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Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Psychoda albipennis in a Female Child in Libya/Libya da Bir kiz Cocukta Psychoda albipennis'in Neden Oldugu Urogenital Miyazis.


Myiasis is considered a rare parasitic infestation in tissues of the body caused primarily by dipterous larvae (1-4). Transmission of myiasis occurs by accidental deposition of the fly eggs on genitourinary openings, or swallowing contaminated food with eggs or larvae (5). The larvae infected the mammalian tissues and feed on it. From clinical point of view, myiasis is classified in relation to the part of the body tissue invaded by the larvae. The commonest and most popular clinical form is cutaneous myiasis where cutaneous tissues are involved. On the other hand, myiasis types that include body cavity; nasopharyngeal, ocular, aural, the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system are less common (6,7). When myiasis involved healthy tissues, it is called primary myiasis (8), but if wounded tissues are involved, then it's called secondary or wound myiasis (9). Urogenital myiasis is not common and exceptionally rare, since these sites of the body are usually protected by clothes, and inaccessible for the flies (10). Urinary myiasis may occur and were caused by Psychoda flies (11-13). This fly is widely distributed and found in tropical or subtropical regions, in summer times, these flies appear in moist environments like bathrooms and may cause urogenital myiasis in humans (14,15). In Libya, myiasis has been reported previously in humans and animals (16-18), but recently a human myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis has been reported in the country (18). We report here a case of a 10-years-old female who was diagnosed with urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis.


A female patient of 10 years presented to the Medical Laboratory Department in Tripoli, Libya. The patient's mother reported complained, discomfort and painful urination of her daughter with occasional larva-like organisms emerging from urine over the past year. The patient previously was admitted to many hospitals and treated with antibiotics and recommended oral hydration before being discharged. Although, the patient diagnosed with urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda flies, prognosis of the patient was not mentioned in the medical report.

The physical examination of the patient, complete urinalysis, complete blood count and biochemical values were found to be normal. Leukocytes, erythrocytes, parasites or parasite eggs were not found on microscopic examination of stool. The patient was admitted for the second time to the hospital and monitored for 48 hours, the diagnosis of urogenital myiasis was confirmed by observing the larvae and macroscopic examination of the urine. Two long worms were recovered (Figure 1) and microscopic examination of the larvae were found to be in fourth stage of P. albipennis with typical mouth skeleton and syphon structure (Figure 2).

The patient was discharged and recommended to drink plenty of water and prescribed a urinary tract antiseptic to interfere with any secondary bacterial infection. A month later, the patient was followed up and large number of grayish worms were reported dead and discharged in the urine, clinically, abdominal pain and discomfort were disappeared.


Although urogenital myiasis is a rare clinical condition, poor people living with low personal hygiene are highly susceptible to this infestation. It has been reported in different countries in the Middle East including Saudi Arabia Turkey and Iran (13,19,20). Most of the reported cases of urinary myiasis were among females (15,21), it is not clear about the high infection among females, probably due to urination in open bathrooms or sleeping without covering.

Psychoda spp. are facultative parasites of the subfamily Psychodinae causing myiasis. The females lay eggs in moist areas, especially in bathrooms, close to sewage water and in dumps. Eggs usually hatch within 48 hours, larvae feed on decaying organic matter and microorganisms. The clinical complications associated with the pathogenicity of the larvae include inflammation and secretion of toxins. Larvae can be distinguished by its cylindrical shape, gray in color and about 5 mm in diameter and 3 cm in length. The presence of larvae in urogenital tract of humans is very rare and probably the patient might have a urogenital infection and the female flies lay eggs in the urogenital tract during urination. In this case, burning during urination and itching were most prominent symptoms.

Urogenital myiasis treatment varies according to localization and severity of infestation. This includes larvae removal by cystoscopy, washing of urine by drinking plenty of water, use of urinary tract antiseptic medications and the use of antibiotics if symptoms are severe.

In conclusion, urogenital myiasis caused by P. albipennis is a rare disease in Libya, this case is the second reported in the country (18), Health authorities must take appropriate precautions to maintain hygienic conditions especially in public bathrooms. Urologists must consider these parasites for accurate diagnosis and treatment of this infection. The disease can be managed with hydration and urinary tract antiseptics. However, preventive measures should be considered in low socioeconomic areas which use traditional open squad bathrooms, sleeping without covers in open areas, education and raising awareness among the public. On the other hand, urologists should be aware of this rare clinical condition for proper diagnosis and management of this infestation.

* Ethics

Informed Consent: A consent form was completed by all participants.

Peer-review: Internally peer-reviewed.

* Authorship Contributions

Concept: A.A., H.A.D., Design: A.G., A.A., O.H., H.A.D., Data Collection or Processing: A.G., A.A., O.H., H.A.D., Analysis or Interpretation: A.G., A.A., O.H., H.A.D., Literature Search: A.G., A.A., O.H., H.A.D., Writing: A.A.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study received no financial support.


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(iD) Aisha Gashout (1), (iD) Ahmad Amro (2), (iD) Omar Hamarsheh (3), (iD) Hamida Al-Dwibe (4)

(1) Alquds University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Microboiology, Jerusalem, Israil

(2) University of Tripoli Faculty of Medical Technology, Tripoli, Libya

(3) Alquds University Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology, Jerusalem, Israil

(4) University of Tripoli, Dermatology Department, Department of Dermatology, Tripoli, Libya

Cite this article as: Amro A, Aisha G, Omar H, Hamida A. Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Psychoda Albipennis in a Female Child in Libya. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2019; 43(3): 152-4.

Received/Gelis Tarihi: 22.11.2018 Accepted/Kabul Tarihi: 15.07.2019

Address for Correspondence/Yazar Adresi: Ahmad Amro, Alquds University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Microboiology, Jerusalem, Israil

Phone/Tel: +009722984698 E-mail/E-Posta: ORCID ID:

DOI: 10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6135
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Title Annotation:Case Report/Olgu Sunumu
Author:Gashout, Aisha; Amro, Ahmad; Hamarsheh, Omar; Al-Dwibe, Hamida
Publication:Turkish Journal of Parasitology
Geographic Code:6LIBY
Date:Sep 1, 2019
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