.) Hook.f. &     tuberculosis, gout, asthma,
Thoms. Synonym         febricity, measles, burning
Tinospora glabra       sensations in body, coughs,
(Burm f.) Merr.,       mucus, fever, helminthiasis
Menispermum            constipation, stomach ache,
cordifolium Willd.,    leucorrhea, to increase thirst
Cocculus cordifolius   (i.e. to induce drinking),
DC, Menispermum        rheumatism, piles, respiratory
glabrum Brum.f.        problems, cardiovascular
Heru-awar (Santal      disorders, infrequent
tribe);                urination, bloating, enlarged
                       spleen, skin infections,
                       swelling of legs and hands,
                       hypertension, diabetes, snake
                       bite, pain, urinary tract
                       disorders.

                       2. Frequent fever, muscle
                       pain, joint ache,
                       gastrointestinal discomfort,
                       helminthiasis, rheumatism,
                       chicken pox.

                       3. Hepatic disorders,
                       diabetes, high fevers.

                       4. Malaria.

                       5. Dripping of saliva from
                       mouth, loss of movement of
                       tongue.

                       6. Rheumatism, fever, fever
                       with mucus, gastric troubles,
                       leucorrhea, pain during
                       urination, edema.

Tinospora crispa       1. Tetanus, leprosy,
(L.) Hook.f. &         diabetes, malaria,
Thoms. Synonym         jaundice, syphilis,
Menispermum crispum    sprain, eczema,
L., Tinospora          sedative, debility,
rumphii Boerl.         pain, loss of
                       appetite, cold,
                       fever.

                       2. Body ache, rheumatic pain,
                       jaundice.

                       3. Pyrexia (fever of unknown
                       origin).

Tinospora sinensis     1. Tuberculosis, debility,
(Lour.) Merrill        burning sensations during
synonym Campylus       urination.
sinensis Lour.,
Tinospora malabarica
(Lam.) Hook. f. &
Thomson

Note that Bangla is the language spoken by more than 98.5%
inhabitants of Bangladesh; Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma,
Santal, Tonchonga and Tripura tribes are some of the tribal
people of Bangladesh and have their own distinctive
languages. The Garo tribe inhabits the north-central
districts of Bangladesh; the Santal tribe inhabits the
northern most districts of Bangladesh, while the Chak,
Chakma, Marma, Tonchonga and the Tripura tribes inhabit the
Chittagong Hill Tracts forest region in the south-eastern
part of Bangladesh. The various tribes of Bangladesh account
for about 1.5% of the total population of the country.

Table 2: Some tribal-and area-based formulations of Menispermaceae
family medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments.

Botanical name   Plant                  Ailment(s)
                 parts used             treated

Stephania        Leaf                   Edema
japonica

Stephania        Leaf, flower           Bone fractures,
japonica                                debility

Stephania        Whole plant            Dysentery
japonica

Stephania        Leaf, root             Fever,
japonica                                diarrhea,
                                        urinary
                                        diseases

Stephania        Leaf, stem             Fever in small
japonica                                children

Stephania        Leaf                   Diarrhea in
japonica                                children

Stephania        Whole plant            To increase
japonica                                sperm, coughs,
                                        fever,
                                        vomiting,
                                        helminthiasis

Stephania        Root                   To ease
japonica                                delivery (when
                                        childbirth is
                                        delayed even
                                        though the
                                        fetus is in the
                                        correct
                                        position)

Stephania        Leaf, stem             Jaundice,
japonica                                abscess

Tinospora        Stem                   Frequent fever,
cordifolia                              muscle pain,
                                        joint ache,
                                        gastrointestinal
                                        discomfort

Tinospora        Stem                   Helminthiasis,
cordifolia                              rheumatism,
                                        chicken pox

Tinospora        Leaf, root             Dripping of
cordifolia                              saliva from
                                        mouth, loss of
                                        movement of
                                        tongue

Tinospora        Leaf, stem             Fever, fever
cordifolia                              with mucus,
                                        gastric
                                        troubles,
                                        leucorrhea

Tinospora        Stem                   Stomach ache
cordifolia

Tinospora        Stem                   Body ache,
crispa                                  rheumatism

Tinospora        Stem                   Tuberculosis,
sinensis                                debility,
                                        burning
                                        sensations
                                        during
                                        urination

Botanical name   Formulations           Area of use

Stephania        Paste of leaf is       Chak tribe,
japonica         prepared. One          Khagrachari
                 teaspoonful of paste   district.
                 is mixed with one
                 teaspoonful of water
                 in which rice has
                 been washed and the
                 mixture administered
                 orally to patients.

Stephania        Leaves are tied        Bhelamoyee,
japonica         around the fractured   Dinajpur district.
                 area till cure.
                 Leaves or flowers
                 are immersed in warm
                 water and taken for
                 7 days as treatment
                 for debility
                 (weakness).

Stephania        1 teaspoonful of       Matubhuiyan,
japonica         juice obtained from    Feni district.
                 crushed whole plant
                 is taken twice daily
                 for 2-4 weeks.

Stephania        Leaf juice is taken    Begumganj,
japonica         every morning for 1    Noakhali district.
                 week in case of
                 fever. A combination
                 of leaf and root
                 juice is taken
                 orally every day for
                 fever, diarrhea or
                 urinary diseases
                 till cure.

Stephania        Leaves and stems are   Tripura tribe,
japonica         boiled in water. The   Khagrachari district.
                 children are bathed
                 in the water when it
                 has become cold.
                 This is done once
                 daily for several
                 days.

Stephania        Juice from crushed     Tripura tribe,
japonica         leaves is              Mirsharai,
                 administered daily     Chittagong district.
                 for 2-3 days.

Stephania        4 annas (local         Garo tribe, Ghatail
japonica         measure, 1 anna =      and Madhupur,
                 62.5g) of whole        Tangail district.
                 plant are
                 administered orally
                 till cure.

Stephania        Root paste is          Mahasthangarh,
japonica         applied to the         Bogra district.
                 vaginal area.

Stephania        The leaves with stem   Bagha, Rajshahi
japonica         are made into a        district.
                 garland with at
                 least seven twirls.
                 The garland is then
                 worn around the
                 wrist. The person
                 that has put the
                 garland around the
                 patient's wrist must
                 not touch the
                 patient for 7 days
                 (remedy for
                 jaundice). For
                 abscess, leaf juice
                 is applied to
                 abscess.

Tinospora        Young leaves and       Garo tribe,
cordifolia       stems of               Sherpur district.
                 Clerodendrum
                 viscosum along with
                 stems of Tinospora
                 cordifolia are
                 squeezed to obtain
                 juice. 75 ml of
                 juice is
                 administered orally
                 once daily for 7
                 days.

Tinospora        The stem is cut into   Garo tribe,
cordifolia       pieces, soaked in      Madhupur, Tangail
                 water overnight, and   district
                 the water
                 administered orally
                 the following
                 morning for
                 helminthiasis or
                 rheumatism. For
                 rheumatism the dose
                 is 1 chatak (local
                 measure = 62.5g).
                 The juice of the
                 stem of Tinospora
                 cordifolia (1/2 poa,
                 local measure =
                 125g) is mixed with
                 ,4 poa of juice from
                 leaves of Momordica
                 charantia and is
                 administered orally
                 thrice daily as
                 treatment for
                 chicken pox.

Tinospora        The leaves and roots   Santal tribe,
cordifolia       are made into a        Rajshahi district.
                 paste with fruits of
                 Terminalia chebula,
                 fruits of Terminalia
                 belerica, wood fron
                 Santalum album,
                 leaves of Abrus
                 precatorius, and
                 leaves of
                 Andrographis
                 paniculata, dried,
                 powdered and made
                 into pills the size
                 of beans (seeds of
                 Dolichos lablab).
                 The pills are taken
                 thrice daily for 7
                 days.

Tinospora        Two tolas (local       Garo tribe, Ghatail
cordifolia       measure, 1 tola =      and Madhupur,
                 11.4 g) each of the    Tangail district.
                 (leaves and stems)
                 of the plant and
                 roots of Piper
                 longum is boiled in
                 % ser (local
                 measure, 1 ser = 500
                 g) water till the
                 volume is reduced by
                 half. The water is
                 then taken orally
                 for fevers. The
                 leaves and stems of
                 the plant are mixed
                 with Euphorbia
                 ingens stems and
                 Piper longum leaves
                 and made into a
                 paste. The paste is
                 administered orally
                 for fevers with
                 mucus, gastric
                 troubles and for
                 leucorrhea.

Tinospora        6 teaspoonfuls of      Shalikha, Magura
cordifolia       juice obtained from    district.
                 crushed vines of the
                 plant are mixed with
                 slices of Zingiber
                 officinale rhizomes
                 and administered
                 orally as treatment
                 for stomach ache.

Tinospora        Juice obtained from    Bhelamoyee,
crispa           crushed stem is        Dinajpur district.
                 massaged onto
                 affected areas.

Tinospora        2 tolas of Santalum    South Sahapur,
sinensis         album wood is mixed    Noakhali district.
                 with 2 tolas of
                 stems of Tinospora
                 sinensis and 2 tolas
                 of bark of
                 Adenanthera
                 pavonina. 4
                 teaspoonfuls of the
                 mixture is taken
                 twice daily for 1-3
                 months.

Note that although the Kavirajes had no hesitation in
divulging the names of the plants, plant parts used, and
ailments treated, in general they did not want dissemination
of specific formulations or description of how the whole
plant or plant part was prepared and used, on the ground
that it would be harmful to their commercial interests. The
information given in the above Table was obtained from
Kavirajes who agreed to this information being disseminated.

Table 3: Scientific validations of some traditional uses of
Menispermaceae family plants in Bangladesh

Plant             Traditional       Relevant scientific findings with
                  use               References

Cocculus          Malaria           Repellent, ovicidal, and
hirsutus                            oviposition-deterrent activities
                                    against Culex tritaeniorhyncus
                                    (Elango, G., 2010); oviposition-
                                    deterrent, ovicidal, and
                                    repellent activities against

Tinospora         Rheumatism        Anopheles subpictus (Elango, G.,
cordifolia                          2009; Elango, G., 2009).
                                    Beneficial effects of b-ecdysone
                                    isolated from the plant on joint,
                                    epiphyseal cartilage tissue and
                                    trabecular bone in ovariectomized
                                    rats (Kapur, P., 2010) suggesting
                                    that it may be of value in
                                    treatment of osteoporosis and
                                    osteoarthritis; anti-
                                    osteoporotic potential of
                                    ethanolic stem extract
                                    demonstrated in female Sprague-
                                    Dawley rats (Kapur, P., 2008).

Tinospora         Diabetes          Hypoglycemic effect observed with
cordifolia                          aqueous, alcoholic, and
                                    chloroform extracts of leaves in
                                    normal and alloxan-diabetic
                                    rabbits (Wadood, N., 1992);
                                    hypolipidemic action of roots in
                                    alloxan-diabetic rats (Stanely
                                    Mainzen Prince, P., 1999); anti-
                                    oxidant activity of roots in
                                    experimental diabetes (Prince,
                                    P.S. and V.P. Menon, 1999);
                                    hypoglycemic action of roots in
                                    alloxan-diabetic rats (Stanely,
                                    P., 2000); anti-oxidant action of
                                    root extract in alloxan diabetic
                                    rats (Stanely Mainzen Prince, P.
                                    and V.P. Menon, 2001);
                                    hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic
                                    action of root extract in
                                    alloxan-diabetic rats (Stanely
                                    Mainzen Prince, P. and V.P.
                                    Menon, 2003); restoration of
                                    anti-oxidant defense by root
                                    extract in alloxan-induced
                                    diabetic rat liver and kidney
                                    (Prince, P.S., 2004); restoration
                                    of anti-oxidants by root extract
                                    in heart and brain of alloxan-
                                    induced diabetic Wistar rats
                                    (Prince, P.S., N. Kamalakkannan,
                                    2004); hypoglycemic activity
                                    observed with a compound
                                    (saponarin) -an a-glucosidase
                                    inhibitor isolated from the plant
                                    (Sengupta, S., 2008); preventive
                                    effect of stem extract against
                                    high fructose diet-induced
                                    insulin resistance and oxidative
                                    stress in male Wistar rats
                                    (Reddy, S.S., 2009); a-
                                    glucosidase inhibition by stem
                                    extract (Chougale, A.D., 2009);
                                    beneficiary effect of stem
                                    extract against high fructose
                                    diet-induced abnormalities in
                                    carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
                                    in Wistar rats (Reddy, S.S.,
                                    2009).

Tinospora         Hepatic           Chemopreventive ability of an
cordifolia        disorders         epoxy clerodane diterpene
                                    isolated from the plant against
                                    diethylnitrosamine-induced
                                    hepatocellular  carcinoma
                                    (Dhanasekaran,   M., 2009);
                                    protective effect of the plant
                                    against anti-tubercular drugs
                                    isoniazid-, rifampicin-, and
                                    pyrazinamide-induced hepatic
                                    damage in rats (Panchabhai, T.S.,
                                    2008); modulation of
                                    hepatoprotective and
                                    immunostimulatory functions in
                                    carbon tetrachloride intoxicated
                                    mature albino rats (Bishayi, B.,
                                    2002).

Tinospora         Coughs, mucus     Protective action of plant
                                    extract against allergic rhinitis
                                    (Badar, V.A., 2005).

Tinospora         Cardiovascular    Cardioprotective Activity Of
cordifolia        disorders         Alcoholic Extract Of The plant In
                  Diabetes          ischemia-reperfusion Induced
                                    Myocardial Infarction In Rats
                                    (Rao, P.R., 2005).

Tinospora                           Anti-oxidant constituents
cordifolia                          identified in extract of the
Tinospora                           plant, which can be of
crispa                              potentially beneficial effects in
                                    diabetes (Cavin, A., 1998); anti-
                                    hyperglycemic and insulinotropic
                                    effect (Noor, H. and S.J.
                                    Ashcroft, 1998); hypoglycemic
                                    effect in moderately diabetic
                                    rats with concomitant improvement
                                    in insulinaemia (Noor, H. and
                                    S.J. Ashcroft, 1989); induction
                                    by extract of dosage-dependent
                                    stimulation and potentiation of
                                    basal and glucose-stimulated
                                    insulin secretion, respectively
                                    in rat islets and HIT-T15 B cells
                                    (Noor, H., 1989).

Tinospora         Malaria           In vitro blood schizonticidal
crispa                              activity against Plasmodium
                                    falciparum chloroquine resistant
                                    strain (W2) (Bertani, S., 2005);
                                    anti-malarial activity observed
                                    with chloroform extract of the
                                    plant (Najib Nik A., 1999).

Tinospora         Sprain            Inhibition by stem extract of
crispa                              carragenin-induced foot pad edema
                                    in rats (Higashino, H., 1992).
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Jahan, Rownak; Khatun, Afsana; Nahar, Nusratun; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Anita Rani; Nahar,
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:5615
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