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Use of Electronic Journals by Research Scholars and Postgraduate Students of University of Delhi and Jamia Millia Islamia: A Comparative Analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION

The electronic publishing has led to a new era of communication and information sharing at a comparatively faster rate. Over the last few years there has been a rapid rise in both the number of journals on web and services offering to access them. Electronic journals are often available free to subscriber. An e-journal is a journal available online or offline containing research paper, review articles, scholarly communications etc. In the electronic environment teaching, learning and research are supported by e-journals which are emerging as new powerful tools. Electronic journals have an impact on not only on libraries but on authors and publishers too. Any journal available on internet can be called an electronic journal. It may or may not have a print equivalent.

There is no standard definition available for electronic journals. As a result they have been called by various names such as an e-journal, virtual journals, paperless journals, online journals, scholarly electronic journals, networked journals and CD-ROM journals is one which is available electronically to be used with the help the of computer and other communication technologies Journals available on internet are also referred as Internet journals or networked journals. They include newspapers, magazines, periodicals, and discussion lists. Perhaps no other form of electronic publishing received more attention than the electronic journals, particularly when libraries are experiencing cutbacks in funding. As they apply to scholarly research there is a strong move among scholars to find less costly ways to support their research work.

Journals play a vital role in the research and development activities. Majority of university and special libraries spend major part of their budget on the acquisition of journals. Due to the advent of information technology, a paradigm shift from print journals to e-journals has taken place in past one decade. Accesses to e-journals have enormous benefits to the subscribers; therefore the university and research institutions are subscribing e-journals both directly from the publishers or forming the part of e-journals consortium.

2. SCOPE AND COVERAGE

Electronic journals represent a significant and growing part of an academic library's offerings. Sizeable amount is invested on accessing e-journals but without conducting a study of users' attitude towards e-journals. The present study offers a way to identify the acceptance of e-journals, advantages and obstacles encountered while accessing e-journals. The present study aims to find out the use of electronic-journals by post graduate students and research scholars in the Faculty of Science, University of Delhi and Jamia Millia Islamia.

3. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDY

Various studies have been carried out on the use and impact of e-journals by students, teachers and scientists of various institutions in in India and abroad. The literature on the use of e-resources and e-journals was studied and construct a questionnaire for this survey.

Natarajan (2017) conducted a study on 182 students the students of Jimma University, Ethiopia. His study reviles the usage of e-journals is increasing due to awareness among the students of information science about the e-resources and services. He has depicted that the study also shows that slow downloading is the major obstacle while using e-resources. Increased availability of computer systems is required, and internet speeds should be enhanced to the desired level.

Sohail and Ahmad, (2011) conducted a survey on use of e-resources and UGC Infonet consortium in Aligarh Muslim University, India. The study has shown that, there is increased acceptance of electronic journals by academic community which is provided by UGC-INFONET has to play a significant role to assist academic and research community. The results reviles that the problems encountered by the users toward access to e-consortium are lack of awareness and frequent power failure in library.

Kaur and Verma (2009) in their article aimed to find out the awareness among the users and the factors which motivates them to use e-resources provided by the library. The result of their study indicates that the majorities of the users are aware about e-journals and have knowledge about the consortium too.

Madhusudhan, (2008) in his article examined the uses of UGC-Infonet e-journals by researchers and students of the University of Delhi. The study explored that e-journals perform an increasingly important role in research at Department of LIS. Not only current e-journals are required, but research scholars and students need to be provided the use of significant electronic back issues as well.

Bevilacqua, (2005) examine the case study involved students, faculty members and library Staff in University of Parma. The case reviled the group of users appeared still reluctant to use e-journals, the main barriers to use being lack of awareness and limited number of relevant resources. The research findings suggest the need for a more effective promotional strategy to ensure that both actual users and potential users are aware of e-journals relevant to their subject area, and know how to access them.

Gupta, (2011) sought to examine the use pattern of print and electronic journals by teachers and research scholars at the Kurukshetra University, India. The major finding of his study explored that the respondents are more attracted towards e-journals as compare to print journals. However, they depend more on open-source materials than those available via INFONET consortium. Users also pointed out that training provided by library is inadequate to access e-resources and information retrieval.

Sohail and Ahmad (2017) did a comparative analysis of e-resorce and services utilized by faculty members and students of Fiji National University, Fiji Island. The study reveals that majority of the users keep themselves abreast of developments in electronic resources, services and their proper utilisation in the field of academic and research. The study has identified the problems faced by the users in the use of e-resources and services, including, inadequate IT infrastructure, and blockade of websites.

4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of the present study are as follows:

* To find out the purpose of visiting library and using e-journals

* To explore the awareness, use and frequency of the users about available e-journals.

* To study the frequency and purpose of utilization of electronic journals.

* To find out the hindrances and problems faced by the users while accessing and using e-journals.

* To ascertain whether orientation / training programme are necessary to use, locate and search e-journals.

* To study the level of satisfaction of users about availability and coverage of e-journals.

5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The present study is conducted on two samples, one for the Post Graduate students and Research Scholars of the Faculty of Science, University of Delhi and Jamia Millia Islamia. The questionnaires were distributed in the first and second week of May 2018. The total 150 questionnaires were equally distributed in both universities among the post graduate students and research scholars of faculty of science in University of Delhi and Jamia Millia Islamia. The data collected through questionnaires were organized and tabulated by using statistical method and percentages.

6. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

6.1 Descriptive statistics of users

The frequency distribution of status of the respondents is presented that (102) 68% of population studied were male and only (48) 32% of total were female, who use library for different purposes. University of Delhi (47) 62.67% of respondents and (38) 50.67% of respondents in Jamia Millia Islamia were Post Graduate students and (28) 37.33% of respondents in DU and (37) 49.33% of respondents in JMI were Research Scholars.

6.2 Purpose of visiting the library
Purpose of Visiting the Library         DU            JMI        Total

To collect Reading Materials       43 (57.33%)    35 (46.67%)      78
For Consulting E-Journals          56 (53.67%)    38 (50.67%)      94
To Know the latest arrivals in     18 (24.00%)    16 (21.33%)      34
  the library
For Accessing Internet             43 (46.67%)    21 (28.00%)      67
For Study Purpose                  31 (41.33%)    37 (49.33%)      68


(Multiple answers were permitted)

The above table clearly shows that in University of Delhi (43) 57.33% and (35) 46.67% of respondents in JMI visit the library for collecting reading materials, followed by (56) 53.67% of respondents in DU and (38) 50.67% of respondents in JMI visit library for consulting the e-journals, (18) 24% of respondents in DU and (16) 21.33% of respondents in JMI visit library for knowing the latest arrivals in the library. Meanwhile (43) 46.67% of respondents in DU and (21) 28% of respondents in JMI visit library for accessing Internet and (31) 41.33% of respondents in DU and (37) 49.33% of respondents in JMI visit to the library for study purpose.

6.3 Purpose of using e-journals
Purpose of Using E-Journals              DU            JMI       Total

For Research Work                    40 (53.33%)   38 (50.67%)     78
For Study Purpose                    36 (48.00%)   33 (44.00%)     69
For searching Relevant Information   29 (36.67%)   28 (37.33%)     57
For preparation of UGC-NET Exam.     13 (17.33%)   15(20.00%)      28
For Up-to date Knowledge             21(28.00%)    18(24.00%)      39
For publishing Articles              8 (10.67%)     5(6.67%)       13


(Multiple answers were permitted)

From the above table-6.3 it is clear that most of the respondents i.e. (40) 53.67% in University of Delhi and (38) 50.67% of respondents in Jamia Millia Islamia use electronic-journals for their research work. (36) 48% of respondents in DU and (33) 44% of respondents in JMI use e-journals for their study purpose. (29) 36.67% of respondents in DU and (28) 37.33% of respondents in JMI use e-journals for searching relevant information. (13) 17.33% of respondents in DU and (15) 20% of respondents in JMI use e-journals for the preparation of UGC-NET Exam. (21) 28% of respondents in DU and (18) 24% of respondents in JMI use e-journals for current knowledge. (8) 10.67% of respondents in DU and (5) 6.67% of respondents in JMI use e-journals for publishing articles.

6.4 Awareness of e-journals and UGC INFONET Consortium
Awareness                 E-Journals

                  DU            JMI        Total
Yes          68 (90.33%)     62(82.67%)     130
No           07 (09.67%)     13(17.33%)      20

Awareness             UGC INFONET Consortium

                  DU            JMI        Total
Yes          54 (72.00%)    42 (56.00%)      96
No           21 (28.00%)    33 (44.00%)      54


In University of Delhi (68) 90.33% of respondents and in Jamia Millia Islamia (62) 82.67% of respondents are aware of e-journals and (07) 09.67% of respondents in DU and (13) 17.33% of respondents in JMI are not about the availability of electronic-journals. It can be seen that the respondents of DU are more aware about e-journals than the respondents of JMI.

While when respondents were asked whether they are aware of UGC INFONET Digital Library Consortium or not, (54) 72% of respondents in DU and (42) 56% of respondents in JMI replied in 'yes' and (21) 28% of respondents in DU and (33) 44% of respondents in JMI said 'no'.

6.5 Usage and frequency of accessing e-journals

When respondents were asked whether they use e-journals or not, majority of respondents replied 'yes' .The respondents of University of Delhi, (64) 85.33% of respondents are used e-journal while (11)14.67% of respondents not use e-journals. Meanwhile, in Jamia Millia Islamia (61) 81.33% of respondents use and (14) 18.67% of respondents not use e-journals.
Frequency                    DU            JMI        Total

Daily                   39 (52.00%)    37 (49.33%)      76
2-3 times in a week     25 (33.33%)    26 (34.67%)      51
Weekly                  20 (26.67%)    20 (26.67%)      40
2-3 Times in a Month    16 (21.33%)    14 (18.67%)      30
Occasionally            13 (17.33%)    14 (18.67%)      27


(Multiple answers were permitted)

The most important aspect of usefulness of e-resources is depends of frequency of e-journal usages. It is observed from the above table that (39) 52% of respondents in DU and (37) 49.33% of respondents in JMI access e-journals daily, (25) 33.33% of respondents in DU and (26) 34.67%% of respondents in JMI access e-journals 2-3 times in a week, followed by equally (20) 26.67% of respondents in DU and JMI access e-journals weekly, followed by (16) 21.33% of respondents in DU and (14) 18.67% of respondents in JMI access e-journals 2-3 times in a month. (13) 17.33% of respondents stated in DU and (14) 18.67% of respondents in JMI access e-journals occasionally.

6.6 Problems faced while accessing e-journals

Though electronic-journals have become a common source among the academic and research communities but many respondents were asked whether they face any difficulty in using of e-journals, (39) 47.56% of respondents in DU and (43) 52.44% of respondents replied that they face difficulties in use of e-journals while (36) 52.94% in DU and (32) 47.06% in JMI said they don't face any difficulty in use of e-journals. The respondents were asked to furnish details regarding the problems faced while using e-resources & services and their answers are provided in below tables.
Types                                   DU            JMI        Total

E-Journals are not                 31 (41.33%)     37(49.33%)      68
  adequate in particular subject
Lack of Guidance and Training      24 (32.00%)     27(36.00%)      51
Inadequate computer System          28(38.67%)     38(50.67%)      66
Slow downloading                   15 (33.00%)    12 (16.67%)      27
No helps from library Staff        09 (12.00%)    13 (17.33%)      22


(Multiple answers were permitted)

It can be observed from the above table that majority of respondents i.e. (31) 41.33% in DU and (37) 49.33% of respondents in JMI faced difficulty with availability of enough journals in their respective subject. It may be seen from the table that a large number i.e., (24) 32% of respondents in DU and (27) 36% of respondents in JMI pointed lacks guidance and training. While (28) 38.67% of respondents in DU and (38) 50.67% in JMI, pointed out inadequate computer systems in the library. (15) 33% of respondents in DU and (12) 16.67% of respondents in JMI say that accessing and downloading of e-journals is time consuming process due to internet speed. It is inferred that (09) 12% of respondents in DU and (13) 17.33 of respondents in JMI, say that satisfactory help is not provided by the library staff.

6.7 Need of orientation programmes for searching e-journals
Response        DU            JMI        Total

Yes        52 (69.33%)    62 (82.67%)     114
No         23 (30.67%)    13 (17.33%)      36


As above table complaints about co-operation of library staff, to a further question as to whether they would like to receive orientation/training programme to use e-journals. Majority of respondents, i.e. (52) 69.33% in DU and (62) 82.67% of respondents in JMI, replied in 'yes' and (23) 30.67% of respondents in DU and (13) 17.33%of respondents in JMI said 'no'. The above table shows that in comparison of the respondents of DU, the respondents of JMI want more orientation and training programmes from library.

6.8 Overall satisfaction level of e-journal

The above table shows that when respondents asked about the satisfaction about subscribed e-journals library. (51) 68% of respondents in DU and (33) 44% of respondents in JMI replied in 'yes' and, (24) 32% of respondents in DU and (42) 56% of respondents in JMI replied in 'no'. It can be observed from the respondents of DU are more satisfied with e-journals accessible in there library as compare to JMI.
Satisfaction level        DU          JMI       Total

Extremely satisfied   68(90.67%)   62(82.67%)    130
Satisfied             22(29.33%)   26(34.67%)    48
Dissatisfied          21(28.00%)   30(40.00%)    51


(Multiple answers were permitted)

The respondents were asked opinion regarding their overall satisfaction level regarding e-journal services provided by library. It can be observed from the above table that majority of respondents i.e. (68) 90.67% in DU and (62) 82.67% of respondents in JMI, are extremely satisfied using e-journals, whereas (22) 29.33% of respondents in DU and (26) 34.67% of respondents in JMI, are stated only satisfied. While a good number of respondents (21) 28% in DU and (30) 40% of respondents in JMI shows dissatisfaction about e-journal service in there library.

7. CONCLUSION

The survival of an academic organisation largely depends upon the utility of its resources and services in relation to the academic community it serves. From the above study it is observed that e-journals are the most important for the academic and research community. These e-resources and services need to be harnessed and utilised properly. Many users are suggesting subscribing more e-journals of reputed publishers. Lack of orientation and training among users and proper poor IT infrastructure in the library are the major de-motivating factors in the use of e-journals. Based on the analysis of data confirm that, most of the objectives have been accomplished in this study of a relatively small sample and knowledge of its respondents and several major conclusions can be drawn. This study also depict that majority of users are aware about e-journals and UGC-INFONET Digital Consortium and frequently use it. This study also reveals that the users of the University of Delhi are more satisfied with the access of e-journals and e-databases in the library in the comparison of the users of Jamia Millia Islamia. The study has identified the problems faced while accessing e-journals including, inadequate IT infrastructure, and slow downloading speed due to poor IT infrastructure. In addition, library users indicated there disappointments with library staff are not helpful to helps while they are accessing e-journal consortium. This study helps to improve the facilities and services related to e-journals in higher educational institution's libraries.

References:

(1.) Munusamy Natarajan, (2017) "Use and impact of electronic resources by information science students at Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia", Collection Building, Vol. 36 Issue: 4, pp.163-171, https://doi.org/10.1108/CB-12-2016-0036

(2.) Sohail, Md. & Ahmad, Imran. (2011). Use of e-resources and UGC-Infonet consortium by the teachers and research scholars in Aligarh Muslim University, Library Philosophy and Practice. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?artide=1527&context=libphilprac

(3.) Baljinder Kaur, Rama Verma, (2009) "Use and impact of electronic journals in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India", The Electronic Library, Vol. 27 Issue: 4, pp.611-622, https://doi.org/10.1108/02640470910979570

(4.) Margam Madhusudhan, (2008) "Use of UGC-Infonet e-journals by research scholars and students of the University of Delhi, Delhi: A study", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 26 Issue: 3, pp.369-386, https:// doi.org/10.1108/07378830810903300

(5.) Fabrizia Bevilacqua, (2005) "Organising e-journals from the point of view of humanities: a case study at the University of Parma", New Library World, Vol. 106 Issue: 9/10, pp.416-429, https://doi.org/10.1108/03074800510623092

(6.) Sohail, Md. and Ahmad, Shakil (2017) "Use of Electronic Resources and Services by Faculty Members and Students of Fiji National University" DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 165-171 DOI: 10.14429/djlit.37.3.10567

(7.) Salauddin, Nazia, (2015) "Library User Visit of under Graduate Students at an Engineering College, Central Library, Affiliated by APJ Abdul Kalam University, Lucknow A case Study" International Research: Journal of Library & Information Science, Vol.5 No.4, pp. 682-90

(8.) Dinesh K. Gupta, (2011) "Use pattern of print and electronic journals at the Kurukshetra University, India", Program, Vol. 45 Issue: 2, pp.213-230, https://doi.org/10.1108/00330331111129741

(9.) Salauddin, Nazia, (2017) "Perceived User Satisfaction with Library Resource and Service performance at the Tagore Library, University of Lucknow" Research Journal of Library and Information Science, Vol. 02, Issue 02, 2018, pp. 165-171

(10.) Sohail, Md and Alvi, Andleeb, (2014) "Use of Web Resources by Medical Science Students of Aligarh Muslim University" DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Vol. 34 Issue 2, pp. 125-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/djlit.34.4006

Md. Sohail

Fiji National University, Nasinu, Fiji Island

sohailmlis@gmail.com

Maksood

Mewat Model School, Nuh, Haryan, India

ahmadmaksood.amu@gmail.com

&

Nazia Salauddin

Jahangirabad Institute of Technology, Barabanki, U.P India

nazia2710@gmail.com
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